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STRPTIME(3)                Linux Programmer's Manual               STRPTIME(3)

NAME
       strptime - convert a string representation of time to a time tm
       structure

SYNOPSIS
       #define _XOPEN_SOURCE /* glibc2 needs this */
       #include <time.h>

       char *strptime(const char *s, const char *format, struct tm *tm);

DESCRIPTION
       The strptime() function is the converse function to strftime(3) and
       converts the character string pointed to by s to values which are
       stored in the tm structure pointed to by tm, using the format specified
       by format.  Here format is a character string that consists of field
       descriptors and text characters, reminiscent of scanf(3).  Each field
       descriptor consists of a % character followed by another character that
       specifies the replacement for the field descriptor.  All other
       characters in the format string must have a matching character in the
       input string, except for whitespace, which matches zero or more
       whitespace characters in the input string.  There should be whitespace
       or other alphanumeric characters between any two field descriptors.

       The strptime() function processes the input string from left to right.
       Each of the three possible input elements (whitespace, literal, or
       format) are handled one after the other.  If the input cannot be
       matched to the format string the function stops.  The remainder of the
       format and input strings are not processed.

       The supported input field descriptors are listed below.  In case a text
       string (such as a weekday or month name) is to be matched, the
       comparison is case insensitive.  In case a number is to be matched,
       leading zeros are permitted but not required.

       %%     The % character.

       %a or %A
              The weekday name according to the current locale, in abbreviated
              form or the full name.

       %b or %B or %h
              The month name according to the current locale, in abbreviated
              form or the full name.

       %c     The date and time representation for the current locale.

       %C     The century number (0-99).

       %d or %e
              The day of month (1-31).

       %D     Equivalent to %m/%d/%y.  (This is the American style date, very
              confusing to non-Americans, especially since %d/%m/%y is widely
              used in Europe.  The ISO 8601 standard format is %Y-%m-%d.)

       %H     The hour (0-23).

       %I     The hour on a 12-hour clock (1-12).

       %j     The day number in the year (1-366).

       %m     The month number (1-12).

       %M     The minute (0-59).

       %n     Arbitrary whitespace.

       %p     The locale's equivalent of AM or PM.  (Note: there may be none.)

       %r     The 12-hour clock time (using the locale's AM or PM).  In the
              POSIX locale equivalent to %I:%M:%S %p.  If t_fmt_ampm is empty
              in the LC_TIME part of the current locale then the behavior is
              undefined.

       %R     Equivalent to %H:%M.

       %S     The second (0-60; 60 may occur for leap seconds; earlier also 61
              was allowed).

       %t     Arbitrary whitespace.

       %T     Equivalent to %H:%M:%S.

       %U     The week number with Sunday the first day of the week (0-53).
              The first Sunday of January is the first day of week 1.

       %w     The weekday number (0-6) with Sunday = 0.

       %W     The week number with Monday the first day of the week (0-53).
              The first Monday of January is the first day of week 1.

       %x     The date, using the locale's date format.

       %X     The time, using the locale's time format.

       %y     The year within century (0-99).  When a century is not otherwise
              specified, values in the range 69-99 refer to years in the
              twentieth century (1969-1999); values in the range 00-68 refer
              to years in the twenty-first century (2000-2068).

       %Y     The year, including century (for example, 1991).

       Some field descriptors can be modified by the E or O modifier
       characters to indicate that an alternative format or specification
       should be used.  If the alternative format or specification does not
       exist in the current locale, the unmodified field descriptor is used.

       The E modifier specifies that the input string may contain alternative
       locale-dependent versions of the date and time representation:

       %Ec    The locale's alternative date and time representation.

       %EC    The name of the base year (period) in the locale's alternative
              representation.

       %Ex    The locale's alternative date representation.

       %EX    The locale's alternative time representation.

       %Ey    The offset from %EC (year only) in the locale's alternative
              representation.

       %EY    The full alternative year representation.

       The O modifier specifies that the numerical input may be in an
       alternative locale-dependent format:

       %Od or %Oe
              The day of the month using the locale's alternative numeric
              symbols; leading zeros are permitted but not required.

       %OH    The hour (24-hour clock) using the locale's alternative numeric
              symbols.

       %OI    The hour (12-hour clock) using the locale's alternative numeric
              symbols.

       %Om    The month using the locale's alternative numeric symbols.

       %OM    The minutes using the locale's alternative numeric symbols.

       %OS    The seconds using the locale's alternative numeric symbols.

       %OU    The week number of the year (Sunday as the first day of the
              week) using the locale's alternative numeric symbols.

