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TERMCAP(5)		  FreeBSD File Formats Manual		    TERMCAP(5)

     termcap --	terminal capability database

     The termcap file is a database describing terminals, used,	for example,
     by	vi(1) and curses(3).  Terminals	are described in termcap by giving a
     set of capabilities that they have	and by describing how operations are
     performed.	 Padding requirements and initialization sequences are in-
     cluded in termcap.

     Entries in	termcap	consist	of a number of `:'-separated fields.  The
     first entry for each terminal gives the names that	are known for the ter-
     minal, separated by `|' characters.  The first name given is the most
     common abbreviation for the terminal.  The	last name given	should be a
     long name fully identifying the terminal, and all others are understood
     as	synonyms for the terminal name.	 All names but the last	should be in
     lower case	and contain no blanks; the last	name may well contain upper
     case characters and blanks	for readability.

     Terminal names (except for	the last, verbose entry) should	be chosen us-
     ing the following conventions.  The particular piece of hardware making
     up	the terminal should have a root	name chosen, thus "hp2621" This	name
     should not	contain	hyphens.  Modes	that the hardware can be in or user
     preferences should	be indicated by	appending a hyphen and an indicator of
     the mode.	Therefore, a "vt100" in	132-column mode	would be "vt100-w".

     The following suffixes should be used where possible:

     Suffix    Meaning					   Example
     -w	       Wide mode (more than 80 columns).	   vt100-w
     -am       With automatic margins (usually default).   vt100-am
     -nam      Without automatic margins.		   vt100-nam
     -n	       Number of lines on screen.		   aaa-60
     -na       arrow keys (leave them in local).	   concept100-na
     -np       Number of pages of memory.		   concept100-4p
     -rv       Reverse video.				   concept100-rv

     The characters in the Notes function field	in the table have the follow-
     ing meanings (more	than one may apply to a	capability):

     N	  Indicates numeric parameter(s).
     P	  Indicates that padding may be	specified.
     *	  Indicates that padding may be	based on the number of lines affected.
     o	  Indicates capability is obsolete.

     "Obsolete"	capabilities have no terminfo(5) equivalents, since they were
     considered	useless, or are	subsumed by other capabilities.	 New software
     should not	rely on	them at	all.

