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terminfo(4)		   Kernel Interfaces Manual		   terminfo(4)

       terminfo	- printer, terminal, and modem capability database


   List	of Section Headings in DESCRIPTION
	      Terminfo Source Format
	      Source File Syntax
	      Minimum Guaranteed Limits
	      Formal Grammar
	      Defined Capabilities
	      Sample Entry
	      Types of Capabilities in the Sample Entry
	      Device Capabilities
	      Insert/Delete Line
	      Printer Capabilities
	      Capabilities that	Cause Movement
	      Alternate	Character Sets
	      Dot-Matrix Graphics
	      Effect of	Changing Printing Resolution
	      Selecting	a Terminal
	      Application Usage

       The requirements	in this	manpage	are in effect only for implementations
       that claim Enhanced Curses compliance.

Terminfo Source	Format
       The terminfo database contains a	description of the capabilities	 of  a
       variety	of  devices,  such as terminals	and printers.  Devices are de-
       scribed by specifying a set of capabilities, by quantifying certain as-
       pects  of the device, and by specifying character sequences that	effect
       particular results.

       This manpage specifies the format of terminfo source files.

       X/Open-compliant	implementations	must provide a facility	 that  accepts
       source  files in	the format specified in	this manpage as	a means	of en-
       tering information into the terminfo database.  The  facility  for  in-
       stalling	this information into the database is implementation-specific.
       A valid terminfo	entry describing a given  model	 of  terminal  can  be
       added  to terminfo on any X/Open-compliant implementation to permit use
       of the same terminal model.

       The "Source File	Syntax"	 section  describes  the  syntax  of  terminfo
       source  files.  A grammar and lexical conventions appear	in the "Formal
       Grammar"	section	below.	A list of all terminal capabilities defined by
       X/Open appears in the "Defined Capabilities" section below.  An example
       follows in the "Sample Entry" section below.  The "Device Capabilities"
       section	describes  the	specification  of  devices in general, such as
       video terminals.	 The  "Printer	Capabilities"  section	describes  the
       specification of	printers.

       The  terminfo  database	is  often used by screen-oriented applications
       such as vi and Curses programs, as well as by some utilities such as ls
       and  more.   This  usage	 allows	them to	work with a variety of devices
       without changes to the programs.

Source File Syntax
       Source files can	use the	ISO 8859-1 codeset.   The  behavior  when  the
       source file is in another codeset is unspecified.  Traditional practice
       has been	to translate information from other codesets into  the	source
       file syntax.

       terminfo	source files consist of	one or more device descriptions.  Each
       description defines a mnemonic name for the terminal model.   Each  de-
       scription  consists of a	header (beginning in column 1) and one or more
       lines that list the features for	that particular	device.	 Every line in
       a  terminfo  source file	must end in a comma.  Every line in a terminfo
       source file except the header must be indented with one or  more	 white
       spaces (either spaces or	tabs).

       Entries in terminfo source files	consist	of a number of comma-separated
       fields.	White space after each comma is	ignored.  Embedded commas must
       be  escaped by using a backslash.  The following	example	shows the for-
       mat of a	terminfo source	file:

	      alias1 | alias2 |	... | aliasn | longname,
	      whitespaceam, lines #24,

       The first line, commonly	referred to as the header line,	must begin  in
       column  one and must contain at least two aliases separated by vertical
       bars.  The last field in	the header line	must be	the long name  of  the
       device and it may contain any string.

       Alias  names must be unique in the terminfo database and	they must con-
       form to file naming conventions established by  implementation-specific
       terminfo	 compilation  utilities.  Implementations will recognize alias
       names consisting	only of	characters from	the portable file name charac-
       ter  set	 except	that implementations need not accept a first character
       of minus	(-).  For example, a typical restriction is that  they	cannot
       contain	white  space or	slashes.  There	may be further constraints im-
       posed on	source file values  by	the  implementation-specific  terminfo
       compilation utilities.

       Each capability in terminfo is of one of	the following types:

	      o	 Boolean  capabilities show that a device has or does not have
		 a particular feature.

	      o	 Numeric capabilities quantify particular features  of	a  de-

	      o	 String	 capabilities  provide	sequences  that	can be used to
		 perform particular operations on devices.

       Capability names	adhere to an informal length limit of five characters.
       Whenever	 possible,  capability	names  are chosen to be	the same as or
       similar to those	specified by the ANSI X3.64-1979 standard.   Semantics
       are also	intended to match those	of the ANSI standard.

       All  string capabilities	may have padding specified, with the exception
       of those	used for input.	 Input capabilities, listed under the  Strings
       section in the following	tables,	have names beginning with key_.	 These
       capabilities are	defined	in _term.h_.

Minimum	Guaranteed Limits
       All X/Open-compliant implementations support  at	 least	the  following
       limits for the terminfo source file:

	      Source File Characteristic			Minimum	Guaranteed Value
	      Length of	a line					1023 bytes
	      Length of	a terminal alias			14 bytes
	      Length of	a terminal model name			128 bytes
	      Width of a single	field				128 bytes
	      Length of	a string value				1000 bytes
	      Length of	a string representing a	numeric	value	99 digits
	      Magnitude	of a numeric value			0 up to	and including 32767

       An implementation may support higher limits than	those specified	above.

Formal Grammar
       The  grammar  and lexical conventions in	this section together describe
       the syntax for terminfo terminal	descriptions within a terminfo	source
       file.   A  terminal description that satisfies the requirements of this
       section will be accepted	by all implementations.	 (The  notation	 "(n)"
       refers to a note	following the description.)

       descriptions : START_OF_HEADER_LINE(1) rest_of_header_line feature_lines
		 | descriptions	START_OF_HEADER_LINE rest_of_header_line
		 | feature_lines

       rest_of_header_line : PIPE LONGNAME COMMA NEWLINE

       feature_lines : start_feature_line rest_of_feature_line
		 | feature_lines start_feature_line rest_of_feature_line

       start_feature_line : START_FEATURE_LINE_BOOLEAN(2)

       rest_of_feature_line : features COMMA NEWLINE

       features	: COMMA	feature
		 | features COMMA feature

       aliases : PIPE ALIAS
		 | aliases PIPE	ALIAS

       feature : BOOLEAN

	      (1)    An	 ALIAS	that begins in column one.  This is handled by
		     the lexical analyzer.

	      (2)    A BOOLEAN feature that begins after column	one but	is the
		     first  feature  on	 the feature line.  This is handled by
		     the lexical analyzer.

	      (3)    A NUMERIC feature that begins after column	one but	is the
		     first  feature  on	 the feature line.  This is handled by
		     the lexical analyzer.

	      (4)    A STRING feature that begins after	column one but is  the
		     first  feature  on	 the feature line.  This is handled by
		     the lexical analyzer.

       The lexical conventions for terminfo descriptions are as	follows:

	       1.    White space consists of the <space> and <tab> characters.

	       2.    An	ALIAS may contain  any	graph  characters  other  than
		     comma (,),	slash (/), and bar (|).	 (Graph	characters are
		     those characters for which	isgraph() returns nonzero; see

	       3.    A	LONGNAME  may  contain any print characters other than
		     comma (,) and bar (|).  (Print characters are those char-
		     acters   for   which   isprint()	returns	 nonzero;  see

	       4.    A BOOLEAN feature may contain any print characters	 other
		     than comma	(,), equals (=), and pound sign	(#).

	       5.    A NUMERIC feature consists	of:

		     a.	    A name which may contain any print character other
			    than comma (,), equals (=),	and pound sign (#).

		     b.	    The	pound sign (#) character.

		     c.	    A positive integer which conforms to  the  C  lan-
			    guage convention for integer constants.

	       6.    A STRING feature consists of:

		     a.	    A name which may contain any print character other
			    than comma (,), equals (=),	and pound sign (#).

		     b.	    The	equals (=) character.

		     c.	    A string which may contain	any  print  characters
			    other than comma (,).

	       7.    White space immediately following a comma (,) is ignored.

	       8.    Comments  consist	of  the	 beginning of a	line, optional
		     white space, a required pound sign	(#), and a terminating
		     end of line.

	       9.    A header line must	begin in column	one.

	      10.    A feature line must not begin in column one.

	      11.    Blank lines are ignored.

Defined	Capabilities
       X/Open  defines	the  capabilities  listed in the following table.  All
       X/Open-compliant	implementations	must accept each of these capabilities
       in an entry in a	terminfo source	file.  Implementations use this	infor-
       mation to determine how properly	to operate the current	terminal.   In
       addition, implementations return	any of the current terminal's capabil-
       ities when the application calls	the query  functions  listed  in  tge-
       tent()  (in  the	 cases where the following table lists a Termcap code)
       and tigetflag() (see tgetent(3X)	and tigetflag(3X)).

       The table of capabilities has the following columns:

       Variable	      Names for	use by the Curses functions  that  operate  on
		      the terminfo database.  These names are reserved and the
		      application must not define them.

       Capname	      The short	name for a capability specified	 in  the  ter-
		      minfo  source  file.  It is used for updating the	source
		      file and by the tput command (see	tput(1)).

       Termcap	      Codes provided for  compatibility	 with  older  applica-
		      tions.   These  codes  are  TO BE	WITHDRAWN.  Because of
		      this, not	all Capnames have Termcap codes.

       Description    A	short summary of the capability.

			   Cap-	   Term-
Variable		   name	   cap	   Description
auto_left_margin	   bw	   bw	   cub1	wraps from column 0 to last column
auto_right_margin	   am	   am	   Terminal has	automatic margins
back_color_erase	   bce	   ut	   Screen erased with background color
can_change		   ccc	   cc	   Terminal can	re-define existing color
ceol_standout_glitch	   xhp	   xs	   Standout not	erased by overwriting (hp)
col_addr_glitch		   xhpa	   YA	   Only	positive motion	for hpa/mhpa caps
cpi_changes_res		   cpix	   YF	   Changing character pitch changes resolution
cr_cancels_micro_mode	   crxm	   YB	   Using cr turns off micro mode
dest_tabs_magic_smso	   xt	   xt	   Destructive tabs, magic smso	char (t1061)
eat_newline_glitch	   xenl	   xn	   Newline ignored after 80 columns (Concept)
erase_overstrike	   eo	   eo	   Can erase overstrikes with a	blank
generic_type		   gn	   gn	   Generic line	type (e.g., dialup, switch)
get_mouse		   getm	   Gm	   Curses should get button events
hard_copy		   hc	   hc	   Hardcopy terminal
hard_cursor		   chts	   HC	   Cursor is hard to see
has_meta_key		   km	   km	   Has a meta key (shift, sets parity bit)
has_print_wheel		   daisy   YC	   Printer needs operator to change
					   character set
has_status_line		   hs	   hs	   Has extra "status line"
hue_lightness_saturation   hls	   hl	   Terminal uses only HLS color
					   notation (Tektronix)
insert_null_glitch	   in	   in	   Insert mode distinguishes nulls
lpi_changes_res		   lpix	   YG	   Changing line pitch changes resolution
memory_above		   da	   da	   Display may be retained above the screen
memory_below		   db	   db	   Display may be retained below the screen
move_insert_mode	   mir	   mi	   Safe	to move	while in insert	mode
move_standout_mode	   msgr	   ms	   Safe	to move	in standout modes
needs_xon_xoff		   nxon	   nx	   Padding won't work, XON/XOFF	required
no_esc_ctlc		   xsb	   xb	   Beehive (f1=escape, f2=ctrl C)
no_pad_char		   npc	   NP	   Pad character doesn't exist
non_dest_scroll_region	   ndscr   ND	   Scrolling region is nondestructive
non_rev_rmcup		   nrrmc   NR	   smcup does not reverse rmcup
over_strike		   os	   os	   Terminal overstrikes	on hard-copy terminal
prtr_silent		   mc5i	   5i	   Printer won't echo on screen
row_addr_glitch		   xvpa	   YD	   Only	positive motion	for vpa/mvpa caps
semi_auto_right_margin	   sam	   YE	   Printing in last column causes cr
status_line_esc_ok	   eslok   es	   Escape can be used on the status line
tilde_glitch		   hz	   hz	   Hazeltine; can't print tilde	(~)
transparent_underline	   ul	   ul	   Underline character overstrikes
xon_xoff		   xon	   xo	   Terminal uses XON/XOFF handshaking

		       Cap-	Term-
Variable	       name	cap	Description
bit_image_entwining    bitwin	Yo	Number of passes for each bit-map row
bit_image_type	       bitype	Yp	Type of	bit image device
buffer_capacity	       bufsz	Ya	Number of bytes	buffered before	printing
buttons		       btns	BT	Number of buttons on the mouse
columns		       cols	co	Number of columns in a line
dot_horz_spacing       spinh	Yc	Spacing	of dots	horizontally in	dots per inch
dot_vert_spacing       spinv	Yb	Spacing	of pins	vertically in pins per inch
init_tabs	       it	it	Tabs initially every # spaces
label_height	       lh	lh	Number of rows in each label
label_width	       lw	lw	Number of columns in each label
lines		       lines	li	Number of lines	on a screen or a page
lines_of_memory	       lm	lm	Lines of memory	if greater than	lines; 0  means
max_attributes	       ma	ma	Maximum	 combined video	attributes terminal can
magic_cookie_glitch    xmc	sg	Number of blank	characters left	by smso	or rmso
max_colors	       colors	Co	Maximum	number of colors on the	screen
max_micro_address      maddr	Yd	Maximum	value in micro_..._address
max_micro_jump	       mjump	Ye	Maximum	value in parm_..._micro
max_pairs	       pairs	pa	Maximum	number of color-pairs on the screen
maximum_windows	       wnum	MW	Maximum	number of definable windows
micro_col_size	       mcs	Yf	Character step size when in micro mode
micro_line_size	       mls	Yg	Line step size when in micro mode
no_color_video	       ncv	NC	Video attributes that can't be used with colors
num_labels	       nlab	Nl	Number of labels on screen (start at 1)

number_of_pins	       npins	Yh	Number of pins in print-head
output_res_char	       orc	Yi	Horizontal resolution in units per character
output_res_line	       orl	Yj	Vertical resolution in units per line
output_res_horz_inch   orhi	Yk	Horizontal resolution in units per inch
output_res_vert_inch   orvi	Yl	Vertical resolution in units per inch
padding_baud_rate      pb	pb	Lowest baud rate where padding needed
print_rate	       cps	Ym	Print rate in characters per second
virtual_terminal       vt	vt	Virtual	terminal number
wide_char_size	       widcs	Yn	Character step size when in double-wide	mode
width_status_line      wsl	ws	Number of columns in status line

