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standards(5)	      Standards, Environments, and Macros	  standards(5)

NAME
       standards,  ANSI,  C,  C++,  ISO,  POSIX, POSIX.1, POSIX.2, SUS,	SUSv2,
       SUSv3, SVID, SVID3, XNS,	XNS4, XNS5, XPG, XPG3, XPG4,  XPG4v2  -	 stan-
       dards and specifications	supported by Solaris

DESCRIPTION
       Solaris 10 supports IEEE	Std 1003.1 and IEEE Std	1003.2,	commonly known
       as POSIX.1 and POSIX.2, respectively. The following  table  lists  each
       version	of  these  standards with a brief description and the SunOS or
       Solaris release that first conformed to it.

       POSIX Standard		   Description		      Release
       POSIX.1-1988	system interfaces and headers	    SunOS 4.1
       POSIX.1-1990	POSIX.1-1988 update		    Solaris 2.0
       POSIX.1b-1993	realtime extensions		    Solaris 2.4
       POSIX.1c-1996	threads	extensions		    Solaris 2.6
       POSIX.2-1992	shell and utilities		    Solaris 2.5
       POSIX.2a-1992	interactive shell and utilities	    Solaris 2.5
       POSIX.1-2001	POSIX.1-1990,	   POSIX.1b-1993,   Solaris 10
			POSIX.1c-1996,	POSIX.2-1992, and
			POSIX.2a-1992 updates

       Solaris 10 also	supports the X/Open  Common  Applications  Environment
       (CAE)  Portability Guide	Issue 3	(XPG3) and Issue 4 (XPG4); Single UNIX
       Specification (SUS, also	known as XPG4v2); Single  UNIX	Specification,
       Version	2  (SUSv2);  and Single	UNIX Specification, Version 3 (SUSv3).
       Both XPG4 and SUS include Networking Services  Issue  4	(XNS4).	 SUSv2
       includes	Networking Services Issue 5 (XNS5).

       The  following  table  lists  each  X/Open  specification  with a brief
       description and the SunOS or Solaris release that  first	 conformed  to
       it.

	 X/Open	CAE
	Specification	Description			    Release
       XPG3		superset of POSIX.1-1988 contain-   SunOS 4.1
			ing utilities from SVID3
       XPG4		superset     of	    POSIX.1-1990,   Solaris 2.4
			POSIX.2-1992,  and  POSIX.2a-1992
			containing  extensions	to  POSIX
			standards from XPG3
       SUS (XPG4v2)	superset  of XPG4 containing his-   Solaris 2.6
			torical	 BSD  interfaces   widely
			used  by common	application pack-
			ages
       XNS4		sockets	and XTI	interfaces	    Solaris 2.6
       SUSv2		superset of SUS	extended to  sup-   Solaris 7
			port		   POSIX.1b-1993,
			POSIX.1c-1996, and  ISO/IEC  9899
			(C Standard) Amendment 1
       XNS5		superset  and  LP64-clean deriva-   Solaris 7
			tive of	XNS4.
       SUSv3		same as	POSIX.1-2001		    Solaris 10

       The XNS4	specification is safe for use only in ILP32 (32-bit)  environ-
       ments  and  should  not	be used	for LP64 (64-bit) application environ-
       ments. Use XNS5 or SUSv3, which have  LP64-clean	 interfaces  that  are
       portable	across ILP32 and LP64 environments. Solaris releases 7 through
       10 support both the ILP32 and LP64 environments.

       Solaris releases	7 through 10 have been branded to conform to The  Open
       Group's	UNIX  98 Product Standard. Solaris 10 has been branded to con-
       form to The Open	Group's	UNIX 03	Product	Standard.

       Solaris releases	2.0 through 10 support the interfaces specified	by the
       System  V  Interface  Definition,  Third	 Edition,  Volumes 1 through 4
       (SVID3).	 Note, however,	that since the developers of  this  specifica-
       tion  (UNIX  Systems  Laboratories) are no longer in business and since
       this specification defers to POSIX and X/Open CAE specifications, there
       is  some	 disagreement about what is currently required for conformance
       to this specification.