     Name     Type    Notes    Description
     ae	      str     (P)      End alternate character set.
     AL	      str     (NP*)    Add n new blank lines
     al	      str     (P*)     Add new blank line.
     am	      bool	       Terminal	has automatic margins.
     as	      str     (P)      Start alternate character set.
     bc	      str     (o)      Backspace if not	^H.
     bl	      str     (P)      Audible signal (bell).
     bs	      bool    (o)      Terminal	can backspace with ^H.
     bt	      str     (P)      Back tab.
     bw	      bool	       le (backspace) wraps from column	0 to last col-
     CC	      str	       Terminal	settable command character in
     cd	      str     (P*)     Clear to	end of display.
     ce	      str     (P)      Clear to	end of line.
     ch	      str     (NP)     Set cursor column (horizontal position).
     cl	      str     (P*)     Clear screen and	home cursor.
     CM	      str     (NP)     Memory-relative cursor addressing.
     cm	      str     (NP)     Screen-relative cursor motion.
     co	      num	       Number of columns in a line (see	BUGS section
     cr	      str     (P)      Carriage	return.
     cs	      str     (NP)     Change scrolling	region (VT100).
     ct	      str     (P)      Clear all tab stops.
     cv	      str     (NP)     Set cursor row (vertical	position).
     da	      bool	       Display may be retained above the screen.
     dB	      num     (o)      Milliseconds bs delay needed (default 0).
     db	      bool	       Display may be retained below the screen.
     DC	      str     (NP*)    Delete n	characters.
     dC	      num     (o)      Milliseconds cr delay needed (default 0).
     dc	      str     (P*)     Delete character.
     dF	      num     (o)      Milliseconds ff delay needed (default 0).
     DL	      str     (NP*)    Delete n	lines.
     dl	      str     (P*)     Delete line.
     dm	      str	       Enter delete mode.
     dN	      num     (o)      Milliseconds nl delay needed (default 0).
     DO	      str     (NP*)    Move cursor down	n lines.
     do	      str	       Down one	line.
     ds	      str	       Disable status line.
     dT	      num     (o)      Milliseconds of horizontal tab delay needed
					      (default 0).
     dV	      num     (o)      Milliseconds of vertical	tab delay needed
					      (default 0).
     ec	      str     (NP)     Erase n characters.
     ed	      str	       End delete mode.
     ei	      str	       End insert mode.
     eo	      bool	       Can erase overstrikes with a blank.
     EP	      bool    (o)      Even parity.
     es	      bool	       Escape can be used on the status	line.
     ff	      str     (P*)     Hardcopy	terminal page eject.
     fs	      str	       Return from status line.
     gn	      bool	       Generic line type, for example dialup, switch).
     hc	      bool	       Hardcopy	terminal.
     HD	      bool    (o)      Half-duplex.
     hd	      str	       Half-line down (forward 1/2 linefeed).
     ho	      str     (P)      Home cursor.
     hs	      bool	       Has extra "status line".
     hu	      str	       Half-line up (reverse 1/2 linefeed).
     hz	      bool	       Cannot print ``~'' (Hazeltine).
     i1-i3    str	       Terminal	initialization strings (terminfo(5)
     IC	      str     (NP*)    Insert n	blank characters.
     ic	      str     (P*)     Insert character.
     if	      str	       Name of file containing initialization string.
     im	      str	       Enter insert mode.
     in	      bool	       Insert mode distinguishes nulls.
     iP	      str	       Pathname	of program for initialization
					      (terminfo(5) only)
     ip	      str     (P*)     Insert pad after	character inserted.
     is	      str	       Terminal	initialization string (termcap only).
     it	      num	       Tabs initially every n positions.
     K1	      str	       Sent by keypad upper left.
     K2	      str	       Sent by keypad center.
     K3	      str	       Sent by keypad upper right.
     K4	      str	       Sent by keypad lower left.
     K5	      str	       Sent by keypad lower right.
     k0-k9    str	       Sent by function	keys 0-9.
     kA	      str	       Sent by insert-line key.
     ka	      str	       Sent by clear-all-tabs key.
     kb	      str	       Sent by backspace key.
     kC	      str	       Sent by clear-screen or erase key.
     kD	      str	       Sent by delete-character	key.
     kd	      str	       Sent by down-arrow key.
     kE	      str	       Sent by clear-to-end-of-line key.
     ke	      str	       Out of "keypad transmit"	mode.
     kF	      str	       Sent by scroll-forward/down key.
     kH	      str	       Sent by home-down key.
     kh	      str	       Sent by home key.
     kI	      str	       Sent by insert-character	or enter-insert-mode
     kL	      str	       Sent by delete-line key.
     kl	      str	       Sent by left-arrow key.
     kM	      str	       Sent by insert key while	in insert mode.
     km	      bool	       Has a "meta" key	(shift,	sets parity bit).
     kN	      str	       Sent by next-page key.
     kn	      num     (o)      Number of function (k0-k9) keys (default	0).
     ko	      str     (o)      Termcap entries for other non-function keys.
     kP	      str	       Sent by previous-page key.
     kR	      str	       Sent by scroll-backward/up key.
     kr	      str	       Sent by right-arrow key.
     kS	      str	       Sent by clear-to-end-of-screen key.
     ks	      str	       Put terminal in "keypad transmit" mode.
     kT	      str	       Sent by set-tab key.
     kt	      str	       Sent by clear-tab key.
     ku	      str	       Sent by up-arrow	key.
     l0-l9    str	       Labels on function keys if not "fn".
     LC	      bool    (o)      Lower-case only.
     LE	      str     (NP)     Move cursor left	n positions.
     le	      str     (P)      Move cursor left	one position.
     li	      num	       Number of lines on screen or page (see BUGS
					      section below).
     ll	      str	       Last line, first	column.
     lm	      num	       Lines of	memory if > li (0 means	varies).
     ma	      str     (o)      Arrow key map (used by vi(1) version 2 only).
     mb	      str	       Turn on blinking	attribute.
     md	      str	       Turn on bold (extra bright) attribute.
     me	      str	       Turn off	all attributes.
     mh	      str	       Turn on half-bright attribute.
     mi	      bool	       Safe to move while in insert mode.
     mk	      str	       Turn on blank attribute (characters invisible).
     ml	      str     (o)      Memory lock on above cursor.
     mm	      str	       Turn on "meta mode" (8th	bit).
     mo	      str	       Turn off	"meta mode".
     mp	      str	       Turn on protected attribute.
     mr	      str	       Turn on reverse-video attribute.
     ms	      bool	       Safe to move in standout	modes.
     mu	      str     (o)      Memory unlock (turn off memory lock).
     nc	      bool    (o)      No correctly-working cr (Datamedia 2500,	Hazel-
					      tine 2000).
     nd	      str	       Non-destructive space (cursor right).
     NL	      bool    (o)"     \n is newline, not line feed.
     nl	      str     (o)      Newline character if not	\n.
     ns	      bool    (o)      Terminal	doesn't	scroll.
     nw	      str     (P)      Newline (behaves	like cr	followed by do).
     OP	      bool    (o)      Odd parity.
     os	      bool	       Terminal	overstrikes.
     pb	      num	       Lowest baud where delays	are required.
     pc	      str	       Pad character (default NUL).
     pf	      str	       Turn off	the printer.
     pk	      str	       Program function	key n to type string s
					      (terminfo(5) only)
     pl	      str	       Program function	key n to execute string	s
					      (terminfo(5) only)
     pO	      str     (N)      Turn on the printer for n bytes.
     po	      str	       Turn on the printer.
     ps	      str	       Print contents of the screen.
     pt	      bool    (o)      Has hardware tabs (may need to be set with is).
     px	      str	       Program function	key n to transmit string s
					      (terminfo(5) only)
     r1-r3    str	       Reset terminal completely to sane modes
					      (terminfo(5) only)
     rc	      str     (P)      Restore cursor to position of last sc.
     rf	      str	       Name of file containing reset codes.
     RI	      str     (NP)     Move cursor right n positions.
     rp	      str     (NP*)    Repeat character	c n times.
     rs	      str	       Reset terminal completely to sane modes
					      (termcap only).
     sa	      str     (NP)     Define the video	attributes.
     sc	      str     (P)      Save cursor position.
     se	      str	       End standout mode.
     SF	      str     (NP*)    Scroll forward n	lines.
     sf	      str     (P)      Scroll text up.
     sg	      num	       Number of garbage chars left by so or se	(de-
					      fault 0).
     so	      str	       Begin standout mode.
     SR	      str     (NP*)    Scroll backward n lines.
     sr	      str     (P)      Scroll text down.
     st	      str	       Set a tab in all	rows, current column.
     ta	      str     (P)      Tab to next 8-position hardware tab stop.
     tc	      str	       Entry of	similar	terminal; must be last.
     te	      str	       String to end programs that use termcap.
     ti	      str	       String to begin programs	that use termcap.
     ts	      str     (N)      Go to status line, column n.
     UC	      bool    (o)      Upper-case only.
     uc	      str	       Underscore one character	and move past it.
     ue	      str	       End underscore mode.
     ug	      num	       Number of garbage chars left by us or ue	(de-
					      fault 0).
     ul	      bool	       Underline character overstrikes.
     UP	      str     (NP*)    Move cursor up n	lines.
     up	      str	       Upline (cursor up).
     us	      str	       Start underscore	mode.
     vb	      str	       Visible bell (must not move cursor).
     ve	      str	       Make cursor appear normal (undo vs/vi).
     vi	      str	       Make cursor invisible.
     vs	      str	       Make cursor very	visible.
     vt	      num	       Virtual terminal	number (not supported on all
     wi	      str     (N)      Set current window.
     ws	      num	       Number of columns in status line.
     xb	      bool	       Beehive (f1= ESC, f2=^C).
     xn	      bool	       Newline ignored after 80	columns	(Concept).
     xo	      bool	       Terminal	uses xoff/xon (DC3/DC1)	handshaking.
     xr	      bool    (o)      Return acts like	ce cr nl (Delta	Data).
     xs	      bool	       Standout	not erased by overwriting (Hewlett-
     xt	      bool	       Tabs ruin, magic	so char	(Teleray 1061).
     xx	      bool    (o)      Tektronix 4025 insert-line.

