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STYLE(1)			 User commands			      STYLE(1)

       style - analyse surface characteristics of a document

       style [-L language] [-l length] [-r ari]	[file...]
       style [--language language] [--print-long length] [--print-ari ari]
       style -h|--help
       style --version

       Style analyses the surface characteristics of the writing  style	 of  a
       document.   It prints various readability grades, length	of words, sen-
       tences and paragraphs.  It can further locate  sentences	 with  certain
       characteristics.	  If  no  files	 are  given, the document is read from
       standard	input.

       Numbers are counted as words  with  one	syllable.   A  sentence	 is  a
       sequence	 of words, that	starts with a capitalised word and ends	with a
       full stop, double colon,	question mark or exclamation mark.   A	single
       letter  followed	by a dot is considered an abbreviation,	so it does not
       end a sentence.	Various	 multi-letter  abbreviations  are  recognized,
       they  do	 not  end  a sentence as well.	A paragraph consists of	two or
       more new	line characters.

   Readability grades
       Style understands cpp(1)	#line lines for	being  able  to	 give  precise
       locations when printing sentences.

       Kincaid formula
	      The  Kincaid  Formula has	been developed for Navy	training manu-
	      als, that	ranged in difficulty from 5.5 to 16.3.	It is probably
	      best  applied  to	 technical  documents,	because	it is based on
	      adult training manuals rather than school	 book  text.   Dialogs
	      (often  found  in	fictional texts) are usually a series of short
	      sentences, which lowers the score.  On the  other	 hand,	scien-
	      tific  texts  with  many long scientific terms are rated higher,
	      although they are	not necessarily	harder to read for people  who
	      are familiar with	those terms.

	      Kincaid =	11.8*syllables/wds+0.39*wds/sentences-15.59

       Automated Readability Index
	      The Automated Readability	Index is typically higher than Kincaid
	      and Coleman-Liau,	but lower than Flesch.

	      ARI = 4.71*chars/wds+0.5*wds/sentences-21.43

       Coleman-Liau Formula
	      The Coleman-Liau Formula usually gives a lower grade  than  Kin-
	      caid, ARI	and Flesch when	applied	to technical documents.

	      Coleman-Liau = 5.88*chars/wds-29.5*sent/wds-15.8

       Flesh reading easy formula
	      The  Flesh  reading  easy	formula	has been developed by Flesh in
	      1948 and it is based on school text covering grade 3 to 12.   It
	      is  wide	spread,	especially in the USA, because of good results
	      and simple computation.  The index is usually between  0	(hard)
	      and  100	(easy),	 standard  English documents averages approxi-
	      mately 60	to 70.	Applying  it  to  German  documents  does  not
	      deliver  good  results  because of the different language	struc-

	      Flesch Index = 206.835-84.6*syll/wds-1.015*wds/sent

       Fog Index
	      The Fog index has	been developed by Robert Gunning.   Its	 value
	      is  a school grade.  The ``ideal'' Fog Index level is 7 or 8.  A
	      level above 12 indicates the writing sample is too hard for most
	      people  to read.	Only use it on texts of	at least hundred words
	      to get meaningful	results.  Note that a  correct	implementation
	      would not	count words of three or	more syllables that are	proper
	      names, combinations of easy words, or made  three	 syllables  by
	      suffixes such as -ed, -es, or -ing.

	      Fog Index	= 0.4*(wds/sent+100*((wds >= 3 syll)/wds))

       Lix formula
	      The  Lix formula developed by Bjornsson from Sweden is very sim-
	      ple and employs a	mapping	table as well:

	      Lix = wds/sent+100*(wds >= 6 char)/wds

	      Index	    34	 38   41   44	48   51	   54	 57
	      School year      5    6	 7    8	   9	10    11

	      The  SMOG-Grading	 for  English  texts  has  been	 developed  by
	      McLaughlin in 1969.  Its result is a school grade.

	      SMOG-Grading = square root of (((wds >= 3	syll)/sent)*30)	+ 3

	      It  has  been  adapted to	German by Bamberger & Vanecek in 1984,
	      who changed the constant +3 to -2.