       When Sun	Studio C Compiler  5.6	is  installed,	Solaris	 releases  2.0
       through	10  support  the ANSI X3.159-1989 Programming Language - C and
       ISO/IEC 9899:1990 Programming Language -	C (C) interfaces.

       When Sun	Studio C Compiler 5.6 is installed, Solaris releases 7 through
       10 support ISO/IEC 9899:1990 Amendment 1:1995: C	Integrity.

       When  Sun  Studio  C  Compiler  5.6  is	installed, Solaris 10 supports
       ISO/IEC 9899:1999 Programming Languages - C.

       When Sun	Studio C++ Compiler 5.6	is installed, Solaris  releases	 2.5.1
       through	10  support  ISO/IEC  14882:1998  Programming Languages	- C++.
       Unsupported features of that standard are  described  in	 the  compiler
       README file.

   Utilities
       If the behavior required	by POSIX.2, POSIX.2a, XPG4, SUS, or SUSv2 con-
       flicts with historical Solaris utility behavior,	the  original  Solaris
       version	of  the	 utility is unchanged; a new version that is standard-
       conforming has been provided in /usr/xpg4/bin. If the behavior required
       by  POSIX.1-2001	 or  SUSv3  conflicts  with historical Solaris utility
       behavior, a new version that is standard-conforming has	been  provided
       in  /usr/xpg4/bin  or  in  /usr/xpg6/bin.  If  the behavior required by
       POSIX.1-2001 or SUSv3 conflicts with POSIX.2, POSIX.2a, SUS, or	SUSv2,
       a  new  version	that is	SUSv3 standard-conforming has been provided in
       /usr/xpg6/bin.

       An application that wants to use	standard-conforming utilitues must set
       the  PATH  (sh(1)  or  ksh(1)) or path (csh(1)) environment variable to
       specify the directories listed in the  following	 table	in  the	 order
       specified to get	the appropriate	utilities:

       Standard		     Utility Directories
       SVID3, XPG3
			     1.	 /usr/ccs/bin

			     2.	 /usr/bin

			     3.	 directory  containing binaries	for
				 your compiler

			     4.	 other directories containing bina-
				 ries needed by	the application

       POSIX.2,	 POSIX.2a,
       SUS, SUSv2, XPG4	     1.	 /usr/xpg4/bin

			     2.	 /usr/ccs/bin

			     3.	 /usr/bin

			     4.	 directory containing binaries	for
				 your compiler

			     5.	 other directories containing bina-
				 ries needed by	the application

       POSIX.1-2001, SUSv3
			     1.	 /usr/xpg6/bin

			     2.	 /usr/xpg4/bin

			     3.	 /usr/ccs/bin

			     4.	 /usr/bin

			     5.	 directory containing binaries	for
				 your compiler

			     6.	 other directories containing bina-
				 ries needed by	the application

       When an application uses	execlp() or execvp() (see exec(2)) to  execute
       a shell file, or	uses system(3C), the shell used	to interpret the shell
       file depends on the standard to which the caller	conforms:

       Standard			     Shell Used
       1989 ANSI C,  1990  ISO	C,   /usr/xpg4/bin/sh
       1999    ISO    C,   POSIX.1
       (1990-2001),  SUS,   SUSv2,
       SUSv3, XPG4
       POSIX.1	  (1988),   SVID3,   /usr/bin/sh
       XPG3, no	standard specified

   Feature Test	Macros
       Feature	test  macros  are  used	by applications	to indicate additional
       sets of features	that are desired beyond	those specified	by the C stan-
       dard.  If an application	uses only those	interfaces and headers defined
       by a particular standard	(such as POSIX or X/Open CAE),	then  it  need
       only  define the	appropriate feature test macro specified by that stan-
       dard. If	the application	is using interfaces and	headers	not defined by
       that  standard,	then  in addition to defining the appropriate standard
       feature test  macro,  it	 must  also  define  __EXTENSIONS__.  Defining
       __EXTENSIONS__  provides	 the application with access to	all interfaces
       and headers not in conflict with	the specified standard.	 The  applica-
       tion  must  define __EXTENSIONS__ either	on the compile command line or
       within the application source files.

