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TERMCAP(5)		  FreeBSD File Formats Manual		    TERMCAP(5)

NAME
     termcap --	terminal capability data base

SYNOPSIS
     termcap

DESCRIPTION
     The Termcap file is a data	base describing	terminals, used, for example,
     by	vi(1) and curses(3).  Terminals	are described in termcap by giving a
     set of capabilities that they have	and by describing how operations are
     performed.	 Padding requirements and initialization sequences are
     included in termcap.

     Entries in	termcap	consist	of a number of `:'-separated fields.  The
     first entry for each terminal gives the names that	are known for the ter-
     minal, separated by `|' characters.  The first name given is the most
     common abbreviation for the terminal.  The	last name given	should be a
     long name fully identifying the terminal, and all others are understood
     as	synonyms for the terminal name.	 All names but the last	should be in
     lower case	and contain no blanks; the last	name may well contain upper
     case characters and blanks	for readability.

     Terminal names (except for	the last, verbose entry) should	be chosen
     using the following conventions.  The particular piece of hardware	making
     up	the terminal should have a root	name chosen, thus ``hp2621'' This name
     should not	contain	hyphens.  Modes	that the hardware can be in or user
     preferences should	be indicated by	appending a hyphen and an indicator of
     the mode.	Therefore, a ``vt100'' in 132-column mode would	be
     ``vt100-w''.  The following suffixes should be used where possible:

	   Suffix    Meaning					   Example
	   -w	     Wide mode (more than 80 columns)		   vt100-w
	   -am	     With automatic margins (usually default)	   vt100-am
	   -nam	     Without automatic margins			   vt100-nam
	   -n	     Number of lines on	screen			   aaa-60
	   -na	     No	arrow keys (leave them in local)	   concept100-na
	   -np	     Number of pages of	memory			   concept100-4p
	   -rv	     Reverse video				   concept100-rv

CAPABILITIES
     The characters in the Notes function field	in the table have the follow-
     ing meanings (more	than one may apply to a	capability):

	   N	indicates numeric parameter(s)
	   P	indicates that padding may be specified
	   *	indicates that padding may be based on the number of lines affected
	   o	indicates capability is	obsolete

     ``Obsolete'' capabilities have no terminfo	equivalents, since they	were
     considered	useless, or are	subsumed by other capabilities.	 New software
     should not	rely on	them at	all.