			    Cap-      Term-
Variable		    name      cap     Description
acs_chars		    acsc      ac      Graphic charset pairs aAbBcC
alt_scancode_esc	    scesa     S8      Alternate	escape for scancode emulation
					      (default is for VT100)
back_tab		    cbt	      bt      Back tab
bell			    bel	      bl      Audible signal (bell)
bit_image_carriage_return   bicr      Yv      Move to beginning	of same	row
bit_image_newline	    binel     Zz      Move to next row of the bit image
bit_image_repeat	    birep     Xy      Repeat bit-image cell #1 #2 times
carriage_return		    cr	      cr      Carriage return
change_char_pitch	    cpi	      ZA      Change number of characters per inch
change_line_pitch	    lpi	      ZB      Change number of lines per inch
change_res_horz		    chr	      ZC      Change horizontal	resolution
change_res_vert		    cvr	      ZD      Change vertical resolution
change_scroll_region	    csr	      cs      Change to	lines #1 through #2 (VT100)
char_padding		    rmp	      rP      Like ip but when in replace mode
char_set_names		    csnm      Zy      Returns a	list of	character set names
clear_all_tabs		    tbc	      ct      Clear all	tab stops
clear_margins		    mgc	      MC      Clear all	margins	(top, bottom,
					      and sides)
clear_screen		    clear     cl      Clear screen and home cursor
clr_bol			    el1	      cb      Clear to beginning of line, inclusive
clr_eol			    el	      ce      Clear to end of line
clr_eos			    ed	      cd      Clear to end of display
code_set_init		    csin      ci      Init sequence for	multiple codesets
color_names		    colornm   Yw      Give name	for color #1
column_address		    hpa	      ch      Set horizontal position to absolute #1
command_character	    cmdch     CC      Terminal settable	cmd character
					      in prototype
create_window		    cwin      CW      Define win #1 to go from #2,#3 to	#4,#5
cursor_address		    cup	      cm      Move to row #1 col #2
cursor_down		    cud1      do      Down one line
cursor_home		    home      ho      Home cursor (if no cup)
cursor_invisible	    civis     vi      Make cursor invisible
cursor_left		    cub1      le      Move left	one space.
cursor_mem_address	    mrcup     CM      Memory relative cursor addressing
cursor_normal		    cnorm     ve      Make cursor appear normal
					      (undo vs/vi)
cursor_right		    cuf1      nd      Non-destructive space (cursor or
					      carriage right)
cursor_to_ll		    ll	      ll      Last line, first column (if no cup)
cursor_up		    cuu1      up      Upline (cursor up)
cursor_visible		    cvvis     vs      Make cursor very visible
define_bit_image_region	    defbi     Yx      Define rectangular bit-image region
define_char		    defc      ZE      Define a character in a character	set
delete_character	    dch1      dc      Delete character
delete_line		    dl1	      dl      Delete line
device_type		    devt      dv      Indicate language/codeset	support
dial_phone		    dial      DI      Dial phone number	#1
dis_status_line		    dsl	      ds      Disable status line
display_clock		    dclk      DK      Display time-of-day clock
display_pc_char		    dispc     S1      Display PC character
down_half_line		    hd	      hd      Half-line	down (forward 1/2 linefeed)
ena_acs			    enacs     eA      Enable alternate character set
end_bit_image_region	    endbi     Yy      End a bit-image region
enter_alt_charset_mode	    smacs     as      Start alternate character	set
enter_am_mode		    smam      SA      Turn on automatic	margins
enter_blink_mode	    blink     mb      Turn on blinking
enter_bold_mode		    bold      md      Turn on bold (extra bright) mode
enter_ca_mode		    smcup     ti      String to	begin programs that use	cup
enter_delete_mode	    smdc      dm      Delete mode (enter)
enter_dim_mode		    dim	      mh      Turn on half-bright mode
enter_doublewide_mode	    swidm     ZF      Enable double wide printing
enter_draft_quality	    sdrfq     ZG      Set draft	quality	print
enter_horizontal_hl_mode    ehhlm	      Turn on horizontal highlight mode
enter_insert_mode	    smir      im      Insert mode (enter)
enter_italics_mode	    sitm      ZH      Enable italics
enter_left_hl_mode	    elhlm	      Turn on left highlight mode
enter_leftward_mode	    slm	      ZI      Enable leftward carriage motion
enter_low_hl_mode	    elohlm	      Turn on low highlight mode
enter_micro_mode	    smicm     ZJ      Enable micro motion capabilities
enter_near_letter_quality   snlq      ZK      Set near-letter quality print
enter_normal_quality	    snrmq     ZL      Set normal quality print
enter_pc_charset_mode	    smpch     S2      Enter PC character display mode
enter_protected_mode	    prot      mp      Turn on protected	mode
enter_reverse_mode	    rev	      mr      Turn on reverse video mode
enter_right_hl_mode	    erhlm	      Turn on right highlight mode
enter_scancode_mode	    smsc      S4      Enter PC scancode	mode
enter_secure_mode	    invis     mk      Turn on blank mode (characters invisible)
enter_shadow_mode	    sshm      ZM      Enable shadow printing
enter_standout_mode	    smso      so      Begin standout mode
enter_subscript_mode	    ssubm     ZN      Enable subscript printing
enter_superscript_mode	    ssupm     ZO      Enable superscript printing
enter_top_hl_mode	    ethlm	      Turn on top highlight mode
enter_underline_mode	    smul      us      Start underscore mode
enter_upward_mode	    sum	      ZP      Enable upward carriage motion
enter_vertical_hl_mode	    evhlm	      Turn on vertical highlight mode
enter_xon_mode		    smxon     SX      Turn on XON/XOFF handshaking
erase_chars		    ech	      ec      Erase #1 characters
exit_alt_charset_mode	    rmacs     ae      End alternate character set
exit_am_mode		    rmam      RA      Turn off automatic margins
exit_attribute_mode	    sgr0      me      Turn off all attributes
exit_ca_mode		    rmcup     te      String to	end programs that use cup
exit_delete_mode	    rmdc      ed      End delete mode
exit_doublewide_mode	    rwidm     ZQ      Disable double wide printing
exit_insert_mode	    rmir      ei      End insert mode
exit_italics_mode	    ritm      ZR      Disable italics
exit_leftward_mode	    rlm	      ZS      Enable rightward (normal)
					      carriage motion
exit_micro_mode		    rmicm     ZT      Disable micro motion capabilities
exit_pc_charset_mode	    rmpch     S3      Disable PC character display mode
exit_scancode_mode	    rmsc      S5      Disable PC scancode mode
exit_shadow_mode	    rshm      ZU      Disable shadow printing
exit_standout_mode	    rmso      se      End standout mode
exit_subscript_mode	    rsubm     ZV      Disable subscript	printing
exit_superscript_mode	    rsupm     ZW      Disable superscript printing
exit_underline_mode	    rmul      ue      End underscore mode
exit_upward_mode	    rum	      ZX      Enable downward (normal)
					      carriage motion
exit_xon_mode		    rmxon     RX      Turn off XON/XOFF	handshaking
fixed_pause		    pause     PA      Pause for	2-3 seconds
flash_hook		    hook      fh      Flash the	switch hook
flash_screen		    flash     vb      Visible bell (may	move cursor)
form_feed		    ff	      ff      Hardcopy terminal	page eject
from_status_line	    fsl	      fs      Return from status line
goto_window		    wingo     WG      Go to window #1
hangup			    hup	      HU      Hang-up phone
init_1string		    is1	      i1      Terminal or printer initialization string
init_2string		    is2	      is      Terminal or printer initialization string
init_3string		    is3	      i3      Terminal or printer initialization string
init_file		    if	      if      Name of initialization file

init_prog		    iprog     iP      Path name	of program for initialization
initialize_color	    initc     IC      Set color	#1 to RGB #2, #3, #4
initialize_pair		    initp     Ip      Set color-pair #1	to fg #2, bg #3
insert_character	    ich1      ic      Insert character
insert_line		    il1	      al      Add new blank line
insert_padding		    ip	      ip      Insert pad after character inserted

       The "key_" strings are sent by specific keys.  The "key_"  descriptions
       include	the  macro,  defined  in  _curses.h_, for the code returned by
       getch() when the	key is pressed (see getch(3X)).

			 Cap-	    Term-
Variable		 name	    cap	    Description
key_a1			 ka1	    K1	    Upper left of keypad
key_a3			 ka3	    K3	    Upper right	of keypad
key_b2			 kb2	    K2	    Center of keypad
key_backspace		 kbs	    kb	    Sent by backspace key
key_beg			 kbeg	    @1	    Sent by beg(inning)	key
key_btab		 kcbt	    kB	    Sent by back-tab key
key_c1			 kc1	    K4	    Lower left of keypad
key_c3			 kc3	    K5	    Lower right	of keypad
key_cancel		 kcan	    @2	    Sent by cancel key
key_catab		 ktbc	    ka	    Sent by clear-all-tabs key
key_clear		 kclr	    kC	    Sent by clear-screen or erase key
key_close		 kclo	    @3	    Sent by close key
key_command		 kcmd	    @4	    Sent by cmd	(command) key
key_copy		 kcpy	    @5	    Sent by copy key
key_create		 kcrt	    @6	    Sent by create key
key_ctab		 kctab	    kt	    Sent by clear-tab key
key_dc			 kdch1	    kD	    Sent by delete-character key
key_dl			 kdl1	    kL	    Sent by delete-line	key
key_down		 kcud1	    kd	    Sent by terminal down-arrow	key
key_eic			 krmir	    kM	    Sent by rmir or smir in insert mode
key_end			 kend	    @7	    Sent by end	key
key_enter		 kent	    @8	    Sent by enter/send key
key_eol			 kel	    kE	    Sent by clear-to-end-of-line key
key_eos			 ked	    kS	    Sent by clear-to-end-of-screen key
key_exit		 kext	    @9	    Sent by exit key
key_f0			 kf0	    k0	    Sent by function key f0
key_f1			 kf1	    k1	    Sent by function key f1
 .			  .	     .	     .
 .			  .	     .	     .	 Similarly for f2 through f61
 .			  .	     .	     .
key_f62			 kf62	    Fq	    Sent by function key f62
key_f63			 kf63	    Fr	    Sent by function key f63
key_find		 kfnd	    @0	    Sent by find key
key_help		 khlp	    %1	    Sent by help key
key_home		 khome	    kh	    Sent by home key
key_ic			 kich1	    kI	    Sent by ins-char/enter ins-mode key
key_il			 kil1	    kA	    Sent by insert-line	key
key_left		 kcub1	    kl	    Sent by terminal left-arrow	key
key_ll			 kll	    kH	    Sent by home-down key
key_mark		 kmrk	    %2	    Sent by mark key
key_message		 kmsg	    %3	    Sent by message key
key_mouse		 kmous	    Km	    0631, mouse	event has occurred
key_move		 kmov	    %4	    Sent by move key
key_next		 knxt	    %5	    Sent by next-object	key
key_npage		 knp	    kN	    Sent by next-page key
key_open		 kopn	    %6	    Sent by open key
key_options		 kopt	    %7	    Sent by options key
key_ppage		 kpp	    kP	    Sent by previous-page key
key_previous		 kprv	    %8	    Sent by previous-object key
key_print		 kprt	    %9	    Sent by print or copy key
key_redo		 krdo	    %0	    Sent by redo key
key_reference		 kref	    _1	    Sent by ref(erence)	key
key_refresh		 krfr	    _2	    Sent by refresh key
key_replace		 krpl	    _3	    Sent by replace key
key_restart		 krst	    _4	    Sent by restart key
key_resume		 kres	    _5	    Sent by resume key
key_right		 kcuf1	    kr	    Sent by terminal right-arrow key
key_save		 ksav	    _6	    Sent by save key
key_sbeg		 kBEG	    _9	    Sent by shifted beginning key
key_scancel		 kCAN	    _0	    Sent by shifted cancel key
key_scommand		 kCMD	    *1	    Sent by shifted command key
key_scopy		 kCPY	    *2	    Sent by shifted copy key
key_screate		 kCRT	    *3	    Sent by shifted create key
key_sdc			 kDC	    *4	    Sent by shifted delete-char	key
key_sdl			 kDL	    *5	    Sent by shifted delete-line	key
key_select		 kslt	    *6	    Sent by select key
key_send		 kEND	    *7	    Sent by shifted end	key
key_seol		 kEOL	    *8	    Sent by shifted clear-line key
key_sexit		 kEXT	    *9	    Sent by shifted exit key
key_sf			 kind	    kF	    Sent by scroll-forward/down	key
key_sfind		 kFND	    *0	    Sent by shifted find key
key_shelp		 kHLP	    #1	    Sent by shifted help key
key_shome		 kHOM	    #2	    Sent by shifted home key
key_sic			 kIC	    #3	    Sent by shifted input key
key_sleft		 kLFT	    #4	    Sent by shifted left-arrow key
key_smessage		 kMSG	    %a	    Sent by shifted message key
key_smove		 kMOV	    %b	    Sent by shifted move key
key_snext		 kNXT	    %c	    Sent by shifted next key
key_soptions		 kOPT	    %d	    Sent by shifted options key
key_sprevious		 kPRV	    %e	    Sent by shifted prev key
key_sprint		 kPRT	    %f	    Sent by shifted print key
key_sr			 kri	    kR	    Sent by scroll-backward/up key
key_sredo		 kRDO	    %g	    Sent by shifted redo key
key_sreplace		 kRPL	    %h	    Sent by shifted replace key
key_sright		 kRIT	    %i	    Sent by shifted right-arrow	key
key_srsume		 kRES	    %j	    Sent by shifted resume key
key_ssave		 kSAV	    !1	    Sent by shifted save key
key_ssuspend		 kSPD	    !2	    Sent by shifted suspend key
key_stab		 khts	    kT	    Sent by set-tab key
key_sundo		 kUND	    !3	    Sent by shifted undo key
key_suspend		 kspd	    _7	    Sent by suspend key
key_undo		 kund	    _8	    Sent by undo key
key_up			 kcuu1	    ku	    Sent by terminal up-arrow key
keypad_local		 rmkx	    ke	    Out	of "keypad-transmit" mode
keypad_xmit		 smkx	    ks	    Put	terminal in "keypad-transmit" mode
lab_f0			 lf0	    l0	    Labels on function key f0 if not f0
lab_f1			 lf1	    l1	    Labels on function key f1 if not f1
lab_f2			 lf2	    l2	    Labels on function key f2 if not f2
lab_f3			 lf3	    l3	    Labels on function key f3 if not f3
lab_f4			 lf4	    l4	    Labels on function key f4 if not f4
lab_f5			 lf5	    l5	    Labels on function key f5 if not f5
lab_f6			 lf6	    l6	    Labels on function key f6 if not f6
lab_f7			 lf7	    l7	    Labels on function key f7 if not f7
lab_f8			 lf8	    l8	    Labels on function key f8 if not f8
lab_f9			 lf9	    l9	    Labels on function key f9 if not f9
lab_f10			 lf10	    la	    Labels on function key f10 if not f10
label_format		 fln	    Lf	    Label format
label_off		 rmln	    LF	    Turn off soft labels
label_on		 smln	    LO	    Turn on soft labels
memory_lock		 meml	    ml	    Lock memory	above cursor
memory_unlock		 memu	    mu	    Turn memory	lock off
meta_off		 rmm	    mo	    Turn off "meta mode"
meta_on			 smm	    mm	    Turn on "meta mode"	(8th bit)
micro_column_address	 mhpa	    ZY	    Like column_address	for micro adjustment
micro_down		 mcud1	    ZZ	    Like cursor_down for micro adjustment
micro_left		 mcub1	    Za	    Like cursor_left for micro adjustment
micro_right		 mcuf1	    Zb	    Like cursor_right for micro	adjustment
micro_row_address	 mvpa	    Zc	    Like row_address for micro adjustment
micro_up		 mcuu1	    Zd	    Like cursor_up for micro adjustment
mouse_info		 minfo	    Mi	    Mouse status information
newline			 nel	    nw	    Newline (behaves like cr followed by lf)

