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SMARTCTL(8)		    SMART Monitoring Tools		   SMARTCTL(8)

NAME
       smartctl	- Control and Monitor Utility for SMART	Disks

SYNOPSIS
       smartctl	[options] device

DESCRIPTION
       [This  man  page	is generated for the FreeBSD version of	smartmontools.
       It does not contain info	specific to other platforms.]

       smartctl	controls the Self-Monitoring, Analysis and Reporting  Technol-
       ogy  (SMART)  system  built into	most ATA/SATA and SCSI/SAS hard	drives
       and solid-state drives.	The purpose of SMART is	to monitor the	relia-
       bility  of  the hard drive and predict drive failures, and to carry out
       different types of drive	self-tests.  smartctl also supports some  fea-
       tures  not  related  to	SMART.	This version of	smartctl is compatible
       with ACS-3, ACS-2, ATA8-ACS, ATA/ATAPI-7	 and  earlier  standards  (see
       REFERENCES below).

       smartctl	also provides support for polling TapeAlert messages from SCSI
       tape drives and changers.

       The user	must specify the device	to be controlled  or  interrogated  as
       the  final argument to smartctl.	 The command set used by the device is
       often derived from the device path but may need help with the '-d'  op-
       tion  (for  more	information see	the section on "ATA, SCSI command sets
       and SAT"	below).	 Device	paths are as follows:

       FREEBSD:	Use  the  forms	 "/dev/ad[0-9]+"  for  IDE/ATA	 devices   and
		"/dev/da[0-9]+"	 or  "/dev/pass[0-9]+"	for SCSI devices.  For
		SATA devices on	AHCI bus use "/dev/ada[0-9]+" format.  For  HP
		Smart  Array  RAID  controllers, use "/dev/ciss[0-9]" (and see
		the -d option, below).

       if '-' is specified as the device path, smartctl	reads  and  interprets
       it's own	debug output from standard input.  See '-r ataioctl' below for
       details.

       smartctl	guesses	the device type	if possible.  If necessary,  the  '-d'
       option can be used to override this guess.

       Note that the printed output of smartctl	displays most numerical	values
       in base 10 (decimal), but some values are displayed in base  16	(hexa-
       decimal).  To distinguish them, the base	16 values are always displayed
       with a leading "0x", for	example: "0xff".  This man  page  follows  the
       same convention.

OPTIONS
       The  options  are grouped below into several categories.	 smartctl will
       execute the corresponding  commands  in	the  order:  INFORMATION,  EN-
       ABLE/DISABLE, DISPLAY DATA, RUN/ABORT TESTS.

       SHOW INFORMATION	OPTIONS:

       -h, --help, --usage
	      Prints a usage message to	STDOUT and exits.

       -V, --version, --copyright, --license
	      Prints  version,	copyright, license, home page and SVN revision
	      information for your copy	of smartctl to STDOUT and then exits.

       -i, --info
	      Prints the device	model number, serial number, firmware version,
	      and  ATA Standard	version/revision information.  Says if the de-
	      vice supports SMART, and if so, whether SMART  support  is  cur-
	      rently  enabled  or  disabled.   If  the device supports Logical
	      Block Address mode (LBA mode) print current user drive  capacity
	      in  bytes.   (If drive has a user	protected area reserved, or is
	      "clipped", this may be smaller than the potential	maximum	 drive
	      capacity.)  Indicates if the drive is in the smartmontools data-
	      base (see	'-v' options below).  If so, the  drive	 model	family
	      may  also	 be  printed.	If  '-n' (see below) is	specified, the
	      power mode of the	drive is printed.

	      [NVMe] For NVMe devices the information  is  obtained  from  the
	      Identify Controller and the Identify Namespace data structure.

       --identify[=[w][nvb]]
	      [ATA  only]  Prints  an  annotated  table	of the IDENTIFY	DEVICE
	      data.  By	default, only valid words (words not equal  to	0x0000
	      or  0xffff)  and	nonzero	bits and bit fields are	printed.  This
	      can be changed by	the optional argument which consists of	one or
	      two  characters  from the	set 'wnvb'.  The character 'w' enables
	      printing of all 256 words.  The character	'n' suppresses	print-
	      ing  of bits, 'v'	enables	printing of all	bits from valid	words,
	      'b' enables printing of all bits.	  For  example	'--identify=n'
	      (valid words, no bits) produces the shortest output and '--iden-
	      tify=wb' (all words, all bits) produces the longest output.

       -a, --all
	      Prints all SMART information about the disk, or TapeAlert	infor-
	      mation about the tape drive or changer.  For ATA devices this is
	      equivalent to
	      '-H -i -c	-A -l error -l selftest	-l selective'
	      and for SCSI, this is equivalent to
	      '-H -i -A	-l error -l selftest'.
	      For NVMe,	this is	equivalent to
	      '-H -i -c	-A -l error'.
	      Note that	for ATA	disks this does	not enable the	non-SMART  op-
	      tions and	the SMART options which	require	support	for 48-bit ATA
	      commands.

       -x, --xall
	      Prints all SMART and non-SMART  information  about  the  device.
	      For ATA devices this is equivalent to
	      '-H  -i  -g  all	-g wcreorder -c	-A -f brief -l xerror,error -l
	      xselftest,selftest -l selective -l directory -l scttemp  -l  sc-
	      terc -l devstat -l defects -l sataphy'.
	      and for SCSI, this is equivalent to
	      '-H -i -g	all -A -l error	-l selftest -l background -l sasphy'.
	      For NVMe,	this is	equivalent to
	      '-H -i -c	-A -l error'.

