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STAT(2)                   FreeBSD System Calls Manual                  STAT(2)

     stat, lstat, fstat - get file status

     Standard C Library (libc, -lc)

     #include <sys/types.h>
     #include <sys/stat.h>

     stat(const char *path, struct stat *sb);

     lstat(const char *path, struct stat *sb);

     fstat(int fd, struct stat *sb);

     The stat() function obtains information about the file pointed to by
     path.  Read, write or execute permission of the named file is not
     required, but all directories listed in the path name leading to the file
     must be searchable.

     Lstat() is like stat() except in the case where the named file is a
     symbolic link, in which case lstat() returns information about the link,
     while stat() returns information about the file the link references.

     The fstat() obtains the same information about an open file known by the
     file descriptor fd.

     The sb argument is a pointer to a stat() structure as defined by
     <sys/stat.h> (shown below) and into which information is placed
     concerning the file.

     struct stat {
         dev_t     st_dev;               /* inode's device */
         ino_t     st_ino;               /* inode's number */
         mode_t    st_mode;              /* inode protection mode */
         nlink_t   st_nlink;             /* number of hard links */
         uid_t     st_uid;               /* user ID of the file's owner */
         gid_t     st_gid;               /* group ID of the file's group */
         dev_t     st_rdev;              /* device type */
     #ifndef _POSIX_SOURCE
         struct timespec st_atimespec;  /* time of last access */
         struct timespec st_mtimespec;  /* time of last data modification */
         struct timespec st_ctimespec;  /* time of last file status change */
         time_t    st_atime;             /* time of last access */
         long      st_atimensec;         /* nsec of last access */
         time_t    st_mtime;             /* time of last data modification */
         long      st_mtimensec;         /* nsec of last data modification */
         time_t    st_ctime;             /* time of last file status change */
         long      st_ctimensec;         /* nsec of last file status change */
         off_t     st_size;              /* file size, in bytes */
         int64_t   st_blocks;            /* blocks allocated for file */
         u_int32_t st_blksize;           /* optimal blocksize for I/O */
         u_int32_t st_flags;             /* user defined flags for file */
         u_int32_t st_gen;               /* file generation number */

     The fields of struct stat related to the file system are as follows:

     st_dev        The numeric ID of the device containing the file.

     st_ino        The file's inode number.

     st_nlink      The number of hard links to the file.

     The st_dev and st_ino fields together identify the file uniquely within
     the system.

     The time-related fields of struct stat are as follows:

     st_atime     Time when file data last accessed.  Changed by the mknod(2),
                  utimes(2) and read(2) system calls.

     st_mtime     Time when file data last modified.  Changed by the mknod(2),
                  utimes(2) and write(2) system calls.

     st_ctime     Time when file status was last changed (inode data
                  modification).  Changed by the chmod(2), chown(2), link(2),
                  mknod(2), rename(2), unlink(2), utimes(2) and write(2)
                  system calls.

     If _POSIX_SOURCE is not defined, the time-related fields are defined as:

     #ifndef _POSIX_SOURCE
     #define st_atime st_atimespec.tv_sec
     #define st_mtime st_mtimespec.tv_sec
     #define st_ctime st_ctimespec.tv_sec

     The size-related fields of the struct stat are as follows:

     st_size        The file size in bytes.

     st_blksize     The optimal I/O block size for the file.

     st_blocks      The actual number of blocks allocated for the file in
                    512-byte units.  As short symbolic links are stored in the
                    inode, this number may be zero.

     The access-related fields of struct stat are as follows:

     st_uid       The user ID of the file's owner.

     st_gid       The group ID of the file.

     st_mode      Status of the file (see below).

     The status information word st_mode has the following bits:

     #define S_IFMT 0170000           /* type of file */
     #define        S_IFIFO  0010000  /* named pipe (fifo) */
     #define        S_IFCHR  0020000  /* character special */
     #define        S_IFDIR  0040000  /* directory */
     #define        S_IFBLK  0060000  /* block special */
     #define        S_IFREG  0100000  /* regular */
     #define        S_IFLNK  0120000  /* symbolic link */
     #define        S_IFSOCK 0140000  /* socket */
     #define        S_IFWHT  0160000  /* whiteout */
     #define S_ISUID 0004000  /* set user id on execution */
     #define S_ISGID 0002000  /* set group id on execution */
     #define S_ISVTX 0001000  /* save swapped text even after use */
     #define S_IRUSR 0000400  /* read permission, owner */
     #define S_IWUSR 0000200  /* write permission, owner */
     #define S_IXUSR 0000100  /* execute/search permission, owner */

     For a list of access modes, see <sys/stat.h>, access(2) and chmod(2).
     The following macros are available to test whether a st_mode value passed
     in the m argument corresponds to a file of the specified type:

     S_ISBLK(m)      Test for a block special file.

     S_ISCHR(m)      Test for a character special file.

     S_ISDIR(m)      Test for a directory.

     S_ISFIFO(m)     Test for a pipe or FIFO special file.

     S_ISLNK(m)      Test for a symbolic link.

     S_ISREG(m)      Test for a regular file.

     S_ISSOCK(m)     Test for a socket.

     S_ISWHT(m)      Test for a whiteout.

     The macros evaluate to a non-zero value if the test is true or to the
     value 0 if the test is false.

     Upon successful completion, the value 0 is returned; otherwise the
     value -1 is returned and the global variable errno is set to indicate the

     Previous versions of the system used different types for the st_dev,
     st_uid, st_gid, st_rdev, st_size, st_blksize and st_blocks fields.

     Stat() and lstat() will fail if:

     [ENOTDIR]          A component of the path prefix is not a directory.

     [ENAMETOOLONG]     A component of a pathname exceeded 255 characters, or
                        an entire path name exceeded 1023 characters.

     [ENOENT]           The named file does not exist.

     [EACCES]           Search permission is denied for a component of the
                        path prefix.

     [ELOOP]            Too many symbolic links were encountered in
                        translating the pathname.

     [EFAULT]           sb or name points to an invalid address.

     [EIO]              An I/O error occurred while reading from or writing to
                        the file system.

     Fstat() will fail if:

     [EBADF]            fd is not a valid open file descriptor.

     [EFAULT]           sb points to an invalid address.

     [EIO]              An I/O error occurred while reading from or writing to
                        the file system.

     access(2), chmod(2), chown(2), utimes(2), symlink(7), sticky(8)

     Applying fstat() to a socket (and thus to a pipe) returns a zeroed
     buffer, except for the blocksize field, and a unique device and inode

     The stat() and fstat() function calls are expected to conform to IEEE Std
     1003.1-1990 (``POSIX.1'').

     A stat() and a fstat() function call appeared in Version 7 AT&T UNIX.  A
     lstat() function call appeared in 4.2BSD.

FreeBSD 11.0-PRERELEASE        November 15, 2004       FreeBSD 11.0-PRERELEASE


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