       %Ow    The number of the weekday (Sunday=0) using the locale's
              alternative numeric symbols.

       %OW    The week number of the year (Monday as the first day of the
              week) using the locale's alternative numeric symbols.

       %Oy    The year (offset from %C) using the locale's alternative numeric
              symbols.

       The broken-down time structure tm is defined in _time.h_ as follows:

           struct tm {
               int tm_sec;        /* seconds */
               int tm_min;        /* minutes */
               int tm_hour;       /* hours */
               int tm_mday;       /* day of the month */
               int tm_mon;        /* month */
               int tm_year;       /* year */
               int tm_wday;       /* day of the week */
               int tm_yday;       /* day in the year */
               int tm_isdst;      /* daylight saving time */
           };

RETURN VALUE
       The return value of the function is a pointer to the first character
       not processed in this function call.  In case the input string contains
       more characters than required by the format string the return value
       points right after the last consumed input character.  In case the
       whole input string is consumed the return value points to the null byte
       at the end of the string.  If strptime() fails to match all of the
       format string and therefore an error occurred the function returns
       NULL.

CONFORMING TO
       SUSv2, POSIX.1-2001.

NOTES
       In principle, this function does not initialize tm but only stores the
       values specified.  This means that tm should be initialized before the
       call.  Details differ a bit between different Unix systems.  The glibc
       implementation does not touch those fields which are not explicitly
       specified, except that it recomputes the tm_wday and tm_yday field if
       any of the year, month, or day elements changed.

       This function is available since libc 4.6.8.  Linux libc4 and libc5
       includes define the prototype unconditionally; glibc2 includes provide
       a prototype only when _XOPEN_SOURCE or _GNU_SOURCE are defined.

       Before libc 5.4.13 whitespace (and the 'n' and 't' specifications) was
       not handled, no 'E' and 'O' locale modifier characters were accepted,
       and the 'C' specification was a synonym for the 'c' specification.

       The 'y' (year in century) specification is taken to specify a year in
       the 20th century by libc4 and libc5.  It is taken to be a year in the
       range 1950-2049 by glibc 2.0.  It is taken to be a year in 1969-2068
       since glibc 2.1.

   Glibc Notes
       For reasons of symmetry, glibc tries to support for strptime() the same
       format characters as for strftime(3).  (In most cases the corresponding
       fields are parsed, but no field in tm is changed.)  This leads to

       %F     Equivalent to %Y-%m-%d, the ISO 8601 date format.

       %g     The year corresponding to the ISO week number, but without the
              century (0-99).

       %G     The year corresponding to the ISO week number.  (For example,
              1991.)

       %u     The day of the week as a decimal number (1-7, where Monday = 1).

       %V     The ISO 8601:1988 week number as a decimal number (1-53).  If
              the week (starting on Monday) containing 1 January has four or
              more days in the new year, then it is considered week 1.
              Otherwise, it is the last week of the previous year, and the
              next week is week 1.

       %z     An RFC-822/ISO 8601 standard timezone specification.

       %Z     The timezone name.

       Similarly, because of GNU extensions to strftime(3), %k is accepted as
       a synonym for %H, and %l should be accepted as a synonym for %I, and %P
       is accepted as a synonym for %p.  Finally

       %s     The number of seconds since the Epoch, 1970-01-01 00:00:00 +0000
              (UTC).  Leap seconds are not counted unless leap second support
              is available.

       The glibc implementation does not require whitespace between two field
       descriptors.

EXAMPLE
       The following example demonstrates the use of strptime() and
       strftime(3).

       #define _XOPEN_SOURCE
       #include <stdio.h>
       #include <stdlib.h>
       #include <string.h>
       #include <time.h>

       int
       main(void)
       {
           struct tm tm;
           char buf[255];

           memset(&tm, 0, sizeof(struct tm));
           strptime("2001-11-12 18:31:01", "%Y-%m-%d %H:%M:%S", &tm);
           strftime(buf, sizeof(buf), "%d %b %Y %H:%M", &tm);
           puts(buf);
           exit(EXIT_SUCCESS);
       }

SEE ALSO
       time(2), getdate(3), scanf(3), setlocale(3), strftime(3),
       feature_test_macros(7)

COLOPHON
       This page is part of release 3.25 of the Linux man-pages project.  A
       description of the project, and information about reporting bugs, can
       be found at http://www.kernel.org/doc/man-pages/.

GNU                               2009-12-05                       STRPTIME(3)

NAME | SYNOPSIS | DESCRIPTION | RETURN VALUE | CONFORMING TO | NOTES | EXAMPLE | SEE ALSO | COLOPHON

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