order_of_pins		 porder	    Ze	    Matches software bits to print-head	pins
orig_colors		 oc	    oc	    Set	all color(-pair)s to the original ones
orig_pair		 op	    op	    Set	default	color-pair to the original one
pad_char		 pad	    pc	    Pad	character (rather than null)
parm_dch		 dch	    DC	    Delete #1 chars
parm_delete_line	 dl	    DL	    Delete #1 lines
parm_down_cursor	 cud	    DO	    Move down #1 lines.
parm_down_micro		 mcud	    Zf	    Like parm_down_cursor for micro adjust.
parm_ich		 ich	    IC	    Insert #1 blank chars
parm_index		 indn	    SF	    Scroll forward #1 lines.
parm_insert_line	 il	    AL	    Add	#1 new blank lines
parm_left_cursor	 cub	    LE	    Move cursor	left #1	spaces
parm_left_micro		 mcub	    Zg	    Like parm_left_cursor for micro adjust.
parm_right_cursor	 cuf	    RI	    Move right #1 spaces.
parm_right_micro	 mcuf	    Zh	    Like parm_right_cursor for micro adjust.
parm_rindex		 rin	    SR	    Scroll backward #1 lines.
parm_up_cursor		 cuu	    UP	    Move cursor	up #1 lines.
parm_up_micro		 mcuu	    Zi	    Like parm_up_cursor	for micro adjust.
pc_term_options		 pctrm	    S6	    PC terminal	options
pkey_key		 pfkey	    pk	    Prog funct key #1 to type string #2
pkey_local		 pfloc	    pl	    Prog funct key #1 to execute string	#2
pkey_plab		 pfxl	    xl	    Prog key #1	to xmit	string #2 and show string #3
pkey_xmit		 pfx	    px	    Prog funct key #1 to xmit string #2
plab_norm		 pln	    pn	    Prog label #1 to show string #2
print_screen		 mc0	    ps	    Print contents of the screen
prtr_non		 mc5p	    pO	    Turn on the	printer	for #1 bytes
prtr_off		 mc4	    pf	    Turn off the printer
prtr_on			 mc5	    po	    Turn on the	printer
pulse			 pulse	    PU	    Select pulse dialing
quick_dial		 qdial	    QD	    Dial phone number #1, without progress detection
remove_clock		 rmclk	    RC	    Remove time-of-day clock
repeat_char		 rep	    rp	    Repeat char	#1 #2 times
req_for_input		 rfi	    RF	    Send next input char (for ptys)
req_mouse_pos		 reqmp	    RQ	    Request mouse position report
reset_1string		 rs1	    r1	    Reset terminal completely to sane modes
reset_2string		 rs2	    r2	    Reset terminal completely to sane modes
reset_3string		 rs3	    r3	    Reset terminal completely to sane modes
reset_file		 rf	    rf	    Name of file containing reset string
restore_cursor		 rc	    rc	    Restore cursor to position of last sc
row_address		 vpa	    cv	    Set	vertical position to absolute #1
save_cursor		 sc	    sc	    Save cursor	position
scancode_escape		 scesc	    S7	    Escape for scancode	emulation
scroll_forward		 ind	    sf	    Scroll text	up
scroll_reverse		 ri	    sr	    Scroll text	down
select_char_set		 scs	    Zj	    Select character set
set0_des_seq		 s0ds	    s0	    Shift into codeset 0 (EUC set 0, ASCII)
set1_des_seq		 s1ds	    s1	    Shift into codeset 1
set2_des_seq		 s2ds	    s2	    Shift into codeset 2
set3_des_seq		 s3ds	    s3	    Shift into codeset 3
set_a_attributes	 sgr1		    Define second set of video attributes #1-#6
set_a_background	 setab	    AB	    Set	background color to #1 using ANSI escape
set_a_foreground	 setaf	    AF	    Set	foreground color to #1 using ANSI escape
set_attributes		 sgr	    sa	    Define first set of	video attributes #1-#9
set_background		 setb	    Sb	    Set	background color to #1
set_bottom_margin	 smgb	    Zk	    Set	bottom margin at current line
set_bottom_margin_parm	 smgbp	    Zl	    Set	bottom margin at line #1 or #2
					    lines from bottom
set_clock		 sclk	    SC	    Set	clock to hours (#1), minutes (#2), seconds (#3)
set_color_band		 setcolor   Yz	    Change to ribbon color #1
set_color_pair		 scp	    sp	    Set	current	color pair to #1
set_foreground		 setf	    Sf	    Set	foreground color to #1
set_left_margin		 smgl	    ML	    Set	left margin at current column
set_left_margin_parm	 smglp	    Zm	    Set	left (right) margin at column #1 (#2)
set_lr_margin		 smglr	    ML	    Sets both left and right margins
set_page_length		 slines	    YZ	    Set	page length to #1 lines
set_pglen_inch		 slength    YI	    Set	page length to #1 hundredth of an inch
set_right_margin	 smgr	    MR	    Set	right margin at	current	column
set_right_margin_parm	 smgrp	    Zn	    Set	right margin at	column #1
set_tab			 hts	    st	    Set	a tab in all rows, current column
set_tb_margin		 smgtb	    MT	    Sets both top and bottom margins
set_top_margin		 smgt	    Zo	    Set	top margin at current line
set_top_margin_parm	 smgtp	    Zp	    Set	top (bottom) margin at line #1 (#2)
set_window		 wind	    wi	    Current window is lines #1-#2 cols #3-#4
start_bit_image		 sbim	    Zq	    Start printing bit image graphics
start_char_set_def	 scsd	    Zr	    Start definition of	a character set
stop_bit_image		 rbim	    Zs	    End	printing bit image graphics
stop_char_set_def	 rcsd	    Zt	    End	definition of a	character set
subscript_characters	 subcs	    Zu	    List of "subscript-able" characters
superscript_characters	 supcs	    Zv	    List of "superscript-able" characters
tab			 ht	    ta	    Tab	to next	8-space	hardware tab stop
these_cause_cr		 docr	    Zw	    Printing any of these chars	causes cr
to_status_line		 tsl	    ts	    Go to status line, col #1
tone			 tone	    TO	    Select touch tone dialing
user0			 u0	    u0	    User string	0
user1			 u1	    u1	    User string	1
user2			 u2	    u2	    User string	2
user3			 u3	    u3	    User string	3
user4			 u4	    u4	    User string	4
user5			 u5	    u5	    User string	5
user6			 u6	    u6	    User string	6
user7			 u7	    u7	    User string	7
user8			 u8	    u8	    User string	8
user9			 u9	    u9	    User string	9
underline_char		 uc	    uc	    Underscore one char	and move past it
up_half_line		 hu	    hu	    Half-line up (reverse 1/2 linefeed)
wait_tone		 wait	    WA	    Wait for dial tone
xoff_character		 xoffc	    XF	    XOFF character
xon_character		 xonc	    XN	    XON	character
zero_motion		 zerom	    Zx	    No motion for the subsequent character

Sample Entry
       The following entry describes the AT&T 610 terminal.  (The pfxl and sgr
       values  have been split for printing; they would	actually be entered as
       single lines.)

       610|610bct|ATT610|att610|AT_T610;80column;98key keyboard,
	       am, eslok, hs, mir, msgr, xenl, xon,
	       cols#80,	it#8, lh#2, lines#24, lw#8, nlab#8, wsl#80,
	       bel=^G, blink=\E[5m, bold=\E[1m,	cbt=\E[Z,
	       civis=\E[?25l, clear=\E[H\E[J, cnorm=\E[?25h\E[?12l,
	       cr=\r, csr=\E[%i%p1%d;%p2%dr, cub=\E[%p1%dD, cub1=\b,
	       cud=\E[%p1%dB, cud1=\E[B, cuf=\E[%p1%dC,	cuf1=\E[C,
	       cup=\E[%i%p1%d;%p2%dH, cuu=\E[%p1%dA, cuu1=\E[A,
	       cvvis=\E[?12;25h, dch=\E[%p1%dP,	dch1=\E[P, dim=\E[2m,
	       dl=\E[%p1%dM, dl1=\E[M, ed=\E[J,	el=\E[K, el1=\E[1K,
	       flash=\E[?5h$_200_\E[?5l, fsl=\E8, home=\E[H, ht=\t,
	       ich=\E[%p1%d@, il=\E[%p1%dL, il1=\E[L, ind=\ED, .ind=\ED$_9_,
	       is1=\E[8;0 | \E[?3;4;5;13;15l\E[13;20l\E[?7h\E[12h\E(B\E)0,
	       is2=\E[0m^O, is3=\E(B\E)0, kLFT=\E[\s@, kRIT=\E[\sA,
	       kbs=^H, kcbt=\E[Z, kclr=\E[2J, kcub1=\E[D, kcud1=\E[B,
	       kcuf1=\E[C, kcuu1=\E[A, kfP=\EOc, kfP0=\ENp,
	       kfP1=\ENq, kfP2=\ENr, kfP3=\ENs,	kfP4=\ENt, kfI=\EOd,
	       kfB=\EOe, kf4=\EOf, kf(CW=\EOg, kf6=\EOh, kf7=\EOi,
	       kf8=\EOj, kf9=\ENo, khome=\E[H, kind=\E[S, kri=\E[T,
	       ll=\E[24H, mc4=\E[?4i, mc5=\E[?5i, nel=\EE,
	       pln=\E[%p1%d;0;0;0q%p2%:-16.16s,	rc=\E8,	rev=\E[7m,
	       ri=\EM, rmacs=^O, rmir=\E[4l, rmln=\E[2p, rmso=\E[m,
	       rmul=\E[m, rs2=\Ec\E[?3l, sc=\E7,
	       sgr0=\E[m^O, smacs=^N, smir=\E[4h, smln=\E[p,
	       smso=\E[7m, smul=\E[4m, tsl=\E7\E[25;%i%p1%dx,

Types of Capabilities in the Sample Entry
       The sample entry	shows the formats for the three	types of terminfo  ca-
       pabilities:  boolean,  numeric, and string.  All	capabilities specified
       in the terminfo source file must	be followed by commas,	including  the
       last capability in the source file.  In terminfo	source files, capabil-
       ities are referenced by their capability	names (as shown	in the Capname
       column of the previous tables).

   Boolean Capabilities
       A  boolean  capability  is true if its Capname is present in the	entry,
       and false if its	Capname	is not present in the entry.

       The "@" character following a Capname is	 used  to  explicitly  declare
       that  a	boolean	 capability  is	 false,	in situations described	in the
       "Similar	Terminals" subsection of the "Insert/Delete Line" section  be-

   Numeric Capabilities
       Numeric capabilities are	followed by the	character "#" and then a posi-
       tive integer value.  The	example	assigns	the value 80 to	the  cols  nu-
       meric capability	by coding:


       Values  for  numeric capabilities may be	specified in decimal, octal or
       hexadecimal, using normal C-language conventions.

   String Capabilities
       String-valued capabilities such as el (clear to end of  line  sequence)
       are  listed  by the Capname, an "=", and	a string ended by the next oc-
       currence	of a comma.

       A delay in milliseconds may appear anywhere in such a capability,  pre-
       ceded  by  "$"  and  enclosed in	angle brackets,	as in el=\EK$_3_.  The
       Curses implementation achieves delays by	outputting to the terminal  an
       appropriate  number  of system-defined padding characters.  The tputs()
       function	provides delays	when used to send such	a  capability  to  the

       The  delay  can be any of the following:	a number; a number followed by
       an asterisk, such as 5*;	a number followed by a slash, such as 5/; or a
       number followed by both,	such as	5*/.

	      *	 Shows	that  the required delay is proportional to the	number
		 of lines affected by the operation, and the amount  given  is
		 the delay required per	affected unit.	(In the	case of	insert
		 characters, the factor	is still the number of lines affected.
		 This  is  always  1 unless the	device has in and the software
		 uses it.)  When a "*" is specified, it	is sometimes useful to
		 give  a  delay	of the form 3.5	to specify a delay per unit to
		 tenths	of milliseconds.  (Only	one decimal place is allowed.)

	      /	 Indicates that	the delay is mandatory and padding  characters
		 are  transmitted regardless of	the setting of xon.  If	"/" is
		 not specified or if a device has xon defined, the  delay  in-
		 formation  is advisory	and is only used for cost estimates or
		 when the device is in raw mode.  However, any delay specified
		 for bel or flash is treated as	mandatory.

       The following notation is valid in terminfo source files	for specifying
       special characters:

	      Notation	 Represents Character
	      ^x	 Control-x (for	any appropriate	x)
	      \a	 Alert
	      \b	 Backspace
	      \E or \e	 An ESCAPE character
	      \f	 Form feed
	      \l	 Linefeed
	      \n	 Newline
	      \r	 Carriage return
	      \s	 Space
	      \t	 Tab
	      \^	 Caret (^)
	      \\	 Backslash (\)
	      \,	 Comma (,)
	      \:	 Colon (:)
	      \0	 Null
	      \nnn	 Any character,	specified as three octal digits

       (See the	"X/Open	System Interface  Definitions,	Issue  4,  Version  2"
       specification, "General Terminal	Interface".)

   Commented-Out Capabilities
       Sometimes  individual  capabilities must	be commented out.  To do this,
       put a period before the capability name.	 For example, see  the	second
       ind  in the example in the "Sample Entry" section above.	 Note that ca-
       pabilities are defined in a left-to-right order and, therefore, a prior
       definition will override	a later	definition.

Device Capabilities
   Basic Capabilities
       The  number of columns on each line for the device is given by the cols
       numeric capability.  If the device has a	screen,	 then  the  number  of
       lines  on  the  screen is given by the lines capability.	 If the	device
       wraps around to the beginning of	the next  line	when  it  reaches  the
       right  margin,  then it should have the am capability.  If the terminal
       can clear its screen, leaving the cursor	in  the	 home  position,  then
       this  is	 given	by the clear string capability.	 If the	terminal over-
       strikes (rather than clearing a position	when  a	 character  is	struck
       over) then it should have the os	capability.  If	the device is a	print-
       ing terminal, with no soft copy unit, specify both hc and os.  If there
       is  a way to move the cursor to the left	edge of	the current row, spec-
       ify this	as cr.	(Normally this will be	carriage  return,  control-M.)
       If  there  is  a	 way to	produce	an audible signal (such	as a bell or a
       beep), specify it as bel.  If, like most	devices, the device  uses  the
       XON/XOFF	flow-control protocol, specify xon.