   A Sample Entry
     The following entry, which	describes the Concept-100, is among the	more
     complex entries in	the termcap file as of this writing.

     ca|concept100|c100|concept|c104|concept100-4p|HDS Concept-100:\
	     :al=3*\E^R:am:bl=^G:cd=16*\E^C:ce=16\E^U:cl=2*^L:cm=\Ea%+ %+ :\^M:db:dc=16\E^A:dl=3*\E^B:do=^J:ei=\E\200:eo:im=\E^P:in:\
	     :mr=\ED:nd=\E=:pb#9600:rp=0.2*\Er%.%+ :se=\Ed\Ee:sf=^J:so=\EE\ED:\
	     :.ta=8\t:te=\Ev	\200\200\200\200\200\200\Ep\r\n:\
	     :ti=\EU\Ev	 8p\Ep\r:ue=\Eg:ul:up=\E;:us=\EG:\

     Entries may continue onto multiple	lines by giving	a `\' as the last
     character of a line, and empty fields may be included for readability
     (here between the last field on a line and	the first field	on the next).
     Comments may be included on lines beginning with `#'.

   Types of Capabilities
     Capabilities in termcap are of three types: Boolean capabilities, which
     indicate particular features that the terminal has; numeric capabilities,
     giving the	size of	the display or the size	of other attributes; and
     string capabilities, which	give character sequences that can be used to
     perform particular	terminal operations.  All capabilities have two-letter
     codes.  For instance, the fact that the Concept has automatic margins (an
     automatic return and linefeed when	the end	of a line is reached) is indi-
     cated by the Boolean capability am.  Hence	the description	of the Concept
     includes am.

     Boolean capabilities are defined by their name, fo.  They have no argu-
     ment.  The	presence of a boolean capability name sets its value to	true.
     A capability value	will be	reverted to false, by appending	a @ char after
     the name, such as fo@.

     Numeric capabilities are followed by the character	`#' then the value.
     In	the example above co, which indicates the number of columns the	dis-
     play has, gives the value `80' for	the Concept.

     Finally, string-valued capabilities, such as ce (clear-to-end-of-line se-
     quence) are given by the two-letter code, an `=', then a string ending at
     the next following	`:'.  A	delay in milliseconds may appear after the `='
     in	such a capability, which causes	padding	characters to be supplied by
     tputs(3) after the	remainder of the string	is sent	to provide this	delay.
     The delay can be either a number, such as `20', or	a number followed by
     an	`*', such as `3*'.  An `*' indicates that the padding required is pro-
     portional to the number of	lines affected by the operation, and the
     amount given is the per-affected-line padding required.  (In the case of
     insert-character, the factor is still the number of lines affected; this
     is	always 1 unless	the terminal has in and	the software uses it.)	When
     an	`*' is specified, it is	sometimes useful to give a delay of the	form
     `3.5' to specify a	delay per line to tenths of milliseconds.  (Only one
     decimal place is allowed.)

     A number of escape	sequences are provided in the string-valued capabili-
     ties for easy encoding of control characters there.  \E maps to an	ESC
     character,	^X maps	to a control-X for any appropriate X, and the se-
     quences \n	\r \t \b \f map	to linefeed, return, tab, backspace, and form-
     feed, respectively.  Finally, characters may be given as three octal dig-
     its after a \, and	the characters ^ and \ may be given as \^ and \\.  If
     it	is necessary to	place a	: in a capability it must be escaped in	octal
     as	\072.  If it is	necessary to place a NUL character in a	string capa-
     bility it must be encoded as \200.	 (The routines that deal with termcap
     use C strings and strip the high bits of the output very late, so that a
     \200 comes	out as a \000 would.)

     Sometimes individual capabilities must be commented out.  To do this, put
     a period before the capability name.  For example,	see the	first cr and
     ta	in the example above.

   Preparing Descriptions
     The most effective	way to prepare a terminal description is by imitating
     the description of	a similar terminal in termcap and to build up a	de-
     scription gradually, using	partial	descriptions with vi(1)	to check that
     they are correct.	Be aware that a	very unusual terminal may expose defi-
     ciencies in the ability of	the termcap file to describe it	or bugs	in
     vi(1).  To	easily test a new terminal description you are working on you
     can put it	in your	home directory in a file called	.termcap and programs
     will look there before looking in /usr/share/misc/termcap.	 You can also
     set the environment variable TERMPATH to a	list of	absolute file path-
     names (separated by spaces	or colons), one	of which contains the descrip-
     tion you are working on, and programs will	search them in the order
     listed, and nowhere else.	See termcap(3).	 The TERMCAP environment vari-
     able is usually set to the	termcap	entry itself to	avoid reading files
     when starting up a	program.

