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STAT(2)			    BSD	System Calls Manual		       STAT(2)

     stat, lstat, fstat	-- get file status

     Standard C	Library	(libc, -lc)

     #include <sys/types.h>
     #include <sys/stat.h>

     stat(const	char *path, struct stat	*sb);

     lstat(const char *path, struct stat *sb);

     fstat(int fd, struct stat *sb);

     The stat()	function obtains information about the file pointed to by
     path.  Read, write	or execute permission of the named file	is not re-
     quired, but all directories listed	in the path name leading to the	file
     must be searchable.

     Lstat() is	like stat() except in the case where the named file is a sym-
     bolic link, in which case lstat() returns information about the link,
     while stat() returns information about the	file the link references.

     The fstat() obtains the same information about an open file known by the
     file descriptor fd.

     The sb argument is	a pointer to a stat() structure	as defined by
     <sys/stat.h> (shown below)	and into which information is placed concern-
     ing the file.

     struct stat {
	 dev_t	   st_dev;		 /* inode's device */
	 ino_t	   st_ino;		 /* inode's number */
	 mode_t	   st_mode;		 /* inode protection mode */
	 nlink_t   st_nlink;		 /* number of hard links */
	 uid_t	   st_uid;		 /* user ID of the file's owner	*/
	 gid_t	   st_gid;		 /* group ID of	the file's group */
	 dev_t	   st_rdev;		 /* device type	*/
     #ifndef _POSIX_SOURCE
	 struct	timespec st_atimespec;	/* time	of last	access */
	 struct	timespec st_mtimespec;	/* time	of last	data modification */
	 struct	timespec st_ctimespec;	/* time	of last	file status change */
	 time_t	   st_atime;		 /* time of last access	*/
	 long	   st_atimensec;	 /* nsec of last access	*/
	 time_t	   st_mtime;		 /* time of last data modification */
	 long	   st_mtimensec;	 /* nsec of last data modification */
	 time_t	   st_ctime;		 /* time of last file status change */
	 long	   st_ctimensec;	 /* nsec of last file status change */
	 off_t	   st_size;		 /* file size, in bytes	*/
	 int64_t   st_blocks;		 /* blocks allocated for file */
	 u_int32_t st_blksize;		 /* optimal blocksize for I/O */
	 u_int32_t st_flags;		 /* user defined flags for file	*/
	 u_int32_t st_gen;		 /* file generation number */

     The time-related fields of	struct stat are	as follows:

     st_atime	  Time when file data last accessed.  Changed by the mknod(2),
		  utimes(2) and	read(2)	system calls.

     st_mtime	  Time when file data last modified.  Changed by the mknod(2),
		  utimes(2) and	write(2) system	calls.

     st_ctime	  Time when file status	was last changed (inode	data modifica-
		  tion).  Changed by the chmod(2), chown(2), link(2),
		  mknod(2), rename(2), unlink(2), utimes(2) and	write(2) sys-
		  tem calls.

     If	_POSIX_SOURCE is not defined, the time-related fields are defined as:

     #ifndef _POSIX_SOURCE
     #define st_atime st_atimespec.tv_sec
     #define st_mtime st_mtimespec.tv_sec
     #define st_ctime st_ctimespec.tv_sec

     The size-related fields of	the struct stat	are as follows:

     st_blksize	    The	optimal	I/O block size for the file.

     st_blocks	    The	actual number of blocks	allocated for the file in
		    512-byte units.  As	short symbolic links are stored	in the
		    inode, this	number may be zero.

     The status	information word st_mode has the following bits:

     #define S_IFMT 0170000	      /* type of file */
     #define	    S_IFIFO  0010000  /* named pipe (fifo) */
     #define	    S_IFCHR  0020000  /* character special */
     #define	    S_IFDIR  0040000  /* directory */
     #define	    S_IFBLK  0060000  /* block special */
     #define	    S_IFREG  0100000  /* regular */
     #define	    S_IFLNK  0120000  /* symbolic link */
     #define	    S_IFSOCK 0140000  /* socket	*/
     #define	    S_IFWHT  0160000  /* whiteout */
     #define S_ISUID 0004000  /* set user id on	execution */
     #define S_ISGID 0002000  /* set group id on execution */
     #define S_ISVTX 0001000  /* save swapped text even	after use */
     #define S_IRUSR 0000400  /* read permission, owner	*/
     #define S_IWUSR 0000200  /* write permission, owner */
     #define S_IXUSR 0000100  /* execute/search	permission, owner */

     For a list	of access modes, see <sys/stat.h>, access(2) and chmod(2).

     Upon successful completion, the value 0 is	returned; otherwise the
     value -1 is returned and the global variable errno	is set to indicate the

     Previous versions of the system used different types for the st_dev,
     st_uid, st_gid, st_rdev, st_size, st_blksize and st_blocks	fields.

     Stat() and	lstat()	will fail if:

     [ENOTDIR]		A component of the path	prefix is not a	directory.

     [ENAMETOOLONG]	A component of a pathname exceeded 255 characters, or
			an entire path name exceeded 1023 characters.

     [ENOENT]		The named file does not	exist.

     [EACCES]		Search permission is denied for	a component of the
			path prefix.

     [ELOOP]		Too many symbolic links	were encountered in translat-
			ing the	pathname.

     [EFAULT]		sb or name points to an	invalid	address.

     [EIO]		An I/O error occurred while reading from or writing to
			the file system.

     Fstat() will fail if:

     [EBADF]		fd is not a valid open file descriptor.

     [EFAULT]		sb points to an	invalid	address.

     [EIO]		An I/O error occurred while reading from or writing to
			the file system.

     access(2),	chmod(2), chown(2), utimes(2), symlink(7)

     Applying fstat() to a socket (and thus to a pipe) returns a zeroed	buf-
     fer, except for the blocksize field, and a	unique device and inode	num-

     The stat()	and fstat() function calls are expected	to conform to ISO/IEC
     9945-1:1990 ("POSIX.1").

     A stat() and a fstat() function call appeared in Version 7	AT&T UNIX.  A
     lstat() function call appeared in 4.2BSD.

BSD				  May 1, 1995				   BSD


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