     Name      Type	 Notes	   Description
     functions
     ae	       str	 (P)	   End alternate character set.
     AL	       str	 (NP*)	   Add"	n new blank lines
     al	       str	 (P*)	   Add new blank line.
     am	       bool		   Terminal has	automatic margins.
     as	       str	 (P)	   Start alternate character set.
     bc	       str	 (o)	   Backspace if	not. ^H.
     bl	       str	 (P)	   Audible signal (bell).
     bs	       bool	 (o)	   Terminal can	backspace with ^H.
     bt	       str	 (P)	   Back	tab.
     bw	       bool		   le (backspace) wraps	from column 0 to last
				   column.
     CC	       str		   Terminal settable command character in
				   prototype.
     cd	       str	 (P*)	   Clear to end	of display.
     ce	       str	 (P)	   Clear to end	of line.
     ch	       str	 (NP)	   Set cursor column (horizontal position).
     cl	       str	 (P*)	   Clear screen	and home cursor.
     CM	       str	 (NP)	   Memory-relative cursor addressing.
     cm	       str	 (NP)	   Screen-relative cursor motion.
     co	       num		   Number of columns in	a line (See BUGS sec-
				   tion	below).
     cr	       str	 (P)	   Carriage return.
     cs	       str	 (NP)	   Change scrolling region (VT100).
     ct	       str	 (P)	   Clear all tab stops.
     cv	       str	 (NP)	   Set cursor row (vertical position).
     da	       bool		   Display may be retained above the screen.
     dB	       num	 (o)	   Milliseconds	of bs delay needed (default
				   0).
     db	       bool		   Display may be retained below the screen.
     DC	       str	 (NP*)	   Delete n characters.
     dC	       num	 (o)	   Milliseconds	of cr delay needed (default
				   0).
     dc	       str	 (P*)	   Delete character.
     dF	       num	 (o)	   Milliseconds	of ff delay needed (default
				   0).
     DL	       str	 (NP*)	   Delete n lines.
     dl	       str	 (P*)	   Delete line.
     dm	       str		   Enter delete	mode.
     dN	       num	 (o)	   Milliseconds	of nl delay needed (default
				   0).
     DO	       str	 (NP*)	   Move	cursor down: n lines.
     do	       str		   Down	one line.
     ds	       str		   Disable status line.
     dT	       num	 (o)	   Milliseconds	of horizontal tab delay	needed
				   (default 0).
     dV	       num	 (o)	   Milliseconds	of vertical tab	delay needed
				   (default 0).
     ec	       str	 (NP)	   Erase n characters.
     ed	       str		   End delete mode.
     ei	       str		   End insert mode.
     eo	       bool		   Can erase overstrikes with a	blank.
     EP	       bool	 (o)	   Even	parity.
     es	       bool		   Escape can be used on the status line.
     ff	       str	 (P*)	   Hardcopy terminal page eject.
     fs	       str		   Return from status line.
     gn	       bool		   Generic line	type, for example dialup,
				   switch).
     hc	       bool		   Hardcopy terminal.
     HD	       bool	 (o)	   Half-duplex.
     hd	       str		   Half-line down (forward 1/2 linefeed).
     ho	       str	 (P)	   Home	cursor.
     hs	       bool		   Has extra ``status line''.
     hu	       str		   Half-line up	(reverse 1/2 linefeed).
     hz	       bool		   Cannot print	``~'' (Hazeltine).
     i1-i3     str		   Terminal initialization strings (terminfo
				   only)
     IC	       str	 (NP*)	   Insert n blank characters.
     ic	       str	 (P*)	   Insert character.
     if	       str		   Name	of file	containing initialization
				   string.
     im	       str		   Enter insert	mode.
     in	       bool		   Insert mode distinguishes nulls.
     iP	       str		   Pathname of program for initialization
				   (terminfo only).
     ip	       str	 (P*)	   Insert pad after character inserted.
     is	       str		   Terminal initialization string (termcap
				   only).
     it	       num		   Tabs	initially every	n positions.
     K1	       str		   Sent	by keypad upper	left.
     K2	       str		   Sent	by keypad upper	right.
     K3	       str		   Sent	by keypad center.
     K4	       str		   Sent	by keypad lower	left.
     K5	       str		   Sent	by keypad lower	right.
     k0-k9     str		   Sent	by function keys 0-9.
     kA	       str		   Sent	by insert-line key.
     ka	       str		   Sent	by clear-all-tabs key.
     kb	       str		   Sent	by backspace key.
     kC	       str		   Sent	by clear-screen	or erase key.
     kD	       str		   Sent	by delete-character key.
     kd	       str		   Sent	by down-arrow key.
     kE	       str		   Sent	by clear-to-end-of-line	key.
     ke	       str		   Out of ``keypad transmit'' mode.
     kF	       str		   Sent	by scroll-forward/down key.
     kH	       str		   Sent	by home-down key.
     kh	       str		   Sent	by home	key.
     kI	       str		   Sent	by insert-character or enter-insert-
				   mode	key.
     kL	       str		   Sent	by delete-line key.
     kl	       str		   Sent	by left-arrow key.
     kM	       str		   Sent	by insert key while in insert mode.
     km	       bool		   Has a ``meta'' key (shift, sets parity
				   bit).
     kN	       str		   Sent	by next-page key.
     kn	       num	 (o)	   Number of function (k0- k9) keys (default
				   0).
     ko	       str	 (o)	   Termcap entries for other non-function
				   keys.
     kP	       str		   Sent	by previous-page key.
     kR	       str		   Sent	by scroll-backward/up key.
     kr	       str		   Sent	by right-arrow key.
     kS	       str		   Sent	by clear-to-end-of-screen key.
     ks	       str		   Put terminal	in ``keypad transmit'' mode.
     kT	       str		   Sent	by set-tab key.
     kt	       str		   Sent	by clear-tab key.
     ku	       str		   Sent	by up-arrow key.
     l0-l9     str		   Labels on function keys if not ``fn''.
     LC	       bool	 (o)	   Lower-case only.
     LE	       str	 (NP)	   Move	cursor left n positions.
     le	       str	 (P)	   Move	cursor left one	position.
     li	       num		   Number of lines on screen or	page (See BUGS
				   section below)
     ll	       str		   Last	line, first column
     lm	       num		   Lines of memory if >	li (0 means varies).
     ma	       str	 (o)	   Arrow key map (used by vi version 2 only).
     mb	       str		   Turn	on blinking attribute.
     md	       str		   Turn	on bold	(extra bright) attribute.
     me	       str		   Turn	off all	attributes.
     mh	       str		   Turn	on half-bright attribute.
     mi	       bool		   Safe	to move	while in insert	mode.
     mk	       str		   Turn	on blank attribute (characters
				   invisible).
     ml	       str	 (o)	   Memory lock on above	cursor.
     mm	       str		   Turn	on ``meta mode'' (8th bit).
     mo	       str		   Turn	off ``meta mode''.
     mp	       str		   Turn	on protected attribute.
     mr	       str		   Turn	on reverse-video attribute.
     ms	       bool		   Safe	to move	in standout modes.
     mu	       str	 (o)	   Memory unlock (turn off memory lock).
     nc	       bool	 (o)	   No correctly-working	cr (Datamedia 2500,
				   Hazeltine 2000).
     nd	       str		   Non-destructive space (cursor right).
     NL	       bool	 (o)	   \n is newline, not line feed.
     nl	       str	 (o)	   Newline character if	not \n.
     ns	       bool	 (o)	   Terminal is a CRT but doesn't scroll.
     nw	       str	 (P)	   Newline (behaves like cr followed by	do ).
     OP	       bool	 (o)	   Odd parity.
     os	       bool		   Terminal overstrikes.
     pb	       num		   Lowest baud where delays are	required.
     pc	       str		   Pad character (default NUL ).
     pf	       str		   Turn	off the	printer.
     pk	       str		   Program function key	n to type string s
				   (terminfo only).
     pl	       str		   Program function key	n to execute string s
				   (terminfo only).
     pO	       str	 (N)	   Turn	on the printer for n bytes.
     po	       str		   Turn	on the printer.
     ps	       str		   Print contents of the screen.
     pt	       bool	 (o)	   Has hardware	tabs (may need to be set with
				   is ).
     px	       str		   Program function key	n to transmit string s
				   (terminfo only).
     r1-r3     str		   Reset terminal completely to	sane modes
				   (terminfo only).
     rc	       str	 (P)	   Restore cursor to position of last sc.
     rf	       str		   Name	of file	containing reset codes.
     RI	       str	 (NP)	   Move	cursor right n positions.
     rp	       str	 (NP*)	   Repeat character c n	times.
     rs	       str		   Reset terminal completely to	sane modes
				   (termcap only).
     sa	       str	 (NP)	   Define the video attributes.
     sc	       str	 (P)	   Save	cursor position.
     se	       str		   End standout	mode.
     SF	       str	 (NP*)	   Scroll forward n lines.
     sf	       str	 (P)	   Scroll text up.
     sg	       num		   Number of garbage chars left	by so or se
				   (default 0).
     so	       str		   Begin standout mode.
     SR	       str	 (NP*)	   Scroll backward n lines.
     sr	       str	 (P)	   Scroll text down.
     st	       str		   Set a tab in	all rows, current column.
     ta	       str	 (P)	   Tab to next 8-position hardware tab stop.
     tc	       str		   Entry of similar terminal - must be last.
     te	       str		   String to end programs that use termcap.
     ti	       str		   String to begin programs that use termcap.
     ts	       str	 (N)	   Go to status	line, column n.
     UC	       bool	 (o)	   Upper-case only.
     uc	       str		   Underscore one character and	move past it.
     ue	       str		   End underscore mode.
     ug	       num		   Number of garbage chars left	by us or ue
				   (default 0).
     ul	       bool		   Underline character overstrikes.
     UP	       str	 (NP*)	   Move	cursor up n lines.
     up	       str		   Upline (cursor up).
     us	       str		   Start underscore mode.
     vb	       str		   Visible bell	(must not move cursor).
     ve	       str		   Make	cursor appear normal (undo vs/ vi).
     vi	       str		   Make	cursor invisible.
     vs	       str		   Make	cursor very visible.
     vt	       num		   Virtual terminal number (not	supported on
				   all systems).
     wi	       str	 (N)	   Set current window.
     ws	       num		   Number of columns in	status line.
     xb	       bool		   Beehive (f1=	ESC, f2=^C).
     xn	       bool		   Newline ignored after 80 cols (Concept).
     xo	       bool		   Terminal uses xoff/xon (DC3/DC1) handshak-
				   ing.
     xr	       bool	 (o)	   Return acts like ce cr nl (Delta Data).
     xs	       bool		   Standout not	erased by overwriting
				   (Hewlett-Packard).
     xt	       bool		   Tabs	ruin, magic char (Teleray 1061).
     xx	       bool	 (o)	   Tektronix 4025 insert-line.

