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standards(5)	      Standards, Environments, and Macros	  standards(5)

NAME
       standards,  ANSI,  C,  C++,  ISO,  POSIX, POSIX.1, POSIX.2, SUS,	SUSv2,
       SUSv3, SVID, SVID3, XNS,	XNS4, XNS5, XPG, XPG3, XPG4,  XPG4v2  -	 stan-
       dards and specifications	supported by Solaris

DESCRIPTION
       Solaris 10 supports IEEE	Std 1003.1 and IEEE Std	1003.2,	commonly known
       as POSIX.1 and POSIX.2, respectively. The following  table  lists  each
       version	of  these  standards with a brief description and the SunOS or
       Solaris release that first conformed to it.

       POSIX Standard		   Description		      Release
       POSIX.1-1988	system interfaces and headers	    SunOS 4.1
       POSIX.1-1990	POSIX.1-1988 update		    Solaris 2.0
       POSIX.1b-1993	realtime extensions		    Solaris 2.4
       POSIX.1c-1996	threads	extensions		    Solaris 2.6
       POSIX.2-1992	shell and utilities		    Solaris 2.5
       POSIX.2a-1992	interactive shell and utilities	    Solaris 2.5
       POSIX.1-2001	POSIX.1-1990,	   POSIX.1b-1993,   Solaris 10
			POSIX.1c-1996,	POSIX.2-1992, and
			POSIX.2a-1992 updates

       Solaris 10 also	supports the X/Open  Common  Applications  Environment
       (CAE)  Portability Guide	Issue 3	(XPG3) and Issue 4 (XPG4); Single UNIX
       Specification (SUS, also	known as XPG4v2); Single  UNIX	Specification,
       Version	2  (SUSv2);  and Single	UNIX Specification, Version 3 (SUSv3).
       Both XPG4 and SUS include Networking Services Issue 4 (XNS4). SUSv2 in-
       cludes Networking Services Issue	5 (XNS5).

       The  following  table  lists each X/Open	specification with a brief de-
       scription and the SunOS or Solaris release that first conformed to it.

	 X/Open	CAE
	Specification	Description			    Release
       XPG3		superset of POSIX.1-1988 contain-   SunOS 4.1
			ing utilities from SVID3
       XPG4		superset     of	    POSIX.1-1990,   Solaris 2.4
			POSIX.2-1992,  and  POSIX.2a-1992
			containing  extensions	to  POSIX
			standards from XPG3
       SUS (XPG4v2)	superset of XPG4 containing  his-   Solaris 2.6
			torical	  BSD  interfaces  widely
			used by	common application  pack-
			ages
       XNS4		sockets	and XTI	interfaces	    Solaris 2.6
       SUSv2		superset  of SUS extended to sup-   Solaris 7
			port		   POSIX.1b-1993,
			POSIX.1c-1996,	and  ISO/IEC 9899
			(C Standard) Amendment 1
       XNS5		superset and  LP64-clean  deriva-   Solaris 7
			tive of	XNS4.
       SUSv3		same as	POSIX.1-2001		    Solaris 10

       The  XNS4 specification is safe for use only in ILP32 (32-bit) environ-
       ments and should	not be used for	 LP64  (64-bit)	 application  environ-
       ments.  Use  XNS5  or  SUSv3, which have	LP64-clean interfaces that are
       portable	across ILP32 and LP64 environments. Solaris releases 7 through
       10 support both the ILP32 and LP64 environments.

       Solaris	releases 7 through 10 have been	branded	to conform to The Open
       Group's UNIX 98 Product Standard. Solaris 10 has	been branded  to  con-
       form to The Open	Group's	UNIX 03	Product	Standard.

       Solaris releases	2.0 through 10 support the interfaces specified	by the
       System V	Interface Definition,  Third  Edition,	Volumes	 1  through  4
       (SVID3).	  Note,	 however, that since the developers of this specifica-
       tion (UNIX Systems Laboratories)	are no longer in  business  and	 since
       this specification defers to POSIX and X/Open CAE specifications, there
       is some disagreement about what is currently required  for  conformance
       to this specification.

