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TAR(1)                           User Commands                          TAR(1)

       tar - The GNU version of the tar archiving utility

       tar [OPTION...] [FILE]...

       GNU `tar' saves many files together into a single tape or disk archive,
       and can restore individual files from the archive.

       tar -cf archive.tar foo bar
              # Create archive.tar from files foo and bar.

       tar -tvf archive.tar
              # List all files in archive.tar verbosely.

       tar -xf archive.tar
              # Extract all files from archive.tar.

              Main operation mode:

       -A, --catenate, --concatenate
              append tar files to an archive

       -c, --create
              create a new archive

       -d, --diff, --compare
              find differences between archive and file system

              delete from the archive (not on mag tapes!)

       -r, --append
              append files to the end of an archive

       -t, --list
              list the contents of an archive

              test the archive volume label and exit

       -u, --update
              only append files newer than copy in archive

       -x, --extract, --get
              extract files from an archive

              Operation modifiers:

              check device numbers when creating incremental archives

       -g, --listed-incremental=FILE
              handle new GNU-format incremental backup

       -G, --incremental
              handle old GNU-format incremental backup

              do not exit with nonzero on unreadable files

              dump level for created listed-incremental archive

       -n, --seek
              archive is seekable

              do not check device numbers when creating incremental archives

              archive is not seekable

              process only the NUMBERth occurrence of each file in the
              archive; this option is valid only in conjunction with one of
              the subcommands --delete, --diff, --extract or --list and when a
              list of files is given either on the command line or via the -T
              option; NUMBER defaults to 1

              set version of the sparse format to use (implies --sparse)

       -S, --sparse
              handle sparse files efficiently

              Overwrite control:

       -k, --keep-old-files
              don't replace existing files when extracting

              don't replace existing files that are newer than their archive

              preserve metadata of existing directories

              overwrite existing files when extracting

              overwrite metadata of existing directories when extracting

              empty hierarchies prior to extracting directory

              remove files after adding them to the archive

       -U, --unlink-first
              remove each file prior to extracting over it

       -W, --verify
              attempt to verify the archive after writing it

              Select output stream:

       --ignore-command-error ignore exit codes of children

              treat non-zero exit codes of children as error

       -O, --to-stdout
              extract files to standard output

              pipe extracted files to another program

              Handling of file attributes:

              preserve access times on dumped files, either by restoring the
              times after reading (METHOD='replace'; default) or by not
              setting the times in the first place (METHOD='system')

              delay setting modification times and permissions of extracted
              directories until the end of extraction

              force NAME as group for added files

              force (symbolic) mode CHANGES for added files

              set mtime for added files from DATE-OR-FILE

       -m, --touch
              don't extract file modified time

              cancel the effect of --delay-directory-restore option

              extract files as yourself (default for ordinary users)

              apply the user's umask when extracting permissions from the
              archive (default for ordinary users)

              always use numbers for user/group names

              force NAME as owner for added files

       -p, --preserve-permissions, --same-permissions
              extract information about file permissions (default for

              same as both -p and -s

              try extracting files with the same ownership as exists in the
              archive (default for superuser)

       -s, --preserve-order, --same-order
              sort names to extract to match archive

              Device selection and switching:

       -f, --file=ARCHIVE
              use archive file or device ARCHIVE

              archive file is local even if it has a colon

       -F, --info-script=NAME, --new-volume-script=NAME
              run script at end of each tape (implies -M)

       -L, --tape-length=NUMBER
              change tape after writing NUMBER x 1024 bytes

       -M, --multi-volume
              create/list/extract multi-volume archive

              use given rmt COMMAND instead of rmt

              use remote COMMAND instead of rsh

              use/update the volume number in FILE

              Device blocking:

       -b, --blocking-factor=BLOCKS
              BLOCKS x 512 bytes per record

       -B, --read-full-records
              reblock as we read (for 4.2BSD pipes)

       -i, --ignore-zeros
              ignore zeroed blocks in archive (means EOF)

              NUMBER of bytes per record, multiple of 512

              Archive format selection:

       -H, --format=FORMAT
              create archive of the given format

              FORMAT is one of the following:

       gnu    GNU tar 1.13.x format

       oldgnu GNU format as per tar <= 1.12

       pax    POSIX 1003.1-2001 (pax) format

       posix  same as pax

       ustar  POSIX 1003.1-1988 (ustar) format

       v7     old V7 tar format

       --old-archive, --portability
              same as --format=v7

              control pax keywords

              same as --format=posix

       -V, --label=TEXT
              create archive with volume name TEXT; at list/extract time, use
              TEXT as a globbing pattern for volume name

              Compression options:

       -a, --auto-compress
              use archive suffix to determine the compression program

       -I, --use-compress-program=PROG
              filter through PROG (must accept -d)

