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STAT(1)			  BSD General Commands Manual		       STAT(1)

     stat -- display file status

     stat [-FLnq] [-f format | -l | -r | -s | -x] [-t timefmt] [file ...]

     The stat utility displays information about the file pointed to by	file.
     Read, write, or execute permissions of the	named file are not required,
     but all directories listed	in the pathname	leading	to the file must be
     searchable.  If no	argument is given, stat	displays information about the
     file descriptor for standard input.

     The information displayed is obtained by calling lstat(2) with the	given
     argument and evaluating the returned structure.  The default format dis-
     plays the st_dev, st_ino, st_mode,	st_nlink, st_uid, st_gid, st_rdev,
     st_size, st_atime,	st_mtime, st_ctime, st_blksize,	st_blocks, and
     st_flags fields, in that order.

     The options are as	follows:

     -F	     As	in ls(1), display a slash (/) immediately after	each pathname
	     that is a directory, an asterisk (*) after	each that is exe-
	     cutable, an at sign (@) after each	symbolic link, an equal	sign
	     (=) after each socket, and	a vertical bar (|) after each that is
	     a FIFO.  The use of -F implies -l.

     -f	format
	     Display information using the specified format.  See the FORMATS
	     section for a description of valid	formats.

     -L	     Use stat(2) instead of lstat(2).  The information reported	by
	     stat will refer to	the target of file, if file is a symbolic
	     link, and not to file itself.

     -l	     Display output in ls -lT format.

     -n	     Do	not force a newline to appear at the end of each piece of out-

     -q	     Suppress failure messages if calls	to stat(2) or lstat(2) fail.

     -r	     Display raw information.  That is,	for all	the fields in the
	     stat-structure, display the raw, numerical	value (for example,
	     times in seconds since the	Epoch, etc.).

     -s	     Format the	output as a line of shell variable assignments.

     -t	timefmt
	     Display timestamps	using the specified format.  This format is
	     passed directly to	strftime(3).

     -x	     Display information in a more verbose way.

     Format strings are	similar	to printf(3) formats in	that they start	with
     %,	are then followed by a sequence	of formatting characters, and end in a
     character that selects the	field of the struct stat which is to be	for-
     matted.  If the % is immediately followed by one of n, t, %, or @,	then a
     newline character,	a tab character, a percent character, or the current
     file number is printed, otherwise the string is examined for the follow-

     Any of the	following optional flags:

     #	     Selects an	alternate output form for octal	and hexadecimal	out-
	     put.  Non-zero octal output will have a leading zero, and non-
	     zero hexadecimal output will have `0x' prepended to it.

     +	     Asserts that a sign indicating whether a number is	positive or
	     negative should always be printed.	 Non-negative numbers are not
	     usually printed with a sign.

     -	     Aligns string output to the left of the field, instead of to the

     0	     Sets the fill character for left padding to the 0 character, in-
	     stead of a	space.

     space   Reserves a	space at the front of non-negative signed output
	     fields.  A	`+' overrides a	space if both are used.

     Then the following	fields:

     size    An	optional decimal digit string specifying the minimum field

     prec    An	optional precision composed of a decimal point `.' and a deci-
	     mal digit string that indicates the maximum string	length,	the
	     number of digits to appear	after the decimal point	in floating
	     point output, or the minimum number of digits to appear in	nu-
	     meric output.

     fmt     An	optional output	format specifier which is one of D, O, U, X,
	     F,	or S.  These represent signed decimal output, octal output,
	     unsigned decimal output, hexadecimal output, floating point out-
	     put, and string output, respectively.  Some output	formats	do not
	     apply to all fields.  Floating point output only applies to time-
	     spec fields (the a, m, and	c fields).

	     The special output	specifier S may	be used	to indicate that the
	     output, if	applicable, should be in string	format.	 May be	used
	     in	combination with

	     amc     Display date in strftime(3) format.

	     dr	     Display actual device name.

	     gu	     Display group or user name.

	     p	     Display the mode of file as in ls -lTd.

	     N	     Displays the name of file.

	     T	     Displays the type of file.

	     Y	     Insert a "	-> " into the output.  Note that the default
		     output format for Y is a string, but if specified explic-
		     itly, these four characters are prepended.

     sub     An	optional sub field specifier (high, middle, low).  Only	ap-
	     plies to the p, d,	r, and T output	formats.  It can be one	of the

	     H	     High -- specifies the major number	for devices from r or
		     d,	the user bits for permissions from the string form of
		     p,	the file type bits from	the numeric forms of p,	and
		     the long output form of T.