     To	get the	padding	for insert-line	right (if the terminal manufacturer
     did not document it), a severe test is to use vi(1) to edit /etc/passwd
     at	9600 baud, delete roughly 16 lines from	the middle of the screen, then
     hit the `u' key several times quickly.  If	the display messes up, more
     padding is	usually	needed.	 A similar test	can be used for	insert-charac-

   Basic Capabilities
     The number	of columns on each line	of the display is given	by the co nu-
     meric capability.	If the display is a terminal, then the number of lines
     on	the screen is given by the li capability.  If the display wraps	around
     to	the beginning of the next line when the	cursor reaches the right mar-
     gin, then it should have the am capability.  If the terminal can clear
     its screen, the code to do	this is	given by the cl	string capability.  If
     the terminal overstrikes (rather than clearing the	position when a	char-
     acter is overwritten), it should have the os capability.  If the terminal
     is	a printing terminal, with no soft copy unit, give it both hc and os.
     (os applies to storage scope terminals, such as the Tektronix 4010	se-
     ries, as well as to hard copy and APL terminals.)	If there is a code to
     move the cursor to	the left edge of the current row, give this as cr.
     (Normally this will be carriage-return, ^M.)  If there is a code to pro-
     duce an audible signal (bell, beep, etc.),	give this as bl.

     If	there is a code	(such as backspace) to move the	cursor one position to
     the left, that capability should be given as le.  Similarly, codes	to
     move to the right,	up, and	down should be given as	nd, up,	and do,	re-
     spectively.  These	local cursor motions should not	alter the text they
     pass over;	for example, you would not normally use	"nd= " unless the ter-
     minal has the os capability, because the space would erase	the character
     moved over.

     A very important point here is that the local cursor motions encoded in
     termcap have undefined behavior at	the left and top edges of a terminal.
     Programs should never attempt to backspace	around the left	edge, unless
     bw	is given, and never attempt to go up off the top using local cursor

     In	order to scroll	text up, a program goes	to the bottom left corner of
     the screen	and sends the sf (index) string.  To scroll text down, a pro-
     gram goes to the top left corner of the screen and	sends the sr (reverse
     index) string.  The strings sf and	sr have	undefined behavior when	not on
     their respective corners of the screen.  Parameterized versions of	the
     scrolling sequences are SF	and SR,	which have the same semantics as sf
     and sr except that	they take one parameter	and scroll that	many lines.
     They also have undefined behavior except at the appropriate corner	of the

     The am capability tells whether the cursor	sticks at the right edge of
     the screen	when text is output there, but this does not necessarily apply
     to	nd from	the last column.  Leftward local motion	is defined from	the
     left edge only when bw is given; then an le from the left edge will move
     to	the right edge of the previous row.  This is useful for	drawing	a box
     around the	edge of	the screen, for	example.  If the terminal has switch-
     selectable	automatic margins, the termcap description usually assumes
     that this feature is on, i.e. am.	If the terminal	has a command that
     moves to the first	column of the next line, that command can be given as
     nw	(newline).  It is permissible for this to clear	the remainder of the
     current line, so if the terminal has no correctly working CR and LF it
     may still be possible to craft a working nw out of	one or both of them.

     These capabilities	suffice	to describe hardcopy and "glass-tty" termi-
     nals.  Thus the Teletype model 33 is described as

	   T3|tty33|33|tty|Teletype model 33:\

     and the Lear Siegler ADM-3	is described as

	   l3|adm3|3|LSI ADM-3:\

   Parameterized Strings
     Cursor addressing and other strings requiring parameters are described by
     a parameterized string capability,	with printf(3)-like escapes %x in it,
     while other characters are	passed through unchanged.  For example,	to ad-
     dress the cursor the cm capability	is given, using	two parameters:	the
     row and column to move to.	 (Rows and columns are numbered	from zero and
     refer to the physical screen visible to the user, not to any unseen mem-
     ory.  If the terminal has memory-relative cursor addressing, that can be
     indicated by an analogous CM capability.)

     The % encodings have the following	meanings:

     %%	   output `%'
     %d	   output value	as in printf(3)	%d
     %2	   output value	as in printf(3)	%2d
     %3	   output value	as in printf(3)	%3d
     %.	   output value	as in printf(3)	%c
     %+x   add x to value, then	do %.
     %>xy  if value > x	then add y, no output
     %r	   reverse order of two	parameters, no output
     %i	   increment by	one, no	output
     %n	   exclusive-or	all parameters with 0140 (Datamedia 2500)
     %B	   BCD (16*(value/10)) + (value%10), no	output
     %D	   Reverse coding (value - 2*(value%16)), no output (Delta Data)

     Consider the Hewlett-Packard 2645,	which, to get to row 3 and column 12,
     needs to be sent "\E&a12c03Y" padded for 6	milliseconds.  Note that the
     order of the row and column coordinates is	reversed here and that the row
     and column	are sent as two-digit integers.	 Thus its cm capability	is

     The Datamedia 2500	needs the current row and column sent encoded in bi-
     nary using	"%.".  Terminals that use "%." need to be able to backspace
     the cursor	(le) and to move the cursor up one line	on the screen (up).
     This is necessary because it is not always	safe to	transmit \n, ^D, and
     \r, as the	system may change or discard them.  (Programs using termcap
     must set terminal modes so	that tabs are not expanded, so \t is safe to
     send.  This turns out to be essential for the Ann Arbor 4080.)

