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SYSKLOGD(8)               Linux System Administration              SYSKLOGD(8)

       sysklogd - Linux system logging utilities.

       syslogd [ -a  socket ] [ -d ] [ -f  config file ] [ -h ] [ -l  hostlist
       ] [ -m  interval ] [ -n ] [ -p socket ] [ -r ] [ -s  domainlist ] [ -v
       ] [ -x ]

       Sysklogd provides two system utilities which provide support for system
       logging and kernel message trapping.  Support of both internet and unix
       domain sockets enables this utility package to support both local and
       remote logging.

       System logging is provided by a version of syslogd(8) derived from the
       stock BSD sources.  Support for kernel logging is provided by the
       klogd(8) utility which allows kernel logging to be conducted in either
       a standalone fashion or as a client of syslogd.

       Syslogd provides a kind of logging that many modern programs use.
       Every logged message contains at least a time and a hostname field,
       normally a program name field, too, but that depends on how trusty the
       logging program is.

       While the syslogd sources have been heavily modified a couple of notes
       are in order.  First of all there has been a systematic attempt to
       insure that syslogd follows its default, standard BSD behavior.  The
       second important concept to note is that this version of syslogd
       interacts transparently with the version of syslog found in the
       standard libraries.  If a binary linked to the standard shared
       libraries fails to function correctly we would like an example of the
       anomalous behavior.

       The main configuration file /etc/syslog.conf or an alternative file,
       given with the -f option, is read at startup.  Any lines that begin
       with the hash mark (``#'') and empty lines are ignored.  If an error
       occurs during parsing the whole line is ignored.

       -a socket
              Using this argument you can specify additional sockets from that
              syslogd has to listen to.  This is needed if you're going to let
              some daemon run within a chroot() environment.  You can use up
              to 19 additional sockets.  If your environment needs even more,
              you have to increase the symbol MAXFUNIX within the syslogd.c
              source file.  An example for a chroot() daemon is described by
              the people from OpenBSD at

       -d     Turns on debug mode.  Using this the daemon will not proceed a
              fork(2) to set itself in the background, but opposite to that
              stay in the foreground and write much debug information on the
              current tty.  See the DEBUGGING section for more information.

       -f config file
              Specify an alternative configuration file instead of
              /etc/syslog.conf, which is the default.

       -h     By default syslogd will not forward messages it receives from
              remote hosts.  Specifying this switch on the command line will
              cause the log daemon to forward any remote messages it receives
              to forwarding hosts which have been defined.

       -l hostlist
              Specify a hostname that should be logged only with its simple
              hostname and not the fqdn.  Multiple hosts may be specified
              using the colon (``:'') separator.

       -m interval
              The syslogd logs a mark timestamp regularly.  The default
              interval between two -- MARK -- lines is 20 minutes.  This can
              be changed with this option.  Setting the interval to zero turns
              it off entirely.

       -n     Avoid auto-backgrounding.  This is needed especially if the
              syslogd is started and controlled by init(8).

       -p socket
              You can specify an alternative unix domain socket instead of

       -r     This option will enable the facility to receive message from the
              network using an internet domain socket with the syslog service
              (see services(5)).  The default is to not receive any messages
              from the network.

              This option is introduced in version 1.3 of the sysklogd
              package.  Please note that the default behavior is the opposite
              of how older versions behave, so you might have to turn this on.

       -s domainlist
              Specify a domainname that should be stripped off before logging.
              Multiple domains may be specified using the colon (``:'')
              separator.  Please be advised that no sub-domains may be
              specified but only entire domains.  For example if -s
              is specified and the host logging resolves to
     no domain would be cut, you will have to
              specify two domains like: -s

       -v     Print version and exit.

       -x     Disable name lookups when receiving remote messages.  This
              avoids deadlocks when the nameserver is running on the same
              machine that runs the syslog daemon.

       Syslogd reacts to a set of signals.  You may easily send a signal to
       syslogd using the following:

              kill -SIGNAL `cat /var/run/`

       SIGHUP This lets syslogd perform a re-initialization.  All open files
              are closed, the configuration file (default is /etc/syslog.conf)
              will be reread and the syslog(3) facility is started again.

              The syslogd will die.

              If debugging is enabled these are ignored, otherwise syslogd
              will die.

              Switch debugging on/off.  This option can only be used if
              syslogd is started with the -d debug option.

              Wait for childs if some were born, because of wall'ing messages.

       Syslogd uses a slightly different syntax for its configuration file
       than the original BSD sources.  Originally all messages of a specific
       priority and above were forwarded to the log file.

              For example the following line caused ALL output from daemons
              using the daemon facilities (debug is the lowest priority, so
              every higher will also match) to go into /usr/adm/daemons:

                   # Sample syslog.conf
                   daemon.debug             /usr/adm/daemons

       Under the new scheme this behavior remains the same.  The difference is
       the addition of four new specifiers, the asterisk (*) wildcard, the
       equation sign (=), the exclamation mark (!), and the minus sign (-).