       When  Sun  Studio  C  Compiler  5.6  is installed, Solaris releases 2.0
       through 10 support the ANSI X3.159-1989 Programming Language  -	C  and
       ISO/IEC 9899:1990 Programming Language -	C (C) interfaces.

       When Sun	Studio C Compiler 5.6 is installed, Solaris releases 7 through
       10 support ISO/IEC 9899:1990 Amendment 1:1995: C	Integrity.

       When Sun	Studio C  Compiler  5.6	 is  installed,	 Solaris  10  supports
       ISO/IEC 9899:1999 Programming Languages - C.

       When  Sun  Studio C++ Compiler 5.6 is installed,	Solaris	releases 2.5.1
       through 10 support ISO/IEC 14882:1998 Programming Languages - C++.  Un-
       supported  features  of	that  standard	are  described in the compiler
       README file.

   Utilities
       If the behavior required	by POSIX.2, POSIX.2a, XPG4, SUS, or SUSv2 con-
       flicts  with  historical	Solaris	utility	behavior, the original Solaris
       version of the utility is unchanged; a new version  that	 is  standard-
       conforming has been provided in /usr/xpg4/bin. If the behavior required
       by POSIX.1-2001 or SUSv3	conflicts with historical Solaris utility  be-
       havior,	a new version that is standard-conforming has been provided in
       /usr/xpg4/bin  or  in  /usr/xpg6/bin.  If  the  behavior	 required   by
       POSIX.1-2001  or	SUSv3 conflicts	with POSIX.2, POSIX.2a,	SUS, or	SUSv2,
       a new version that is SUSv3 standard-conforming has  been  provided  in
       /usr/xpg6/bin.

       An application that wants to use	standard-conforming utilitues must set
       the PATH	(sh(1) or ksh(1)) or path  (csh(1))  environment  variable  to
       specify	the  directories  listed  in  the following table in the order
       specified to get	the appropriate	utilities:

       Standard		     Utility Directories
       SVID3, XPG3
			     1.	 /usr/ccs/bin

			     2.	 /usr/bin

			     3.	 directory containing binaries	for
				 your compiler

			     4.	 other directories containing bina-
				 ries needed by	the application

       POSIX.2,	 POSIX.2a,
       SUS, SUSv2, XPG4	     1.	 /usr/xpg4/bin

			     2.	 /usr/ccs/bin

			     3.	 /usr/bin

			     4.	 directory  containing binaries	for
				 your compiler

			     5.	 other directories containing bina-
				 ries needed by	the application

       POSIX.1-2001, SUSv3
			     1.	 /usr/xpg6/bin

			     2.	 /usr/xpg4/bin

			     3.	 /usr/ccs/bin

			     4.	 /usr/bin

			     5.	 directory  containing binaries	for
				 your compiler

			     6.	 other directories containing bina-
				 ries needed by	the application

       When  an	application uses execlp() or execvp() (see exec(2)) to execute
       a shell file, or	uses system(3C), the shell used	to interpret the shell
       file depends on the standard to which the caller	conforms:

       Standard			     Shell Used
       1989  ANSI  C,  1990 ISO	C,   /usr/xpg4/bin/sh
       1999   ISO    C,	   POSIX.1
       (1990-2001),   SUS,  SUSv2,
       SUSv3, XPG4
       POSIX.1	 (1988),    SVID3,   /usr/bin/sh
       XPG3, no	standard specified

   Feature Test	Macros
       Feature	test  macros  are  used	by applications	to indicate additional
       sets of features	that are desired beyond	those specified	by the C stan-
       dard.  If an application	uses only those	interfaces and headers defined
       by a particular standard	(such as POSIX or X/Open CAE),	then  it  need
       only  define the	appropriate feature test macro specified by that stan-
       dard. If	the application	is using interfaces and	headers	not defined by
       that  standard,	then  in addition to defining the appropriate standard
       feature test macro, it must also	define __EXTENSIONS__. Defining	 __EX-
       TENSIONS__  provides  the application with access to all	interfaces and
       headers not in conflict with the	specified  standard.  The  application
       must define __EXTENSIONS__ either on the	compile	command	line or	within
       the application source files.

