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tail(1)								       tail(1)

NAME
       tail - deliver the last part of a file

SYNOPSIS
       /usr/bin/tail [ +-s number [lbcr]] [file]

       /usr/bin/tail [-lbcr] [file]

       /usr/bin/tail [ +- number [lbcf]] [file]

       /usr/bin/tail [-lbcf] [file]

       /usr/xpg4/bin/tail [-f |	-r]  [-c number	| -n number]  [file]

       /usr/xpg4/bin/tail [ +- number [l | b | c]  [f]]	[file]

       /usr/xpg4/bin/tail [ +- number [l] [f | r] ] [file]

       The tail	utility	copies the named file to the standard output beginning
       at a designated place. If no file is named, the standard	input is used.

       Copying begins at a point in the	file indicated by the -cnumber,	-nnum-
       ber, or +-number	options	(if +number is specified, begins  at  distance
       number from the beginning; if -number is	specified, from	the end	of the
       input; if number	is NULL, the value 10 is assumed). number  is  counted
       in  units  of  lines  or	 byte  according to the	-c  or	-n options, or
       lines, blocks, or bytes,	according to the appended option l, b,	or  c.
       When no units are specified, counting is	by lines.

       The   following	options	 are  supported	 for  both  /usr/bin/tail  and
       /usr/xpg4/bin/tail. The -r and -f options are  mutually	exclusive.  If
       both are	specified on the command line, the -f option is	ignored.

       -b	Units of blocks.

       -c	Units of bytes.

       -f	Follow.	 If the	input-file is not a pipe, the program does not
		terminate after	the line of the	input-file  has	 been  copied,
		but enters an endless loop, wherein it sleeps for a second and
		then attempts to read and copy further records from the	input-
		file. Thus it can be used to monitor the growth	of a file that
		is being written by some other process.

       -l	Units of lines.

       -r	Reverse. Copies	lines from the specified starting point	in the
		file  in  reverse  order.  The	default	 for r is to print the
		entire file in reverse order.

   /usr/xpg4/bin/tail
       The following options are supported for /usr/xpg4/bin/tail only:

       -c number       The number option-argument must be  a  decimal  integer
		       whose  sign  affects the	location in the	file, measured
		       in bytes, to begin the copying:

		       +	Copying	starts relative	to  the	 beginning  of
				the file.

		       -	Copying	 starts	 relative  to  the  end	of the
				file.

		       none	Copying	starts relative	 to  the  end  of  the
				file.

		       The  origin for counting	is 1; that is, -c+1 represents
		       the first byte of the file, -c-1	the last.

       -n number       Equivalent to -cnumber, except the starting location in
		       the  file  is  measured	in lines instead of bytes. The
		       origin for counting is 1. That is, -n+1 represents  the
		       first line of the file, -n-1 the	last.

       The following operand is	supported:

       file	A  path	 name of an input file.	If no file operands are	speci-
		fied, the standard input is used.

       See largefile(5)	for the	description  of	 the  behavior	of  tail  when
       encountering files greater than or equal	to 2 Gbyte ( 2**31 bytes).

       Example 1: Using	the tail Command

       The  following command prints the last ten lines	of the file fred, fol-
       lowed by	any lines that are appended to fred between the	time  tail  is
       initiated and killed.

       example%	tail -f	fred

       The next	command	prints the last	15 bytes of the	file fred, followed by
       any lines that are appended to fred between the time tail is  initiated
       and killed:

       example%	tail -15cf fred

       See  environ(5) for descriptions	of the following environment variables
       that affect the execution of tail: LANG,	LC_ALL,	LC_CTYPE, LC_MESSAGES,
       and NLSPATH.

       The following exit values are returned:

       0	Successful completion.

       >0	An error occurred.

       See attributes(5) for descriptions of the following attributes:

   /usr/bin/tail
       +-----------------------------+-----------------------------+
       |      ATTRIBUTE	TYPE	     |	    ATTRIBUTE VALUE	   |
       +-----------------------------+-----------------------------+
       |Availability		     |SUNWcsu			   |
       +-----------------------------+-----------------------------+
       |CSI			     |Enabled			   |
       +-----------------------------+-----------------------------+

   /usr/xpg4/bin/tail
       +-----------------------------+-----------------------------+
       |      ATTRIBUTE	TYPE	     |	    ATTRIBUTE VALUE	   |
       +-----------------------------+-----------------------------+
       |Availability		     |SUNWxcu4			   |
       +-----------------------------+-----------------------------+
       |CSI			     |Enabled			   |
       +-----------------------------+-----------------------------+
       |Interface Stability	     |Standard			   |
       +-----------------------------+-----------------------------+

       cat(1),	head(1),  more(1),  pg(1),  dd(1M), attributes(5), environ(5),
       largefile(5), standards(5)

       Piped tails relative to the end of the file are stored in a buffer, and
       thus  are  limited  in  length. Various kinds of	anomalous behavior can
       happen with character special files.

				  13 Jul 2005			       tail(1)

NAME | SYNOPSIS

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