   A Sample Entry
     The following entry, which	describes the Concept-100, is among the	more
     complex entries in	the termcap file as of this writing.

     ca|concept100|c100|concept|c104|concept100-4p|HDS Concept-100:\
	     :al=3*\E^R:am:bl=^G:cd=16*\E^C:ce=16\E^U:cl=2*^L:cm=\Ea%+ %+ :\
	     :co#80:.cr=9^M:db:dc=16\E^A:dl=3*\E^B:do=^J:ei=\E\200:eo:im=\E^P:in:\
	     :ip=16*:is=\EU\Ef\E7\E5\E8\El\ENH\EK\E\200\Eo&\200\Eo\47\E:k1=\E5:\
	     :k2=\E6:k3=\E7:kb=^h:kd=\E<:ke=\Ex:kh=\E?:kl=\E>:kr=\E=:ks=\EX:\
	     :ku=\E;:le=^H:li#24:mb=\EC:me=\EN\200:mh=\EE:mi:mk=\EH:mp=\EI:\
	     :mr=\ED:nd=\E=:pb#9600:rp=0.2*\Er%.%+ :se=\Ed\Ee:sf=^J:so=\EE\ED:\
	     :.ta=8\t:te=\Ev	\200\200\200\200\200\200\Ep\r\n:\
	     :ti=\EU\Ev	 8p\Ep\r:ue=\Eg:ul:up=\E;:us=\EG:\
	     :vb=\Ek\200\200\200\200\200\200\200\200\200\200\200\200\200\200\EK:\
	     :ve=\Ew:vs=\EW:vt#8:xn:\
	     :bs:cr=^M:dC#9:dT#8:nl=^J:ta=^I:pt:

     Entries may continue onto multiple	lines by giving	a \ as the last	char-
     acter of a	line, and empty	fields may be included for readability (here
     between the last field on a line and the first field on the next).	 Com-
     ments may be included on lines beginning with ``#''.

   Types of Capabilities
     Capabilities in termcap are of three types: Boolean capabilities, which
     indicate particular features that the terminal has; numeric capabilities,
     giving the	size of	the display or the size	of other attributes; and
     string capabilities, which	give character sequences that can be used to
     perform particular	terminal operations.  All capabilities have two-letter
     codes.  For instance, the fact that the Concept has automatic margins (an
     automatic return and linefeed when	the end	of a line is reached) is indi-
     cated by the Boolean capability am.  Hence	the description	of the Concept
     includes am.

     Numeric capabilities are followed by the character	`#' then the value.
     In	the example above co, which indicates the number of columns the	dis-
     play has, gives the value `80' for	the Concept.

     Finally, string-valued capabilities, such as ce (clear-to-end-of-line
     sequence) are given by the	two-letter code, an `=', then a	string ending
     at	the next following `:'.	 A delay in milliseconds may appear after the
     `=' in such a capability, which causes padding characters to be supplied
     by	tputs after the	remainder of the string	is sent	to provide this	delay.
     The delay can be either a number, such as `20', or	a number followed by
     an	`*', such as `3*'.  An `*' indicates that the padding required is pro-
     portional to the number of	lines affected by the operation, and the
     amount given is the per-affected-line padding required.  (In the case of
     insert-character, the factor is still the number of lines affected; this
     is	always 1 unless	the terminal has in and	the software uses it.)	When
     an	`*' is specified, it is	sometimes useful to give a delay of the	form
     `3.5' to specify a	delay per line to tenths of milliseconds.  (Only one
     decimal place is allowed.)

     A number of escape	sequences are provided in the string-valued capabili-
     ties for easy encoding of control characters there.  \E maps to an	ESC
     character,	^X maps	to a control-X for any appropriate X, and the
     sequences \n \r \t	\b \f map to linefeed, return, tab, backspace, and
     formfeed, respectively.  Finally, characters may be given as three	octal
     digits after a \, and the characters ^ and	\ may be given as \^ and \\.
     If	it is necessary	to place a : in	a capability it	must be	escaped	in
     octal as \072.  If	it is necessary	to place a NUL character in a string
     capability	it must	be encoded as \200.  (The routines that	deal with
     termcap use C strings and strip the high bits of the output very late, so
     that a \200 comes out as a	\000 would.)