   1989	ANSI C,	1990 ISO C, 1999 ISO C
       No feature test macros need to be defined to indicate that an  applica-
       tion is a conforming C application.

   ANSI/ISO C++
       ANSI/ISO	 C++  does not define any feature test macros. If the standard
       C++ announcement	macro __cplusplus is predefined	 to  value  199711  or
       greater,	 the compiler operates in a standard-conforming	mode, indicat-
       ing C++ standards conformance. The value	199711	indicates  conformance
       to  ISO/IEC 14882:1998, as required by that standard.  (As noted	above,
       conformance to the standard is incomplete.)  A standard-conforming mode
       is not available	with compilers prior to	Sun WorkShop C++ 5.0.

       C++  bindings  are  not	defined	for POSIX or X/Open CAE, so specifying
       feature	test  macros  such  as	_POSIX_SOURCE,	_POSIX_C_SOURCE,   and
       _XOPEN_SOURCE  can  result in compilation errors	due to conflicting re-
       quirements of standard C++ and those specifications.

   POSIX
       Applications that are intended to be  conforming	 POSIX.1  applications
       must  define  the  feature test macros specified	by the standard	before
       including any headers.  For the standards  listed  below,  applications
       must  define  the feature test macros listed.  Application writers must
       check the corresponding standards for other macros that can be  queried
       to determine if desired options are supported by	the implementation.

	     POSIX Standard		     Feature Test Macros
       POSIX.1-1990		     _POSIX_SOURCE
       POSIX.1-1990	       and   _POSIX_SOURCE and _POSIX_C_SOURCE=2
       POSIX.2-1992	C-Language
       Bindings	Option
       POSIX.1b-1993		     _POSIX_C_SOURCE=199309L
       POSIX.1c-1996		     _POSIX_C_SOURCE=199506L
       POSIX.1-2001		     _POSIX_C_SOURCE=200112L

   SVID3
       The SVID3 specification does not	specify	any feature test macros	to in-
       dicate that an application is written to	meet SVID3 requirements.   The
       SVID3 specification was written before the C standard was completed.

   X/Open CAE
       To  build  or compile an	application that conforms to one of the	X/Open
       CAE specifications, use the following guidelines. Applications need not
       set  the	 POSIX	feature	test macros if they require both CAE and POSIX
       functionality.

       XPG3	       The   application   must	  define   _XOPEN_SOURCE.   If
		       _XOPEN_SOURCE  is  defined with a value,	the value must
		       be less than 500.

       XPG4	       The  application	 must  define  _XOPEN_SOURCE  and  set
		       _XOPEN_VERSION=4.  If  _XOPEN_SOURCE  is	defined	with a
		       value, the value	must be	less than 500.

       SUS (XPG4v2)    The  application	 must  define  _XOPEN_SOURCE  and  set
		       _XOPEN_SOURCE_EXTENDED=1.  If  _XOPEN_SOURCE is defined
		       with a value, the value must be less than 500.

       SUSv2	       The application must define _XOPEN_SOURCE=500.

       SUSv3	       The application must define _XOPEN_SOURCE=600.

   Compilation
       A POSIX.1 (1988-1996)-, XPG4-, SUS-, or SUSv2-conforming	implementation
       must  include an	ANSI X3.159-1989 (ANSI C Language) standard-conforming
       compilation system and the cc and c89  utilities.  A  POSIX.1-2001-  or
       SUSv3-conforming	 implementation	 must  include	an  ISO/IEC 99899:1999
       (1999 ISO C Language) standard-conforming compilation  system  and  the
       c99  utility. Solaris 10	was tested with	the cc,	c89, and c99 utilities
       and the compilation environment provided	by Sun Studio C	Compiler 5.6.