       The * specifies that all messages for the specified facility are to be
       directed to the destination.  Note that this behavior is degenerate
       with specifying a priority level of debug.  Users have indicated that
       the asterisk notation is more intuitive.

       The = wildcard is used to restrict logging to the specified priority
       class.  This allows, for example, routing only debug messages to a
       particular logging source.

              For example the following line in syslog.conf would direct debug
              messages from all sources to the /usr/adm/debug file.

                   # Sample syslog.conf
                   *.=debug            /usr/adm/debug

       The ! is used to exclude logging of the specified priorities.  This
       affects all (!) possibilities of specifying priorities.

              For example the following lines would log all messages of the
              facility mail except those with the priority info to the
              /usr/adm/mail file.  And all messages from (including)
              to news.crit (excluding) would be logged to the /usr/adm/news

                   # Sample syslog.conf
                   mail.*;mail.!=info       /usr/adm/mail
         ;news.!crit     /usr/adm/news

       You may use it intuitively as an exception specifier.  The above
       mentioned interpretation is simply inverted.  Doing that you may use


       to skip every message that comes with a mail facility.  There is much
       room to play with it. :-)

       The - may only be used to prefix a filename if you want to omit
       sync'ing the file after every write to it.

       This may take some acclimatization for those individuals used to the
       pure BSD behavior but testers have indicated that this syntax is
       somewhat more flexible than the BSD behavior.  Note that these changes
       should not affect standard syslog.conf(5) files.  You must specifically
       modify the configuration files to obtain the enhanced behavior.

       These modifications provide network support to the syslogd facility.
       Network support means that messages can be forwarded from one node
       running syslogd to another node running syslogd where they will be
       actually logged to a disk file.

       To enable this you have to specify the -r option on the command line.
       The default behavior is that syslogd won't listen to the network.

       The strategy is to have syslogd listen on a unix domain socket for
       locally generated log messages.  This behavior will allow syslogd to
       inter-operate with the syslog found in the standard C library.  At the
       same time syslogd listens on the standard syslog port for messages
       forwarded from other hosts.  To have this work correctly the
       services(5) files (typically found in /etc) must have the following

                   syslog          514/udp

       If this entry is missing syslogd neither can receive remote messages
       nor send them, because the UDP port cant be opened.  Instead syslogd
       will die immediately, blowing out an error message.

       To cause messages to be forwarded to another host replace the normal
       file line in the syslog.conf file with the name of the host to which
       the messages is to be sent prepended with an @.

              For example, to forward ALL messages to a remote host use the
              following syslog.conf entry:

                   # Sample syslogd configuration file to
                   # messages to a remote host forward all.
                   *.*            @hostname

              To forward all kernel messages to a remote host the
              configuration file would be as follows:

                   # Sample configuration file to forward all kernel
                   # messages to a remote host.
                   kern.*         @hostname

       If the remote hostname cannot be resolved at startup, because the name-
       server might not be accessible (it may be started after syslogd) you
       don't have to worry.  Syslogd will retry to resolve the name ten times
       and then complain.  Another possibility to avoid this is to place the
       hostname in /etc/hosts.

       With normal syslogds you would get syslog-loops if you send out
       messages that were received from a remote host to the same host (or
       more complicated to a third host that sends it back to the first one,
       and so on).  In my domain (Infodrom Oldenburg) we accidently got one
       and our disks filled up with the same single message. :-(

       To avoid this in further times no messages that were received from a
       remote host are sent out to another (or the same) remote host anymore.
       If there are scenarios where this doesn't make sense, please drop me
       (Joey) a line.

       If the remote host is located in the same domain as the host, syslogd
       is running on, only the simple hostname will be logged instead of the
       whole fqdn.

       In a local network you may provide a central log server to have all the
       important information kept on one machine.  If the network consists of
       different domains you don't have to complain about logging fully
       qualified names instead of simple hostnames.  You may want to use the
       strip-domain feature -s of this server.  You can tell the syslogd to
       strip off several domains other than the one the server is located in
       and only log simple hostnames.

       Using the -l option there's also a possibility to define single hosts
       as local machines.  This, too, results in logging only their simple
       hostnames and not the fqdns.

       The UDP socket used to forward messages to remote hosts or to receive
       messages from them is only opened when it is needed.  In releases prior
       to 1.3-23 it was opened every time but not opened for reading or
       forwarding respectively.

       This version of syslogd has support for logging output to named pipes
       (fifos).  A fifo or named pipe can be used as a destination for log
       messages by prepending a pipy symbol (``|'') to the name of the file.
       This is handy for debugging.  Note that the fifo must be created with
       the mkfifo command before syslogd is started.