       If  there is a way to move the cursor one position to the left (such as
       backspace), that	capability should be given as  cub1.   Similarly,  se-
       quences	to  move  to  the right, up, and down should be	given as cuf1,
       cuu1, and cud1, respectively.  These local cursor motions must not  al-
       ter  the	 text  they pass over; for example, you	would not normally use
       "cuf1=\s" because the space would erase the character moved over.

       A very important	point here is that the local cursor motions encoded in
       terminfo	 are undefined at the left and top edges of a screen terminal.
       Programs	should never attempt to	backspace around the left edge,	unless
       bw is specified,	and should never attempt to go up locally off the top.
       To scroll text up, a program goes to the	 bottom	 left  corner  of  the
       screen  and  sends the ind (index) string.  To scroll text down,	a pro-
       gram goes to the	top left corner	of the screen and sends	 the  ri  (re-
       verse  index) string.  The strings ind and ri are undefined when	not on
       their respective	corners	of the screen.

       Parameterized versions of the scrolling sequences  are  indn  and  rin.
       These  versions have the	same semantics as ind and ri, except that they
       take one	argument and scroll the	number of lines	specified by that  ar-
       gument.	 They are also undefined except	at the appropriate edge	of the

       The am capability tells whether the cursor sticks at the	right edge  of
       the  screen when	text is	output,	but this does not necessarily apply to
       a cuf1 from the last column.  Backward motion from the left edge	of the
       screen  is possible only	when bw	is specified.  In this case, cub1 will
       move to the right edge of the previous row.  If bw is  not  given,  the
       effect  is undefined.  This is useful for drawing a box around the edge
       of the screen, for example.  If the device has switch-selectable	 auto-
       matic  margins, am should be specified in the terminfo source file.  In
       this case, initialization strings should	turn on	this option, if	possi-
       ble.  If	the device has a command that moves to the first column	of the
       next line, that command can be given as nel  (newline).	 It  does  not
       matter  if  the command clears the remainder of the current line, so if
       the device has no cr and	lf it may still	be possible to craft a working
       nel out of one or both of them.

       These  capabilities  suffice to describe	hardcopy and screen terminals.
       Thus the	AT&T 5320 hardcopy terminal is described as follows:

	      5320|att5320|AT_T	5320 hardcopy terminal,
		      am, hc, os,
		      bel=^G, cr=\r, cub1=\b, cnd1=\n,
		      dch1=\E[P, dl1=\E[M,

       while the Lear Siegler ADM-3 is described as

	      adm3|lsi adm3,
		      am, bel=^G, clear=^Z, cols#80, cr=^M, cub1=^H,
		      cud1=^J, ind=^J, lines#24,

   Parameterized Strings
       Cursor addressing and other strings requiring arguments	are  described
       by  a argumentized string capability with escapes in a form (%x)	compa-
       rable to	printf() (see printf(1)).  For example,	to address the cursor,
       the  cup	 capability is given, using two	arguments:  the	row and	column
       to address to.  (Rows and columns are numbered from zero	and  refer  to
       the physical screen visible to the user,	not to any unseen memory.)  If
       the terminal has	memory relative	cursor addressing, that	can  be	 indi-
       cated by	mrcup.

       The argument mechanism uses a stack and special "%" codes to manipulate
       the stack in the	manner of Reverse Polish  Notation  (postfix).	 Typi-
       cally  a	 sequence  pushes one of the arguments onto the	stack and then
       prints it in some format.  Often	more complex operations	are necessary.
       Operations  are	in  postfix form with the operands in the usual	order.
       That is,	 to  subtract  5  from	the  first  argument,  one  would  use

       The "%" encodings have the following meanings:

	      %%	     Outputs "%".

			     As	in printf(); flags are [-+#] and space.

	      %c	     Print pop() gives %c.

	      %p[1-9]	     Push the ith argument.

	      %P[a-z]	     Set dynamic variable [a-z]	to pop().

	      %g[a-z]	     Get dynamic variable [a-z]	and push it.

	      %P[A-Z]	     Set static	variable [a-z] to pop().

	      %g[A-Z]	     Get static	variable [a-z] and push	it.

	      %'c'	     Push char constant	c.

	      %{nn}	     Push decimal constant nn.

	      %l	     Push strlen(pop()).

	      %+ %- %* %/ %m Arithmetic	(%m is mod):  push(pop integer2	op pop
			     integer1) where integer1 represents  the  top  of
			     the stack

	      %_ %| %^	     Bit  operations:	push(pop integer2 op pop inte-

	      %= %_ %_	     Logical operations:  push(pop integer2 op pop in-

	      %A %O	     Logical operations:  and, or

	      %! %~	     Unary operations:	push(op	pop())

	      %i	     (For  ANSI	terminals) add 1 to the	first argument
			     (if one argument present),	or first two arguments
			     (if more than one argument	present).

	      %? expr %t thenpart %e elsepart %;
			     If-then-else;  %e elsepart	is optional; else-if's
			     are possible as in	Algol 68:

			     %?	c1 %t b1 %e c2 %t b2 %e	c3 %t b3 %e c4	%t  b4
			     %e	b5 %;

			     ci	are conditions;	bi are bodies.

       If  the	"-"  flag is used with "%[doxXs]", then	a colon	must be	placed
       between the "%" and the "-" to differentiate the	flag from  the	binary
       "%-" operator.  For example: "%:-16.16s".

       Consider	 the  Hewlett-Packard  2645, which, to get to row 3 and	column
       12, needs to be sent \E_a12c03Y padded for 6 milliseconds.   Note  that
       the  order  of  the rows	and columns is inverted	here, and that the row
       and column are zero-padded as two digits.  Thus,	its cup	capability is:


       The Micro-Term ACT-IV needs the current row and column sent preceded by
       a ^T, with the row and column simply encoded in binary:


       Devices	that  use "%c" need to be able to backspace the	cursor (cub1),
       and to move the cursor up one line on the screen	(cuu1).	 This is  nec-
       essary because it is not	always safe to transmit	\n, ^D,	and \r,	as the
       system may change or discard them.  (The	library	functions dealing with
       terminfo	 set  tty modes	so that	tabs are never expanded, so \t is safe
       to send.	 This turns out	to be essential	for the	Ann Arbor 4080.)

       A final example is the LSI ADM-3a, which	uses row and column offset  by
       a blank character, thus:


       After  sending  "\E=", this pushes the first argument, pushes the ASCII
       decimal value for a space (32), adds them (pushing the sum on the stack
       in place	of the two previous values), and outputs that value as a char-
       acter.  Then the	same is	done for the second  argument.	 More  complex
       arithmetic is possible using the	stack.

   Cursor Motions
       If  the	terminal has a fast way	to home	the cursor (to very upper left
       corner of screen) then this can be given	as home; similarly a fast  way
       of  getting  to the lower left-hand corner can be given as ll; this may
       involve going up	with cuu1 from the home	position, but a	program	should
       never do	this itself (unless ll does) because it	can make no assumption
       about the effect	of moving up from the home position.   Note  that  the
       home position is	the same as addressing to (0,0):  to the top left cor-
       ner of the screen, not of memory.  (Thus, the \EH sequence on  Hewlett-
       Packard	terminals  cannot  be used for home without losing some	of the
       other features on the terminal.)

       If the device has row or	column absolute-cursor addressing,  these  can
       be given	as single argument capabilities	hpa (horizontal	position abso-
       lute) and  vpa  (vertical  position  absolute).	 Sometimes  these  are
       shorter	than  the  more	 general  two-argument	sequence  (as with the
       Hewlett-Packard 2645) and can be	used in	preference to  cup.  If	 there
       are  argumentised local motions (such as	"move n	spaces to the right"),
       these can be given as cud, cub, cuf, and	cuu with a single argument in-
       dicating	 how  many  spaces to move.  These are primarily useful	if the
       device does not have cup, such as the Tektronix 4025.

       If the device needs to be in a special mode when	running	a program that
       uses  these  capabilities, the codes to enter and exit this mode	can be
       given as	smcup and rmcup.  This arises, for  example,  from  terminals,
       such  as	the Concept, with more than one	page of	memory.	 If the	device
       has only	memory relative	cursor addressing and not screen relative cur-
       sor addressing, a one screen-sized window must be fixed into the	device
       for cursor addressing to	work properly.	This is	also used for the Tek-
       tronix  4025, where smcup sets the command character to be the one used
       by terminfo.  If	the rmcup sequence will	not restore the	 screen	 after
       an  smcup  sequence is output (to the state prior to outputting smcup),
       specify nrrmc.

   Area	Clears
       If the terminal can clear from the current position to the end  of  the
       line,  leaving  the cursor where	it is, this should be given as el.  If
       the terminal can	clear from the beginning of the	line  to  the  current
       position	 inclusive,  leaving  the  cursor  where it is,	this should be
       given as	el1.  If the terminal can clear	from the current  position  to
       the  end	 of  the display, then this should be given as ed.  ed is only
       defined from the	first column of	a line.	 (Thus,	it can be simulated by
       a request to delete a large number of lines, if a true ed is not	avail-

Insert/Delete Line
       If the terminal can open	a new blank line before	 the  line  where  the
       cursor  is,  this  should  be  given as il1; this is done only from the
       first position of a line.  The cursor must then	appear	on  the	 newly
       blank  line.   If  the terminal can delete the line which the cursor is
       on, then	this should be given as	dl1; this is done only from the	 first
       position	on the line to be deleted.  Versions of	il1 and	dl1 which take
       a single	argument and insert or delete that many	lines can be given  as
       il and dl.

       If  the	terminal has a settable	destructive scrolling region (like the
       VT100) the command to set this can be described with the	 csr  capabil-
       ity,  which  takes  two	arguments:   the  top  and bottom lines	of the
       scrolling region.  The cursor position is, alas,	undefined after	 using
       this  command.	It  is	possible to get	the effect of insert or	delete
       line using this command -- the sc and rc	(save and restore cursor) com-
       mands  are  also	 useful.   Inserting lines at the top or bottom	of the
       screen can also be done using ri	or ind on  many	 terminals  without  a
       true  insert/delete  line,  and	is often faster	even on	terminals with
       those features.

       To determine whether a terminal has destructive	scrolling  regions  or
       nondestructive scrolling	regions, create	a scrolling region in the mid-
       dle of the screen, place	data on	the bottom line	of the	scrolling  re-
       gion, move the cursor to	the top	line of	the scrolling region, and do a
       reverse index (ri) followed by a	delete line (dl1) or index (ind).   If
       the data	that was originally on the bottom line of the scrolling	region
       was restored into the scrolling region by the dl1 or ind, then the ter-
       minal has nondestructive	scrolling regions.  Otherwise, it has destruc-
       tive scrolling regions.	Do not specify csr if the terminal has	nonde-
       structive scrolling regions, unless ind,	ri, indn, rin, dl, and dl1 all
       simulate	destructive scrolling.

       If the terminal has the ability to define a window as part  of  memory,
       which  all  commands  affect,  it  should  be given as the argumentized
       string wind.  The four arguments	are the	starting and ending  lines  in
       memory and the starting and ending columns in memory, in	that order.

       If the terminal can retain display memory above,	then the da capability
       should be given;	if display memory  can	be  retained  below,  then  db
       should  be  given.   These indicate that	deleting a line	or scrolling a
       full screen may bring nonblank lines up from below  or  that  scrolling
       back with ri may	bring down nonblank lines.

   Insert/Delete Character
       There  are two basic kinds of intelligent terminals with	respect	to in-
       sert/delete character operations	which can be described using terminfo.
       The  most  common  insert/delete	 character  operations affect only the
       characters on the current line and shift	characters off the end of  the
       line rigidly.  Other terminals, such as the Concept 100 and the Perkin-
       Elmer Owl, make a distinction between typed and untyped blanks  on  the
       screen,	shifting  upon an insert or delete only	to an untyped blank on
       the screen which	is either  eliminated,	or  expanded  to  two  untyped
       blanks.	 You  can  determine the kind of terminal you have by clearing
       the screen and then typing text	separated  by  cursor  motions.	  Type
       "abc    def"  using  local  cursor motions (not spaces) between the abc
       and the def.  Then position the cursor before the abc and put the  ter-
       minal in	insert mode.  If typing	characters causes the rest of the line
       to shift	rigidly	and characters to fall off the end, then your terminal
       does  not distinguish between blanks and	untyped	positions.  If the abc
       shifts over to the def which then move together around the end  of  the
       current	line and onto the next as you insert, you have the second type
       of terminal, and	should give the	capability in, which stands  for  "in-
       sert  null".   While  these  are	two logically separate attributes (one
       line versus multiline insert mode, and  special	treatment  of  untyped
       spaces) we have seen no terminals whose insert mode cannot be described
       with the	single attribute.

       terminfo	can describe both terminals that have an insert	mode and  ter-
       minals  which  send  a  simple sequence to open a blank position	on the
       current line.  Give as smir the sequence	to get into insert mode.  Give
       as  rmir	 the  sequence to leave	insert mode.  Now give as ich1 any se-
       quence needed to	be sent	just before sending the	character  to  be  in-
       serted.	 Most  terminals  with	a true insert mode will	not give ich1;
       terminals that send a sequence to open a	screen position	should give it
       here.  (If your terminal	has both, insert mode is usually preferable to
       ich1.  Do not give both unless the terminal requires both to be used in
       combination.)   If post-insert padding is needed, give this as a	number
       of milliseconds padding in ip (a	string option).	  Any  other  sequence
       which  may  need	 to  be	sent after an insert of	a single character may
       also be given in	ip.  If	your terminal needs both to be placed into  an
       "insert	mode"  and  a special code to precede each inserted character,
       then both smir/rmir and ich1 can	be given, and both will	be used.   The
       ich capability, with one	argument, n, will insert n blanks.

       If  padding  is	necessary between characters typed while not in	insert
       mode, give this as a number of milliseconds padding in rmp.

       It is occasionally necessary to move around while  in  insert  mode  to
       delete  characters on the same line (for	example, if there is a tab af-
       ter the insertion position).  If	your terminal allows motion  while  in
       insert  mode  you  can give the capability mir to speed up inserting in
       this case.  Omitting mir	will affect only speed.	 Some  terminals  (no-
       tably Datamedia)	must not have mir because of the way their insert mode

       Finally,	you can	specify	dch1 to	delete a single	 character,  dch  with
       one argument, n,	to delete n characters,	and delete mode	by giving smdc
       and rmdc	to enter and exit delete mode (any mode	the terminal needs  to
       be placed in for	dch1 to	work).