       --scan Scans  for  devices and prints each device name, device type and
	      protocol ([ATA] or [SCSI]) info.	May  be	 used  in  conjunction
	      with  '-d	 TYPE'	to  restrict the scan to a specific TYPE.  See
	      also info	about platform specific	device scan and	the DEVICESCAN
	      directive	on smartd(8) man page.

       --scan-open
	      Same as --scan, but also tries to	open each device before	print-
	      ing device info.	The device open	may change the device type due
	      to autodetection (see also '-d test').

	      This option can be used to create	a draft	smartd.conf file.  All
	      options after '--' are appended to each output line.  For	 exam-
	      ple:
	      smartctl --scan-open -- -a -W 4,45,50 -m admin@work > smartd.conf

	      Multiple '-d TYPE' options may be	specified with '--scan[-open]'
	      to combine the scan results of more than one TYPE.

       -g NAME,	--get=NAME
	      Get non-SMART device settings.  See '-s, --set' below  for  fur-
	      ther info.

       RUN-TIME	BEHAVIOR OPTIONS:

       -j, --json[=cgiosuvy]
	      Enables JSON or YAML output mode.

	      The  output  could be modified or	enhanced by the	optional argu-
	      ment which consists of one  or  more  characters	from  the  set
	      'cgiosuvy':
	      'c':  Outputs  compact format without extra spaces and newlines.
	      By default, output is pretty-printed.  If	used with YAML format,
	      the indentation of arrays	is reduced.
	      'g':  Outputs  JSON structure as single assignments to allow the
	      usage of grep.  Each assignment reflects the absolute path of  a
	      value.  The syntax is compatible with gron:
	      'json.KEY1[INDEX2].KEY3 =	VALUE;'.
	      'o':  Includes the full original plaintext output	of smartctl as
	      a	JSON array 'smartctl.output[]'.
	      's': Outputs JSON	object elements	sorted by  key.	  By  default,
	      object elements are ordered as generated internally.
	      'v':  Enables  verbose  output  of possible unsafe integers.  If
	      specified, values	which may exceed JSON  safe  integer  (53-bit)
	      range  are  always  output  as  a	number (with some 'KEY') and a
	      string ('KEY_s'),	regardless of the actual value.	 Values	 which
	      may  exceed 64-bit range are also	output as a little endian byte
	      array ('KEY_le').	 By default, the additional elements are  only
	      output if	the value actually exceeds the range.
	      'y': [NEW	EXPERIMENTAL SMARTCTL FEATURE] Outputs in YAML format.

	      The  following two arguments are primarily indented for develop-
	      ment:
	      'i': Includes lines from the plaintext output which  print  info
	      already  implemented  for	 JSON  output.	 The  lines  appear as
	      strings with key 'smartctl_NNNN_i'.
	      'u': Includes lines from the plaintext output which  print  info
	      still  unimplemented  for	 JSON  output.	 The  lines  appear as
	      strings with key 'smartctl_NNNN_u'.

       -q TYPE,	--quietmode=TYPE
	      Specifies	that smartctl should run in one	of the quiet modes de-
	      scribed here.  The valid arguments to this option	are:

	      errorsonly  - only print:	For the	'-l error' option, if nonzero,
	      the number of errors recorded in the SMART  error	 log  and  the
	      power-on	time when they occurred; For the '-l selftest' option,
	      errors recorded in the device self-test log; For	the  '-H'  op-
	      tion,  SMART  "disk  failing"  status or device Attributes (pre-
	      failure or usage)	which failed either now	or in  the  past;  For
	      the  '-A'	option,	device Attributes (pre-failure or usage) which
	      failed either now	or in the past.

	      silent - print no	output.	 The only way to learn about what  was
	      found is to use the exit status of smartctl (see EXIT STATUS be-
	      low).

	      noserial - Do not	print the serial number	of the device.

       -d TYPE,	--device=TYPE
	      Specifies	the type of the	device.	 The valid arguments  to  this
	      option are:

	      auto  - attempt to guess the device type from the	device name or
	      from controller type info	provided by the	 operating  system  or
	      from a matching USB ID entry in the drive	database.  This	is the
	      default.

	      test - prints the	guessed	TYPE, then opens the device and	prints
	      the (possibly changed) TYPE name and then	exits without perform-
	      ing any further commands.

	      ata - the	device type is ATA.  This prevents smartctl from issu-
	      ing SCSI commands	to an ATA device.

	      scsi - the device	type is	SCSI.  This prevents smartctl from is-
	      suing ATA	commands to a SCSI device.

	      nvme[,NSID] - the	device type is NVM Express  (NVMe).   The  op-
	      tional parameter NSID specifies the namespace id (in hex)	passed
	      to the driver.  Use 0xffffffff for the broadcast	namespace  id.
	      The default for NSID is the namespace id addressed by the	device
	      name.

	      sat[,auto][,N] - the device type	is  SCSI  to  ATA  Translation
	      (SAT).   This  is	for ATA	disks that have	a SCSI to ATA Transla-
	      tion Layer (SATL)	between	the disk  and  the  operating  system.
	      SAT  defines  two	 ATA  PASS THROUGH SCSI	commands, one 12 bytes
	      long and the other 16 bytes long.	 The default is	 the  16  byte
	      variant  which  can be overridden	with either '-d	sat,12'	or '-d
	      sat,16'.

