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STAT(2)			    BSD	System Calls Manual		       STAT(2)

     stat, lstat, fstat	-- get file status

     #include <sys/types.h>
     #include <sys/stat.h>

     stat(const	char *path, struct stat	*buf);

     lstat(const char *path, struct stat *buf);

     fstat(int fd, struct stat *buf);

     The stat()	function obtains information about the file pointed to by
     path.  Read, write	or execute permission of the named file	is not re-
     quired, but all directories listed	in the path name leading to the	file
     must be seachable.

     Lstat() is	like stat() except in the case where the named file is a sym-
     bolic link, in which case lstat() returns information about the link,
     while stat() returns information about the	file the link references.

     The fstat() obtains the same information about an open file known by the
     file descriptor fd, such as would be obtained by an open call.

     Buf is a pointer to a stat() structure as defined by <sys/stat.h> (shown
     below) and	into which information is placed concerning the	file.

     struct stat {
	 dev_t	  st_dev;    /*	device inode resides on	*/
	 ino_t	  st_ino;    /*	inode's	number */
	 mode_t	  st_mode;   /*	inode protection mode */
	 nlink_t  st_nlink;  /*	number or hard links to	the file */
	 uid_t	  st_uid;    /*	user-id	of owner */
	 gid_t	  st_gid;    /*	group-id of owner */
	 dev_t	  st_rdev;   /*	device type, for special file inode */
	 off_t	  st_size;   /*	file size, in bytes */
	 time_t	  st_atime;  /*	time of	last access */
	 long	  st_spare1;
	 time_t	  st_mtime;  /*	time of	last data modification */
	 long	  st_spare2;
	 time_t	  st_ctime;  /*	time of	last file status change	*/
	 long	  st_spare3;
	 long	  st_blksize;/*	optimal	file sys I/O ops blocksize */
	 long	  st_blocks; /*	blocks allocated for file */
	 u_long	  st_flags;  /*	user defined flags for file */
	 u_long	  st_gen;    /*	file generation	number */

     The time-related fields of	struct stat are	as follows:

     st_atime	Time when file data last accessed.  Changed by the following
		system calls: mknod(2),	utimes(2), and read(2).

     st_mtime	Time when file data last modified.  Changed by the following
		system calls: mknod(2),	utimes(2), write(2).

     st_ctime	Time when file status was last changed (inode data modifica-
		tion).	Changed	by the following system	calls: chmod(2)
		chown(2), link(2), mknod(2), rename(2),	unlink(2), utimes(2),

     st_blocks	The actual number of blocks allocated for the file in 512-byte

     The status	information word st_mode has bits:

     #define S_IFMT 0170000	      /* type of file */
     #define	    S_IFIFO  0010000  /* named pipe (fifo) */
     #define	    S_IFCHR  0020000  /* character special */
     #define	    S_IFDIR  0040000  /* directory */
     #define	    S_IFBLK  0060000  /* block special */
     #define	    S_IFREG  0100000  /* regular */
     #define	    S_IFLNK  0120000  /* symbolic link */
     #define	    S_IFSOCK 0140000  /* socket	*/
     #define S_ISUID 0004000  /* set user id on	execution */
     #define S_ISGID 0002000  /* set group id on execution */
     #define S_ISVTX 0001000  /* save swapped text even	after use */
     #define S_IRUSR 0000400  /* read permission, owner	*/
     #define S_IWUSR 0000200  /* write permission, owner */
     #define S_IXUSR 0000100  /* execute/search	permission, owner */

     For a list	of access modes, see <sys/stat.h>, access(2) and chmod(2).

     Upon successful completion	a value	of 0 is	returned.  Otherwise, a	value
     of	-1 is returned and errno is set	to indicate the	error.

     Stat() and	lstat()	will fail if:

     [ENOTDIR]	     A component of the	path prefix is not a directory.

     [EINVAL]	     The pathname contains a character with the	high-order bit

     [ENAMETOOLONG]  A component of a pathname exceeded	255 characters,	or an
		     entire path name exceeded 1023 characters.

     [ENOENT]	     The named file does not exist.

     [EACCES]	     Search permission is denied for a component of the	path

     [ELOOP]	     Too many symbolic links were encountered in translating
		     the pathname.

     [EFAULT]	     Buf or name points	to an invalid address.

     [EIO]	     An	I/O error occurred while reading from or writing to
		     the file system.

     Fstat() will fail if:

     [EBADF]   fd is not a valid open file descriptor.

     [EFAULT]  Buf points to an	invalid	address.

     [EIO]     An I/O error occurred while reading from	or writing to the file

     The fields	in the stat structure currently	marked st_spare1, st_spare2,
     and st_spare3 are present in preparation for inode	time stamps expanding
     to	64 bits.  This,	however, can break certain programs that depend	on the
     time stamps being contiguous (in calls to utimes(2)).

     chmod(2), chown(2), utimes(2)

     Applying fstat to a socket	(and thus to a pipe) returns a zero'd buffer,
     except for	the blocksize field, and a unique device and inode number.

     The stat()	and fstat() function calls are expected	to conform to IEEE Std
     1003.1-1988 ("POSIX").

     A lstat function call appeared in 4.2BSD.

4th Berkeley Distribution	March 10, 1991	     4th Berkeley Distribution


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