   1989	ANSI C,	1990 ISO C, 1999 ISO C
       No feature test macros need to be defined to indicate that an  applica-
       tion is a conforming C application.

   ANSI/ISO C++
       ANSI/ISO	 C++  does not define any feature test macros. If the standard
       C++ announcement	macro __cplusplus is predefined	 to  value  199711  or
       greater,	 the compiler operates in a standard-conforming	mode, indicat-
       ing C++ standards conformance. The value	199711	indicates  conformance
       to  ISO/IEC 14882:1998, as required by that standard.  (As noted	above,
       conformance to the standard is incomplete.)  A standard-conforming mode
       is not available	with compilers prior to	Sun WorkShop C++ 5.0.

       C++  bindings  are  not	defined	for POSIX or X/Open CAE, so specifying
       feature	test  macros  such  as	_POSIX_SOURCE,	_POSIX_C_SOURCE,   and
       _XOPEN_SOURCE  can  result  in  compilation  errors  due	to conflicting
       requirements of standard	C++ and	those specifications.

   POSIX
       Applications that are intended to be  conforming	 POSIX.1  applications
       must  define  the  feature test macros specified	by the standard	before
       including any headers.  For the standards  listed  below,  applications
       must  define  the feature test macros listed.  Application writers must
       check the corresponding standards for other macros that can be  queried
       to determine if desired options are supported by	the implementation.

	     POSIX Standard		     Feature Test Macros
       POSIX.1-1990		     _POSIX_SOURCE
       POSIX.1-1990	       and   _POSIX_SOURCE and _POSIX_C_SOURCE=2
       POSIX.2-1992	C-Language
       Bindings	Option
       POSIX.1b-1993		     _POSIX_C_SOURCE=199309L
       POSIX.1c-1996		     _POSIX_C_SOURCE=199506L
       POSIX.1-2001		     _POSIX_C_SOURCE=200112L

   SVID3
       The  SVID3  specification  does	not specify any	feature	test macros to
       indicate	that an	application is written	to  meet  SVID3	 requirements.
       The  SVID3  specification  was  written	before the C standard was com-
       pleted.

   X/Open CAE
       To build	or compile an application that conforms	to one of  the	X/Open
       CAE specifications, use the following guidelines. Applications need not
       set the POSIX feature test macros if they require both  CAE  and	 POSIX
       functionality.

       XPG3	       The   application   must	  define   _XOPEN_SOURCE.   If
		       _XOPEN_SOURCE is	defined	with a value, the  value  must
		       be less than 500.

       XPG4	       The  application	 must  define  _XOPEN_SOURCE  and  set
		       _XOPEN_VERSION=4. If _XOPEN_SOURCE is  defined  with  a
		       value, the value	must be	less than 500.

       SUS (XPG4v2)    The  application	 must  define  _XOPEN_SOURCE  and  set
		       _XOPEN_SOURCE_EXTENDED=1. If _XOPEN_SOURCE  is  defined
		       with a value, the value must be less than 500.

       SUSv2	       The application must define _XOPEN_SOURCE=500.

       SUSv3	       The application must define _XOPEN_SOURCE=600.

   Compilation
       A POSIX.1 (1988-1996)-, XPG4-, SUS-, or SUSv2-conforming	implementation
       must include an ANSI X3.159-1989	(ANSI C	Language)  standard-conforming
       compilation  system  and	 the  cc and c89 utilities. A POSIX.1-2001- or
       SUSv3-conforming	implementation	must  include  an  ISO/IEC  99899:1999
       (1999  ISO  C  Language)	standard-conforming compilation	system and the
       c99 utility. Solaris 10 was tested with the cc, c89, and	c99  utilities
       and  the	compilation environment	provided by Sun	Studio C Compiler 5.6.

