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SQL(1)				   parallel				SQL(1)

       sql - execute a command on a database determined	by a dburl

       sql [options] dburl [commands]

       sql [options] dburl < commandfile

       #!/usr/bin/sql --shebang	[options] dburl

       GNU sql aims to give a simple, unified interface	for accessing
       databases through all the different databases' command line clients. So
       far the focus has been on giving	a common way to	specify	login
       information (protocol, username,	password, hostname, and	port number),
       size (database and table	size), and running queries.

       The database is addressed using a DBURL.	If commands are	left out you
       will get	that database's	interactive shell.

       GNU sql is often	used in	combination with GNU parallel.

       dburl	A DBURL	has the	following syntax: [sql:]vendor://

		See the	section	DBURL below.

       commands	The SQL	commands to run. Each argument will have a newline

		Example: "SELECT * FROM	foo;" "SELECT *	FROM bar;"

		If the arguments contain '\n' or '\x0a'	this will be replaced
		with a newline:

		Example: "SELECT * FROM	foo;\n SELECT *	FROM bar;"

		If no commands are given SQL is	read from the keyboard or

		Example: echo 'SELECT *	FROM foo;' | sql mysql:///

       --dbsize	Size of	database. Show the size	of the database	on disk. For
		Oracle this requires access to read the	table dba_data_files -
		the user system	has that.

       -h	Print a	summary	of the options to GNU sql and exit.

       --html	HTML output. Turn on HTML tabular output.

		Show the list of running queries.

		List the databases (table spaces) in the database.

		List the tables	in the database.

       -n	Remove headers and footers and print only tuples. Bug in
		Oracle:	it still prints	number of rows found.

       -p pass-through
		The string following -p	will be	given to the database
		connection program as arguments. Multiple -p's will be joined
		with space. Example: pass '-U' and the user name to the

		-p "-U scott" can also be written -p -U	-p scott.

       -r	Try 3 times. Short version of --retries	3.

       --retries ntimes
		Try ntimes times. If the client	program	returns	with an	error,
		retry the command. Default is --retries	1.

       --sep string
       -s string
		Field separator. Use string as separator between columns.

		Do not use the first line of input (used by GNU	sql itself
		when called with --shebang).

		Size of	tables.	Show the size of the tables in the database.

       -v	Print which command is sent.

       -V	Print the version GNU sql and exit.

       -Y	GNU sql	can be called as a shebang (#!)	command	as the first
		line of	a script. Like this:

		  #!/usr/bin/sql -Y mysql:///

		  SELECT * FROM	foo;

		For this to work --shebang or -Y must be set as	the first

       A DBURL has the following syntax: [sql:]vendor://

       To quote	special	characters use %-encoding specified in (E.g. a password
       containing '/' would contain '%2F').

	sql:sqlite2:////tmp/db.sqlite?SELECT * FROM foo;

       Currently supported vendors: MySQL (mysql), MySQL with SSL (mysqls,
       mysqlssl), Oracle (oracle, ora),	PostgreSQL (postgresql,	pg, pgsql,
       postgres), PostgreSQL with SSL (postgresqlssl, pgs, pgsqlssl,
       postgresssl, pgssl, postgresqls,	pgsqls,	postgress), SQLite2 (sqlite,
       sqlite2), SQLite3 (sqlite3).

       Aliases must start with ':' and are read	from /etc/sql/aliases and
       ~/.sql/aliases. The user's own ~/.sql/aliases should only be readable
       by the user.

       Example of aliases:

	:myalias1 pg://
	:myalias2 ora://
	# Short	form of	mysql://`whoami`:nopassword@localhost:3306/`whoami`
	:myalias3 mysql:///
	# Short	form of	mysql://`whoami`:nopassword@localhost:33333/mydb
	:myalias4 mysql://:33333/mydb
	# Alias	for an alias
	:m	:myalias4
	# the sortest alias possible
	:	sqlite2:////tmp/db.sqlite
	# Including an SQL query
	:query	sqlite:////tmp/db.sqlite?SELECT	* FROM foo;

   Get an interactive prompt
       The most	basic use of GNU sql is	to get an interactive prompt:

       sql sql:oracle://

       If you have setup an alias you can do:

       sql :myora

   Run a query
       To run a	query directly from the	command	line:

       sql :myalias "SELECT * FROM foo;"

       Oracle requires newlines	after each statement. This can be done like

       sql :myora "SELECT * FROM foo;" "SELECT * FROM bar;"

       Or this:

       sql :myora "SELECT * FROM foo;\nSELECT *	FROM bar;"