	      If '-d sat,auto' is specified, device  type  SAT	(for  ATA/SATA
	      disks)  is  only	used  if  the SCSI INQUIRY data	reports	a SATL
	      (VENDOR: "ATA	").  Otherwise device type SCSI	(for  SCSI/SAS
	      disks) is	used.

	      usbcypress - this	device type is for ATA disks that are behind a
	      Cypress USB to PATA bridge.  This	will use the ATACB proprietary
	      scsi  pass  through command.  The	default	SCSI operation code is
	      0x24,  but  although  it	can  be	 overridden  with  '-d	usbcy-
	      press,0xN',  where  N is the scsi	operation code,	you're running
	      the risk of damage to the	device or filesystems on it.

	      usbjmicron[,p][,x][,PORT]	- this device type is for  SATA	 disks
	      that  are	 behind	a JMicron USB to PATA/SATA bridge.  The	48-bit
	      ATA commands (required e.g. for '-l xerror', see below)  do  not
	      work with	all of these bridges and are therefore disabled	by de-
	      fault.  These commands can be enabled by '-d usbjmicron,x'.   If
	      two  disks  are  connected  to a bridge with two ports, an error
	      message is printed if no PORT is specified.   The	 port  can  be
	      specified	 by  '-d usbjmicron[,x],PORT' where PORT is 0 (master)
	      or 1 (slave).  This is not necessary if the device uses  a  port
	      multiplier to connect multiple disks to one port.	 The disks ap-
	      pear under separate /dev/ice names  then.	  CAUTION:  Specifying
	      ',x'  for	 a device which	does not support it results in I/O er-
	      rors and may disconnect the drive.   The	same  applies  if  the
	      specified	PORT does not exist or is not connected	to a disk.

	      The Prolific PL2507/3507 USB bridges with	older firmware support
	      a	pass-through command similar to	JMicron	and work with '-d usb-
	      jmicron,0'.  Newer Prolific firmware requires a modified command
	      which can	be selected by '-d usbjmicron,p'.  Note	that this does
	      not yet support the SMART	status command.

	      usbprolific - this device	type is	for SATA disks that are	behind
	      a	Prolific PL2571/2771/2773/2775 USB to SATA bridge.

	      usbsunplus - this	device type is for SATA	disks that are	behind
	      a	SunplusIT USB to SATA bridge.

	      sntjmicron[,NSID]	 - this	device type is for NVMe	disks that are
	      behind a JMicron USB to NVMe  bridge.   The  optional  parameter
	      NSID  specifies  the namespace id	(in hex) passed	to the driver.
	      The  default  namespace  id  is  the  broadcast	namespace   id
	      (0xffffffff).

	      sntrealtek  -  [NEW  EXPERIMENTAL	 SMARTCTL FEATURE] this	device
	      type is for NVMe disks that are behind a	Realtek	 USB  to  NVMe
	      bridge.

	      3ware,N -	[FreeBSD and Linux only] the device consists of	one or
	      more ATA disks connected to a 3ware RAID controller.   The  non-
	      negative	integer	 N  (in	the range from 0 to 127	inclusive) de-
	      notes which disk on the controller  is  monitored.   Use	syntax
	      such as:
	      smartctl -a -d 3ware,2 /dev/sda  [Linux only]
	      smartctl -a -d 3ware,0 /dev/twe0
	      smartctl -a -d 3ware,1 /dev/twa0
	      smartctl -a -d 3ware,1 /dev/twl0 [Linux only]
	      smartctl -a -d 3ware,1 /dev/tws0 [FreeBSD	only]
	      The  first  two forms, which refer to devices /dev/sda-z (depre-
	      cated) and /dev/twe0-15, may be used  with  3ware	 series	 6000,
	      7000,  and  8000 series controllers that use the 3x-xxxx driver.
	      The devices /dev/twa0-15,	must be	used with  3ware  9000	series
	      controllers,   which   use  the  3w-9xxx	driver.	  The  devices
	      /dev/twl0-15 [Linux] or /dev/tws0-15 [FreeBSD] must be used with
	      the  3ware/LSI  9750  series  controllers	 which	use the	3w-sas
	      driver.

	      Note that	if the special character  device  nodes	 /dev/tw[ls]?,
	      /dev/twa?	  and /dev/twe?	do not exist, or exist with the	incor-
	      rect major or minor numbers, smartctl will recreate them on  the
	      fly.

	      areca,N  -  [FreeBSD, Linux, Windows and Cygwin only] the	device
	      consists of one or more SATA disks connected to  an  Areca  SATA
	      RAID controller.	The positive integer N (in the range from 1 to
	      24 inclusive) denotes which disk on the controller is monitored.
	      On FreeBSD use syntax such as:
	      smartctl -a -d areca,2 /dev/arcmsr1
	      smartctl -a -d areca,3 /dev/arcmsr2
	      The  first  line	above  addresses  the second disk on the first
	      Areca RAID controller.  The second line addresses	the third disk
	      on the second Areca RAID controller.

	      Important:  the Areca controller must have firmware version 1.46
	      or later.	 Lower-numbered	firmware versions will give (harmless)
	      SCSI error messages and no SMART information.

	      areca,N/E	- [FreeBSD, Linux, Windows and Cygwin only] the	device
	      consists of one or more SATA or SAS disks	connected to an	 Areca
	      SAS RAID controller.  The	integer	N (range 1 to 128) denotes the
	      channel (slot) and E (range 1 to 8) denotes the enclosure.   Im-
	      portant:	This  requires	Areca  SAS controller firmware version
	      1.51 or later.

	      cciss,N -	[FreeBSD and Linux only] the device consists of	one or
	      more  SCSI/SAS  or  SATA	disks  connected  to a cciss RAID con-
	      troller.	The non-negative integer N (in the range from 0	to  15
	      inclusive) denotes which disk on the controller is monitored.