       -j, --bzip2
              filter the archive through bzip2

       -J, --xz
              filter the archive through xz

       --lzip filter the archive through lzip

       --lzma filter the archive through lzma


              do not use archive suffix to determine the compression program

       -z, --gzip, --gunzip, --ungzip
              filter the archive through gzip

       -Z, --compress, --uncompress
              filter the archive through compress

              Local file selection:

              add given FILE to the archive (useful if its name starts with a

              backup before removal, choose version CONTROL

       -C, --directory=DIR
              change to directory DIR

              exclude files, given as a PATTERN

              exclude backup and lock files

              exclude contents of directories containing CACHEDIR.TAG, except
              for the tag file itself

              exclude directories containing CACHEDIR.TAG

       --exclude-caches-under exclude everything under directories containing

              exclude contents of directories containing FILE, except for FILE

       --exclude-tag-all=FILE exclude directories containing FILE

              exclude everything under directories containing FILE

              exclude version control system directories

       -h, --dereference
              follow symlinks; archive and dump the files they point to

              follow hard links; archive and dump the files they refer to

       -K, --starting-file=MEMBER-NAME
              begin at member MEMBER-NAME in the archive

              compare date and time when data changed only

              disable the effect of the previous --null option

              avoid descending automatically in directories

              do not unquote filenames read with -T

       --null                 -T reads null-terminated names, disable -C

       -N, --newer=DATE-OR-FILE, --after-date=DATE-OR-FILE
              only store files newer than DATE-OR-FILE

              stay in local file system when creating archive

       -P, --absolute-names
              don't strip leading `/'s from file names

              recurse into directories (default)

              backup before removal, override usual suffix ('~' unless
              overridden by environment variable SIMPLE_BACKUP_SUFFIX)

       -T, --files-from=FILE
              get names to extract or create from FILE

              unquote filenames read with -T (default)

       -X, --exclude-from=FILE
              exclude patterns listed in FILE

              File name transformations:

              strip NUMBER leading components from file names on extraction

       --transform=EXPRESSION, --xform=EXPRESSION
              use sed replace EXPRESSION to transform file names

              File name matching options (affect both exclude and include

              patterns match file name start

              ignore case

              patterns match after any `/' (default for exclusion)

              case sensitive matching (default)

              verbatim string matching

              wildcards do not match `/'

              use wildcards (default for exclusion)

              wildcards match `/' (default for exclusion)

              Informative output:

              display progress messages every NUMBERth record (default 10)

              execute ACTION on each checkpoint

              send verbose output to FILE

       -l, --check-links
              print a message if not all links are dumped

              disable quoting for characters from STRING

              additionally quote characters from STRING

              set name quoting style; see below for valid STYLE values

       -R, --block-number
              show block number within archive with each message

              show tar defaults

              when listing or extracting, list each directory that does not
              match search criteria

       --show-transformed-names, --show-stored-names
              show file or archive names after transformation

              print total bytes after processing the archive; with an argument
              - print total bytes when this SIGNAL is delivered; Allowed
              signals are: SIGHUP, SIGQUIT, SIGINT, SIGUSR1 and SIGUSR2; the
              names without SIG prefix are also accepted

       --utc  print file modification dates in UTC

       -v, --verbose
              verbosely list files processed

              warning control

       -w, --interactive, --confirmation
              ask for confirmation for every action

              Compatibility options:

       -o     when creating, same as --old-archive; when extracting, same as

              Other options:

       -?, --help
              give this help list

              disable use of some potentially harmful options

              give a short usage message

              print program version

       Mandatory or optional arguments to long options are also mandatory or
       optional for any corresponding short options.

       The backup suffix is `~', unless set with --suffix or
       SIMPLE_BACKUP_SUFFIX.  The version control may be set with --backup or
       VERSION_CONTROL, values are:

       none, off
              never make backups

       t, numbered
              make numbered backups

       nil, existing
              numbered if numbered backups exist, simple otherwise

       never, simple
              always make simple backups

       Valid arguments for the --quoting-style option are:

              literal shell shell-always c c-maybe escape locale clocale

       *This* tar defaults to: --format=gnu -f- -b20 --quoting-style=escape
       --rmt-command=/usr/libexec/rmt --rsh-command=/usr/bin/rsh

       Written by John Gilmore and Jay Fenlason.

       Report bugs to <>.

       Copyright (C) 2010 Free Software Foundation, Inc.  License GPLv3+: GNU
       GPL version 3 or later <>.
       This is free software: you are free to change and redistribute it.
       There is NO WARRANTY, to the extent permitted by law.

       The full documentation for tar is maintained as a Texinfo manual.  If
       the info and tar programs are properly installed at your site, the

              info tar

       should give you access to the complete manual.

tar 1.23                           July 2010                            TAR(1)


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