     Sometimes individual capabilities must be commented out.  To do this, put
     a period before the capability name.  For example,	see the	first cr and
     ta	in the example above.

   Preparing Descriptions
     The most effective	way to prepare a terminal description is by imitating
     the description of	a similar terminal in termcap and to build up a
     description gradually, using partial descriptions with vi to check	that
     they are correct.	Be aware that a	very unusual terminal may expose defi-
     ciencies in the ability of	the termcap file to describe it	or bugs	in vi.
     To	easily test a new terminal description you are working on you can put
     it	in your	home directory in a file called	.termcap and programs will
     look there	before looking in /usr/share/misc/termcap.  You	can also set
     the environment variable TERMPATH to a list of absolute file pathnames
     (separated	by spaces or colons), one of which contains the	description
     you are working on, and programs will search them in the order listed,
     and nowhere else.	See termcap(3).	 The TERMCAP environment variable is
     usually set to the	termcap	entry itself to	avoid reading files when
     starting up a program.

     To	get the	padding	for insert-line	right (if the terminal manufacturer
     did not document it), a severe test is to use vi to edit /etc/passwd at
     9600 baud,	delete roughly 16 lines	from the middle	of the screen, then
     hit the `u' key several times quickly.  If	the display messes up, more
     padding is	usually	needed.	 A similar test	can be used for	insert-charac-
     ter.

   Basic Capabilities
     The number	of columns on each line	of the display is given	by the co
     numeric capability.  If the display is a CRT, then	the number of lines on
     the screen	is given by the	li capability.	If the display wraps around to
     the beginning of the next line when the cursor reaches the	right margin,
     then it should have the am	capability.  If	the terminal can clear its
     screen, the code to do this is given by the cl string capability.	If the
     terminal overstrikes (rather than clearing	the position when a character
     is	overwritten), it should	have the os capability.	 If the	terminal is a
     printing terminal,	with no	soft copy unit,	give it	both hc	and os.	 (os
     applies to	storage	scope terminals, such as the Tektronix 4010 series, as
     well as to	hard copy and APL terminals.)  If there	is a code to move the
     cursor to the left	edge of	the current row, give this as cr.  (Normally
     this will be carriage-return, ^M.)	 If there is a code to produce an
     audible signal (bell, beep, etc. )	, give this as bl.

     If	there is a code	(such as backspace) to move the	cursor one position to
     the left, that capability should be given as le.  Similarly, codes	to
     move to the right,	up, and	down should be given as	nd, up,	and do,
     respectively.  These local	cursor motions should not alter	the text they
     pass over;	for example, you would not normally use	``nd= '' unless	the
     terminal has the os capability, because the space would erase the charac-
     ter moved over.

     A very important point here is that the local cursor motions encoded in
     termcap have undefined behavior at	the left and top edges of a CRT	dis-
     play.  Programs should never attempt to backspace around the left edge,
     unless bw is given, and never attempt to go up off	the top	using local
     cursor motions.

     In	order to scroll	text up, a program goes	to the bottom left corner of
     the screen	and sends the sf (index) string.  To scroll text down, a pro-
     gram goes to the top left corner of the screen and	sends the sr (reverse
     index) string.  The strings sf and	sr have	undefined behavior when	not on
     their respective corners of the screen.  Parameterized versions of	the
     scrolling sequences are SF	and SR,	which have the same semantics as sf
     and sr except that	they take one parameter	and scroll that	many lines.
     They also have undefined behavior except at the appropriate corner	of the
     screen.

     The am capability tells whether the cursor	sticks at the right edge of
     the screen	when text is output there, but this does not necessarily apply
     to	nd from	the last column.  Leftward local motion	is defined from	the
     left edge only when bw is given; then an le from the left edge will move
     to	the right edge of the previous row.  This is useful for	drawing	a box
     around the	edge of	the screen, for	example.  If the terminal has switch-
     selectable	automatic margins, the termcap description usually assumes
     that this feature is on, i.e., am.	 If the	terminal has a command that
     moves to the first	column of the next line, that command can be given as
     nw	(newline).  It is permissible for this to clear	the remainder of the
     current line, so if the terminal has no correctly-working CR and LF it
     may still be possible to craft a working nw out of	one or both of them.

     These capabilities	suffice	to describe hardcopy and ``glass-tty'' termi-
     nals.  Thus the Teletype model 33 is described as

	   T3|tty33|33|tty|Teletype model 33:\
		   :bl=^G:co#72:cr=^M:do=^J:hc:os:

     and the Lear Siegler ADM-3	is described as

	   l3|adm3|3|LSI ADM-3:\
	   :am:bl=^G:cl=^Z:co#80:cr=^M:do=^J:le=^H:li#24:sf=^J:

   Parameterized Strings
     Cursor addressing and other strings requiring parameters are described by
     a parameterized string capability,	with printf(3)-like escapes %x in it,
     while other characters are	passed through unchanged.  For example,	to
     address the cursor	the cm capability is given, using two parameters: the
     row and column to move to.	 (Rows and columns are numbered	from zero and
     refer to the physical screen visible to the user, not to any unseen mem-
     ory.  If the terminal has memory-relative cursor addressing, that can be
     indicated by an analogous CM capability.)

     The % encodings have the following	meanings:

     %%	      output `%'
     %d	      output value as in printf	%d
     %2	      output value as in printf	%2d
     %3	      output value as in printf	%3d
     %.	      output value as in printf	%c
     %+x      add x to value, then do %.
     %>xy     if value > x then	add y, no output
     %r	      reverse order of two parameters, no output
     %i	      increment	by one,	no output
     %n	      exclusive-or all parameters with 0140 (Datamedia 2500)

     Consider the Hewlett-Packard 2645,	which, to get to row 3 and column 12,
     needs to be sent ``     BCD (16*(value/10)) + (value%10), no output if''
     padded for	6 milliseconds.	 Note that the order of	the row	and column
     coordinates is reversed here and that the row and column are sent as two-
     digit integers.  Thus its cm capability is	``cm=6\E&%r%2c%2Y''.