	      Option  '-d  sat,auto+...'  is implicitly	enabled	to detect SATA
	      disks.  Use '-d scsi+cciss,N' to disable it.

	      To look at disks behind HP Smart Array controllers,  use	syntax
	      such as:
	      smartctl -a -d cciss,0 /dev/ciss0	   (under FreeBSD)

	      hpt,L/M/N	 - [FreeBSD and	Linux only] the	device consists	of one
	      or more ATA disks	 connected  to	a  HighPoint  RocketRAID  con-
	      troller.	 The  integer L	is the controller id, the integer M is
	      the channel number, and the integer N is the PMPort number if it
	      is  available.   The  allowed values of L	are from 1 to 4	inclu-
	      sive, M are from 1 to 128	inclusive and N	from 1 to 4 if	PMPort
	      available.   And	also  these values are limited by the model of
	      the HighPoint RocketRAID controller.  Use	syntax such as:
	      smartctl -a -d hpt,1/3 /dev/hptrr	   (under FreeBSD)
	      smartctl -a -d hpt,1/2/3 /dev/hptrr    (under FreeBSD)
	      Note that	the /dev/sda-z form should be the  device  node	 which
	      stands  for the disks derived from the HighPoint RocketRAID con-
	      trollers under Linux and under FreeBSD, it is the	character  de-
	      vice which the driver registered (eg, /dev/hptrr,	/dev/hptmv6).

	      intelliprop,N[+TYPE] - the device	consists of multiple ATA disks
	      connected	to an Intelliprop controller.  The integer  N  is  the
	      port  number  from  0 to 3 of the	ATA drive to be	targeted.  The
	      TYPE can be ata(default),	sat, or	a USB controller listed	above.
	      Note:  if	 a  type of ATA	does not work, try a type of sat.  Use
	      syntax such as:
	      smartctl -a -d intelliprop,1 /dev/sda    (under Linux)
	      smartctl -a -d intelliprop,1+sat /dev/sda	   (under Linux)
	      WARNING: The disks are selected by write commands	to the ATA De-
	      vice  Vendor  Specific  Log  at address 0xc0.  Using this	option
	      with other devices may have undesirable side effects.

	      jmb39x[-q],N[,sLBA][,force][+TYPE] - [NEW	EXPERIMENTAL  SMARTCTL
	      FEATURE] the device consists of multiple SATA disks connected to
	      a	JMicron	JMB39x RAID port multiplier.  The suffix '-q'  selects
	      a	 slightly  different command variant used by some QNAP NAS de-
	      vices.  The integer N is the port	number from 0 to 4.
	      WARNING: The ATA pass-through commands are issued	via READ/WRITE
	      commands	to  LBA	33 of the RAID volume.	Using this option with
	      other devices may	overwrite this sector.
	      The LBA could be selected	in the range 33	(last sector of	a GPT)
	      to 62 (last sector of traditional	boot area).
	      By default, access to the	device is refused if the selected sec-
	      tor is not zero filled.  The 'force' flag	disables this check.
	      WARNING: Original	sector data is not written back	if smartctl is
	      aborted with a signal.

	      jms56x,N[,sLBA][,force][+TYPE] - [NEW EXPERIMENTAL SMARTCTL FEA-
	      TURE] the	device consists	of multiple SATA disks connected to  a
	      JMicron  JMS56x  USB to SATA RAID	bridge.	 See 'jmb39x...' above
	      for valid	arguments.

       -T TYPE,	--tolerance=TYPE
	      [ATA only] Specifies how tolerant	smartctl should	be of ATA  and
	      SMART command failures.

	      The  behavior  of	 smartctl  depends upon	whether	the command is
	      "optional" or "mandatory".  Here "mandatory" means "required  by
	      the ATA Specification if the device implements the SMART command
	      set" and "optional" means	"not required by the ATA Specification
	      even  if	the  device  implements	 the  SMART command set."  The
	      "mandatory" ATA and SMART	commands are: (1) ATA IDENTIFY DEVICE,
	      (2)  SMART  ENABLE/DISABLE  ATTRIBUTE  AUTOSAVE,	(3)  SMART EN-
	      ABLE/DISABLE, and	(4) SMART RETURN STATUS.

	      The valid	arguments to this option are:

	      normal - exit on failure of any mandatory	SMART command, and ig-
	      nore  all	 failures of optional SMART commands.  This is the de-
	      fault.  Note that	on some	 devices,  issuing  unimplemented  op-
	      tional  SMART  commands doesn't cause an error.  This can	result
	      in misleading smartctl messages such as "Feature	X  not	imple-
	      mented", followed	shortly	by "Feature X: enabled".  In most such
	      cases, contrary to the final message, Feature X is not enabled.

	      conservative - exit on failure of	any optional SMART command.

	      permissive - ignore  failure(s)  of  mandatory  SMART  commands.
	      This option may be given more than once.	Each additional	use of
	      this option will cause one more additional  failure  to  be  ig-
	      nored.   Note  that  the use of this option can lead to messages
	      like "Feature X not supported", followed shortly by  "Feature  X
	      enable failed".  In a few	such cases, contrary to	the final mes-
	      sage, Feature X is enabled.

	      verypermissive - equivalent to giving a large number of '-T per-
	      missive'	options:  ignore  failures  of any number of mandatory
	      SMART commands.  Please see the note above.

