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tail(1)								       tail(1)

NAME
       tail - deliver the last part of a file

SYNOPSIS
       /usr/bin/tail [ +-s number [lbcr]] [file]

       /usr/bin/tail [-lbcr] [file]

       /usr/bin/tail [ +- number [lbcf]] [file]

       /usr/bin/tail [-lbcf] [file]

       /usr/xpg4/bin/tail [-f |	-r]  [-c number	| -n number]  [file]

       /usr/xpg4/bin/tail [ +- number [l | b | c]  [f]]	[file]

       /usr/xpg4/bin/tail [ +- number [l] [f | r] ] [file]

       The tail	utility	copies the named file to the standard output beginning
       at a designated place. If no file is named, the standard	input is used.

       Copying begins at a point in the	file indicated by the -cnumber,	-nnum-
       ber,  or	 +-number options (if +number is specified, begins at distance
       number from the beginning; if -number is	specified, from	the end	of the
       input;  if  number is NULL, the value 10	is assumed). number is counted
       in units	of lines or byte according to  the  -c	 or   -n  options,  or
       lines,  blocks,	or bytes, according to the appended option l, b, or c.
       When no units are specified, counting is	by lines.

       The  following  options	are  supported	for  both  /usr/bin/tail   and
       /usr/xpg4/bin/tail.  The	 -r  and -f options are	mutually exclusive. If
       both are	specified on the command line, the -f option is	ignored.

       -b	Units of blocks.

       -c	Units of bytes.

       -f	Follow.	If the input-file is not a pipe, the program does  not
		terminate  after  the  line of the input-file has been copied,
		but enters an endless loop, wherein it sleeps for a second and
		then attempts to read and copy further records from the	input-
		file. Thus it can be used to monitor the growth	of a file that
		is being written by some other process.

       -l	Units of lines.

       -r	Reverse. Copies	lines from the specified starting point	in the
		file in	reverse	order. The default  for	 r  is	to  print  the
		entire file in reverse order.

   /usr/xpg4/bin/tail
       The following options are supported for /usr/xpg4/bin/tail only:

       -c number       The  number  option-argument  must be a decimal integer
		       whose sign affects the location in the  file,  measured
		       in bytes, to begin the copying:

		       +	Copying	 starts	 relative  to the beginning of
				the file.

		       -	Copying	starts relative	 to  the  end  of  the
				file.

		       none	Copying	 starts	 relative  to  the  end	of the
				file.

		       The origin for counting is 1; that is, -c+1  represents
		       the first byte of the file, -c-1	the last.

       -n number       Equivalent to -cnumber, except the starting location in
		       the file	is measured in lines  instead  of  bytes.  The
		       origin  for counting is 1. That is, -n+1	represents the
		       first line of the file, -n-1 the	last.

       The following operand is	supported:

       file	A path name of an input	file. If no file operands  are	speci-
		fied, the standard input is used.

       See  largefile(5)  for  the  description	 of  the behavior of tail when
       encountering files greater than or equal	to 2 Gbyte ( 2**31 bytes).

       Example 1: Using	the tail Command

       The following command prints the	last ten lines of the file fred,  fol-
       lowed  by  any lines that are appended to fred between the time tail is
       initiated and killed.

       example%	tail -f	fred

       The next	command	prints the last	15 bytes of the	file fred, followed by
       any  lines that are appended to fred between the	time tail is initiated
       and killed:

       example%	tail -15cf fred

       See environ(5) for descriptions of the following	environment  variables
       that affect the execution of tail: LANG,	LC_ALL,	LC_CTYPE, LC_MESSAGES,
       and NLSPATH.

       The following exit values are returned:

       0	Successful completion.

       >0	An error occurred.

       See attributes(5) for descriptions of the following attributes:

   /usr/bin/tail
       +-----------------------------+-----------------------------+
       |      ATTRIBUTE	TYPE	     |	    ATTRIBUTE VALUE	   |
       +-----------------------------+-----------------------------+
       |Availability		     |SUNWcsu			   |
       +-----------------------------+-----------------------------+
       |CSI			     |Enabled			   |
       +-----------------------------+-----------------------------+

   /usr/xpg4/bin/tail
       +-----------------------------+-----------------------------+
       |      ATTRIBUTE	TYPE	     |	    ATTRIBUTE VALUE	   |
       +-----------------------------+-----------------------------+
       |Availability		     |SUNWxcu4			   |
       +-----------------------------+-----------------------------+
       |CSI			     |Enabled			   |
       +-----------------------------+-----------------------------+
       |Interface Stability	     |Standard			   |
       +-----------------------------+-----------------------------+

       cat(1), head(1),	more(1),  pg(1),  dd(1M),  attributes(5),  environ(5),
       largefile(5), standards(5)

       Piped tails relative to the end of the file are stored in a buffer, and
       thus are	limited	in length. Various kinds  of  anomalous	 behavior  can
       happen with character special files.

				  13 Jul 2005			       tail(1)

NAME | SYNOPSIS

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