     The Datamedia 2500	needs the current row and column sent encoded in
     binary using ``%.''.  Terminals that use ``%.'' need to be	able to
     backspace the cursor (le) and to move the cursor up one line on the
     screen (up).  This	is necessary because it	is not always safe to transmit
     \n, ^D, and \r, as	the system may change or discard them.	(Programs
     using termcap must	set terminal modes so that tabs	are not	expanded, so
     \t	is safe	to send.  This turns out to be essential for the Ann Arbor
     4080.)

     A final example is	the Lear Siegler ADM-3a, which offsets row and column
     by	a blank	character, thus	``cm=\E=%+ %+ ''.

     Row or column absolute cursor addressing can be given as single parameter
     capabilities ch (horizontal position absolute) and	cv (vertical position
     absolute).	 Sometimes these are shorter than the more general two-parame-
     ter sequence (as with the Hewlett-Packard 2645) and can be	used in	pref-
     erence to cm.  If there are parameterized local motions (e.g., move n
     positions to the right) these can be given	as DO, LE, RI, and UP with a
     single parameter indicating how many positions to move.  These are	pri-
     marily useful if the terminal does	not have cm, such as the Tektronix
     4025.

   Cursor Motions
     If	the terminal has a fast	way to home the	cursor (to the very upper left
     corner of the screen), this can be	given as ho.  Similarly, a fast	way of
     getting to	the lower left-hand corner can be given	as ll; this may
     involve going up with up from the home position, but a program should
     never do this itself (unless ll does), because it can make	no assumption
     about the effect of moving	up from	the home position.  Note that the home
     position is the same as cursor address (0,0): to the top left corner of
     the screen, not of	memory.	 (Therefore, the ``\EH'' sequence on Hewlett-
     Packard terminals cannot be used for ho.)

   Area	Clears
     If	the terminal can clear from the	current	position to the	end of the
     line, leaving the cursor where it is, this	should be given	as ce.	If the
     terminal can clear	from the current position to the end of	the display,
     this should be given as cd.  cd must only be invoked from the first col-
     umn of a line.  (Therefore, it can	be simulated by	a request to delete a
     large number of lines, if a true cd is not	available.)

   Insert/Delete Line
     If	the terminal can open a	new blank line before the line containing the
     cursor, this should be given as al; this must be invoked only from	the
     first position of a line.	The cursor must	then appear at the left	of the
     newly blank line.	If the terminal	can delete the line that the cursor is
     on, this should be	given as dl; this must only be used from the first
     position on the line to be	deleted.  Versions of al and dl	which take a
     single parameter and insert or delete that	many lines can be given	as AL
     and DL.  If the terminal has a settable scrolling region (like the
     VT100), the command to set	this can be described with the cs capability,
     which takes two parameters: the top and bottom lines of the scrolling
     region.  The cursor position is, alas, undefined after using this com-
     mand.  It is possible to get the effect of	insert or delete line using
     this command -- the sc and	rc (save and restore cursor) commands are also
     useful.  Inserting	lines at the top or bottom of the screen can also be
     done using	sr or sf on many terminals without a true insert/delete	line,
     and is often faster even on terminals with	those features.

     If	the terminal has the ability to	define a window	as part	of memory
     which all commands	affect,	it should be given as the parameterized	string
     wi.  The four parameters are the starting and ending lines	in memory and
     the starting and ending columns in	memory,	in that	order.	(This terminfo
     capability	is described for completeness.	It is unlikely that any
     termcap- using program will support it.)

     If	the terminal can retain	display	memory above the screen, then the da
     capability	should be given; if display memory can be retained below, then
     db	should be given.  These	indicate that deleting a line or scrolling may
     bring non-blank lines up from below or that scrolling back	with sr	may
     bring down	non-blank lines.

   Insert/Delete Character
     There are two basic kinds of intelligent terminals	with respect to
     insert/delete character that can be described using termcap.  The most
     common insert/delete character operations affect only the characters on
     the current line and shift	characters off the end of the line rigidly.
     Other terminals, such as the Concept-100 and the Perkin Elmer Owl,	make a
     distinction between typed and untyped blanks on the screen, shifting upon
     an	insert or delete only to an untyped blank on the screen	which is
     either eliminated or expanded to two untyped blanks.  You can determine
     the kind of terminal you have by clearing the screen then typing text
     separated by cursor motions.  Type	``abc	 def'' using local cursor
     motions (not spaces) between the ``abc'' and the ``def''.	Then position
     the cursor	before the ``abc'' and put the terminal	in insert mode.	 If
     typing characters causes the rest of the line to shift rigidly and	char-
     acters to fall off	the end, then your terminal does not distinguish
     between blanks and	untyped	positions.  If the ``abc'' shifts over to the
     ``def'' which then	move together around the end of	the current line and
     onto the next as you insert, then you have	the second type	of terminal
     and should	give the capability in,	which stands for ``insert null''.
     While these are two logically separate attributes (one line vs.  multi-
     line insert mode, and special treatment of	untyped	spaces), we have seen
     no	terminals whose	insert mode cannot be described	with the single
     attribute.

     Termcap can describe both terminals that have an insert mode and termi-
     nals that send a simple sequence to open a	blank position on the current
     line.  Give as im the sequence to get into	insert mode.  Give as ei the
     sequence to leave insert mode.  Now give as ic any	sequence that needs to
     be	sent just before each character	to be inserted.	 Most terminals	with a
     true insert mode will not give ic;	terminals that use a sequence to open
     a screen position should give it here.  (If your terminal has both,
     insert mode is usually preferable to ic.  Do not give both	unless the
     terminal actually requires	both to	be used	in combination.)  If post-
     insert padding is needed, give this as a number of	milliseconds in	ip (a
     string option).  Any other	sequence that may need to be sent after	inser-
     tion of a single character	can also be given in ip.  If your terminal
     needs to be placed	into an	`insert	mode' and needs	a special code preced-
     ing each inserted character, then both im/	ei and ic can be given,	and
     both will be used.	 The IC	capability, with one parameter n, will repeat
     the effects of ic n times.

