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standards(5)	      Standards, Environments, and Macros	  standards(5)

       standards,  ANSI,  C,  C++,  ISO,  POSIX, POSIX.1, POSIX.2, SUS,	SUSv2,
       SVID, SVID3, XNS, XNS4, XNS5, XPG, XPG3,	XPG4, XPG4v2 -	standards  and
       specifications supported	by Solaris

       Solaris	9supports  IEEE	Std 1003.1 and IEEE Std	1003.2,	commonly known
       as POSIX.1 and POSIX.2, respectively. The following  table  lists  each
       version	of  these  standards with a brief description and the SunOS or
       Solaris release that first conformed to it.

       POSIX Standard		  Description		       Release
       POSIX.1-1988	system interfaces and headers	  SunOS	4.1
       POSIX.1-1990	POSIX.1-1988 update		  Solaris 2.0
       POSIX.1b-1993	realtime extensions		  Solaris 2.4
       POSIX.1c-1996	threads	extensions		  Solaris 2.6
       POSIX.2-1992	shell and utilities		  Solaris 2.5
       POSIX.2a-1992	interactive shell and utilities	  Solaris 2.5

       Solaris 9also  supports	the  X/Open  Common  Applications  Environment
       (CAE)  Portability Guide	Issue 3	(XPG3) and Issue 4 (XPG4), Single UNIX
       Specification (SUS, also	known as XPG4v2), and Single  UNIX  Specifica-
       tion,  Version 2	(SUSv2). Both XPG4 and SUS include Networking Services
       Issue 4 (XNS4). SUSv2 includes Networking Services Issue	5 (XNS5).

       The following table lists each X/Open specification with	 a  brief  de-
       scription and the SunOS or Solaris release that first conformed to it.

       X/Open CAE Specification		 Description		    Release
       XPG3			  superset  of	POSIX.1-1988   SunOS 4.1
				  containing utilities	from
       XPG4			  superset  of POSIX.1-1990,   Solaris 2.4
				  POSIX.2-1992,		 and
				  POSIX.2a-1992	  containing
				  extensions to	POSIX  stan-
				  dards	from XPG3
       SUS (XPG4v2)		  superset  of XPG4 contain-   Solaris 2.6
				  ing historical BSD  inter-
				  faces	 widely	used by	com-
				  mon application packages
       XNS4			  sockets and XTI interfaces   Solaris 2.6
       SUSv2			  superset of  SUS  extended   Solaris 7
				  to  support POSIX.1b-1993,
				  POSIX.1c-1996, and ISO/IEC
				  9899	(C  Standard) Amend-
				  ment 1
       XNS5			  superset  and	  LP64-clean   Solaris 7
				  derivative of	XNS4.

       The  XNS4 specification is safe for use only in ILP32 (32-bit) environ-
       ments and should	not be used for	 LP64  (64-bit)	 application  environ-
       ments.  Use  XNS5,  which  has  LP64-clean interfaces that are portable
       across ILP32 and	LP64 environments. Solaris releases 7 through  9  sup-
       port both the ILP32 and ILP64 enviornments.

       Solaris	releases  7 through 9 have been	branded	to conform to The Open
       Group's UNIX 98 Product Standard.

       Solaris releases	2.0 through 9 support the interfaces specified by  the
       System  V  Interface  Definition,  Third	 Edition,  Volumes 1 through 4
       (SVID3).	 Note, however,	that since the developers of  this  specifica-
       tion  (UNIX  Systems  Laboratories) are no longer in business and since
       this specification defers to POSIX and X/Open CAE specifications, there
       is  some	 disagreement about what is currently required for conformance
       to this specification.

       When Sun	WorkShop Compilertm C 4.2 is installed,	Solaris	 releases  2.0
       through	9  support  the	 ANSI X3.159-1989 Programming Language - C and
       ISO/IEC 9899:1990 Programming Language -	C (C) interfaces.

       When Sun	WorkShop Compilertm C 5.0 is  installed,  Solaris  releases  7
       through 9 also support ISO/IEC 9899 Amendment 1:	C Integrity.