     A final example is	the Lear Siegler ADM-3a, which offsets row and column
     by	a blank	character, thus	"cm=\E=%+ %+ ".

     Row or column absolute cursor addressing can be given as single parameter
     capabilities ch (horizontal position absolute) and	cv (vertical position
     absolute).	 Sometimes these are shorter than the more general two-parame-
     ter sequence (as with the Hewlett-Packard 2645) and can be	used in	pref-
     erence to cm.  If there are parameterized local motions (e.g., move n po-
     sitions to	the right) these can be	given as DO, LE, RI, and UP with a
     single parameter indicating how many positions to move.  These are	pri-
     marily useful if the terminal does	not have cm, such as the Tektronix

   Cursor Motions
     If	the terminal has a fast	way to home the	cursor (to the very upper left
     corner of the screen), this can be	given as ho.  Similarly, a fast	way of
     getting to	the lower left-hand corner can be given	as ll; this may	in-
     volve going up with up from the home position, but	a program should never
     do	this itself (unless ll does), because it can make no assumption	about
     the effect	of moving up from the home position.  Note that	the home posi-
     tion is the same as cursor	address	(0,0): to the top left corner of the
     screen, not of memory.  (Therefore, the "\EH" sequence on Hewlett-Packard
     terminals cannot be used for ho.)

   Area	Clears
     If	the terminal can clear from the	current	position to the	end of the
     line, leaving the cursor where it is, this	should be given	as ce.	If the
     terminal can clear	from the current position to the end of	the display,
     this should be given as cd.  cd must only be invoked from the first col-
     umn of a line.  (Therefore, it can	be simulated by	a request to delete a
     large number of lines, if a true cd is not	available.)

   Insert/Delete Line
     If	the terminal can open a	new blank line before the line containing the
     cursor, this should be given as al; this must be invoked only from	the
     first position of a line.	The cursor must	then appear at the left	of the
     newly blank line.	If the terminal	can delete the line that the cursor is
     on, this should be	given as dl; this must only be used from the first po-
     sition on the line	to be deleted.	Versions of al and dl which take a
     single parameter and insert or delete that	many lines can be given	as AL
     and DL.  If the terminal has a settable scrolling region (like the
     VT100), the command to set	this can be described with the cs capability,
     which takes two parameters: the top and bottom lines of the scrolling re-
     gion.  The	cursor position	is, alas, undefined after using	this command.
     It	is possible to get the effect of insert	or delete line using this com-
     mand -- the sc and	rc (save and restore cursor) commands are also useful.
     Inserting lines at	the top	or bottom of the screen	can also be done using
     sr	or sf on many terminals	without	a true insert/delete line, and is of-
     ten faster	even on	terminals with those features.

     If	the terminal has the ability to	define a window	as part	of memory
     which all commands	affect,	it should be given as the parameterized	string
     wi.  The four parameters are the starting and ending lines	in memory and
     the starting and ending columns in	memory,	in that	order.	(This
     terminfo(5) capability is described for completeness.  It is unlikely
     that any termcap-using program will support it.)

     If	the terminal can retain	display	memory above the screen, then the da
     capability	should be given; if display memory can be retained below, then
     db	should be given.  These	indicate that deleting a line or scrolling may
     bring non-blank lines up from below or that scrolling back	with sr	may
     bring down	non-blank lines.

   Insert/Delete Character
     There are two basic kinds of intelligent terminals	with respect to	in-
     sert/delete character that	can be described using termcap.	 The most com-
     mon insert/delete character operations affect only	the characters on the
     current line and shift characters off the end of the line rigidly.	 Other
     terminals,	such as	the Concept-100	and the	Perkin Elmer Owl, make a dis-
     tinction between typed and	untyped	blanks on the screen, shifting upon an
     insert or delete only to an untyped blank on the screen which is either
     eliminated	or expanded to two untyped blanks.  You	can determine the kind
     of	terminal you have by clearing the screen then typing text separated by
     cursor motions.  Type "abc	   def"	using local cursor motions (not	spa-
     ces) between the "abc" and	the "def".  Then position the cursor before
     the "abc" and put the terminal in insert mode.  If	typing characters
     causes the	rest of	the line to shift rigidly and characters to fall off
     the end, then your	terminal does not distinguish between blanks and un-
     typed positions.  If the "abc" shifts over	to the "def" which then	move
     together around the end of	the current line and onto the next as you in-
     sert, then	you have the second type of terminal and should	give the capa-
     bility in,	which stands for "insert null".	 While these are two logically
     separate attributes (one line vs.	multi-line insert mode,	and special
     treatment of untyped spaces), we have seen	no terminals whose insert mode
     cannot be described with the single attribute.

     termcap can describe both terminals that have an insert mode and termi-
     nals that send a simple sequence to open a	blank position on the current
     line.  Give as im the sequence to get into	insert mode.  Give as ei the
     sequence to leave insert mode.  Now give as ic any	sequence that needs to
     be	sent just before each character	to be inserted.	 Most terminals	with a
     true insert mode will not give ic;	terminals that use a sequence to open
     a screen position should give it here.  (If your terminal has both, in-
     sert mode is usually preferable to	ic.  Do	not give both unless the ter-
     minal actually requires both to be	used in	combination.)  If post-insert
     padding is	needed,	give this as a number of milliseconds in ip (a string
     option).  Any other sequence that may need	to be sent after insertion of
     a single character	can also be given in ip.  If your terminal needs to be
     placed into an `insert mode' and needs a special code preceding each in-
     serted character, then both im/ ei	and ic can be given, and both will be
     used.  The	IC capability, with one	parameter n, will repeat the effects
     of	ic n times.

