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TEX(1)			    General Commands Manual			TEX(1)

       tex, virtex, initex - text formatting and typesetting

       tex [options] [commands]

       This  manual page is not	meant to be exhaustive.	 The complete documen-
       tation for this version of TeX can be found in the info file or	manual
       Web2C: A	TeX implementation.

       TeX  formats  the interspersed text and commands	contained in the named
       files and outputs a typesetter independent file (called DVI,  which  is
       short for DeVice	Independent).  TeX's capabilities and language are de-
       scribed in The TeXbook.	TeX is normally	used with a large body of pre-
       compiled	 macros,  and  there  are several specific formatting systems,
       such as LaTeX, which require the	support	of several macro files.

       This version of TeX looks at its	command	line to	see what name  it  was
       called  under.	Both  initex  and  virtex are symlinks to the tex exe-
       cutable.	 When called as	initex (or when	the --ini option is given)  it
       can be used to precompile macros	into a .fmt file.  When	called as vir-
       tex it will use the plain format.  When called under  any  other	 name,
       TeX  will use that name as the name of the format to use.  For example,
       when called as tex the tex format is used, which	is  identical  to  the
       plain  format.  The commands defined by the plain format	are documented
       in The TeXbook.	Other formats that are often available	include	 latex
       and amstex.

       The commands given on the command line to the TeX program are passed to
       it as the first input line.  (But it is often easier to	type  extended
       arguments  as the first input line, since UNIX shells tend to gobble up
       or misinterpret TeX's favorite symbols, like  backslashes,  unless  you
       quote them.)  As	described in The TeXbook, that first line should begin
       with a filename,	a \controlsequence, or a _formatname.

       The normal usage	is to say
	      tex paper
       to start	processing paper.tex.  The name	paper will be the ``jobname'',
       and is used in forming output filenames.	 If TeX	doesn't	get a filename
       in the first line, the jobname is texput.  When looking for a file, TeX
       looks  for  the	name with and without the default extension (.tex) ap-
       pended, unless the name already contains	that extension.	 If  paper  is
       the  ``jobname'', a log of error	messages, with rather more detail than
       normally	appears	on the screen, will appear in paper.log, and the  out-
       put file	will be	in paper.dvi.

       TeX  will look in the first line	of the file paper.tex to see if	it be-
       gins with the magic sequence %_.	 If the	first line begins  with	 %_ini
       then  TeX  will run in initex mode.  Otherwise, a %_format line names a
       format to be used.

       The e response to TeX's error prompt causes the system  default	editor
       to  start  up at	the current line of the	current	file.  The environment
       variable	TEXEDIT	can be used to change the editor used.	It may contain
       a string	with "%s" indicating where the filename	goes and "%d" indicat-
       ing where the decimal line  number  (if	any)  goes.   For  example,  a
       TEXEDIT string for emacs	can be set with	the sh command
	      TEXEDIT="emacs +%d %s"; export TEXEDIT

       A convenient file in the	library	is null.tex, containing	nothing.  When
       TeX can't find a	file it	thinks you want	to input, it keeps asking  you
       for another filename; responding	`null' gets you	out of the loop	if you
       don't want to input anything.  You can also  type  your	EOF  character
       (usually	control-D).

       This version of TeX understands the following command line options.

       --fmt format
	      Use  format as the name of the format to be used,	instead	of the
	      name by which TeX	was called or a	%_ line.

       --help Print help message and exit.

       --ini  Be initex, for dumping formats; this is implicitly true  if  the
	      program is called	as initex.

       --interaction mode
	      Sets  the	 interaction  mode.  The mode can be one of batchmode,
	      nonstopmode, scrollmode,	and  errorstopmode.   The  meaning  of
	      these modes is the same as that of the corresponding \commands.

       --ipc  Send  DVI	 output	 to a socket as	well as	the usual output file.
	      Whether this option is available is the choice of	the installer.

	      As --ipc,	and starts the	server	at  the	 other	end  as	 well.
	      Whether this option is available is the choice of	the installer.

       --kpathsea-debug	bitmask
	      Sets  path  searching  debugging flags according to the bitmask.
	      See the Kpathsea manual for details.

       --maketex fmt
	      Enable mktexfmt, where fmt must be one of	tex or tfm.

	      Enable MLTeX extensions.

       --no-maketex fmt
	      Disable mktexfmt,	where fmt must be one of tex or	tfm.

       --output-comment	string
	      Use string for the DVI file comment instead of the date.

       --progname name
	      Pretend to be program name.  This	affects	both the  format  used
	      and the search paths.

	      Enable  the \write18{command} construct.	The command can	be any
	      Bourne shell command.  This construct is normally	disallowed for
	      security reasons.

	      Print version information	and exit.

       See  the	 Kpathsearch  library documentation (the `Path specifications'
       node) for precise details of how	the environment	 variables  are	 used.
       The kpsewhich utility can be used to query the values of	the variables.

       One  caveat:  In	 most  TeX formats, you	cannot use ~ in	a filename you
       give directly to	TeX, because ~ is an active character,	and  hence  is
       expanded,  not  taken as	part of	the filename.  Other programs, such as
       Metafont, do not	have this problem.

	      Normally,	TeX puts its output files in  the  current  directory.
	      If  any  output file cannot be opened there, it tries to open it
	      in the directory specified in the	environment variable TEXMFOUT-
	      PUT.  There is no	default	value for that variable.  For example,
	      if you say tex paper and the current directory is	not  writable,
	      if  TEXMFOUTPUT  has  the	 value	/tmp,  TeX  attempts to	create
	      /tmp/paper.log (and /tmp/paper.dvi, if any output	is produced.)

	      Search path for \input and \openin files.	 This should  probably
	      start  with  ``.'',  so  that user files are found before	system

	      Command template for switching to	editor.	 The default,  usually
	      vi, is set when TeX is compiled.

       The location of the files mentioned below varies	from system to system.
       Use the kpsewhich utility to find their locations.

	      Encoded text of TeX's messages.
	      Filename mapping definitions.

       *.tfm  Metric files for TeX's fonts.

       *.fmt  Predigested TeX format (.fmt) files.

	      The basic	macro package described	in the TeXbook.

       This version of TeX fails to trap arithmetic overflow  when  dimensions
       are added or subtracted.	 Cases where this occurs are rare, but when it
       does the	generated DVI file will	be invalid.

       mf(1), undump(1),
       Donald E. Knuth,	The TeXbook, Addison-Wesley, 1986, ISBN	0-201-13447-0.
       Leslie Lamport, LaTeX - A Document Preparation System,  Addison-Wesley,
       1985, ISBN 0-201-15790-X.
       K.	 Berry,	       Eplain:	      Expanded	      plain	  TeX,
       Michael Spivak, The Joy of TeX, 2nd edition, Addison-Wesley, 1990, ISBN
       TUGboat (the journal of the TeX Users Group).

       TeX,  pronounced	properly, rhymes with ``blecchhh.''  The proper	spell-
       ing in typewriter-like fonts is ``TeX'' and not ``TEX'' or ``tex.''

       TeX was designed	by Donald E. Knuth, who	implemented it using  his  Web
       system  for  Pascal  programs.	It  was	 ported	to Unix	at Stanford by
       Howard Trickey, and at Cornell by Pavel Curtis.	The  version  now  of-
       fered  with the Unix TeX	distribution is	that generated by the Web to C
       system (web2c), originally written by Tomas Rokicki and Tim Morgan.

Web2C 7.2			6 December 1997				TEX(1)


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