	     L	     Low -- specifies the minor	number for devices from	r or
		     d,	the other bits for permissions from the	string form of
		     p,	the user, group, and other bits	from the numeric forms
		     of	p, and the ls -F style output character	for file type
		     when used with T (the use of L for	this is	optional).

	     M	     Middle -- specifies the group bits	for permissions	from
		     the string	output form of p, or the suid, sgid, and
		     sticky bits for the numeric forms of p.

     datum   A required	field specifier, being one of the following:

	     d	     Device upon which file resides (st_dev).

	     i	     file's inode number (st_ino).

	     p	     File type and permissions (st_mode).

	     l	     Number of hard links to file (st_nlink).

	     u,	g    User-id and group-id of file's owner (st_uid, st_gid).

	     r	     Device number for character and block device special
		     files (st_rdev).

	     a,	m, c, B
		     The time file was last accessed or	modified, or when the
		     inode was last changed, or	the birth time of the inode
		     (st_atime,	st_mtime, st_ctime, st_birthtime).  If the
		     file system does not support birth	time, the value	is un-

	     z	     The size of file in bytes (st_size).

	     b	     Number of blocks allocated	for file (st_blocks).

	     k	     Optimal file system I/O operation block size

	     f	     User defined flags	for file (st_flags).

	     v	     Inode generation number (st_gen).

	     The following four	field specifiers are not drawn directly	from
	     the data in struct	stat, but are:

	     N	     The name of the file.

	     T	     The file type, either as in ls -F or in a more descrip-
		     tive form if the sub field	specifier H is given.

	     Y	     The target	of a symbolic link.

	     Z	     Expands to	major,minor from the rdev field	for character
		     or	block special devices and gives	size output for	all

     Only the %	and the	field specifier	are required.  Most field specifiers
     default to	U as an	output form, with the exception	of p which defaults to
     O;	a, m, and c which default to D;	and Y, T, and N, which default to S.

     The stat utility exits 0 on success, and >0 if an error occurs.

     Given a symbolic link foo that points from	/tmp/foo to /, you would use
     stat as follows:

	   > stat -F /tmp/foo
	   lrwxrwxrwx 1	jschauma cs 1 Apr 24 16:37:28 2002 /tmp/foo@ ->	/

	   > stat -LF /tmp/foo
	   drwxr-xr-x 16 root wheel 512	Apr 19 10:57:54	2002 /tmp/foo/

     To	initialize some	shell-variables, you could use the -s flag as follows:

	   > csh
	   % eval set `stat -s .cshrc`
	   % echo $st_size $st_mtime
	   1148	1015432481

	   > sh
	   $ eval $(stat -s .profile)
	   $ echo $st_size $st_mtime
	   1148	1015432481

     In	order to get a list of the kind	of files including files pointed to if
     the file is a symbolic link, you could use	the following format:

	   $ stat -f "%N: %HT%SY" /tmp/*
	   /tmp/bar: Symbolic Link -> /tmp/foo
	   /tmp/output25568: Regular File
	   /tmp/blah: Directory
	   /tmp/foo: Symbolic Link -> /

     In	order to get a list of the devices, their types	and the	major and mi-
     nor device	numbers, formatted with	tabs and linebreaks, you could use the
     following format:

	 stat -f "Name:	%N%n%tType: %HT%n%tMajor: %Hr%n%tMinor:	%Lr%n%n" /dev/*
	 Name: /dev/xfs0
		 Type: Character Device
		 Major:	51
		 Minor:	0

	 Name: /dev/zero
		 Type: Character Device
		 Major:	2
		 Minor:	12

     In	order to determine the permissions set on a file separately, you could
     use the following format:

	   > stat -f "%Sp -> owner=%SHp	group=%SMp other=%SLp" .
	   drwxr-xr-x -> owner=rwx group=r-x other=r-x

     In	order to determine the three files that	have been modified most	re-
     cently, you could use the following format:

	   > stat -f "%m%t%Sm %N" /tmp/* | sort	-rn | head -3 |	cut -f2-
	   Apr 25 11:47:00 2002	/tmp/blah
	   Apr 25 10:36:34 2002	/tmp/bar
	   Apr 24 16:47:35 2002	/tmp/foo

     file(1), ls(1), readlink(1), lstat(2), readlink(2), stat(2), printf(3),

     The stat utility first appeared in	OpenBSD	3.8.

     The stat utility was written by Andrew Brown <>.	This
     man page was written by Jan Schaumann <>.

BSD				March 16, 2018				   BSD


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