     It	is occasionally	necessary to move around while in insert mode to
     delete characters on the same line	(e.g., if there	is a tab after the in-
     sertion position).	 If your terminal allows motion	while in insert	mode,
     you can give the capability mi to speed up	inserting in this case.	 Omit-
     ting mi will affect only speed.  Some terminals (notably Datamedia's)
     must not have mi because of the way their insert mode works.

     Finally, you can specify dc to delete a single character, DC with one pa-
     rameter n to delete n characters, and delete mode by giving dm and	ed to
     enter and exit delete mode	(which is any mode the terminal	needs to be
     placed in for dc to work).

   Highlighting, Underlining, and Visible Bells
     If	your terminal has one or more kinds of display attributes, these can
     be	represented in a number	of different ways.  You	should choose one dis-
     play form as standout mode, representing a	good high-contrast, easy-on-
     the-eyes format for highlighting error messages and other attention get-
     ters.  (If	you have a choice, reverse video plus half-bright is good, or
     reverse video alone.)  The	sequences to enter and exit standout mode are
     given as so and se, respectively.	If the code to change into or out of
     standout mode leaves one or even two blank	spaces or garbage characters
     on	the screen, as the TVI 912 and Teleray 1061 do,	then sg	should be
     given to tell how many characters are left.

     Codes to begin underlining	and end	underlining can	be given as us and ue,
     respectively.  Underline mode change garbage is specified by ug, similar
     to	sg.  If	the terminal has a code	to underline the current character and
     move the cursor one position to the right,	such as	the Microterm Mime,
     this can be given as uc.

     Other capabilities	to enter various highlighting modes include mb (blink-
     ing), md (bold or extra bright), mh (dim or half-bright), mk (blanking or
     invisible text), mp (protected), mr (reverse video), me (turn off all at-
     tribute modes), as	(enter alternate character set mode), and ae (exit al-
     ternate character set mode).  Turning on any of these modes singly	may or
     may not turn off other modes.

     If	there is a sequence to set arbitrary combinations of mode, this	should
     be	given as sa (set attributes), taking 9 parameters.  Each parameter is
     either 0 or 1, as the corresponding attributes is on or off.  The 9 pa-
     rameters are, in order: standout, underline, reverse, blink, dim, bold,
     blank, protect, and alternate character set.  Not all modes need be sup-
     ported by sa, only	those for which	corresponding attribute	commands ex-
     ist.  (It is unlikely that	a termcap-using	program	will support this ca-
     pability, which is	defined	for compatibility with terminfo(5).)

     Terminals with the	"magic cookie" glitches	(sg and	ug), rather than main-
     taining extra attribute bits for each character cell, instead deposit
     special "cookies",	or "garbage characters", when they receive mode-set-
     ting sequences, which affect the display algorithm.

     Some terminals, such as the Hewlett-Packard 2621, automatically leave
     standout mode when	they move to a new line	or when	the cursor is ad-
     dressed.  Programs	using standout mode should exit	standout mode on such
     terminals before moving the cursor	or sending a newline.  On terminals
     where this	is not a problem, the ms capability should be present to say
     that this overhead	is unnecessary.

     If	the terminal has a way of flashing the screen to indicate an error
     quietly (a	bell replacement), this	can be given as	vb; it must not	move
     the cursor.

     If	the cursor needs to be made more visible than normal when it is	not on
     the bottom	line (to change, for example, a	non-blinking underline into an
     easier-to-find block or blinking underline), give this sequence as	vs.
     If	there is a way to make the cursor completely invisible,	give that as
     vi.  The capability ve, which undoes the effects of both of these modes,
     should also be given.

     If	your terminal correctly	displays underlined characters (with no	spe-
     cial codes	needed)	even though it does not	overstrike, then you should
     give the capability ul.  If overstrikes are erasable with a blank,	this
     should be indicated by giving eo.

     If	the terminal has a keypad that transmits codes when the	keys are
     pressed, this information can be given.  Note that	it is not possible to
     handle terminals where the	keypad only works in local mode	(this applies,
     for example, to the unshifted Hewlett-Packard 2621	keys).	If the keypad
     can be set	to transmit or not transmit, give these	codes as ks and	ke.
     Otherwise the keypad is assumed to	always transmit.  The codes sent by
     the left-arrow, right-arrow, up-arrow, down-arrow,	and home keys can be
     given as kl, kr, ku, kd, and kh, respectively.  If	there are function
     keys such as f0, f1, ..., f9, the codes they send can be given as k0, k1,
     ..., k9.  If these	keys have labels other than the	default	f0 through f9,
     the labels	can be given as	l0, l1,	..., l9.  The codes transmitted	by
     certain other special keys	can be given: kH (home down), kb (backspace),
     ka	(clear all tabs), kt (clear the	tab stop in this column), kC (clear
     screen or erase), kD (delete character), kL (delete line),	kM (exit in-
     sert mode), kE (clear to end of line), kS (clear to end of	screen), kI
     (insert character or enter	insert mode), kA (insert line),	kN (next
     page), kP (previous page),	kF (scroll forward/down), kR (scroll back-
     ward/up), and kT (set a tab stop in this column).	In addition, if	the
     keypad has	a 3 by 3 array of keys including the four arrow	keys, then the
     other five	keys can be given as K1, K2, K3, K4, and K5.  These keys are
     useful when the effects of	a 3 by 3 directional pad are needed.  The ob-
     solete ko capability formerly used	to describe "other" function keys has
     been completely supplanted	by the above capabilities.

