Skip site navigation (1)Skip section navigation (2)

FreeBSD Man Pages

Man Page or Keyword Search:
Man Architecture
Apropos Keyword Search (all sections) Output format
home | help
TAIL(1)                               FSF                              TAIL(1)

NAME
       tail - output the last part of files

SYNOPSIS
       tail [OPTION]... [FILE]...

DESCRIPTION
       Print the last 10 lines of each FILE to standard output.  With more
       than one FILE, precede each with a header giving the file name.  With
       no FILE, or when FILE is -, read standard input.

       Mandatory arguments to long options are mandatory for short options
       too.

       --retry
              keep trying to open a file even if it is inaccessible when tail
              starts or if it becomes inaccessible later -- useful only with
              -f

       -c, --bytes=N
              output the last N bytes

       -f, --follow[={name|descriptor}]
              output appended data as the file grows; -f, --follow, and
              --follow=descriptor are equivalent

       -F     same as --follow=name --retry

       -n, --lines=N
              output the last N lines, instead of the last 10

       --max-unchanged-stats=N
              with --follow=name, reopen a FILE which has not changed size
              after N (default 5) iterations to see if it has been unlinked or
              renamed (this is the usual case of rotated log files)

       --pid=PID
              with -f, terminate after process ID, PID dies

       -q, --quiet, --silent
              never output headers giving file names

       -s, --sleep-interval=S
              with -f, sleep for approximately S seconds (default 1.0) between
              iterations.

       -v, --verbose
              always output headers giving file names

       --help display this help and exit

       --version
              output version information and exit

       If the first character of N (the number of bytes or lines) is a `+',
       print beginning with the Nth item from the start of each file,
       otherwise, print the last N items in the file.  N may have a multiplier
       suffix: b for 512, k for 1024, m for 1048576 (1 Meg).

       With --follow (-f), tail defaults to following the file descriptor,
       which means that even if a tail'ed file is renamed, tail will continue
       to track its end.  This default behavior is not desirable when you
       really want to track the actual name of the file, not the file
       descriptor (e.g., log rotation).  Use --follow=name in that case.  That
       causes tail to track the named file by reopening it periodically to see
       if it has been removed and recreated by some other program.

AUTHOR
       Written by Paul Rubin, David MacKenzie, Ian Lance Taylor, and Jim
       Meyering.

REPORTING BUGS
       Report bugs to <bug-coreutils@gnu.org>.

COPYRIGHT
       Copyright (C) 2002 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
       This is free software; see the source for copying conditions.  There is
       NO warranty; not even for MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR
       PURPOSE.

SEE ALSO
       The full documentation for tail is maintained as a Texinfo manual.  If
       the info and tail programs are properly installed at your site, the
       command

              info tail

       should give you access to the complete manual.

tail (coreutils) 4.5.3           February 2003                         TAIL(1)

NAME | SYNOPSIS | DESCRIPTION | AUTHOR | REPORTING BUGS | COPYRIGHT | SEE ALSO

Want to link to this manual page? Use this URL:
<https://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?query=tail&sektion=1&manpath=Red+Hat+Linux%2fi386+9>

home | help