   Word	usage
       The word	usage counts are intended to help identify  excessive  use  of
       particular parts	of speech.

       Verb Phrases
	      The  category  of	verbs labeled "to be" identifies phrases using
	      the passive voice.  Use the passive voice	sparingly, in favor of
	      more  direct  verb  forms.  The flag -p causes style to list all
	      occurrences of the passive voice.

       The verb	category "aux" measures	the use	of modal auxiliary verbs, such
       as "can", "could", and "should".	 Modal auxiliary verbs modify the mood
       of a verb.

	      The conjunctions counted by style	are coordinating and  subordi-
	      nating.  Coordinating conjunctions join grammatically equal sen-
	      tence fragments, such as a noun with a noun,  a  phrase  with  a
	      phrase,  or a clause to a	clause.	 Coordinating conjunctions are
	      "and," "but," "or," "yet," and "nor."

       Subordinating conjunctions connect clauses of unequal status.  A	subor-
       dinating	 conjunction  links  a	subordinate clause, which is unable to
       stand alone, to an independent clause.  Examples	of subordinating  con-
       junctions are "because,"	"although," and	"even if."

	      Pronouns	are  contextual	 references to nouns and noun phrases.
	      Documents	with few pronouns generally lack cohesiveness and flu-
	      idity.  Too many pronouns	may indicate ambiguity.

	      Nominalizations are verbs	that are changed to nouns.  Style rec-
	      ognizes words that end in	"ment,"	"ance,"	"ence,"	 or  "ion"  as
	      nominalizations.	 Examples  are	"endowment," "admittance," and
	      "nominalization."	 Too much nominalization  in  a	 document  can
	      sound  abstract  and  be	difficult  to understand.  The flag -N
	      causes style to list all nominalizations.	 The  flag  -n	prints
	      all sentences with either	the passive voice or a nominalization.

       -L language, --language language
	      set the document language	(de, en, nl).

       -l length, --print-long length
	      print all	sentences longer than length words.

       -r ari, --print-ari ari
	      print  all  sentences  whose  readability	index (ARI) is greater
	      than ari.

       -p passive, --print-passive
	      print all	sentences phrased in the passive voice.

       -N nominalizations, --print-nom
	      print all	sentences containing nominalizations.

       -n nominalizations-passive, --print-nom-passive
	      print all	sentences  phrased in the passive voice	or  containing

       -h, --help
	      Print a short usage message.

	      Print the	version.

       On  usage  errors, 1 is returned.  Termination caused by	lack of	memory
       is signalled by exit code 2.

	      specifies	the default document language.	The  default  language
	      is en.

	      specifies	the document character set.  The default character set
	      is ASCII.

       This program  is	 GNU  software,	 copyright  1997-2007  Michael	Haardt

       It  contains  contributions  by Jason Petrone <>, Uschi
       Stegemeier <> and Hans Lodder.

       This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
       under  the  terms of the	GNU General Public License as published	by the
       Free Software Foundation; either	version	3 of the License, or (at  your
       option) any later version.

       This  program  is  distributed  in the hope that	it will	be useful, but
       WITHOUT ANY  WARRANTY;  without	even  the  implied  warranty  of  MER-
       Public License for more details.

       You should have received	a copy of the GNU General Public License along
       with  this  program.   If  not,	write to the Free Software Foundation,
       Inc., 59	Temple Place - Suite 330, Boston, MA 02111-1307, USA.

       There has been a	style command on old UNIX systems, which is  now  part
       of  the	AT&T  DWB  package.  The original version was bound to roff by
       enforcing a call	to deroff.

       deroff(1), diction(1)

       Cherry, L.L.; Vesterman,	W.: Writing Tools--The STYLE and DICTION  pro-
       grams,  Computer	Science	Technical Report 91, Bell Laboratories,	Murray
       Hill, N.J. (1981), republished as part of the 4.4BSD User's  Supplemen-
       tary Documents by O'Reilly.

       Coleman,	 M.  and  Liau,T.L.  (1975).  'A  computer readability formula
       designed	for machine scoring', Journal of  Applied  Psychology,	60(2),

GNU			       August 30th, 2007		      STYLE(1)


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