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TEST(1)			  BSD General Commands Manual		       TEST(1)

NAME
     test, [ --	condition evaluation utility

SYNOPSIS
     test expression
     [ expression ]

DESCRIPTION
     The test utility evaluates	the expression and, if it evaluates to true,
     returns a zero (true) exit	status;	otherwise it returns 1 (false).	 If
     there is no expression, test also returns 1 (false).

     All operators and flags are separate arguments to the test	utility.

     The following primaries are used to construct expression:

     -b	file	   True	if file	exists and is a	block special file.

     -c	file	   True	if file	exists and is a	character special file.

     -d	file	   True	if file	exists and is a	directory.

     -e	file	   True	if file	exists (regardless of type).

     -f	file	   True	if file	exists and is a	regular	file.

     -g	file	   True	if file	exists and its set group ID flag is set.

     -h	file	   True	if file	exists and is a	symbolic link.	This operator
		   is retained for compatibility with previous versions	of
		   this	program.  Do not rely on its existence;	use -L in-
		   stead.

     -k	file	   True	if file	exists and its sticky bit is set.

     -n	string	   True	if the length of string	is nonzero.

     -p	file	   True	if file	is a named pipe	(FIFO).

     -r	file	   True	if file	exists and is readable.

     -s	file	   True	if file	exists and has a size greater than zero.

     -t	file_descriptor
		   True	if the file whose file descriptor number is
		   file_descriptor is open and is associated with a terminal.

     -u	file	   True	if file	exists and its set user	ID flag	is set.

     -w	file	   True	if file	exists and is writable.	 True indicates	only
		   that	the write flag is on.  The file	is not writable	on a
		   read-only file system even if this test indicates true.

     -x	file	   True	if file	exists and is executable.  True	indicates only
		   that	the execute flag is on.	 If file is a directory, true
		   indicates that file can be searched.

     -z	string	   True	if the length of string	is zero.

     -L	file	   True	if file	exists and is a	symbolic link.

     -O	file	   True	if file	exists and its owner matches the effective
		   user	id of this process.

     -G	file	   True	if file	exists and its group matches the effective
		   group id of this process.

     -S	file	   True	if file	exists and is a	socket.

     file1 -nt file2
		   True	if file1 exists	and is newer than file2.

     file1 -ot file2
		   True	if file1 exists	and is older than file2.

     file1 -ef file2
		   True	if file1 and file2 exist and refer to the same file.

     string	   True	if string is not the null string.

     s1	= s2	   True	if the strings s1 and s2 are identical.

     s1	!= s2	   True	if the strings s1 and s2 are not identical.

     s1	< s2	   True	if string s1 comes before s2 based on the binary value
		   of their characters.

     s1	> s2	   True	if string s1 comes after s2 based on the binary	value
		   of their characters.

     n1	-eq n2	   True	if the integers	n1 and n2 are algebraically equal.

     n1	-ne n2	   True	if the integers	n1 and n2 are not algebraically	equal.

     n1	-gt n2	   True	if the integer n1 is algebraically greater than	the
		   integer n2.

     n1	-ge n2	   True	if the integer n1 is algebraically greater than	or
		   equal to the	integer	n2.

     n1	-lt n2	   True	if the integer n1 is algebraically less	than the inte-
		   ger n2.

     n1	-le n2	   True	if the integer n1 is algebraically less	than or	equal
		   to the integer n2.

     If	file is	a symbolic link, test will fully dereference it	and then eval-
     uate the expression against the file referenced, except for the -h	and -L
     primaries.

     These primaries can be combined with the following	operators:

     ! expression  True	if expression is false.

     expression1 -a expression2
		   True	if both	expression1 and	expression2 are	true.

     expression1 -o expression2
		   True	if either expression1 or expression2 are true.

     (expression)  True	if expression is true.

     The -a operator has higher	precedence than	the -o operator.

     Some shells may provide a builtin test command which is similar or	iden-
     tical to this utility.  Consult the builtin(1) manual page.

GRAMMAR	AMBIGUITY
     The test grammar is inherently ambiguous.	In order to assure a degree of
     consistency, the cases described in the IEEE Std 1003.2 ("POSIX.2"), sec-
     tion D11.2/4.62.4,	standard are evaluated consistently according to the
     rules specified in	the standards document.	 All other cases are subject
     to	the ambiguity in the command semantics.

RETURN VALUES
     The test utility exits with one of	the following values:

     0	     expression	evaluated to true.

     1	     expression	evaluated to false or expression was missing.

     >1	     An	error occurred.

SEE ALSO
     builtin(1), expr(1), sh(1), symlink(7)

STANDARDS
     The test utility implements a superset of the IEEE	Std 1003.2 ("POSIX.2")
     specification.

BUGS
     Both sides	are always evaluated in	-a and -o, unlike in the logical oper-
     ators of sh(1).  For instance, the	writable status	of file	will be	tested
     by	the following command even though the former expression	indicated
     false, which results in a gratuitous access to the	file system:

	   [ -z	abc -a -w file ]

BSD				 July 31, 2006				   BSD

NAME | SYNOPSIS | DESCRIPTION | GRAMMAR AMBIGUITY | RETURN VALUES | SEE ALSO | STANDARDS | BUGS

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