     It	is occasionally	necessary to move around while in insert mode to
     delete characters on the same line	(e.g., if there	is a tab after the
     insertion position).  If your terminal allows motion while	in insert
     mode, you can give	the capability mi to speed up inserting	in this	case.
     Omitting mi will affect only speed.  Some terminals (notably Datamedia's)
     must not have mi because of the way their insert mode works.

     Finally, you can specify dc to delete a single character, DC with one
     parameter n to delete n characters, and delete mode by giving dm and ed
     to	enter and exit delete mode (which is any mode the terminal needs to be
     placed in for dc to work).

   Highlighting, Underlining, and Visible Bells
     If	your terminal has one or more kinds of display attributes, these can
     be	represented in a number	of different ways.  You	should choose one dis-
     play form as standout mode, representing a	good high-contrast, easy-on-
     the-eyes format for highlighting error messages and other attention get-
     ters.  (If	you have a choice, reverse video plus half-bright is good, or
     reverse video alone.)  The	sequences to enter and exit standout mode are
     given as so and se, respectively.	If the code to change into or out of
     standout mode leaves one or even two blank	spaces or garbage characters
     on	the screen, as the TVI 912 and Teleray 1061 do,	then sg	should be
     given to tell how many characters are left.

     Codes to begin underlining	and end	underlining can	be given as us and ue,
     respectively.  Underline mode change garbage is specified by ug, similar
     to	sg.  If	the terminal has a code	to underline the current character and
     move the cursor one position to the right,	such as	the Microterm Mime,
     this can be given as uc.

     Other capabilities	to enter various highlighting modes include mb (blink-
     ing), md (bold or extra bright), mh (dim or half-bright), mk (blanking or
     invisible text), mp (protected), mr (reverse video), me (turn off all
     attribute modes), as (enter alternate character set mode),	and ae (exit
     alternate character set mode).  Turning on	any of these modes singly may
     or	may not	turn off other modes.

     If	there is a sequence to set arbitrary combinations of mode, this	should
     be	given as sa (set attributes), taking 9 parameters.  Each parameter is
     either 0 or 1, as the corresponding attributes is on or off.  The 9
     parameters	are, in	order: standout, underline, reverse, blink, dim, bold,
     blank, protect, and alternate character set.  Not all modes need be sup-
     ported by sa, only	those for which	corresponding attribute	commands
     exist.  (It is unlikely that a termcap-using program will support this
     capability, which is defined for compatibility with terminfo.)

     Terminals with the	``magic	cookie'' glitches (sg and ug), rather than
     maintaining extra attribute bits for each character cell, instead deposit
     special ``cookies'', or ``garbage characters ,,'' when they receive mode-
     setting sequences,	which affect the display algorithm.

     Some terminals, such as the Hewlett-Packard 2621, automatically leave
     standout mode when	they move to a new line	or when	the cursor is
     addressed.	 Programs using	standout mode should exit standout mode	on
     such terminals before moving the cursor or	sending	a newline.  On termi-
     nals where	this is	not a problem, the ms capability should	be present to
     say that this overhead is unnecessary.

     If	the terminal has a way of flashing the screen to indicate an error
     quietly (a	bell replacement), this	can be given as	vb; it must not	move
     the cursor.

     If	the cursor needs to be made more visible than normal when it is	not on
     the bottom	line (to change, for example, a	non-blinking underline into an
     easier-to-find block or blinking underline), give this sequence as	vs.
     If	there is a way to make the cursor completely invisible,	give that as
     vi.  The capability ve, which undoes the effects of both of these modes,
     should also be given.

     If	your terminal correctly	displays underlined characters (with no	spe-
     cial codes	needed)	even though it does not	overstrike, then you should
     give the capability ul.  If overstrikes are erasable with a blank,	this
     should be indicated by giving eo.

   Keypad
     If	the terminal has a keypad that transmits codes when the	keys are
     pressed, this information can be given.  Note that	it is not possible to
     handle terminals where the	keypad only works in local mode	(this applies,
     for example, to the unshifted Hewlett-Packard 2621	keys).	If the keypad
     can be set	to transmit or not transmit, give these	codes as ks and	ke.
     Otherwise the keypad is assumed to	always transmit.  The codes sent by
     the left-arrow, right-arrow, up-arrow, down-arrow,	and home keys can be
     given as kl, kr, ku, kd, and kh, respectively.  If	there are function
     keys such as f0, f1, ..., f9, the codes they send can be given as k0, k1,
     k9.  If these keys	have labels other than the default f0 through f9, the
     labels can	be given as l0,	l1, l9.	 The codes transmitted by certain
     other special keys	can be given: kH (home down), kb (backspace), ka
     (clear all	tabs), kt (clear the tab stop in this column), kC (clear
     screen or erase), kD (delete character), kL (delete line),	kM (exit
     insert mode), kE (clear to	end of line), kS (clear	to end of screen), kI
     (insert character or enter	insert mode), kA (insert line),	kN (next
     page), kP (previous page),	kF (scroll forward/down), kR (scroll back-
     ward/up), and kT (set a tab stop in this column).	In addition, if	the
     keypad has	a 3 by 3 array of keys including the four arrow	keys, then the
     other five	keys can be given as K1, K2, K3, K4, and K5.  These keys are
     useful when the effects of	a 3 by 3 directional pad are needed.  The
     obsolete ko capability formerly used to describe ``other''	function keys
     has been completely supplanted by the above capabilities.