       When cc is used to link applications,  /usr/lib/values-xpg4.o  must  be
       specified  on  any  link/load  command  line, unless the	application is
       POSIX.1-2001- or	SUSv3-conforming, in which case	/usr/lib/values-xpg6.o
       must  be	 specified on any link/load compile line. The preferred	way to
       build applications, however, is described in the	table below.

       An XNS4-	or XNS5-conforming application must  include  -l  XNS  on  any
       link/load  command line in addition to defining the feature test	macros
       specified for SUS or SUSv2, respectively.

       If the compiler suppports the redefine_extname pragma feature (the  Sun
       Studio  C  Compiler  5.6	 compilers  define  the	 macro	__PRAGMA_REDE-
       FINE_EXTNAME to indicate	that it	supports this feature),	then the stan-
       dard  headers  use  #pragma redefine_extname directives to properly map
       function	names onto library entry point names.  This  mapping  provides
       full support for	ISO C, POSIX, and X/Open namespace reservations.

       If  this	 pragma	 feature is not	supported by the compiler, the headers
       use the #define directive to map	internal function names	onto appropri-
       ate  library  entry  point names. In this instance, applications	should
       avoid using the explicit	64-bit	file  offset  symbols  listed  on  the
       lf64(5)	manual	page, since these names	are used by the	implementation
       to name the alternative entry points.

       When using Sun Studio C Compiler	5.6 compilers, applications conforming
       to  the specifications listed above should be compiled using the	utili-
       ties and	flags indicated	in the following table:

	     Specification	     Compiler/Flags	    Feature Test Macros
       1989 ANSI C and 1990 ISO	C   c89			none
       1999 ISO	C		    c99			none
       SVID3			    cc -Xt -xc99=none	none
       POSIX.1-1990		    c89			_POSIX_SOURCE
       POSIX.1-1990 and		    c89			_POSIX_SOURCE  and
	 POSIX.2-1992					 POSIX_C_SOURCE=2
	 C-Language
	 Bindings Option
       POSIX.1b-1993		    c89			_POSIX_C_SOURCE=199309L
       POSIX.1c-1996		    c89			_POSIX_C_SOURCE=199506L
       POSIX.1-2001		    c99			_POSIX_C_SOURCE=200112L
       POSIX.1c-1996		    c89			_POSIX_C_SOURCE=199506L
       CAE XPG3			    cc -Xa -xc99=none	_XOPEN_SOURCE

       CAE XPG4			    c89			_XOPEN_SOURCE and
							 _XOPEN_VERSION=4
       SUS (CAE	XPG4v2)		    c89			_XOPEN_SOURCE and
	 (includes XNS4)				 _XOPEN_SOURCE_EXTENDED=1
       SUSv2 (includes XNS5)	    c89			_XOPEN_SOURCE=500
       SUSv3			    c99			_XOPEN_SOURCE=600

       For platforms supporting	the  LP64  (64-bit)  programming  environment,
       SUSv2-conforming	 LP64  applications using XNS5 library calls should be
       built with command lines	of the form:

       c89 $(getconf XBS5_LP64_OFF64_CFLAGS) -D_XOPEN_SOURCE=500 \
	   $(getconf XBS5_LP64_OFF64_LDFLAGS) foo.c -o foo \
	   $(getconf XBS5_LP64_OFF64_LIBS) -lxnet

       Similar SUSv3-conforming	LP64 applications should be built with command
       lines of	the form:

       c99 $(getconf POSIX_V6_LP64_OFF64_CFLAGS) -D_XOPEN_SOURCE=600 \
	   $(getconf POSIX_V6_LP64_OFF64_LDFLAGS) foo.c	-o foo \
	   $(getconf POSIX_V6_LP64_OFF64_LIBS) -lxnet

SEE ALSO
       csh(1),	ksh(1),	 sh(1),	 exec(2), sysconf(3C), system(3C), environ(5),
       lf64(5)

SunOS 5.10			  14 Jan 2004			  standards(5)

NAME | DESCRIPTION | SEE ALSO

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