       A  command  to  erase  n	 characters (equivalent	to outputting n	blanks
       without moving the cursor) can be given as ech with one argument.

   Highlighting, Underlining, and Visible Bells
       Your device may have one	or more	kinds of display attributes that allow
       you  to	highlight  selected characters when they appear	on the screen.
       The following display modes (shown with the names  by  which  they  are
       set) may	be available:

	      o	 A blinking screen (blink)

	      o	 Bold or extra-bright characters (bold)

	      o	 Dim or	half-bright characters (dim)

	      o	 Blanking or invisible text (invis)

	      o	 Protected text	(prot)

	      o	 A reverse-video screen	(rev)

	      o	 An  alternate	character  set	(smacs	to enter this mode and
		 rmacs to exit it).  (If a command is necessary	before you can
		 enter	alternate  character  set  mode,  give the sequence in
		 enacs or "enable alternate-character-set" mode.)  Turning  on
		 any of	these modes singly may turn off	other modes.

       sgr0 should be used to turn off all video enhancement capabilities.  It
       should always be	specified because it represents	the only way  to  turn
       off some	capabilities, such as dim or blink.

       Choose one display method as and	use it to highlight error messages and
       other text to which you want to draw attention.	Choose a form of  dis-
       play  that  provides strong contrast but	that is	easy on	the eyes.  (We
       recommend reverse-video plus half-bright	or reverse-video alone.)   The
       sequences  to  enter and	exit standout mode are given as	smso and rmso,
       respectively.  If the code to change  into  or  out  of	standout  mode
       leaves  one  or even two	blank spaces on	the screen, as the TVI 912 and
       Teleray 1061 do,	then xmc should	be given to tell how many  spaces  are

       Sequences  to begin underlining and end underlining can be specified as
       smul and	rmul, respectively.  If	the device has a sequence to underline
       the  current  character	and  to	move the cursor	one space to the right
       (such as	the Micro-Term MIME), this sequence can	be specified as	uc.

       Terminals with the "magic cookie" glitch	(xmc) deposit  special	"cook-
       ies" when they receive mode-setting sequences, which affect the display
       algorithm rather	than having extra bits for each	character.  Some  ter-
       minals,	such as	the Hewlett-Packard 2621, automatically	leave standout
       mode when they move to a	new line or the	cursor is addressed.  Programs
       using  standout mode should exit	standout mode before moving the	cursor
       or sending a newline, unless the	msgr capability, asserting that	it  is
       safe to move in standout	mode, is present.

       If  the	terminal has a way of flashing the screen to indicate an error
       quietly (a bell replacement), then this can be given as flash; it  must
       not  move  the cursor.  A good flash can	be done	by changing the	screen
       into reverse video, pad for 200 ms, then	return the  screen  to	normal

       If  the cursor needs to be made more visible than normal	when it	is not
       on the bottom line (to make, for	example, a nonblinking underline  into
       an  easier  to  find block or blinking underline) give this sequence as
       cvvis.  The boolean chts	should also be given.  If there	is  a  way  to
       make the	cursor completely invisible, give that as civis.  The capabil-
       ity cnorm should	be given, which	undoes the effects of either of	 these

       If your terminal	generates underlined characters	by using the underline
       character (with no special sequences needed) even though	 it  does  not
       otherwise  overstrike  characters, then specify the capability ul.  For
       devices on which	a character overstriking another leaves	 both  charac-
       ters  on	 the  screen,  specify	the capability os.  If overstrikes are
       erasable	with a blank, then this	should be indicated by specifying eo.

       If there	is a sequence to set arbitrary	combinations  of  modes,  this
       should  be  given as sgr	(set attributes), taking nine arguments.  Each
       argument	is either 0 or nonzero,	as the corresponding attribute	is  on
       or  off.	  The  nine arguments are, in order:  standout,	underline, re-
       verse, blink, dim, bold,	blank, protect,	alternate character set.   Not
       all modes need to be supported by sgr; only those for which correspond-
       ing separate attribute commands exist should be supported.   For	 exam-
       ple, let's assume that the terminal in question needs the following es-
       cape sequences to turn on various modes.

	      Argument	 Attribute    Escape Sequence
			 none	      \E[0m
		 p1	 standout     \E[0;4;7m
		 p2	 underline    \E[0;3m
		 p3	 reverse      \E[0;4m
		 p4	 blink	      \E[0;5m
		 p5	 dim	      \E[0;7m
		 p6	 bold	      \E[0;3;4m
		 p7	 invis	      \E[0;8m
		 p8	 protect      not available
		 p9	 altcharset   ^O (off) ^N (on)

       Note that each escape sequence requires a 0 to turn off other modes be-
       fore  turning  on  its  own  mode.  Also	note that, as suggested	above,
       standout	is set up to be	the combination	of reverse and dim.  Also, be-
       cause this terminal has no bold mode, bold is set up as the combination
       of reverse and underline.  In addition, to allow	combinations, such  as
       underline+blink,	 the sequence to use would be \E[0;3;5m.  The terminal
       doesn't have protect mode, either, but that cannot be simulated in  any
       way,  so	p8 is ignored.	The altcharset mode is different in that it is
       either ^O or ^N,	depending on whether it	is off or on.	If  all	 modes
       were to be turned on, the sequence would	be:


       Now  look  at  when different sequences are output.  For	example, ;3 is
       output when either p2 or	p6 is true, that is, if	 either	 underline  or
       bold  modes are turned on.  Writing out the above sequences, along with
       their dependencies, gives the following:

	      Sequence	   When	to Output     terminfo Translation
	      \E[0	 always		      \E[0
	      ;3	 if p2 or p6	      %?%p2%p6%|%t;3%;
	      ;4	 if p1 or p3 or	p6    %?%p1%p3%|%p6%|%t;4%;
	      ;5	 if p4		      %?%p4%t;5%;
	      ;7	 if p1 or p5	      %?%p1%p5%|%t;7%;
	      ;8	 if p7		      %?%p7%t;8%;
	      m		 always		      m
	      ^N or ^O	 if p9,	^N; else ^O   %?%p9%t^N%e^O%;

       Putting this all	together into the sgr sequence gives:


       Remember	that sgr and sgr0 must always be specified.

       If the device has a keypad that transmits sequences when	the  keys  are
       pressed,	 this  information can also be specified.  Note	that it	is not
       possible	to handle devices where	the keypad only	works in  local	 (this
       applies,	 for example, to the unshifted Hewlett-Packard 2621 keys).  If
       the keypad can be set to	transmit or not	transmit,  specify  these  se-
       quences	as  smkx  and rmkx.  Otherwise the keypad is assumed to	always

       The sequences sent by the left arrow, right arrow, up arrow,  down  ar-
       row,  and  home	keys  can  be  given as	kcub1, kcuf1, kcuu1, kcud1 and
       khome, respectively.  If	there are function keys	such as	f0,  f1,  ...,
       f63,  the  sequences they send can be specified as kf0, kf1, ..., kf63.
       If the first 11 keys have labels	other than the default f0 through f10,
       the labels can be given as lf0, lf1, ..., lf10.

       The  codes transmitted by certain other special keys can	be given:  kll
       (home down), kbs	(backspace), ktbc (clear all tabs), kctab  (clear  the
       tab  stop  in  this  column),  kclr  (clear screen or erase key), kdch1
       (delete character), kdl1	(delete	line), krmir (exit insert  mode),  kel
       (clear  to  end	of  line), ked (clear to end of	screen), kich1 (insert
       character or enter insert mode),	kil1 (insert line), knp	 (next	page),
       kpp  (previous  page),  kind  (scroll  forward/down), kri (scroll back-
       ward/up), khts (set a tab stop in this column).	In  addition,  if  the
       keypad  has  a  3 by 3 array of keys including the four arrow keys, the
       other five keys can be given as ka1, ka3, kb2,  kc1,  and  kc3.	 These
       keys  are  useful  when	the  effects  of  a 3 by 3 directional pad are
       needed.	Further	keys are defined above in the capabilities list.

       Strings to program function keys	can be specified as pfkey, pfloc,  and
       pfx.   A	 string	 to  program screen labels should be specified as pln.
       Each of these strings takes two arguments: a  function  key  identifier
       and  a  string to program it with.  pfkey causes	pressing the given key
       to be the same as the user typing the given string;  pfloc  causes  the
       string to be executed by	the terminal in	local mode; and	pfx causes the
       string to be transmitted	to the computer.  The  capabilities  nlab,  lw
       and  lh define the number of programmable screen	labels and their width
       and height.  If there are commands to turn the labels on	and off,  give
       them  in	 smln and rmln.	 smln is normally output after one or more pln
       sequences to make sure that the change becomes visible.

   Tabs	and Initialization
       If the device has hardware tabs,	the command to advance to the next tab
       stop  can be given as ht	(usually control-I).  A	"backtab" command that
       moves leftward to the next tab stop can be given	as  cbt.   By  conven-
       tion,  if  tty  modes show that tabs are	being expanded by the computer
       rather than being sent to the device, programs should not use ht	or cbt
       (even  if  they	are  present)  because the user	might not have the tab
       stops properly set.  If the device has hardware tabs that are initially
       set  every n spaces when	the device is powered up, the numeric argument
       it is given, showing the	number of spaces the tabs are set to.  This is
       normally	 used  by  tput	 init to determine whether to set the mode for
       hardware	tab expansion and whether to set the tab stops.	 If the	device
       has tab stops that can be saved in nonvolatile memory, the terminfo de-
       scription can assume that they are properly set.	 If there are commands
       to  set	and  clear  tab	stops, they can	be given as tbc	(clear all tab
       stops) and hts (set a tab stop in the current column of every row).

       Other capabilities include:  is1, is2, and is3, initialization  strings
       for the device; iprog, the path name of a program to be run to initial-
       ize the device; and if, the name	of a file containing long  initializa-
       tion  strings.  These strings are expected to set the device into modes
       consistent with the rest	of the terminfo	 description.	They  must  be
       sent to the device each time the	user logs in and be output in the fol-
       lowing order:  run the program iprog; output is1; output	is2;  set  the
       margins using mgc, smgl and smgr; set the tabs using tbc	and hts; print
       the file	if; and	finally	output is3.  This is usually  done  using  the
       init option of tput.

       Most  initialization is done with is2.  Special device modes can	be set
       up without duplicating strings by putting the common sequences  in  is2
       and special cases in is1	and is3.  Sequences that do a reset from a to-
       tally unknown state can be given	as rs1,	rs2, rf, and rs3, analogous to
       is1, is2, is3, and if.  (The method using files,	if and rf, is used for
       a few terminals;	however, the recommended method	is to use the initial-
       ization	and  reset  strings.)  These strings are output	by tput	reset,
       which is	used when the terminal gets into a wedged state.  Commands are
       normally	 placed	in rs1,	rs2, rs3, and rf only if they produce annoying
       effects on the screen and are not necessary when	logging	in.  For exam-
       ple,  the  command to set a terminal into 80-column mode	would normally
       be part of is2, but on some terminals it	causes an annoying  glitch  on
       the  screen  and	is not normally	needed because the terminal is usually
       already in 80-column mode.

       If a more complex sequence is needed to set the tabs than  can  be  de-
       scribed by using	tbc and	hts, the sequence can be placed	in is2 or if.

       Any  margin can be cleared with mgc.  (For instructions on how to spec-
       ify commands to set and clear margins, see the "Margins"	subsection  of
       the "Capabilities That Cause Movement" section below.

       Certain capabilities control padding in the tty driver.	These are pri-
       marily needed by	hard-copy terminals, and are used by tput init to  set
       tty modes appropriately (see tput(1)).  Delays embedded in the capabil-
       ities cr, ind, cub1, ff,	and tab	can be used to set the appropriate de-
       lay  bits  to  be  set in the tty driver.  If pb	(padding baud rate) is
       given, these values can be ignored at baud rates	below the value	of pb.

   Status Lines
       If the terminal has an extra "status line" that is not normally used by
       software,  this fact can	be indicated.  If the status line is viewed as
       an extra	line below the bottom line, into which one can	cursor-address
       normally	 (such	as the Heathkit	H19's 25th line, or the	24th line of a
       VT100 which is set to a 23-line scrolling region),  the	capability  hs
       should be given.	 Special strings that go to a given column of the sta-
       tus line	and return from	the status line	can be given as	tsl  and  fsl.
       (fsl  must  leave  the  cursor position in the same place it was	before
       tsl.  If	necessary, the sc and rc strings can be	included  in  tsl  and
       fsl  to get this	effect.)  The capability tsl takes one argument, which
       is the column number of the status line the cursor is to	be moved to.

       If escape sequences and other special commands, such as tab, work while
       in  the status line, the	flag eslok can be given.  A string which turns
       off the status line (or otherwise erases	its contents) should be	 given
       as  dsl.	 If the	terminal has commands to save and restore the position
       of the cursor, give them	as sc and rc.  The status line is normally as-
       sumed  to  be the same width as the rest	of the screen (that is,	cols).
       If the status line is a different width (possibly because the  terminal
       does  not allow an entire line to be loaded) the	width, in columns, can
       be indicated with the numeric argument wsl.

   Line	Graphics
       If the device has a line	drawing	alternate character set,  the  mapping
       of  glyph  to character would be	given in acsc.	The definition of this
       string is based on the alternate	character  set	used  in  the  Digital
       VT100  terminal,	 extended  slightly with some characters from the AT&T
       4410v1 terminal.

	      Glyph Name		Character
	      arrow pointing right	    +
	      arrow pointing left	    ,
	      arrow pointing down	    .
	      solid square block	    0
	      lantern symbol		    I
	      arrow pointing up		    -
	      diamond			    `
	      checker board (stipple)	    a
	      degree symbol		    f
	      plus/minus		    g
	      board of squares		    h
	      lower right corner	    j
	      upper right corner	    k
	      upper left corner		    l
	      lower left corner		    m
	      plus			    n
	      scan line	1		    o
	      horizontal line		    q
	      scan line	9		    s
	      left tee (-)		    t
	      right tee	(-|)		    u
	      bottom te_ (|)		    v
	      top tee (|)		    w
	      vertical line		    x
	      bullet			    ~

       The best	way to describe	a new device's line graphics set is to	add  a
       third  column to	the above table	with the characters for	the new	device
       that produce the	appropriate glyph when the  device  is	in  alternate-
       character-set mode.  For	example:

				    VT100+     Character Used
	      Glyph Name	   Character   on New Device
	      upper left corner	       l	     R
	      lower left corner	       m	     F
	      upper right corner       k	     T
	      lower right corner       j	     G
	      horizontal line	       q	     ,
	      vertical line	       x	     .

       Now write down the characters left to right; for	example:


       In  addition, terminfo lets you define multiple character sets (see the
       "Alternate Character Sets" section below.