     The ma entry is also used to indicate arrow keys on terminals that	have
     single-character arrow keys.  It is obsolete but still in use in version
     2 of vi which must	be run on some minicomputers due to memory limita-
     tions.  This field	is redundant with kl, kr, ku, kd, and kh.  It consists
     of	groups of two characters.  In each group, the first character is what
     an	arrow key sends, and the second	character is the corresponding vi com-
     mand.  These commands are h for kl, j for kd, k for ku, l for kr, and H
     for kh.  For example, the Mime would have ``ma=^Hh^Kj^Zk^Xl'' indicating
     arrow keys	left (^H), down	(^K), up (^Z), and right (^X).	(There is no
     home key on the Mime.)

   Tabs	and Initialization
     If	the terminal needs to be in a special mode when	running	a program that
     uses these	capabilities, the codes	to enter and exit this mode can	be
     given as ti and te.  This arises, for example, from terminals like	the
     Concept with more than one	page of	memory.	 If the	terminal has only mem-
     ory-relative cursor addressing and	not screen-relative cursor addressing,
     a screen-sized window must	be fixed into the display for cursor address-
     ing to work properly.  This is also used for the Tektronix	4025, where ti
     sets the command character	to be the one used by termcap.

     Other capabilities	include	is, an initialization string for the terminal,
     and if, the name of a file	containing long	initialization strings.	 These
     strings are expected to set the terminal into modes consistent with the
     rest of the termcap description.  They are	normally sent to the terminal
     by	the tset program each time the user logs in.  They will	be printed in
     the following order: is; setting tabs using ct and	st; and	finally	if.
     (Terminfo uses i1-i2 instead of is	and runs the program iP	and prints i3
     after the other initializations.)	A pair of sequences that does a	harder
     reset from	a totally unknown state	can be analogously given as rs and if.
     These strings are output by the reset program, which is used when the
     terminal gets into	a wedged state.	 (Terminfo uses	r1-r3 instead of rs.)
     Commands are normally placed in rs	and rf only if they produce annoying
     effects on	the screen and are not necessary when logging in.  For exam-
     ple, the command to set the VT100 into 80-column mode would normally be
     part of is, but it	causes an annoying glitch of the screen	and is not
     normally needed since the terminal	is usually already in 80-column	mode.

     If	the terminal has hardware tabs,	the command to advance to the next tab
     stop can be given as ta (usually ^I).  A ``backtab'' command which	moves
     leftward to the previous tab stop can be given as bt.  By convention, if
     the terminal driver modes indicate	that tab stops are being expanded by
     the computer rather than being sent to the	terminal, programs should not
     use ta or bt even if they are present, since the user may not have	the
     tab stops properly	set.  If the terminal has hardware tabs	that are ini-
     tially set	every n	positions when the terminal is powered up, then	the
     numeric parameter it is given, showing the	number of positions between
     tab stops.	 This is normally used by the tset command to determine
     whether to	set the	driver mode for	hardware tab expansion,	and whether to
     set the tab stops.	 If the	terminal has tab stops that can	be saved in
     nonvolatile memory, the termcap description can assume that they are
     properly set.

     If	there are commands to set and clear tab	stops, they can	be given as ct
     (clear all	tab stops) and st (set a tab stop in the current column	of
     every row).  If a more complex sequence is	needed to set the tabs than
     can be described by this, the sequence can	be placed in is	or if.

   Delays
     Certain capabilities control padding in the terminal driver.  These are
     primarily needed by hardcopy terminals and	are used by the	tset program
     to	set terminal driver modes appropriately.  Delays embedded in the capa-
     bilities cr, sf, le, ff, and ta will cause	the appropriate	delay bits to
     be	set in the terminal driver.  If	pb (padding baud rate) is given, these
     values can	be ignored at baud rates below the value of pb.	 For 4.2BSD
     tset, the delays are given	as numeric capabilities	dC, dN,	dB, dF,	and dT
     instead.

   Miscellaneous
     If	the terminal requires other than a NUL (zero) character	as a pad, this
     can be given as pc.  Only the first character of the pc string is used.

     If	the terminal has commands to save and restore the position of the cur-
     sor, give them as sc and rc.

     If	the terminal has an extra ``status line'' that is not normally used by
     software, this fact can be	indicated.  If the status line is viewed as an
     extra line	below the bottom line, then the	capability hs should be	given.
     Special strings to	go to a	position in the	status line and	to return from
     the status	line can be given as ts	and fs.	 (fs must leave	the cursor
     position in the same place	that it	was before ts.	If necessary, the sc
     and rc strings can	be included in ts and fs to get	this effect.)  The
     capability	ts takes one parameter,	which is the column number of the sta-
     tus line to which the cursor is to	be moved.  If escape sequences and
     other special commands such as tab	work while in the status line, the
     flag es can be given.  A string that turns	off the	status line (or	other-
     wise erases its contents) should be given as ds.  The status line is nor-
     mally assumed to be the same width	as the rest of the screen, i.e., co.
     If	the status line	is a different width (possibly because the terminal
     does not allow an entire line to be loaded), then its width in columns
     can be indicated with the numeric parameter ws.

     If	the terminal can move up or down half a	line, this can be indicated
     with hu (half-line	up) and	hd (half-line down).  This is primarily	useful
     for superscripts and subscripts on	hardcopy terminals.  If	a hardcopy
     terminal can eject	to the next page (form feed), give this	as ff (usually
     ^L).

     If	there is a command to repeat a given character a given number of times
     (to save time transmitting	a large	number of identical characters), this
     can be indicated with the parameterized string rp.	 The first parameter
     is	the character to be repeated and the second is the number of times to
     repeat it.	 (This is a terminfo feature that is unlikely to be supported
     by	a program that uses termcap.)