   Copy	a PostgreSQL database
       To copy a PostgreSQL database use pg_dump to generate the dump and GNU
       sql to import it:

       pg_dump pg_database | sql pg://

   Empty all tables in a MySQL database
       Using GNU parallel it is	easy to	empty all tables without dropping

       sql -n mysql:///	'show tables' |	parallel sql mysql:/// DELETE FROM {};

   Drop	all tables in a	PostgreSQL database
       To drop all tables in a PostgreSQL database do:

       sql -n pg:/// '\dt' | parallel --colsep '\|' -r sql pg:/// DROP TABLE

   Run as a script
       Instead of doing:

       sql mysql:/// < sqlfile

       you can combine the sqlfile with	the DBURL to make a UNIX-script.
       Create a	script called demosql:

       #!/usr/bin/sql -Y mysql:///

       SELECT *	FROM foo;

       Then do:

       chmod +x	demosql; ./demosql

   Use --colsep	to process multiple columns
       Use GNU parallel's --colsep to separate columns:

       sql -s '\t' :myalias 'SELECT * FROM foo;' | parallel --colsep '\t'
       do_stuff	{4} {1}

   Retry if the	connection fails
       If the access to	the database fails occasionally	--retries can help
       make sure the query succeeds:

       sql --retries 5 :myalias	'SELECT	* FROM really_big_foo;'

   Get info about the running database system
       Show how	big the	database is:

       sql --db-size :myalias

       List the	tables:

       sql --list-tables :myalias

       List the	size of	the tables:

       sql --table-size	:myalias

       List the	running	processes:

       sql --show-processlist :myalias

       GNU sql is part of GNU parallel.	Report bugs to <>.

       When using GNU sql for a	publication please cite:

       O. Tange	(2011):	GNU SQL	- A Command Line Tool for Accessing Different
       Databases Using DBURLs, ;login: The USENIX Magazine, April 2011:29-32.

       Copyright (C) 2008-2010 Ole Tange

       Copyright (C) 2010-2021 Ole Tange, and Free
       Software	Foundation, Inc.

       This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
       under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by the
       Free Software Foundation; either	version	3 of the License, or at	your
       option any later	version.

       This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but
       WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
       General Public License for more details.

       You should have received	a copy of the GNU General Public License along
       with this program.  If not, see <>.

   Documentation license I
       Permission is granted to	copy, distribute and/or	modify this
       documentation under the terms of	the GNU	Free Documentation License,
       Version 1.3 or any later	version	published by the Free Software
       Foundation; with	no Invariant Sections, with no Front-Cover Texts, and
       with no Back-Cover Texts.  A copy of the	license	is included in the
       file LICENSES/GFDL-1.3-or-later.txt.

   Documentation license II
       You are free:

       to Share	to copy, distribute and	transmit the work

       to Remix	to adapt the work

       Under the following conditions:

		You must attribute the work in the manner specified by the
		author or licensor (but	not in any way that suggests that they
		endorse	you or your use	of the work).

       Share Alike
		If you alter, transform, or build upon this work, you may
		distribute the resulting work only under the same, similar or
		a compatible license.

       With the	understanding that:

       Waiver	Any of the above conditions can	be waived if you get
		permission from	the copyright holder.

       Public Domain
		Where the work or any of its elements is in the	public domain
		under applicable law, that status is in	no way affected	by the

       Other Rights
		In no way are any of the following rights affected by the

		o	 Your fair dealing or fair use rights, or other
			 applicable copyright exceptions and limitations;

		o	 The author's moral rights;

		o	 Rights	other persons may have either in the work
			 itself	or in how the work is used, such as publicity
			 or privacy rights.

       Notice	For any	reuse or distribution, you must	make clear to others
		the license terms of this work.

       A copy of the full license is included in the file as cc-by-sa.txt.

       GNU sql uses Perl. If mysql is installed, MySQL dburls will work. If
       psql is installed, PostgreSQL dburls will work.	If sqlite is
       installed, SQLite2 dburls will work.  If	sqlite3	is installed, SQLite3
       dburls will work. If sqlplus is installed, Oracle dburls	will work. If
       rlwrap is installed, GNU	sql will have a	command	history	for Oracle.

       ~/.sql/aliases -	user's own aliases with	DBURLs

       /etc/sql/aliases	- common aliases with DBURLs

       mysql(1), psql(1), rlwrap(1), sqlite(1),	sqlite3(1), sqlplus(1)

20210622			  2021-08-26				SQL(1)


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