   Color Manipulation
       Most color terminals belong to one of two classes of terminal:

	      o	 Tektronix-style

		 The Tektronix method uses a set of N predefined colors	 (usu-
		 ally  8) from which an	application can	select "current" fore-
		 ground	and background colors.	Thus a terminal	can support up
		 to N colors mixed into	N*N color-pairs	to be displayed	on the
		 screen	at the same time.

	      o	 Hewlett-Packard-style

		 In the	HP method, the application  cannot  define  the	 fore-
		 ground	 independently	of the background, or vice-versa.  In-
		 stead,	the application	must define an	entire	color-pair  at
		 once.	 Up  to	M color-pairs, made from 2*M different colors,
		 can be	defined	this way.

       The numeric variables colors and	pairs define the number	of colors  and
       color-pairs that	can be displayed on the	screen at the same time.  If a
       terminal	can change the definition of a color (for  example,  the  Tek-
       tronix  4100  and 4200 series terminals), this should be	specified with
       ccc (can	change color).	To change the definition of a color (Tektronix
       4200  method),  use  initc  (initialize color).	It requires four argu-
       ments:  color number (ranging from 0 to colors-1) and three  RGB	 (red,
       green,  and  blue)  values or three HLS colors (Hue, Lightness, Satura-
       tion).  Ranges of RGB and HLS values are	terminal-dependent.

       Tektronix 4100 series terminals only use	HLS color notation.  For  such
       terminals  (or dual-mode	terminals to be	operated in HLS	mode) one must
       define a	boolean	variable hls; that  would  instruct  the  init_color()
       function	(see can_change_color(3X)) to convert its RGB arguments	to HLS
       before sending them to the terminal.  The last three arguments  to  the
       initc string would then be HLS values.

       If  a  terminal	can change the definitions of colors, but uses a color
       notation	different from RGB and HLS, a mapping to  either  RGB  or  HLS
       must be developed.

       If  the	terminal  supports ANSI	escape sequences to set	background and
       foreground, they	should be coded	as setab and setaf, respectively.   If
       the  terminal  supports	other  escape  sequences to set	background and
       foreground, they	should be coded	as setb	and setf,  respectively.   The
       vidputs()  function  (see  vidattr(3X))	and  the refresh functions use
       setab and setaf if they are defined.  Each of  these  capabilities  re-
       quires  one  argument:	the  number  of	the color.  By convention, the
       first eight colors (0-7)	map to,	in order: black, red,  green,  yellow,
       blue, magenta, cyan, white.  However, color re-mapping may occur	or the
       underlying hardware may not support these colors.  Mappings for any ad-
       ditional	 colors	 supported  by the device (that	is, to numbers greater
       than 7) are at the discretion of	the terminfo entry writer.

       To initialize a color-pair (HP method), use  initp  (initialize	pair).
       It  requires  seven  arguments:	the number of a	color-pair (range=0 to
       pairs-1), and six RGB values:  three for	 the  foreground  followed  by
       three  for the background.  (Each of these groups of three should be in
       the order RGB.)	When initc or initp are	used,  RGB  or	HLS  arguments
       should  be  in the order	"red, green, blue" or "hue, lightness, satura-
       tion"), respectively.  To make  a  color-pair  current,	use  scp  (set
       color-pair).  It	takes one argument, the	number of a color-pair.

       Some  terminals	(for  example,	most color terminal emulators for PCs)
       erase areas of the screen  with	current	 background  color.   In  such
       cases, bce (background color erase) should be defined.  The variable op
       (original pair) contains	a sequence for setting the foreground and  the
       background  colors  to  what  they  were	at the terminal	start-up time.
       Similarly, oc (original colors) contains	a control sequence for setting
       all  colors  (for  the  Tektronix  method)  or  color-pairs (for	the HP
       method) to the values they had at the terminal start-up time.

       Some color terminals substitute color for video attributes.  Such video
       attributes should not be	combined with colors.  Information about these
       video attributes	should be packed into the ncv (no color	 video)	 vari-
       able.  There is a one-to-one correspondence between the nine least sig-
       nificant	bits of	that variable and the video attributes.	 The following
       table depicts this correspondence.

				Bit	 Decimal    Characteristic
		Attribute     Position	  Value	       That Sets
	      WA_STANDOUT	  0	      1	   sgr,	parameter 1
	      WA_UNDERLINE	  1	      2	   sgr,	parameter 2
	      WA_REVERSE	  2	      4	   sgr,	parameter 3
	      WA_BLINK		  3	      8	   sgr,	parameter 4
	      WA_DIM		  4	     16	   sgr,	parameter 5
	      WA_BOLD		  5	     32	   sgr,	parameter 6
	      WA_INVIS		  6	     64	   sgr,	parameter 7
	      WA_PROTECT	  7	    128	   sgr,	parameter 8
	      WA_ALTCHARSET	  8	    256	   sgr,	parameter 9
	      WA_HORIZONTAL	  9	    512	   sgr1, parameter 1
	      WA_LEFT		 10	   1024	   sgr1, parameter 2
	      WA_LOW		 11	   2048	   sgr1, parameter 3
	      WA_RIGHT		 12	   4096	   sgr1, parameter 4
	      WA_TOP		 13	   8192	   sgr1, parameter 5
	      WA_VERTICAL	 14	  16384	   sgr1, parameter 6

       When  a	particular video attribute should not be used with colors, set
       the corresponding ncv bit to 1; otherwise set it	to  0.	 To  determine
       the  information	 to pack into the ncv variable,	add the	decimal	values
       corresponding to	those attributes that cannot coexist with colors.  For
       example,	 if  the  terminal  uses colors	to simulate reverse video (bit
       number 2	and decimal value 4) and bold (bit number 5 and	decimal	 value
       32), the	resulting value	for ncv	will be	36 (4 +	32).

       If  the	terminal requires other	than a null (zero) character as	a pad,
       then this can be	given as pad.  Only the	first  character  of  the  pad
       string is used.	If the terminal	does not have a	pad character, specify

       If the terminal can move	up or down half	a line,	this can be  indicated
       with hu (half-line up) and hd (half-line	down).	This is	primarily use-
       ful for superscripts and	subscripts on hardcopy terminals.  If a	 hard-
       copy  terminal  can eject to the	next page (form	feed), give this as ff
       (usually	control-L).

       If there	is a command to	repeat a given character  a  given  number  of
       times  (to  save	 time transmitting a large number of identical charac-
       ters) this can be indicated with	 the  argumentized  string  rep.   The
       first  argument	is  the	character to be	repeated and the second	is the
       number of times to repeat it.  Thus, tparm(repeat_char, 'x', 10)	is the
       same as xxxxxxxxxx.

       If the terminal has a settable command character, such as the Tektronix
       4025, this can be indicated with	cmdch.	A prototype command  character
       is  chosen  which is used in all	capabilities.  This character is given
       in the cmdch capability to identify it.	The  following	convention  is
       supported  on  some systems: If the environment variable	CC exists, all
       occurrences of the prototype character are replaced with	the  character
       in CC.

       Terminal	 descriptions  that  do	not represent a	specific kind of known
       terminal, such as switch, dialup, patch,	and  network,  should  include
       the  gn (generic) capability so that programs can complain that they do
       not know	how to talk to the terminal.  (This capability does not	 apply
       to  virtual  terminal  descriptions  for	which the escape sequences are
       known.)	If the terminal	is one of those	supported by the virtual  ter-
       minal  protocol,	 the terminal number can be given as vt.  A line-turn-
       around sequence to be transmitted before	doing reads should  be	speci-
       fied in rfi.

       If  the	device	uses  XON/XOFF handshaking for flow control, give xon.
       Padding information should still	be included so that functions can make
       better  decisions  about	 costs,	 but actual pad	characters will	not be
       transmitted.  Sequences to turn on and off XON/XOFF handshaking may  be
       given  in  smxon	and rmxon.  If the characters used for handshaking are
       not ^S and ^Q, they may be specified with xonc and xoffc.

       If the terminal has a "meta key"	which acts as a	shift key, setting the
       8th  bit	 of any	character transmitted, this fact can be	indicated with
       km.  Otherwise, software	will assume that the 8th bit is	parity and  it
       will  usually be	cleared.  If strings exist to turn this	"meta mode" on
       and off,	they can be given as smm and rmm.

       If the terminal has more	lines of memory	than will fit on the screen at
       once,  the number of lines of memory can	be indicated with lm.  A value
       of lm#0 indicates that the number of lines is not fixed,	but that there
       is still	more memory than fits on the screen.

       Media  copy strings which control an auxiliary printer connected	to the
       terminal	can be given as:

	      mc0    Print the contents	of the screen.
	      mc4    Turn off the printer.
	      mc5    Turn on the printer.

       When the	printer	is on, all text	sent to	the terminal will be  sent  to
       the  printer.   A  variation,  mc5p, takes one argument,	and leaves the
       printer on for as many characters as the	value of  the  argument,  then
       turns  the  printer  off.   The argument	should not exceed 255.	If the
       text is not displayed on	the terminal screen when the  printer  is  on,
       specify	mc5i  (silent printer).	 All text, including mc4, is transpar-
       ently passed to the printer while an mc5p is in effect.

   Special Cases
       The working model used by terminfo fits most terminals reasonably well.
       However,	 some  terminals do not	completely match that model, requiring
       special support by terminfo.  These are not meant to  be	 construed  as
       deficiencies  in	 the  terminals; they are just differences between the
       working model and the actual hardware.  They may	be unusual devices or,
       for some	reason,	do not have all	the features of	the terminfo model im-

       Terminals that cannot display tilde (~)	characters,  such  as  certain
       Hazeltine terminals, should indicate hz.

       Terminals  that ignore a	linefeed immediately after an am wrap, such as
       the Concept 100,	should indicate	xenl.  Those  terminals	 whose	cursor
       remains	on  the	right-most column until	another	character has been re-
       ceived, rather than wrapping immediately	upon receiving the  right-most
       character, such as the VT100, should also indicate xenl.

       If  el  is  required  to	get rid	of standout (instead of	writing	normal
       text on top of it), xhp should be given.

       Those Teleray terminals whose tabs turn all characters  moved  over  to
       blanks, should indicate xt (destructive tabs).  This capability is also
       taken to	mean that it is	not possible to	position the cursor on top  of
       a  "magic cookie".  Therefore, to erase standout	mode, it is necessary,
       instead,	to use delete and insert line.

       For Beehive Superbee terminals that do not transmit the escape or  con-
       trol-C  characters,  specify  xsb,  indicating that the f1 key is to be
       used for	escape and the f2 key for control-C.

   Similar Terminals
       If there	are two	similar	terminals, one can be defined  as  being  just
       like  the other with certain exceptions.	 The string capability use can
       be given	with the name of the similar terminal.	The capabilities given
       before use override those in the	terminal type invoked by use.  A capa-
       bility can be canceled by placing capability-name@ prior	to the appear-
       ance of the string capability use.  For example,	the entry:

	      att4424-2|Teletype 4424 in display function group	ii,
		      rev@, sgr@, smul@, use=att4424,

       defines	an  AT&T  04424	 terminal that does not	have the rev, sgr, and
       smul capabilities, and hence cannot do highlighting.   This  is	useful
       for  different modes for	a terminal, or for different user preferences.
       More than one use capability may	be given.

Printer	Capabilities
       The terminfo database lets you define capabilities of printers as  well
       as  terminals.  Capabilities available for printers are included	in the
       lists in	the "Defined Capabilities" section above.

   Rounding Values
       Because argumentized string capabilities	work only with integer values,
       terminfo	 designers  should  create  strings that expect	numeric	values
       that have been rounded.	Application designers  should  note  this  and
       should  always  round  values  to the nearest integer before using them
       with a argumentized string capability.

   Printer Resolution
       A printer's resolution is defined to be the smallest spacing of charac-
       ters  it	 can achieve.  In general, the horizontal and vertical resolu-
       tions are independent.  Thus the	vertical resolution of a  printer  can
       be  determined  by  measuring  the smallest achievable distance between
       consecutive printing baselines, while the horizontal resolution can  be
       determined  by  measuring  the smallest achievable distance between the
       leftmost	edges of consecutive printed, identical, characters.

       All printers are	assumed	to be capable of printing with a uniform hori-
       zontal  and  vertical  resolution.   The	view of	printing that terminfo
       currently presents is one of printing inside  a	uniform	 matrix:   All
       characters  are	printed	 at fixed positions relative to	each "cell" in
       the matrix; furthermore,	each cell has  the  same  size	given  by  the
       smallest	horizontal and vertical	step sizes dictated by the resolution.
       (The cell size can be changed as	will be	seen later.)

       Many printers are capable of "proportional printing", where  the	 hori-
       zontal spacing depends on the size of the character last	printed.  ter-
       minfo does not make use of this capability, although  it	 does  provide
       enough  capability definitions to allow an application to simulate pro-
       portional printing.

       A printer must not only be able to print	characters as  close  together
       as  the	horizontal and vertical	resolutions suggest, but also of "mov-
       ing" to a position an integral multiple of the smallest	distance  away
       from  a previous	position.  Thus	printed	characters can be spaced apart
       a distance that is an integral multiple of the smallest distance, up to
       the length or width of a	single page.

       Some  printers  can  have  different resolutions	depending on different
       "modes".	 In "normal mode", the existing	terminfo capabilities are  as-
       sumed  to  work on columns and lines, just like a video terminal.  Thus
       the old lines capability	would give the length of a page	in lines,  and
       the cols	capability would give the width	of a page in columns.  In "mi-
       cro mode," many terminfo	capabilities work on increments	of  lines  and
       columns.	  With	some  printers	the micro mode may be concomitant with
       normal mode, so that all	the capabilities work at the same time.

   Specifying Printer Resolution
       The printing resolution of a printer is given in	 several  ways.	  Each
       specifies the resolution	as the number of smallest steps	per distance:

	      Characteristic Number of Smallest	Steps
	      orhi     Steps per inch horizontally
	      orvi     Steps per inch vertically
	      orc      Steps per column
	      orl      Steps per line

       When printing in	normal mode, each character printed causes movement to
       the next	column,	except in special cases	described later; the  distance
       moved is	the same as the	per-column resolution.	Some printers cause an
       automatic movement to the next line when	a character is printed in  the
       rightmost  position;  the  distance moved vertically is the same	as the
       per-line	resolution.  When printing in micro mode, these	distances  can
       be different, and may be	zero for some printers.

	      Automatic	Motion after Printing
	      Normal Mode:
	      orc   Steps moved	horizontally
	      orl   Steps moved	vertically
	      Micro Mode:
	      mcs   Steps moved	horizontally
	      mls   Steps moved	vertically

       Some  printers  are  capable of printing	wide characters.  The distance
       moved when a wide character is printed in normal	mode may be  different
       from  when  a  regular  width character is printed.  The	distance moved
       when a wide character is	printed	in micro mode may  also	 be  different
       from when a regular character is	printed	in micro mode, but the differ-
       ences are assumed to be related:	 If the	distance moved for  a  regular
       character  is  the same whether in normal mode or micro mode (mcs=orc),
       then the	distance moved for a wide character is also the	 same  whether
       in  normal  mode	or micro mode.	This doesn't mean the normal character
       distance	is necessarily the same	as the wide character  distance,  just
       that  the distances don't change	with a change in normal	to micro mode.
       However,	if the distance	moved for a regular character is different  in
       micro  mode from	the distance moved in normal mode (mcs<orc), the micro
       mode distance is	assumed	to be the same for a wide character printed in
       micro mode, as the table	below shows.