       -b TYPE,	--badsum=TYPE
	      [ATA only] Specifies the action smartctl should take if a	check-
	      sum error	is detected in the: (1)	Device Identity	Structure, (2)
	      SMART Self-Test Log Structure, (3) SMART Attribute Value	Struc-
	      ture,  (4) SMART Attribute Threshold Structure, or (5) ATA Error
	      Log Structure.

	      The valid	arguments to this option are:

	      warn - report the	incorrect checksum but carry on	 in  spite  of
	      it.  This	is the default.

	      exit - exit smartctl.

	      ignore - continue	silently without issuing a warning.

       -r TYPE,	--report=TYPE
	      Intended	primarily  to help smartmontools developers understand
	      the behavior of smartmontools on non-conforming or  poorly  con-
	      forming  hardware.   This	 option	 reports  details  of smartctl
	      transactions with	the device.  The option	can be	used  multiple
	      times.   When  used  just	once, it shows a record	of the ioctl()
	      transactions with	the device.  When used more than once, the de-
	      tail  of	these ioctl() transactions are reported	in greater de-
	      tail.  The valid arguments to this option	are:

	      ioctl - report all ioctl() transactions.

	      ataioctl - report	only ioctl() transactions with ATA devices.

	      scsiioctl	- report only ioctl() transactions with	SCSI  devices.
	      Invoking this once shows the SCSI	commands in hex	and the	corre-
	      sponding status.	Invoking it a second time adds a  hex  listing
	      of  the first 64 bytes of	data send to, or received from the de-
	      vice.

	      nvmeioctl	- report only ioctl() transactions with	NVMe devices.

	      Any argument may include a positive integer to specify the level
	      of  detail that should be	reported.  The argument	should be fol-
	      lowed by a comma then the	integer	with no	spaces.	 For  example,
	      ataioctl,2  The  default	level is 1, so '-r ataioctl,1' and '-r
	      ataioctl'	are equivalent.

	      For testing purposes, the	output of '-r ataioctl,2' can later be
	      parsed  by  smartctl  itself if '-' is used as device path argu-
	      ment.  The ATA command input parameters, sector data and	return
	      values  are reconstructed	from the debug report read from	stdin.
	      Then smartctl internally simulates an ATA	device with  the  same
	      behaviour.  This is does not work	for SCSI devices yet.

       -n POWERMODE[,STATUS], --nocheck=POWERMODE[,STATUS]
	      [ATA]  [SCSI:  NEW  EXPERIMENTAL	SMARTCTL FEATURE] Specifies if
	      smartctl should exit before performing any checks	when  the  de-
	      vice  is	in a low-power mode.  It may be	used to	prevent	a disk
	      from being spun-up by smartctl.  The power mode  is  ignored  by
	      default.

	      Note: If this option is used it may also be necessary to specify
	      the device type with the '-d' option.  Otherwise the device  may
	      spin up due to commands issued during device type	autodetection.

	      By default, exit status 2	is returned if the device is in	one of
	      the specified low-power modes.  This status is also returned  if
	      the  device  open	 or identification failed (see EXIT STATUS be-
	      low).  The optional STATUS parameter allows to override this de-
	      fault.   STATUS  is an integer in	the range from 0 to 255	inclu-
	      sive.  For example use '-n standby,0' to return success if a de-
	      vice  is in SLEEP	or STANDBY mode.  Use '-n standby,3' to	return
	      a	unique exit status in this case.

	      The valid	arguments to this option are:

	      never - check the	device always, but print  the  power  mode  if
	      '-i' is specified.

	      sleep[,STATUS] - check the device	unless it is in	SLEEP mode.

	      standby[,STATUS]	-  check  the  device unless it	is in SLEEP or
	      STANDBY mode.  In	these modes most disks are not spinning, so if
	      you  want	 to  prevent a disk from spinning up, this is probably
	      what you want.

	      idle[,STATUS] - check the	device unless it is in SLEEP,  STANDBY
	      or IDLE mode.  In	the IDLE state,	most disks are still spinning,
	      so this is probably not what you want.

       SMART FEATURE ENABLE/DISABLE COMMANDS:

	      Note: if multiple	options	are used to both enable	and disable  a
	      feature,	then  both the enable and disable commands will	be is-
	      sued.  The enable	command	will always be issued before the  cor-
	      responding disable command.

       -s VALUE, --smart=VALUE
	      Enables  or  disables  SMART  on device.	The valid arguments to
	      this option are on and off.

	      [ATA] Note that the ATA commands SMART ENABLE/DISABLE OPERATIONS
	      were declared obsolete in	ATA ACS-4 Revision 10 (Nov 2015).

	      [SCSI  tape drive	or changer] It is not necessary	(or useful) to
	      enable SMART to see the TapeAlert	messages.

       -o VALUE, --offlineauto=VALUE
	      [ATA only] Enables or disables  SMART  automatic	offline	 test,
	      which  scans  the	drive every four hours for disk	defects.  This
	      command can be given during normal system	operation.  The	 valid
	      arguments	to this	option are on and off.

	      Note  that the SMART automatic offline test command is listed as
	      "Obsolete" in every version of the ATA and ATA/ATAPI  Specifica-
	      tions.   It  was	originally  part of the	SFF-8035i Revision 2.0
	      specification, but was never  part  of  any  ATA	specification.
	      However  it  is  implemented  and	used by	many vendors.  You can
	      tell if automatic	offline	testing	is supported by	seeing if this
	      command  enables and disables it,	as indicated by	the 'Auto Off-
	      line Data	Collection' part  of  the  SMART  capabilities	report
	      (displayed with '-c').