       When Sun	WorkShop Compiler C++ 5.0 is installed,	Solaris	releases 2.5.1
       through 9 support ISO/IEC 14882:1998 Programming	Languages - C++.   Un-
       supported  features  of	that  standard	are  described in the compiler
       README file.  The features of the C++  standard	adopted	 from  ISO/IEC
       9899 Amendement 1 are not supported on Solaris 2.5.1, and are only par-
       tially supported	on Solaris 2.6.

       If the behavior required	by POSIX.2, POSIX.2a, XPG4, SUS, or SUSv2 con-
       flicts  with  historical	Solaris	utility	behavior, the original Solaris
       version of the utility is unchanged; a new version  that	 is  standard-
       conforming has been provided in /usr/xpg4/bin. For applications wishing
       to take advantage of POSIX.2, POSIX.2a, XPG4, SUS, or  SUSv2  features,
       the  PATH (sh or	ksh) or	path (csh) environment variables should	be set
       with /usr/xpg4/bin preceding any	other directories in  which  utilities
       specified  by  those  specifications are	found, such as /bin, /usr/bin,
       /usr/ucb, and /usr/ccs/bin.

   Feature Test	Macros
       Feature test macros are used by	applications  to  indicate  additional
       sets of features	that are desired beyond	those specified	by the C stan-
       dard. If	an application uses only those interfaces and headers  defined
       by  a  particular standard (such	as POSIX or X/Open CAE),  then it need
       only define the appropriate feature test	macro specified	by that	 stan-
       dard. If	the application	is using interfaces and	headers	not defined by
       that standard, then in addition to defining  the	 appropriate  standard
       feature	test macro, it must also define	__EXTENSIONS__.	Defining __EX-
       TENSIONS__ provides the application with	access to all  interfaces  and
       headers	not  in	 conflict with the specified standard. The application
       must define __EXTENSIONS__ either at compile time or  within the	appli-
       catio'n source files.

       No  feature test	macros need to be defined to indicate that an applica-
       tion is a conforming C application.

       ANSI/ISO	C++ does not define any	feature	test macros. If	 the  standard
       C++  announcement  macro	 __cplusplus  is predefined to value 199711 or
       greater,	the compiler operates in a standard-conforming mode,  indicat-
       ing  C++	 standards conformance.	The value 199711 indicates conformance
       to ISO/IEC 14882:1998, as required by that standard.  (As noted	above,
       conformance to the standard is incomplete.)  A standard-conforming mode
       is not available	with compilers prior to	Sun WorkShop C++ 5.0.

       C++ bindings are	not defined for	POSIX or  X/Open  CAE,	so  specifying
       feature	test macros such as _POSIX_SOURCE and _XOPEN_SOURCE can	result
       in compilation errors due to conflicting	requirements of	 standard  C++
       and those specifications.

       Applications  that  are	intended to be conforming POSIX.1 applications
       must define the feature test macros specified by	 the  standard	before
       including  any  headers.	  For the standards listed below, applications
       must define the feature test macros listed.  Application	 writers  must
       check  the corresponding	standards for other macros that	can be queried
       to determine if desired options are supported by	the implementation.

	     POSIX Standard		     Feature Test Macros
       POSIX.1-1990		     _POSIX_SOURCE
       POSIX.1-1990 and		     _POSIX_SOURCE and _POSIX_C_SOURCE=2
	 Bindings Option
       POSIX.1b-1993		     _POSIX_C_SOURCE=199309L
       POSIX.1c-1996		     _POSIX_C_SOURCE=199506L

       The SVID3 specification does not	specify	any feature test macros	to in-
       dicate  that an application is written to meet SVID3 requirements.  The
       SVID3 specification was written before the C standard was completed.

   X/Open CAE
       To build	or compile an application that conforms	to one of  the	X/Open
       CAE specifications, use the following guidelines. Applications need not
       set the POSIX feature test macros if they require both  CAE  and	 POSIX

       XPG3  The application must define _XOPEN_SOURCE with a value other than
	     500 (preferably 1).