	      Automatic	Motion after Printing Wide Character
	      Normal Mode or Micro Mode	(mcs = orc):
	      widcs	     Steps moved horizontally
	      Micro Mode (mcs <	orc):
	      mcs	     Steps moved horizontally

       There may be control sequences to change	the number of columns per inch
       (the character pitch) and to change the number of lines per  inch  (the
       line pitch).  If	these are used,	the resolution of the printer changes,
       but the type of change depends on the printer:

	      Changing the Character/Line Pitches
	      cpi    Change character pitch
	      cpix   If	set, cpi changes orhi; otherwise, changes orc

			    lpi	   Change line pitch
	      lpix   If	set, lpi changes orvi; otherwise, changes orl

			    chr	   Change steps	per column
	      cvr    Change steps per line

       The cpi and lpi string capabilities are each used with a	 single	 argu-
       ment,  the pitch	in columns (or characters) and lines per inch, respec-
       tively.	The chr	and cvr	string capabilities are	each used with a  sin-
       gle argument, the number	of steps per column and	line, respectively.

       Using any of the	control	sequences in these strings will	imply a	change
       in some of the values of	orc, orhi, orl,	and orvi.  Also, the  distance
       moved  when  a wide character is	printed, widcs,	changes	in relation to
       orc. The	distance moved when a character	is printed in micro mode, mcs,
       changes similarly, with one exception:  if the distance is 0 or 1, then
       no change is assumed.

       Programs	that use cpi, lpi, chr,	or cvr should recalculate the  printer
       resolution  (and	 should	 recalculate other values.  See	the "Effect of
       Changing	Printing Resolution" section below.

	      Effects of Changing the Character/Line Pitches
			Before			      After
	      Using cpi	with cpix clear:

			    orhi'			 orhi
	      orc'			   orc = orhi /	Vcpi
	      Using cpi	with cpix set:

			    orhi'			 orhi =	orc * Vcpi
	      orc'			   orc
	      Using lpi	with lpix clear:

			    orvi'			 orvi
	      orl'			   orl = orvi /	Vlpi
	      Using lpi	with lpix set:

			    orvi'			 orvi =	orl * Vlp
	      orl'			   orl
	      Using chr:

			    orhi'			 orhi
	      orc'			   Vchr
	      Using cvr:

			    orvi'			 orvi
	      orl'			   Vcvr
	      Using cpi	or chr:

			    widcs'			 widcs = widcs'	* orc /	orc'
	      mcs'			   mcs = mcs' *	orc / orc'

       Vchr, Vcpi, Vcvr, and Vlpi are the arguments used with chr,  cpi,  cvr,
       and lpi,	respectively.  The prime marks (') indicate the	old values.

Capabilities That Cause	Movement
       In  the	following descriptions,	"movement" refers to the motion	of the
       "current	position".  With video terminals this  would  be  the  cursor;
       with some printers, this	is the carriage	position.  Other printers have
       different equivalents.  In general, the current	position  is  where  a
       character would be displayed if printed.

       terminfo	has string capabilities	for control sequences that cause move-
       ment a number of	full columns or	lines.	It also	has equivalent	string
       capabilities  for  control  sequences  that  cause movement a number of
       smallest	steps.

	      String Capabilities for Motion
	      mcub1   Move 1 step left
	      mcuf1   Move 1 step right
	      mcuu1   Move 1 step up
	      mcud1   Move 1 step down

			    mcub    Move N steps left
	      mcuf    Move N steps right
	      mcuu    Move N steps up
	      mcud    Move N steps down

			    mhpa    Move N steps from the left
	      mvpa    Move N steps from	the top

       The latter six strings are each used with a single argument, N.

       Sometimes the motion is limited to less than the	width or length	 of  a
       page.   Also, some printers don't accept	absolute motion	to the left of
       the current position.  terminfo has capabilities	for  specifying	 these

	      Limits to	Motion
	      mjump   Limit on use of mcub1, mcuf1, mcuu1, mcud1
	      maddr   Limit on use of mhpa, mvpa

			    xhpa    If set, hpa	and mhpa can't move left
	      xvpa    If set, vpa and mvpa can't move up

       If  a printer needs to be in a "micro mode" for the motion capabilities
       described above to work,	there are string capabilities defined to  con-
       tain  the  control  sequence to enter and exit this mode.  A boolean is
       available for those printers where using	a carriage  return  causes  an
       automatic return	to normal mode.

	      Entering/Exiting Micro Mode
	      smicm   Enter micro mode
	      rmicm   Exit micro mode

			    crxm    Using cr exits micro mode

       The movement made when a	character is printed in	the rightmost position
       varies among printers.  Some make no movement, some move	to the	begin-
       ning  of	 the next line,	others move to the beginning of	the same line.
       terminfo	has boolean capabilities for describing	all three cases.

	      What Happens After Character Printed in Rightmost	Position
	      sam	  Automatic move to beginning of same line

       Some printers can be put	in a mode where	the normal direction of	motion
       is  reversed.  This mode	can be especially useful when there are	no ca-
       pabilities for leftward or upward motion,  because  those  capabilities
       can  be	built from the motion reversal capability and the rightward or
       downward	motion capabilities.  It is best to leave it up	to an applica-
       tion  to	build the leftward or upward capabilities, though, and not en-
       ter them	in the terminfo	database.  This	allows several reverse motions
       to  be  strung together without intervening wasted steps	that leave and
       reenter reverse mode.

	      Entering/Exiting Reverse Modes
	      slm      Reverse sense of	horizontal motions
	      rlm      Restore sense of	horizontal motions
	      sum      Reverse sense of	vertical motions
	      rum      Restore sense of	vertical motions

			    While sense	of horizontal motion is	reversed:
	      mcub1    Move 1 step right
	      mcuf1    Move 1 step left
	      mcub     Move N steps right
	      mcuf     Move N steps left
	      cub1     Move 1 column right
	      cuf1     Move 1 column left
	      cub      Move N columns right
	      cuf      Move N columns left

			    While sense	of vertical motion is reversed:
	      mcuu1    Move 1 step down
	      mcud1    Move 1 step up
	      mcuu     Move N steps down
	      mcud     Move N steps up
	      cuu1     Move 1 line down
	      cud1     Move 1 line up
	      cuu      Move N lines down

	      cud      Move N lines up

       The reverse motion modes	should not affect the mvpa and	mhpa  absolute
       motion capabilities.  The reverse vertical motion mode should, however,
       also reverse the	action of the line "wrapping" that occurs when a char-
       acter  is  printed in the right-most position.  Thus printers that have
       the standard terminfo capability	am defined should experience motion to
       the  beginning  of the previous line when a character is	printed	in the
       rightmost position in reverse vertical motion mode.

       The action when any other motion	capabilities are used in  reverse  mo-
       tion  modes  is	not  defined;  thus, programs must exit	reverse	motion
       modes before using other	motion capabilities.

       Two miscellaneous capabilities complete the list	 of  motion  capabili-
       ties.   One of these is needed for printers that	move the current posi-
       tion to the beginning of	a line when certain control  characters,  such
       as  linefeed or formfeed, are used.  The	other is used for the capabil-
       ity of suspending the motion that  normally  occurs  after  printing  a

	      Miscellaneous Motion Strings
	      docr    List of control characters causing cr
	      zerom   Prevent auto motion after	printing next single character

       terminfo	 provides  two	strings	for setting margins on terminals:  one
       for the left and	one for	the right margin.  Printers, however, have two
       additional  margins, for	the top	and bottom margins of each page.  Fur-
       thermore, some printers require not using motion	strings	 to  move  the
       current	position to a margin and then fixing the margin	there, but re-
       quire the specification of where	a margin should	be regardless  of  the
       current position.  Therefore terminfo offers six	additional strings for
       defining	margins	with printers.

	      Setting Margins
	      smgl    Set left margin at current column
	      smgr    Set right	margin at current column
	      smgb    Set bottom margin	at current line
	      smgt    Set top margin at	current	line

			    smgbp   Set	bottom margin at line N
	      smglp   Set left margin at column	N
	      smgrp   Set right	margin at column N
	      smgtp   Set top margin at	line N

       The last	four strings are used with one or more arguments that give the
       position	 of  the margin	or margins to set.  If both of smglp and smgrp
       are set,	each is	used with a single argument, N,	that gives the	column
       number  of  the	left and right margin, respectively.  If both of smgtp
       and smgbp are set, each is used to set the top and bottom  margin,  re-
       spectively:   smgtp  is used with a single argument, N, the line	number
       of the top margin; however, smgbp is used with two arguments, N and  M,
       that give the line number of the	bottom margin, the first counting from
       the top of the page and the second counting from	the bottom.  This  ac-
       commodates  the two styles of specifying	the bottom margin in different
       manufacturers' printers.	 When coding a terminfo	entry  for  a  printer
       that  has  a  settable bottom margin, only the first or second argument
       should be used, depending on the	printer.  When writing an  application
       that uses smgbp to set the bottom margin, both arguments	must be	given.

       If  only	 one of	smglp and smgrp	is set,	then it	is used	with two argu-
       ments, the column number	of the left and	right margins, in that	order.
       Likewise,  if  only one of smgtp	and smgbp is set, then it is used with
       two arguments that give the top and  bottom  margins,  in  that	order,
       counting	 from  the top of the page.  Thus when coding a	terminfo entry
       for a printer that requires setting both	left and right or top and bot-
       tom  margins  simultaneously,  only one of smglp	and smgrp or smgtp and
       smgbp should be defined;	the other should be left blank.	 When  writing
       an application that uses	these string capabilities, the pairs should be
       first checked to	see if each in the pair	is set or only one is set, and
       should then be used accordingly.

       In counting lines or columns, line zero is the top line and column zero
       is the left-most	column.	 A zero	value for  the	second	argument  with
       smgbp means the bottom line of the page.

       All margins can be cleared with mgc.

   Shadows, Italics, Wide Characters, Superscripts, Subscripts
       Five sets of strings describe the capabilities printers have of enhanc-
       ing printed text.

	      Enhanced Printing
	      sshm    Enter shadow-printing mode
	      rshm    Exit shadow-printing mode

			    sitm    Enter italicizing mode
	      ritm    Exit italicizing mode

			    swidm   Enter wide character mode
	      rwidm   Exit wide	character mode

			    ssupm   Enter superscript mode
	      rsupm   Exit superscript mode
	      supcs   List of characters available as superscripts

			    ssubm   Enter subscript mode
	      rsubm   Exit subscript mode
	      subcs   List of characters available as subscripts

       If a printer requires the sshm control sequence before every  character
       to  be  shadow-printed,	the  rshm string is left blank.	 Thus programs
       that find a control sequence in sshm but	none in	rshm  should  use  the
       sshm control sequence before every character to be shadow-printed; oth-
       erwise, the sshm	control	sequence should	be used	once before the	set of
       characters  to  be  shadow-printed, followed by rshm.  The same is also
       true  of	 each  of  the	sitm-ritm,   swidm-rwidm,   ssupm-rsupm,   and
       ssubm-rsubm pairs.

       terminfo	 also  has  a  capability for printing emboldened text (bold).
       While shadow printing and emboldened printing are similar in that  they
       "darken"	 the  text,  many printers produce these two types of print in
       slightly	different ways.	 Generally, emboldened	printing  is  done  by
       overstriking  the  same	character  one or more times.  Shadow printing
       likewise	usually	involves overstriking, but with	a slight  movement  up
       and/or to the side so that the character	is "fatter".

       It  is  assumed	that enhanced printing modes are independent modes, so
       that it would be	possible, for instance,	 to  shadow  print  italicized

       As  mentioned  earlier,	the  amount of motion automatically made after
       printing	a wide character should	be given in widcs.

       If only a subset	of the printable ASCII characters can  be  printed  as
       superscripts  or	 subscripts,  they  should be listed in	supcs or subcs
       strings,	respectively.  If the ssupm or ssubm strings  contain  control
       sequences,  but	the corresponding supcs	or subcs strings are empty, it
       is assumed that all printable ASCII characters are available as	super-
       scripts or subscripts.

       Automatic  motion made after printing a superscript or subscript	is as-
       sumed to	be the same as for regular  characters.	  Thus,	 for  example,
       printing	 any of	the following three examples results in	equivalent mo-

	      Bi     Bi	    Bi

       Note that the existing msgr boolean capability describes	whether	motion
       control	sequences can be used while in "standout mode".	 This capabil-
       ity is extended to cover	the enhanced printing modes added here.	  msgr
       should  be  set	for  those printers that accept	any motion control se-
       quences without affecting shadow, italicized, widened, superscript,  or
       subscript  printing.   Conversely, if msgr is not set, a	program	should
       end these modes before attempting any motion.

Alternate Character Sets
       In addition to allowing you to define line graphics (described  in  the
       "Line  Graphics"	 subsection  of	 the "Insert/Delete Character" section
       above), terminfo	lets you define	alternate character sets.  The follow-
       ing  capabilities cover printers	and terminals with multiple selectable
       or definable character sets:

	      Alternate	Character Sets
	      scs     Select character set N
	      scsd    Start definition of character set	N, M characters
	      defc    Define character A, B dots wide, descender D
	      rcsd    End definition of	character set N
	      csnm    List of character	set names
	      daisy   Printer has manually changed print-wheels

       The scs,	rcsd, and csnm strings are used	with a single argument,	 N,  a
       number from 0 to	63 that	identifies the character set.  The scsd	string
       is also used with the argument N	and another, M,	that gives the	number
       of  characters  in  the	set.  The defc string is used with three argu-
       ments:  A gives the ASCII code  representation  for  the	 character,  B
       gives  the width	of the character in dots, and D	is zero	or one depend-
       ing on whether the character is a "descender" or	not.  The defc	string
       is  also	 followed  by a	string of "image-data" bytes that describe how
       the character looks (see	below).

       Character set 0 is the default character	set present after the  printer
       has  been  initialized.	 Not  every  printer has 64 character sets, of
       course; using scs with an argument that	doesn't	 select	 an  available
       character  set  should  cause  a	null pointer to	be returned by tparm()
       (see tigetflag(3X)).

       If a character set has to be defined before it can be  used,  the  scsd
       control	sequence  is to	be used	before defining	the character set, and
       the rcsd	is to be used after.  They should also cause a NULL pointer to
       be returned by tparm() when used	with an	argument N that	doesn't	apply.
       If a character set still	has to be selected after  being	 defined,  the
       scs control sequence should follow the rcsd control sequence.  By exam-
       ining the results of using each of the scs, scsd, and rcsd strings with
       a  character  set  number in a call to tparm(), a program can determine
       which of	the three are needed.