              The following configuration file routes debug messages from the
              kernel to a fifo:

                   # Sample configuration to route kernel debugging
                   # messages ONLY to /usr/adm/debug which is a
                   # named pipe.
                   kern.=debug              |/usr/adm/debug

       There is probably one important consideration when installing this
       version of syslogd.  This version of syslogd is dependent on proper
       formatting of messages by the syslog function.  The functioning of the
       syslog function in the shared libraries changed somewhere in the region
       of[2-4].n.  The specific change was to null-terminate the
       message before transmitting it to the /dev/log socket.  Proper
       functioning of this version of syslogd is dependent on null-termination
       of the message.

       This problem will typically manifest itself if old statically linked
       binaries are being used on the system.  Binaries using old versions of
       the syslog function will cause empty lines to be logged followed by the
       message with the first character in the message removed.  Relinking
       these binaries to newer versions of the shared libraries will correct
       this problem.

       Both the syslogd(8) and the klogd(8) can either be run from init(8) or
       started as part of the rc.* sequence.  If it is started from init the
       option -n must be set, otherwise you'll get tons of syslog daemons
       started.  This is because init(8) depends on the process ID.

       There is the potential for the syslogd daemon to be used as a conduit
       for a denial of service attack.  Thanks go to John Morrison
       ( for alerting me to this potential.  A rogue
       program(mer) could very easily flood the syslogd daemon with syslog
       messages resulting in the log files consuming all the remaining space
       on the filesystem.  Activating logging over the inet domain sockets
       will of course expose a system to risks outside of programs or
       individuals on the local machine.

       There are a number of methods of protecting a machine:

       1.     Implement kernel firewalling to limit which hosts or networks
              have access to the 514/UDP socket.

       2.     Logging can be directed to an isolated or non-root filesystem
              which, if filled, will not impair the machine.

       3.     The ext2 filesystem can be used which can be configured to limit
              a certain percentage of a filesystem to usage by root only.
              NOTE that this will require syslogd to be run as a non-root
              process.  ALSO NOTE that this will prevent usage of remote
              logging since syslogd will be unable to bind to the 514/UDP

       4.     Disabling inet domain sockets will limit risk to the local

       5.     Use step 4 and if the problem persists and is not secondary to a
              rogue program/daemon get a 3.5 ft (approx. 1 meter) length of
              sucker rod* and have a chat with the user in question.

              Sucker rod def. -- 3/4, 7/8 or 1in. hardened steel rod, male
              threaded on each end.  Primary use in the oil industry in
              Western North Dakota and other locations to pump 'suck' oil from
              oil wells.  Secondary uses are for the construction of cattle
              feed lots and for dealing with the occasional recalcitrant or
              belligerent individual.

       When debugging is turned on using -d option then syslogd will be very
       verbose by writing much of what it does on stdout.  Whenever the
       configuration file is reread and re-parsed you'll see a tabular,
       corresponding to the internal data structure.  This tabular consists of
       four fields:

       number This field contains a serial number starting by zero.  This
              number represents the position in the internal data structure
              (i.e. the array).  If one number is left out then there might be
              an error in the corresponding line in /etc/syslog.conf.

              This field is tricky and represents the internal structure
              exactly.  Every column stands for a facility (refer to
              syslog(3)).  As you can see, there are still some facilities
              left free for former use, only the left most are used.  Every
              field in a column represents the priorities (refer to

       action This field describes the particular action that takes place
              whenever a message is received that matches the pattern.  Refer
              to the syslog.conf(5) manpage for all possible actions.

              This field shows additional arguments to the actions in the last
              field.  For file-logging this is the filename for the logfile;
              for user-logging this is a list of users; for remote logging
              this is the hostname of the machine to log to; for console-
              logging this is the used console; for tty-logging this is the
              specified tty; wall has no additional arguments.

              Configuration file for syslogd.  See syslog.conf(5) for exact
              The Unix domain socket to from where local syslog messages are
              The file containing the process id of syslogd.

       If an error occurs in one line the whole rule is ignored.

       Syslogd doesn't change the filemode of opened logfiles at any stage of
       process.  If a file is created it is world readable.  If you want to
       avoid this, you have to create it and change permissions on your own.
       This could be done in combination with rotating logfiles using the
       savelog(8) program that is shipped in the smail 3.x distribution.
       Remember that it might be a security hole if everybody is able to read
       auth.* messages as these might contain passwords.

       syslog.conf(5), klogd(8), logger(1), syslog(2), syslog(3), services(5),

       Syslogd is taken from BSD sources, Greg Wettstein
       ( performed the port to Linux, Martin Schulze
       ( fixed some bugs and added several new features.  Klogd
       was originally written by Steve Lord (, Greg Wettstein
       made major improvements.

       Dr. Greg Wettstein
       Enjellic Systems Development
       Oncology Research Division Computing Facility
       Roger Maris Cancer Center
       Fargo, ND

       Stephen Tweedie
       Department of Computer Science
       Edinburgh University, Scotland

       Juha Virtanen

       Shane Alderton

       Martin Schulze
       Infodrom Oldenburg

Version 1.3                     12 October 1998                    SYSKLOGD(8)


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