       When cc is used to link applications,  /usr/lib/values-xpg4.o  must  be
       specified  on  any  link/load  command  line, unless the	application is
       POSIX.1-2001- or	SUSv3-conforming, in which case	/usr/lib/values-xpg6.o
       must  be	 specified on any link/load compile line. The preferred	way to
       build applications, however, is described in the	table below.

       An XNS4-	or XNS5-conforming application must  include  -l  XNS  on  any
       link/load  command line in addition to defining the feature test	macros
       specified for SUS or SUSv2, respectively.

       If the compiler suppports the redefine_extname pragma feature (the  Sun
       Studio  C  Compiler  5.6	 compilers  define  the	 macro	__PRAGMA_REDE-
       FINE_EXTNAME to indicate	that it	supports this feature),	then the stan-
       dard  headers  use  #pragma redefine_extname directives to properly map
       function	names onto library entry point names.  This  mapping  provides
       full support for	ISO C, POSIX, and X/Open namespace reservations.

       If  this	 pragma	 feature is not	supported by the compiler, the headers
       use the #define directive to map	internal function names	onto appropri-
       ate  library  entry  point names. In this instance, applications	should
       avoid using the explicit	64-bit	file  offset  symbols  listed  on  the
       lf64(5)	manual	page, since these names	are used by the	implementation
       to name the alternative entry points.

       When using Sun Studio C Compiler	5.6 compilers, applications conforming
       to  the specifications listed above should be compiled using the	utili-
       ties and	flags indicated	in the following table:

	     Specification	     Compiler/Flags	    Feature Test Macros
       1989 ANSI C and 1990 ISO	C   c89			none
       1999 ISO	C		    c99			none
       SVID3			    cc -Xt -xc99=none	none
       POSIX.1-1990		    c89			_POSIX_SOURCE
       POSIX.1-1990 and		    c89			_POSIX_SOURCE  and
	 POSIX.2-1992					 POSIX_C_SOURCE=2
	 C-Language
	 Bindings Option
       POSIX.1b-1993		    c89			_POSIX_C_SOURCE=199309L
       POSIX.1c-1996		    c89			_POSIX_C_SOURCE=199506L
       POSIX.1-2001		    c99			_POSIX_C_SOURCE=200112L
       POSIX.1c-1996		    c89			_POSIX_C_SOURCE=199506L
       CAE XPG3			    cc -Xa -xc99=none	_XOPEN_SOURCE
       CAE XPG4			    c89			_XOPEN_SOURCE and
							 _XOPEN_VERSION=4
       SUS (CAE	XPG4v2)		    c89			_XOPEN_SOURCE and
	 (includes XNS4)				 _XOPEN_SOURCE_EXTENDED=1
       SUSv2 (includes XNS5)	    c89			_XOPEN_SOURCE=500
       SUSv3			    c99			_XOPEN_SOURCE=600

       For platforms supporting	the  LP64  (64-bit)  programming  environment,
       SUSv2-conforming	 LP64  applications using XNS5 library calls should be
       built with command lines	of the form:

       c89 $(getconf XBS5_LP64_OFF64_CFLAGS) -D_XOPEN_SOURCE=500 \
	   $(getconf XBS5_LP64_OFF64_LDFLAGS) foo.c -o foo \
	   $(getconf XBS5_LP64_OFF64_LIBS) -lxnet

       Similar SUSv3-conforming	LP64 applications should be built with command
       lines of	the form:

       c99 $(getconf POSIX_V6_LP64_OFF64_CFLAGS) -D_XOPEN_SOURCE=600 \
	   $(getconf POSIX_V6_LP64_OFF64_LDFLAGS) foo.c	-o foo \
	   $(getconf POSIX_V6_LP64_OFF64_LIBS) -lxnet

SEE ALSO
       csh(1),	ksh(1),	 sh(1),	 exec(2), sysconf(3C), system(3C), environ(5),
       lf64(5)

SunOS 5.10			  14 Jan 2004			  standards(5)

NAME | DESCRIPTION | SEE ALSO

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