       XPG4  The application must define _XOPEN_SOURCE with a value other than
	     500 (preferably 1)	and set	_XOPEN_VERSION=4.

       SUS (XPG4v2)
	     The application must define _XOPEN_SOURCE with a value other than
	     500 (preferably 1)	and set	_XOPEN_SOURCE_EXTENDED=1.

       SUSv2 The application must define _XOPEN_SOURCE=500.

       A POSIX.2-, XPG4-, SUS-,	or SUSv2-conforming  implementation  must  in-
       clude  an ANSI X3.159-1989 (ANSI	C Language) standard-conforming	compi-
       lation system and the cc	and c89	utilities. Solaris 7  through  9  were
       tested  with  the  cc and c89 utilities and the compilation system pro-
       vided by	Sun WorkShop Compilertm	C 5.0 in the  SPARC  and  IA  environ-
       ments. When cc is used to link applications, /usr/ccs/lib/values-xpg4.o
       must be specified on any	link/load command line,	but the	preferred  way
       to build	applications is	described below.

       An  XNS4-  or  XNS5-conforming  application  must include -l XNS	on any
       link/load command line in addition to defining the feature test	macros
       specified for SUS or SUSv2, respectively.

       If  the compiler	suppports the redefine_extname pragma feature (the Sun
       WorkShop	Compilertm C 4.2 and Sun WorkShop Compilertm C	5.0  compilers
       define the macro	__PRAGMA_REDEFINE_EXTNAME to indicate that it supports
       this feature), then the standard	headers	use  #pragma  redefine_extname
       directives  to  properly	 map  function	names onto library entry point
       names. This mapping provides full support for ISO C, POSIX, and	X/Open
       namespace  reservations.	  The  Sun WorkShop  Compilertm	C 5.0 compiler
       was used	for all	branding and certification tests for Solaris  releases
       7 through 9.

       If  this	 pragma	 feature is not	supported by the compiler, the headers
       use the #define directive to map	internal function names	onto appropri-
       ate  library  entry  point names. In this instance, applications	should
       avoid using the explicit	64-bit	file  offset  symbols  listed  on  the
       lf64(5)	manual	page, since these names	are used by the	implementation
       to name the alternative entry points.

       When using Sun WorkShop Compilertm C 5.0,  applications	conforming  to
       the  specifications listed above	should be compiled using the utilities
       and flags indicated in the following table:

	   Specification       Compiler/Flags	     Feature Test Macros
       ANSI/ISO	C	       c89		none
       SVID3		       cc -Xt		none
       POSIX.1-1990	       c89		_POSIX_SOURCE
       POSIX.1-1990 and	       c89		_POSIX_SOURCE  and
	 POSIX.2-1992				  POSIX_C_SOURCE=2
	 Bindings Option
       POSIX.1b-1993	       c89		_POSIX_C_SOURCE=199309L
       POSIX.1c-1996	       c89		_POSIX_C_SOURCE=199506L
       CAE XPG3		       cc -Xa		_XOPEN_SOURCE
       CAE XPG4		       c89		_XOPEN_SOURCE and
       SUS (CAE	XPG4v2)	       c89		_XOPEN_SOURCE and
	 (includes XNS4)			  _XOPEN_SOURCE_EXTENDED=1
       SUSv2 (includes XNS5)   c89		_XOPEN_SOURCE=500

       For platforms supporting	 the  LP64  (64-bit)  programming  environment
       where  the  SC5.0  Compilers have been installed, SUSv2-conforming LP64
       applications using XNS5 library calls  should  be  built	 with  command
       lines of	the form:

       c89 $(getconf XBS5_LP64_OFF64_CFLAGS) -D_XOPEN_SOURCE=500 \
	   $(getconf XBS5_LP64_OFF64_LDFLAGS) foo.c -o foo \
	   $(getconf XBS5_LP64_OFF64_LIBS) -lxnet

       sysconf(3C), environ(5),	lf64(5)

SunOS 5.9			  29 Aug 2001			  standards(5)


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