     If	the terminal has a settable command character, such as the Tektronix
     4025, this	can be indicated with CC.  A prototype command character is
     chosen which is used in all capabilities.	This character is given	in the
     CC	capability to identify it.  The	following convention is	supported on
     some UNIX systems:	The environment	is to be searched for a	CC variable,
     and if found, all occurrences of the prototype character are replaced by
     the character in the environment variable.	 This use of the CC environ-
     ment variable is a	very bad idea, as it conflicts with make(1).

     Terminal descriptions that	do not represent a specific kind of known ter-
     minal, such as switch, dialup, patch, and network,	should include the gn
     (generic) capability so that programs can complain	that they do not know
     how to talk to the	terminal.  (This capability does not apply to virtual
     terminal descriptions for which the escape	sequences are known.)

     If	the terminal uses xoff/xon (DC3/DC1) handshaking for flow control,
     give xo.  Padding information should still	be included so that routines
     can make better decisions about costs, but	actual pad characters will not
     be	transmitted.

     If	the terminal has a ``meta key''	which acts as a	shift key, setting the
     8th bit of	any character transmitted, then	this fact can be indicated
     with km.  Otherwise, software will	assume that the	8th bit	is parity and
     it	will usually be	cleared.  If strings exist to turn this	``meta mode''
     on	and off, they can be given as mm and mo.

     If	the terminal has more lines of memory than will	fit on the screen at
     once, the number of lines of memory can be	indicated with lm.  An
     explicit value of 0 indicates that	the number of lines is not fixed, but
     that there	is still more memory than fits on the screen.

     If	the terminal is	one of those supported by the UNIX system virtual ter-
     minal protocol, the terminal number can be	given as vt.

     Media copy	strings	which control an auxiliary printer connected to	the
     terminal can be given as ps: print	the contents of	the screen; pf:	turn
     off the printer; and po: turn on the printer.  When the printer is	on,
     all text sent to the terminal will	be sent	to the printer.	 It is unde-
     fined whether the text is also displayed on the terminal screen when the
     printer is	on.  A variation pO takes one parameter	and leaves the printer
     on	for as many characters as the value of the parameter, then turns the
     printer off.  The parameter should	not exceed 255.	 All text, including
     pf, is transparently passed to the	printer	while pO is in effect.

     Strings to	program	function keys can be given as pk, pl, and px.  Each of
     these strings takes two parameters: the function key number to program
     (from 0 to	9) and the string to program it	with.  Function	key numbers
     out of this range may program undefined keys in a terminal-dependent man-
     ner.  The differences among the capabilities are that pk causes pressing
     the given key to be the same as the user typing the given string; pl
     causes the	string to be executed by the terminal in local mode; and px
     causes the	string to be transmitted to the	computer.  Unfortunately, due
     to	lack of	a definition for string	parameters in termcap, only terminfo
     supports these capabilities.

   Glitches and	Braindamage
     Hazeltine terminals, which	do not allow `~' characters to be displayed,
     should indicate hz.

     The nc capability,	now obsolete, formerly indicated Datamedia terminals,
     which echo	\r \n for carriage return then ignore a	following linefeed.

     Terminals that ignore a linefeed immediately after	an am wrap, such as
     the Concept, should indicate xn.

     If	ce is required to get rid of standout (instead of merely writing nor-
     mal text on top of	it), xs	should be given.

     Teleray terminals,	where tabs turn	all characters moved over to blanks,
     should indicate xt	(destructive tabs).  This glitch is also taken to mean
     that it is	not possible to	position the cursor on top of a	magic cookie,
     and that to erase standout	mode it	is necessary to	use delete and insert
     line.

     The Beehive Superbee, which is unable to correctly	transmit the ESC or ^C
     characters, has xb, indicating that the ``f1'' key	is used	for ESC	and
     ``f2'' for	^C.  (Only certain Superbees have this problem,	depending on
     the ROM.)

     Other specific terminal problems may be corrected by adding more capabil-
     ities of the form x x.

   Similar Terminals
     If	there are two very similar terminals, one can be defined as being just
     like the other with certain exceptions.  The string capability tc can be
     given with	the name of the	similar	terminal.  This	capability must	be
     last, and the combined length of the entries must not exceed 1024.	 The
     capabilities given	before tc override those in the	terminal type invoked
     by	tc.  A capability can be canceled by placing xx@ to the	left of	the tc
     invocation, where xx is the capability.  For example, the entry

	   hn|2621-nl:ks@:ke@:tc=2621:

     defines a ``2621-nl'' that	does not have the ks or	ke capabilities, hence
     does not turn on the function key labels when in visual mode.  This is
     useful for	different modes	for a terminal,	or for different user prefer-
     ences.

FILES
     /usr/share/misc/termcap	 File containing terminal descriptions.
     /usr/share/misc/termcap.db	 Hash database file containing terminal
				 descriptions (see cap_mkdb(1)).

SEE ALSO
     ex(1), cap_mkdb(1), more(1), tset(1), ul(1), vi(1), curses(3), printf(3),
     termcap(3), term(7)

CAVEATS	AND BUGS
     The Note: termcap functions were replaced by terminfo in AT&T System V
     UNIX Release 2.0.	The transition will be relatively painless if capabil-
     ities flagged as ``obsolete'' are avoided.

     Lines and columns are now stored by the kernel as well as in the termcap
     entry.  Most programs now use the kernel information primarily; the
     information in this file is used only if the kernel does not have any
     information.

     Vi	allows only 256	characters for string capabilities, and	the routines
     in	termlib(3) do not check	for overflow of	this buffer.  The total	length
     of	a single entry (excluding only escaped newlines) may not exceed	1024.

     Not all programs support all entries.

HISTORY
     The termcap file format appeared in 3BSD.

3rd Berkeley Distribution	April 16, 1994	     3rd Berkeley Distribution

NAME | SYNOPSIS | DESCRIPTION | CAPABILITIES | FILES | SEE ALSO | CAVEATS AND BUGS | HISTORY

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