     The ma entry is also used to indicate arrow keys on terminals that	have
     single-character arrow keys.  It is obsolete but still in use in version
     2 of vi which must	be run on some minicomputers due to memory limita-
     tions.  This field	is redundant with kl, kr, ku, kd, and kh.  It consists
     of	groups of two characters.  In each group, the first character is what
     an	arrow key sends, and the second	character is the corresponding vi com-
     mand.  These commands are h for kl, j for kd, k for ku, l for kr, and H
     for kh.  For example, the Mime would have "ma=^Hh^Kj^Zk^Xl" indicating
     arrow keys	left (^H), down	(^K), up (^Z), and right (^X).	(There is no
     home key on the Mime.)

   Tabs	and Initialization
     If	the terminal needs to be in a special mode when	running	a program that
     uses these	capabilities, the codes	to enter and exit this mode can	be
     given as ti and te.  This arises, for example, from terminals like	the
     Concept with more than one	page of	memory.	 If the	terminal has only mem-
     ory-relative cursor addressing and	not screen-relative cursor addressing,
     a screen-sized window must	be fixed into the display for cursor address-
     ing to work properly.  This is also used for the Tektronix	4025, where ti
     sets the command character	to be the one used by termcap.

     Other capabilities	include	is, an initialization string for the terminal,
     and if, the name of a file	containing long	initialization strings.	 These
     strings are expected to set the terminal into modes consistent with the
     rest of the termcap description.  They are	normally sent to the terminal
     by	the tset(1) program each time the user logs in.	 They will be printed
     in	the following order: is; setting tabs using ct and st; and finally if.
     (terminfo(5) uses i1-i2 instead of	is and runs the	program	iP and prints
     i3	after the other	initializations.)  A pair of sequences that does a
     harder reset from a totally unknown state can be analogously given	as rs
     and if.  These strings are	output by the reset(1) program,	which is used
     when the terminal gets into a wedged state.  (terminfo(5) uses r1-r3 in-
     stead of rs.)  Commands are normally placed in rs and rf only if they
     produce annoying effects on the screen and	are not	necessary when logging
     in.  For example, the command to set the VT100 into 80-column mode	would
     normally be part of is, but it causes an annoying glitch of the screen
     and is not	normally needed	since the terminal is usually already in
     80-column mode.

     If	the terminal has hardware tabs,	the command to advance to the next tab
     stop can be given as ta (usually ^I).  A "backtab"	command	which moves
     leftward to the previous tab stop can be given as bt.  By convention, if
     the terminal driver modes indicate	that tab stops are being expanded by
     the computer rather than being sent to the	terminal, programs should not
     use ta or bt even if they are present, since the user may not have	the
     tab stops properly	set.  If the terminal has hardware tabs	that are ini-
     tially set	every n	positions when the terminal is powered up, then	the
     numeric parameter it is given, showing the	number of positions between
     tab stops.	 This is normally used by the tset(1) command to determine
     whether to	set the	driver mode for	hardware tab expansion,	and whether to
     set the tab stops.	 If the	terminal has tab stops that can	be saved in
     nonvolatile memory, the termcap description can assume that they are
     properly set.

     If	there are commands to set and clear tab	stops, they can	be given as ct
     (clear all	tab stops) and st (set a tab stop in the current column	of ev-
     ery row).	If a more complex sequence is needed to	set the	tabs than can
     be	described by this, the sequence	can be placed in is or if.

     Certain capabilities control padding in the terminal driver.  These are
     primarily needed by hardcopy terminals and	are used by the	tset(1)	pro-
     gram to set terminal driver modes appropriately.  Delays embedded in the
     capabilities cr, sf, le, ff, and ta will cause the	appropriate delay bits
     to	be set in the terminal driver.	If pb (padding baud rate) is given,
     these values can be ignored at baud rates below the value of pb.  For
     4.2BSD tset(1), the delays	are given as numeric capabilities dC, dN, dB,
     dF, and dT	instead.

     If	the terminal requires other than a NUL (zero) character	as a pad, this
     can be given as pc.  Only the first character of the pc string is used.

     If	the terminal has commands to save and restore the position of the cur-
     sor, give them as sc and rc.

     If	the terminal has an extra "status line"	that is	not normally used by
     software, this fact can be	indicated.  If the status line is viewed as an
     extra line	below the bottom line, then the	capability hs should be	given.
     Special strings to	go to a	position in the	status line and	to return from
     the status	line can be given as ts	and fs.	 (fs must leave	the cursor po-
     sition in the same	place that it was before ts.  If necessary, the	sc and
     rc	strings	can be included	in ts and fs to	get this effect.)  The capa-
     bility ts takes one parameter, which is the column	number of the status
     line to which the cursor is to be moved.  If escape sequences and other
     special commands such as tab work while in	the status line, the flag es
     can be given.  A string that turns	off the	status line (or	otherwise
     erases its	contents) should be given as ds.  The status line is normally
     assumed to	be the same width as the rest of the screen, i.e. co.  If the
     status line is a different	width (possibly	because	the terminal does not
     allow an entire line to be	loaded), then its width	in columns can be in-
     dicated with the numeric parameter	ws.

     If	the terminal can move up or down half a	line, this can be indicated
     with hu (half-line	up) and	hd (half-line down).  This is primarily	useful
     for superscripts and subscripts on	hardcopy terminals.  If	a hardcopy
     terminal can eject	to the next page (form feed), give this	as ff (usually

     If	there is a command to repeat a given character a given number of times
     (to save time transmitting	a large	number of identical characters), this
     can be indicated with the parameterized string rp.	 The first parameter
     is	the character to be repeated and the second is the number of times to
     repeat it.	 (This is a terminfo(5)	feature	that is	unlikely to be sup-
     ported by a program that uses termcap.)

