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strict(3)	       Perl Programmers	Reference Guide		     strict(3)

NAME
       strict -	Perl pragma to restrict	unsafe constructs

SYNOPSIS
	   use strict;

	   use strict "vars";
	   use strict "refs";
	   use strict "subs";

	   use strict;
	   no strict "vars";

DESCRIPTION
       The "strict" pragma disables certain Perl expressions that could	behave
       unexpectedly or are difficult to	debug, turning them into errors. The
       effect of this pragma is	limited	to the current file or scope block.

       If no import list is supplied, all possible restrictions	are assumed.
       (This is	the safest mode	to operate in, but is sometimes	too strict for
       casual programming.)  Currently,	there are three	possible things	to be
       strict about:  "subs", "vars", and "refs".

       "strict refs"
	     This generates a runtime error if you use symbolic	references
	     (see perlref).

		 use strict 'refs';
		 $ref =	\$foo;
		 print $$ref;	     # ok
		 $ref =	"foo";
		 print $$ref;	     # runtime error; normally ok
		 $file = "STDOUT";
		 print $file "Hi!";  # error; note: no comma after $file

	     There is one exception to this rule:

		 $bar =	\&{'foo'};
		 &$bar;

	     is	allowed	so that	"goto &$AUTOLOAD" would	not break under
	     stricture.

       "strict vars"
	     This generates a compile-time error if you	access a variable that
	     was neither explicitly declared (using any	of "my", "our",
	     "state", or "use vars") nor fully qualified.  (Because this is to
	     avoid variable suicide problems and subtle	dynamic	scoping
	     issues, a merely "local" variable isn't good enough.)  See	"my"
	     in	perlfunc, "our"	in perlfunc, "state" in	perlfunc, "local" in
	     perlfunc, and vars.

		 use strict 'vars';
		 $X::foo = 1;	      #	ok, fully qualified
		 my $foo = 10;	      #	ok, my() var
		 local $baz = 9;      #	blows up, $baz not declared before

		 package Cinna;
		 our $bar;		     # Declares	$bar in	current	package
		 $bar =	'HgS';		     # ok, global declared via pragma

	     The local() generated a compile-time error	because	you just
	     touched a global name without fully qualifying it.

	     Because of	their special use by sort(), the variables $a and $b
	     are exempted from this check.

       "strict subs"
	     This disables the poetry optimization, generating a compile-time
	     error if you try to use a bareword	identifier that's not a
	     subroutine, unless	it is a	simple identifier (no colons) and that
	     it	appears	in curly braces	or on the left hand side of the	"=>"
	     symbol.

		 use strict 'subs';
		 $SIG{PIPE} = Plumber;	 # blows up
		 $SIG{PIPE} = "Plumber"; # fine: quoted	string is always ok
		 $SIG{PIPE} = \&Plumber; # preferred form

       See "Pragmatic Modules" in perlmodlib.

HISTORY
       "strict 'subs'",	with Perl 5.6.1, erroneously permitted to use an
       unquoted	compound identifier (e.g. "Foo::Bar") as a hash	key (before
       "=>" or inside curlies),	but without forcing it always to a literal
       string.

       Starting	with Perl 5.8.1	strict is strict about its restrictions: if
       unknown restrictions are	used, the strict pragma	will abort with

	   Unknown 'strict' tag(s) '...'

       As of version 1.04 (Perl	5.10), strict verifies that it is used as
       "strict"	to avoid the dreaded Strict trap on case insensitive file
       systems.

perl v5.28.3			  2020-05-14			     strict(3)

NAME | SYNOPSIS | DESCRIPTION | HISTORY

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