	      SMART  provides  three  basic  categories	of testing.  The first
	      category,	called "online"	testing, has no	effect on the  perfor-
	      mance of the device.  It is turned on by the '-s on' option.

	      The  second  category  of	 testing  is called "offline" testing.
	      This type	of test	can, in	principle, degrade the device  perfor-
	      mance.   The  '-o	 on'  option causes this offline testing to be
	      carried out, automatically, on a regular scheduled basis.	  Nor-
	      mally, the disk will suspend offline testing while disk accesses
	      are taking place,	and then automatically resume it when the disk
	      would  otherwise	be  idle, so in	practice it has	little effect.
	      Note that	a one-time offline test	can also be carried out	 imme-
	      diately  upon  receipt  of a user	command.  See the '-t offline'
	      option below, which causes a one-time offline test to be carried
	      out immediately.

	      The choice (made by the SFF-8035i	and ATA	specification authors)
	      of the word testing for these first two categories  is  unfortu-
	      nate,  and  often	 leads	to confusion.  In fact these first two
	      categories of online and offline testing could  have  been  more
	      accurately described as online and offline data collection.

	      The results of this automatic or immediate offline testing (data
	      collection) are reflected	in the values of the SMART Attributes.
	      Thus,  if	 problems  or errors are detected, the values of these
	      Attributes will go below their failure thresholds; some types of
	      errors  may also appear in the SMART error log.  These are visi-
	      ble with the '-A'	and '-l	error' options respectively.

	      Some SMART attribute values are  updated	only  during  off-line
	      data  collection	activities; the	rest are updated during	normal
	      operation	of the device or during	both normal operation and off-
	      line  testing.   The  Attribute value table produced by the '-A'
	      option indicates this in the UPDATED column.  Attributes of  the
	      first  type  are	labeled	"Offline" and Attributes of the	second
	      type are labeled "Always".

	      The third	category of testing (and the only category  for	 which
	      the  word	 'testing'  is really an appropriate choice) is	"self"
	      testing.	This third type	of test	 is  only  performed  (immedi-
	      ately)  when  a  command to run it is issued.  The '-t' and '-X'
	      options can be used to carry  out	 and  abort  such  self-tests;
	      please see below for further details.

	      Any  errors  detected  in	 the self testing will be shown	in the
	      SMART self-test log, which can be	examined using the  '-l	 self-
	      test' option.

	      Note: in this manual page, the word "Test" is used in connection
	      with the second category just described, e.g. for	the  "offline"
	      testing.	 The words "Self-test" are used	in connection with the
	      third category.

       -S VALUE, --saveauto=VALUE
	      [ATA] Enables or disables	SMART autosave of  device  vendor-spe-
	      cific Attributes.	 The valid arguments to	this option are	on and
	      off.  Note that this feature is preserved	across disk power  cy-
	      cles, so you should only need to issue it	once.

	      The  ATA	standard  does	not  specify a method to check whether
	      SMART autosave is	enabled.  Unlike SCSI (below), smartctl	is un-
	      able to print a warning if autosave is disabled.

	      Note  that  the  ATA commands SMART ENABLE/DISABLE AUTOSAVE were
	      declared obsolete	in ATA ACS-4 Revision 10 (Nov 2015).

	      [SCSI] For SCSI devices this toggles the	value  of  the	Global
	      Logging  Target  Save  Disabled  (GLTSD) bit in the Control Mode
	      Page.  Some disk manufacturers set this bit  by  default.	  This
	      prevents	error  counters,  power-up hours and other useful data
	      from being placed	in non-volatile	storage, so these  values  may
	      be  reset	 to zero the next time the device is power-cycled.  If
	      the GLTSD	bit is set then	'smartctl -a' will  issue  a  warning.
	      Use on to	clear the GLTSD	bit and	thus enable saving counters to
	      non-volatile storage.  For extreme streaming-video type applica-
	      tions you	might consider using off to set	the GLTSD bit.

       -g NAME,	--get=NAME, -s NAME[,VALUE], --set=NAME[,VALUE]
	      Gets/sets	 non-SMART device settings.  Note that the '--set' op-
	      tion shares its short option '-s'	with '--smart'.	  Valid	 argu-
	      ments are:

	      all - Gets all values.  This is equivalent to
	      '-g  aam	-g apm -g lookahead -g security	-g wcache -g rcache -g
	      dsn'

	      aam[,N|off] - [ATA only] Gets/sets the Automatic	Acoustic  Man-
	      agement  (AAM)  feature (if supported).  A value of 128 sets the
	      most quiet (slowest) mode	and 254	the  fastest  (loudest)	 mode,
	      'off'  disables  AAM.   Devices may support intermediate levels.
	      Values below 128 are defined as vendor specific (0)  or  retired
	      (1  to 127).  Note that the AAM feature was declared obsolete in
	      ATA ACS-2	Revision 4a (Dec 2010).

	      apm[,N|off] - [ATA only] Gets/sets the Advanced Power Management
	      (APM)  feature  on  device (if supported).  If a value between 1
	      and 254 is provided, it will attempt to enable APM and  set  the
	      specified	 value,	 'off' disables	APM.  Note the actual behavior
	      depends on the drive, for	example	some  drives  disable  APM  if
	      their  value is set above	128.  Values below 128 are supposed to
	      allow drive spindown, values 128 and  above  adjust  only	 head-
	      parking  frequency, although the actual behavior defined is also
	      vendor-specific.

	      lookahead[,on|off] - [ATA	only] Gets/sets	 the  read  look-ahead
	      feature  (if  supported).	 Read look-ahead is usually enabled by
	      default.