     If	the terminal has a settable command character, such as the Tektronix
     4025, this	can be indicated with CC.  A prototype command character is
     chosen which is used in all capabilities.	This character is given	in the
     CC	capability to identify it.  The	following convention is	supported on
     some UNIX systems:	The environment	is to be searched for a	CC variable,
     and if found, all occurrences of the prototype character are replaced by
     the character in the environment variable.	 This use of the CC environ-
     ment variable is a	very bad idea, as it conflicts with make(1).

     Terminal descriptions that	do not represent a specific kind of known ter-
     minal, such as switch, dialup, patch, and network,	should include the gn
     (generic) capability so that programs can complain	that they do not know
     how to talk to the	terminal.  (This capability does not apply to virtual
     terminal descriptions for which the escape	sequences are known.)

     If	the terminal uses xoff/xon (DC3/DC1) handshaking for flow control,
     give xo.  Padding information should still	be included so that routines
     can make better decisions about costs, but	actual pad characters will not
     be	transmitted.

     If	the terminal has a "meta key" which acts as a shift key, setting the
     8th bit of	any character transmitted, then	this fact can be indicated
     with km.  Otherwise, software will	assume that the	8th bit	is parity and
     it	will usually be	cleared.  If strings exist to turn this	"meta mode" on
     and off, they can be given	as mm and mo.

     If	the terminal has more lines of memory than will	fit on the screen at
     once, the number of lines of memory can be	indicated with lm.  An ex-
     plicit value of 0 indicates that the number of lines is not fixed,	but
     that there	is still more memory than fits on the screen.

     If	the terminal is	one of those supported by the UNIX system virtual ter-
     minal protocol, the terminal number can be	given as vt.

     Media copy	strings	which control an auxiliary printer connected to	the
     terminal can be given as ps: print	the contents of	the screen; pf:	turn
     off the printer; and po: turn on the printer.  When the printer is	on,
     all text sent to the terminal will	be sent	to the printer.	 It is unde-
     fined whether the text is also displayed on the terminal screen when the
     printer is	on.  A variation pO takes one parameter	and leaves the printer
     on	for as many characters as the value of the parameter, then turns the
     printer off.  The parameter should	not exceed 255.	 All text, including
     pf, is transparently passed to the	printer	while pO is in effect.

     Strings to	program	function keys can be given as pk, pl, and px.  Each of
     these strings takes two parameters: the function key number to program
     (from 0 to	9) and the string to program it	with.  Function	key numbers
     out of this range may program undefined keys in a terminal-dependent man-
     ner.  The differences among the capabilities are that pk causes pressing
     the given key to be the same as the user typing the given string; pl
     causes the	string to be executed by the terminal in local mode; and px
     causes the	string to be transmitted to the	computer.  Unfortunately, due
     to	lack of	a definition for string	parameters in termcap, only
     terminfo(5) supports these	capabilities.

   Glitches and	Brain-damage
     Hazeltine terminals, which	do not allow `~' characters to be displayed,
     should indicate hz.

     The nc capability,	now obsolete, formerly indicated Datamedia terminals,
     which echo	\r \n for carriage return then ignore a	following linefeed.

     Terminals that ignore a linefeed immediately after	an am wrap, such as
     the Concept, should indicate xn.

     If	ce is required to get rid of standout (instead of merely writing nor-
     mal text on top of	it), xs	should be given.

     Teleray terminals,	where tabs turn	all characters moved over to blanks,
     should indicate xt	(destructive tabs).  This glitch is also taken to mean
     that it is	not possible to	position the cursor on top of a	magic cookie,
     and that to erase standout	mode it	is necessary to	use delete and insert

     The Beehive Superbee, which is unable to correctly	transmit the ESC or ^C
     characters, has xb, indicating that the "f1" key is used for ESC and "f2"
     for ^C.  (Only certain Superbees have this	problem, depending on the

     Other specific terminal problems may be corrected by adding more capabil-
     ities of the form x x.

   Similar Terminals
     If	there are two very similar terminals, one can be defined as being just
     like the other with certain exceptions.  The string capability tc can be
     given with	the name of the	similar	terminal.  This	capability must	be
     last, and the combined length of the entries must not exceed 1024.	 The
     capabilities given	before tc override those in the	terminal type invoked
     by	tc.  A capability can be cancelled by placing xx@ to the left of the
     tc	invocation, where xx is	the capability.	 For example, the entry


     defines a "2621-nl" that does not have the	ks or ke capabilities, hence
     does not turn on the function key labels when in visual mode.  This is
     useful for	different modes	for a terminal,	or for different user prefer-

     /usr/share/misc/termcap	 File containing terminal descriptions.
     /usr/share/misc/termcap.db	 Hash database file containing terminal	de-
				 scriptions (see cap_mkdb(1)).

     cap_mkdb(1), ex(1), more(1), tset(1), ul(1), vi(1), curses(3), printf(3),
     termcap(3), terminfo(3), terminfo(5), term(7)

     The termcap file format appeared in 3BSD.

     The termcap functions were	replaced by terminfo(5)	in AT&T	System V UNIX
     Release 2.0.  The transition will be relatively painless if capabilities
     flagged as	"obsolete" are avoided.

     Lines and columns are now stored by the kernel as well as in the termcap
     entry.  Most programs now use the kernel information primarily; the in-
     formation in this file is used only if the	kernel does not	have any in-

     vi(1) allows only 256 characters for string capabilities, and the rou-
     tines in termcap(3) do not	check for overflow of this buffer.  The	total
     length of a single	entry (excluding only escaped newlines)	may not	exceed

     Not all programs support all entries.

FreeBSD	13.0		       December	28, 2016		  FreeBSD 13.0


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