       Between use of the scsd and rcsd	strings, the  defc  string  should  be
       used to define each character.  To print	any character on printers cov-
       ered by terminfo, the ASCII code	is sent	to the printer.	 This is  true
       for  characters	in  an	alternate  set as well as "normal" characters.
       Thus the	definition of a	character includes the ASCII code that	repre-
       sents  it.   In	addition, the width of the character in	dots is	given,
       along with an indication	of whether the character should	descend	 below
       the  print  line	 (such	as the lower case letter "g" in	most character
       sets).  The width of the	character in dots also indicates the number of
       image-data  bytes  that	will follow the	defc string.  These image-data
       bytes indicate where in a dot-matrix pattern ink	should be  applied  to
       "draw"  the character; the number of these bytes	and their form are de-
       fined in	the "Dot-Matrix	Graphics" section below.

       It's easiest for	the creator of terminfo	entries	to refer to each char-
       acter  set by number; however, these numbers will be meaningless	to the
       application developer.  The csnm	string alleviates this problem by pro-
       viding names for	each number.

       When  used  with	 a character set number	in a call to tparm(), the csnm
       string will produce the equivalent name.	 These names should be used as
       a reference only.  No naming convention is implied, although anyone who
       creates a terminfo entry	for a printer should use names consistent with
       the  names found	in user	documents for the printer.  Application	devel-
       opers should allow a user to specify a character	set by number (leaving
       it  up  to the user to examine the csnm string to determine the correct
       number),	or by name, where the application examines the csnm string  to
       determine the corresponding character set number.

       These capabilities are likely to	be used	only with dot-matrix printers.
       If they are not available, the strings  should  not  be	defined.   For
       printers	 that  have  manually changed print-wheels or font cartridges,
       the boolean daisy is set.

Dot-Matrix Graphics
       Dot-matrix printers typically have the capability of reproducing	raster
       graphics	images.	 Three numeric capabilities and	three string capabili-
       ties help a program draw	raster-graphics	images independent of the type
       of  dot-matrix  printer	or  the	number of pins or dots the printer can
       handle at one time.

	      Dot-Matrix Graphics
	      npins    Number of pins, N, in print-head
	      spinv    Spacing of pins vertically in pins per inch
	      spinh    Spacing of dots horizontally in dots per	inch
	      porder   Matches software	bits to	print-head pins
	      sbim     Start printing bit image	graphics, B bits wide
	      rbim     End printing bit	image graphics

       The sbim	string is used with a single argument, B, the width of the im-
       age in dots.

       The  model  of  dot-matrix or raster-graphics that terminfo presents is
       similar to the technique	used for most dot-matrix printers:  each  pass
       of  the printer's print-head is assumed to produce a dot-matrix that is
       N dots high and B dots wide.  This is typically a wide, squat,  rectan-
       gle  of	dots.  The height of this rectangle in dots will vary from one
       printer to the next; this is given in  the  npins  numeric  capability.
       The  size  of  the rectangle in fractions of an inch will also vary; it
       can be deduced from the spinv and  spinh	 numeric  capabilities.	  With
       these three values an application can divide a complete raster-graphics
       image into several horizontal strips, perhaps interpolating to  account
       for different dot spacing vertically and	horizontally.

       The  sbim  and  rbim  strings start and end a dot-matrix	image, respec-
       tively.	The sbim string	is used	with a single argument that gives  the
       width  of the dot-matrix	in dots.  A sequence of	"image-data bytes" are
       sent to the printer after the sbim string and before the	 rbim  string.
       The  number of bytes is a integral multiple of the width	of the dot-ma-
       trix; the multiple and the form of  each	 byte  is  determined  by  the
       porder string as	described below.

       The  porder  string is a	comma separated	list of	pin numbers optionally
       followed	by an numerical	offset.	 The offset, if	 given,	 is  separated
       from the	list with a semicolon.	The position of	each pin number	in the
       list corresponds	to a bit in an 8-bit data byte.	 The pins are numbered
       consecutively from 1 to npins, with 1 being the top pin.	 Note that the
       term "pin" is used loosely here;	"ink-jet"  dot-matrix  printers	 don't
       have pins, but can be considered	to have	an equivalent method of	apply-
       ing a single dot	of ink to paper.  The bit positions in porder  are  in
       groups of 8, with the first position in each group the most significant
       bit and the last	position the least significant	bit.   An  application
       produces	8-bit bytes in the order of the	groups in porder.

       An application computes the "image-data bytes" from the internal	image,
       mapping vertical	dot positions  in  each	 print-head  pass  into	 8-bit
       bytes,  using  a	 1  bit	where ink should be applied and	0 where	no ink
       should be applied.  This	can be reversed	(0 bit for ink,	1 bit  for  no
       ink)  by	 giving	 a  negative  pin number.  If a	position is skipped in
       porder, a 0 bit is used.	 If a position has a lower case	"x" instead of
       a  pin  number,	a  1 bit is used in the	skipped	position.  For consis-
       tency, a	lower case "o" can be used to represent	a  0  filled,  skipped
       bit.   There  must  be a	multiple of 8 bit positions used or skipped in
       porder; if not, low-order bits of the last byte are set to 0.  The off-
       set, if given, is added to each data byte; the offset can be negative.

       Some  examples may help clarify the use of the porder string.  The AT&T
       470, AT&T 475 and C.Itoh	8510 printers provide eight pins for graphics.
       The  pins  are  identified  top to bottom by the	8 bits in a byte, from
       least significant to most.  The porder strings for these	printers would
       be  8,7,6,5,4,3,2,1.   The  AT&T	478 and	AT&T 479 printers also provide
       eight pins for graphics.	 However, the pins are identified in  the  re-
       verse   order.	 The  porder  strings  for  these  printers  would  be
       1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8.	 The AT&T 5310,	AT&T 5320, Digital LA100, and  Digital
       LN03  printers  provide six pins	for graphics.  The pins	are identified
       top to bottom by	the decimal values 1, 2, 4, 8, 16 and 32.  These  cor-
       respond to the low six bits in an 8-bit byte, although the decimal val-
       ues are further offset by the value 63.	The porder  string  for	 these
       printers	would be ,,6,5,4,3,2,1;63, equivalent to o,o,6,5,4,3,2,1;63.

Effect of Changing Printing Resolution
       If  the	control	 sequences  to	change the character pitch or the line
       pitch are used, the pin or dot spacing may change:

	      Changing the Character/Line Pitches
	      cpi     Change character pitch
	      cpix    If set, cpi changes spinh

			    lpi	    Change line	pitch
	      lpix    If set, lpi changes spinv

       Programs	that use cpi or	lpi should recalculate the dot spacing:

	      Effects of Changing the Character/Line Pitches
			Before			       After
	      Using cpi	with cpix clear:
	      spinh'			   spinh
	      Using cpi	with cpix set:
	      spinh'			   spinh = spinh' * orhi / orhi'
	      Using lpi	with lpix clear:
	      spinv'			   spinv
	      Using lpi	with lpix set:
	      spinv'			   spinv = spinv' * orhi / orhi'
	      Using chr:
	      spinh'			   spinh
	      Using cvr:
	      spinv'			   spinv

       orhi' and orhi are the values of	the horizontal resolution in steps per
       inch,  before  using  cpi and after using cpi, respectively.  Likewise,
       orvi' and orvi are the values of	the vertical resolution	in  steps  per
       inch,  before  using  lpi and after using lpi, respectively.  Thus, the
       changes in the dots per inch for	dot-matrix graphics follow the changes
       in steps	per inch for printer resolution.

   Print Quality
       Many  dot-matrix	 printers can alter the	dot spacing of printed text to
       produce printing	or printing.  It is important to be able to choose one
       or  the	other  because the rate	of printing generally decreases	as the
       quality improves.  Three	strings	describe these capabilities:

	      Print Quality
	      snlq    Set near-letter quality print
	      snrmq   Set normal quality print
	      sdrfq   Set draft	quality	print

       The capabilities	are listed in decreasing  levels  of  quality.	 If  a
       printer doesn't have all	three levels, the respective strings should be
       left blank.

   Printing Rate and Buffer Size
       Because there is	no standard protocol that can be used to keep  a  pro-
       gram  synchronized with a printer, and because modern printers can buf-
       fer data	before printing	it, a program generally	 cannot	 determine  at
       any  time  what	has been printed.  Two numeric capabilities can	help a
       program estimate	what has been printed.

	      Print Rate/Buffer	Size
	      cps     Nominal print rate in characters per second
	      bufsz   Buffer capacity in characters

       cps is the nominal or average rate at which the printer prints  charac-
       ters;  if this value is not given, the rate should be estimated at one-
       tenth the prevailing baud rate.	bufsz is the maximum number of	subse-
       quent  characters buffered before the guaranteed	printing of an earlier
       character, assuming proper flow control has been	used.  If  this	 value
       is not given it is assumed that the printer does	not buffer characters,
       but prints them as they are received.

       As an example, if a printer has a 1000-character	buffer,	 then  sending
       the  letter "a" followed	by 1000	additional characters is guaranteed to
       cause the letter	"a" to print.  If the same printer prints at the  rate
       of  100	characters per second, then it should take 10 seconds to print
       all the characters in the buffer, less if the buffer is not  full.   By
       keeping	track  of  the	characters  sent to a printer, and knowing the
       print rate and buffer size, a program can synchronize itself  with  the

       Note  that most printer manufacturers advertise the maximum print rate,
       not the nominal print rate.  A good way to get a	value to  put  in  for
       cps  is	to generate a few pages	of text, count the number of printable
       characters, and then see	how long it takes to print the text.

       Applications that use these values should recognize the variability  in
       the  print  rate.  Straight text, in short lines, with no embedded con-
       trol sequences will probably print at close  to	the  advertised	 print
       rate  and  probably  faster than	the rate in cps.  Graphics data	with a
       lot of control sequences, or very long lines of	text,  will  print  at
       well  below  the	advertised rate	and below the rate in cps.  If the ap-
       plication is using cps to decide	how long it should take	a  printer  to
       print a block of	text, the application should pad the estimate.	If the
       application is using cps	to decide  how	much  text  has	 already  been
       printed,	 it should shrink the estimate.	 The application will thus err
       in favor	of the user, who wants,	above all, to see all  the  output  in
       its correct place.

Selecting a Terminal
       If  the	environment  variable  TERMINFO	 is defined, any program using
       Curses checks for a local terminal definition before  checking  in  the
       standard	 place.	 For example, if TERM is set to	att4424, then the com-
       piled terminal definition is found by default in	the path


       within an implementation-specific directory.

       (The "a"	is copied from the first letter	of att4424 to  avoid  creation
       of  huge	 directories.)	 However, if TERMINFO is set to	$HOME/myterms,
       Curses first checks


       If that fails, it then checks the default path name.

       This is useful for developing experimental definitions  or  when	 write
       permission in the implementation-defined	default	database is not	avail-

       If the LINES and	COLUMNS	environment variables are set, or if the  pro-
       gram  is	executing in a window environment, line	and column information
       in the environment will override	information read by terminfo.

Application Usage
       The most	effective way to prepare a terminal description	is by  imitat-
       ing the description of a	similar	terminal in terminfo and to build up a
       description gradually, using partial descriptions  with	a  screen-ori-
       ented  editor,  to  check  that they are	correct.  To easily test a new
       terminal	description, the environment variable TERMINFO can be  set  to
       the  path  name of a directory containing the compiled description, and
       programs	will look there	rather than in the terminfo database.

   Conventions for Device Aliases
       Every device must be assigned a name, such as vt100.  Device names (ex-
       cept  the  long name) should be chosen using the	following conventions.
       The name	should not contain hyphens because hyphens  are	 reserved  for
       use when	adding suffixes	that indicate special modes.

       These  special  modes may be modes that the hardware can	be in, or user
       preferences.  To	assign a special mode to a particular device, append a
       suffix  consisting  of a	hyphen and an indicator	of the mode to the de-
       vice name.  For example,	the -w suffix means when specified, it	allows
       for  a width of 132 columns instead of the standard 80 columns.	There-
       fore, if	you want to use	a VT100	device set to wide mode, name the  de-
       vice vt100-w.  Use the following	suffixes where possible:

	      Suffix		       Meaning			   Example
	      -w       Wide mode (more than 80 columns)		  5410-w
	      -am      With automatic margins (usually default)	  vt100-am
	      -nam     Without automatic margins		  vt100-nam
	      -n       Number of lines on the screen		  2300-40
	      -na      No arrow	keys (leave them in local)	  c100-na
	      -np      Number of pages of memory		  c100-4p
	      -rv      Reverse video				  4415-rv

   Variations of Terminal Definitions
       It  is  implementation-defined  how the entries in terminfo may be cre-

       There is	more than one way to write a terminfo entry.  A	minimal	 entry
       may  permit applications	to use Curses to operate the terminal.	If the
       entry is	enhanced to describe more of the terminal's capabilities,  ap-
       plications can use Curses to invoke those features, and can take	advan-
       tages of	optimizations within Curses and	thus operate more efficiently.
       For most	terminals, an optimal terminfo entry has already been written.

   Environment Variables
       CC	 Specifies  a  substitute  character  for  a prototype command
		 character.  See cmdch in the  "Miscellaneous"	subsection  of
		 the "Insert/Delete Line" section.

       COLUMNS	 Specifies column information that can override	the column in-
		 formation in terminfo.	 See the "Selecting a  Terminal"  sec-

       LINES	 Specifies  lines  information that can	override the lines in-
		 formation in terminfo.	 See the "Selecting a  Terminal"  sec-

       TERM	 Specifies the name of the current terminal.  See the "Select-
		 ing a Terminal" section.

       TERMINFO	 Specifies an alternate	location for a local terminal  defini-
		 tion.	 If the	value in TERM is not found in $TERMINFO/?/* or
		 if TERMINFO is	not set, the value is sought  in  the  default
		 location, /usr/lib/terminfo/?/*.  See the "Selecting a	Termi-
		 nal" section.

       tic(1),	untic(1),  curses(3X),	tgetent(3X),  tigetflag(3X),  term(4),

       ANSI Standard X3.64-1979.

       X/Open System Interface Definitions, Issue 4, Version 2.

				ENHANCED CURSES			   terminfo(4)

NAME | SYNOPSIS | DESCRIPTION | Terminfo Source Format | Source File Syntax | Minimum Guaranteed Limits | Formal Grammar | Defined Capabilities | Variable name cap Description | Variable name cap Description | Variable name cap Description | Variable name cap Description | Sample Entry | Types of Capabilities in the Sample Entry | Device Capabilities | Insert/Delete Line | Printer Capabilities | Capabilities That Cause Movement | Alternate Character Sets | Dot-Matrix Graphics | Effect of Changing Printing Resolution | Selecting a Terminal | Application Usage | EXTERNAL INFLUENCES | SEE ALSO

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