	      security - [ATA only] Gets the status of	ATA  Security  feature
	      (if supported).  If ATA Security is enabled an ATA user password
	      is set.  The drive will be locked	on next	reset then.

	      security-freeze -	[ATA only] Sets	ATA Security feature to	frozen
	      mode.   This  prevents  that the drive accepts any security com-
	      mands until next reset.  Note that the frozen mode  may  already
	      be set by	BIOS or	OS.

	      standby,[N|off]  -  [ATA]	 Sets the standby (spindown) timer and
	      places the drive in the IDLE mode.  A value of 0 or  'off'  dis-
	      ables  the standby timer.	 Values	from 1 to 240 specify timeouts
	      from 5 seconds to	20 minutes in  5  second  increments.	Values
	      from  241	to 251 specify timeouts	from 30	minutes	to 330 minutes
	      in 30 minute increments.	Value 252 specifies 21 minutes.	 Value
	      253  specifies  a	 vendor	 specific time between 8 and 12	hours.
	      Value 255	specifies 21 minutes and 15 seconds.  Some drives  may
	      use  a vendor specific interpretation for	the values.  Note that
	      there is no get option because ATA standards do  not  specify  a
	      method  to  read the standby timer.  If '-s standby,now' is also
	      specified, the drive is immediately placed in the	 STANDBY  mode
	      without  temporarily placing it in the IDLE mode.	 Note that ATA
	      standards	do not specify a command  to  set  the	standby	 timer
	      without affecting	the power mode.
	      [SCSI]  [NEW  EXPERIMENTAL SMARTCTL FEATURE] Only	the set	option
	      with 'standby,off' or 'standby,0'	is accepted and	will place the
	      SCSI disk	into "ACTIVE" power condition.

	      standby,now  - [ATA] Places the drive in the STANDBY mode.  This
	      usually spins down the drive.  The setting of the	standby	 timer
	      is not affected unless '-s standby,[N|off]' is also specified.
	      [SCSI]  [NEW  EXPERIMENTAL SMARTCTL FEATURE] Only	the set	option
	      is accepted and will place the SCSI disk into "STANDBY_Z"	 power
	      condition.

	      wcache[,on|off]  - [ATA] Gets/sets the volatile write cache fea-
	      ture (if supported).  The	write cache is usually enabled by  de-
	      fault.

	      wcache[,on|off]  -  [SCSI]  Gets/sets  the  'Write Cache Enable'
	      (WCE) bit	(if supported).	 The write cache is usually enabled by
	      default.

	      wcache-sct[,ata|on|off[,p]]  -  [ATA  only]  Gets/sets the write
	      cache feature through SCT	Feature	Control	(if  supported).   The
	      state of write cache in SCT Feature Control could	be "Controlled
	      by ATA", "Force Enabled",	or "Force Disabled".  SCT Feature con-
	      trol   overwrites	 the  setting  by  ATA	Set  Features  command
	      (wcache[,on|off] option).	 If SCT	 Feature  Control  sets	 write
	      cache  as	 "Force	 Enabled"  or "Force Disabled",	the setting of
	      wcache[,on|off] is ignored by the	drive.	 SCT  Feature  Control
	      usually  sets write cache	as "Controlled by ATA" by default.  If
	      ',p' is specified, the setting is	preserved across power cycles.

	      wcreorder[,on|off[,p]] - [ATA only] Gets/sets  Write  Cache  Re-
	      ordering.	 If it is disabled (off), disk write scheduling	is ex-
	      ecuted on	a first-in-first-out (FIFO) basis.  If Write Cache Re-
	      ordering	is enabled (on), then disk write scheduling may	be re-
	      ordered by the drive.  If	write cache is disabled,  the  current
	      Write  Cache Reordering state is remembered but has no effect on
	      non-cached writes, which are always written  in  the  order  re-
	      ceived.	The  state  of Write Cache Reordering has no effect on
	      either NCQ or LCQ	queued commands.  If ',p'  is  specified,  the
	      setting is preserved across power	cycles.

	      rcache[,on|off] -	[SCSI only] Gets/sets the 'Read	Cache Disable'
	      (RCE) bit.  'Off'	value disables read cache (if supported).  The
	      read cache is usually enabled by default.

	      dsn[,on|off]  -  [ATA  only]  Gets/sets the DSN feature (if sup-
	      ported).	The dsn	is usually disabled by default.

       SMART READ AND DISPLAY DATA OPTIONS:

       -H, --health
	      Prints the health	status of the device or	pending	TapeAlert mes-
	      sages.

	      If  the  device reports failing health status, this means	either
	      that the device has already failed, or that it is	predicting its
	      own  failure within the next 24 hours.  If this happens, use the
	      '-a' option to get more information, and get your	data  off  the
	      disk and to someplace safe as soon as you	can.

	      [ATA] Health status is obtained by checking the (boolean)	result
	      returned by the SMART RETURN STATUS command.  The	 return	 value
	      of this ATA command may be unknown due to	limitations or bugs in
	      some layer (e.g. RAID controller or USB bridge firmware) between
	      disk  and	 operating  system.   In  this case, smartctl prints a
	      warning and checks whether any Prefailure	SMART Attribute	 value
	      is less than or equal to its threshold (see '-A' below).

	      [SCSI]  Health  status  is  obtained  by checking	the Additional
	      Sense Code (ASC) and Additional Sense Code Qualifier (ASCQ) from
	      Informal	Exceptions  (IE)  log  page (if	supported) and/or from
	      SCSI sense data.

	      [SCSI tape drive or changer] TapeAlert  status  is  obtained  by
	      reading  the TapeAlert log page.	Please note that the TapeAlert
	      log page flags are cleared for the initiator when	 the  page  is
	      read.   This  means  that	 each alert condition is reported only
	      once by smartctl for each	initiator for each activation  of  the
	      condition.

	      [NVMe] NVMe status is obtained by	reading	the "Critical Warning"
	      byte from	the SMART/Health Information log.

       -c, --capabilities
	      [ATA] Prints only	the generic SMART  capabilities.   These  show
	      what  SMART features are implemented and how the device will re-
	      spond to some of the different SMART commands.  For  example  it
	      shows  if	the device logs	errors,	if it supports offline surface
	      scanning,	and so on.  If the device can  carry  out  self-tests,
	      this  option also	shows the estimated time required to run those
	      tests.

	      [NVMe] Prints various NVMe device	capabilities obtained from the
	      Identify Controller and the Identify Namespace data structure.

       -A, --attributes
	      [ATA] Prints only	the vendor specific SMART Attributes.  The At-
	      tributes are numbered from 1 to 253 and have specific names  and
	      ID  numbers.   For  example Attribute 12 is "power cycle count":
	      how many times has the disk been powered up.

	      Each Attribute has a "Raw"  value,  printed  under  the  heading
	      "RAW_VALUE",  and	a "Normalized" value printed under the heading
	      "VALUE".	[Note: smartctl	prints these values in	base-10.]   In
	      the  example  just given,	the "Raw Value"	for Attribute 12 would
	      be the actual number of times that the disk has  been  power-cy-
	      cled,  for  example  365 if the disk has been turned on once per
	      day for exactly one year.	 Each vendor uses their	own  algorithm
	      to convert this "Raw" value to a "Normalized" value in the range
	      from 1 to	254.  Please keep in mind that smartctl	 only  reports
	      the  different  Attribute	 types,	values,	and thresholds as read
	      from the device.	It does	not carry out the  conversion  between
	      "Raw"  and  "Normalized"	values:	 this  is  done	 by the	disk's
	      firmware.

	      The conversion from Raw value to a quantity with physical	 units
	      is not specified by the SMART standard.  In most cases, the val-
	      ues printed by smartctl are sensible.  For example the  tempera-
	      ture Attribute generally has its raw value equal to the tempera-
	      ture in Celsius.	However	in some	cases vendors use unusual con-
	      ventions.	 For example the Hitachi disk on my laptop reports its
	      power-on hours in	minutes, not  hours.   Some  IBM  disks	 track
	      three temperatures rather	than one, in their raw values.	And so
	      on.

	      Each Attribute also has a	Threshold value	(whose range is	 0  to
	      255)  which  is printed under the	heading	"THRESH".  If the Nor-
	      malized value is less than or equal to the Threshold value, then
	      the  Attribute  is  said	to have	failed.	 If the	Attribute is a
	      pre-failure Attribute, then disk failure is imminent.

	      Each Attribute also has a	"Worst"	value shown under the  heading
	      "WORST".	 This  is the smallest (closest	to failure) value that
	      the disk has recorded at any time	during its lifetime when SMART
	      was enabled.  [Note however that some vendors firmware may actu-
	      ally  increase  the  "Worst"  value  for	some  "rate-type"  At-
	      tributes.]

	      The  Attribute  table  printed  out  by  smartctl	also shows the
	      "TYPE" of	the Attribute.	Attributes are	one  of	 two  possible
	      types:  Pre-failure or Old age.  Pre-failure Attributes are ones
	      which, if	less than or equal to their threshold values, indicate
	      pending  disk  failure.	Old age, or usage Attributes, are ones
	      which indicate end-of-product life from old-age or normal	 aging
	      and wearout, if the Attribute value is less than or equal	to the
	      threshold.  Please note: the fact	that an	Attribute is  of  type
	      'Pre-fail'  does	not  mean that your disk is about to fail!  It
	      only has this meaning  if	 the  Attribute's  current  Normalized
	      value is less than or equal to the threshold value.

	      If  the  Attribute's  current  Normalized	 value is less than or
	      equal to the threshold value, then the "WHEN_FAILED" column will
	      display  "FAILING_NOW".  If not, but the worst recorded value is
	      less than	or equal to the	threshold value, then this column will
	      display "In_the_past".  If the "WHEN_FAILED" column has no entry
	      (indicated by a dash: '-') then this Attribute is	 OK  now  (not
	      failing) and has also never failed in the	past.

	      The  table column	labeled	"UPDATED" shows	if the SMART Attribute
	      values are updated during	both  normal  operation	 and  off-line
	      testing, or only during offline testing.	The former are labeled
	      "Always" and the latter are labeled "Offline".

	      So to summarize: the Raw Attribute  values  are  the  ones  that
	      might  have a real physical interpretation, such as "Temperature
	      Celsius",	"Hours", or "Start-Stop	 Cycles".   Each  manufacturer
	      converts these, using their detailed knowledge of	the disk's op-
	      erations and failure modes, to Normalized	 Attribute  values  in
	      the  range  1-254.   The	current	and worst (lowest measured) of
	      these Normalized Attribute values	are stored on the disk,	 along
	      with a Threshold value that the manufacturer has determined will
	      indicate that the	disk is	going to fail, or that it has exceeded
	      its  design age or aging limit.  smartctl	does not calculate any
	      of the Attribute values, thresholds, or types, it	merely reports
	      them from	the SMART data on the device.

	      Note  that starting with ATA/ATAPI-4, revision 4,	the meaning of
	      these Attribute fields has been made  entirely  vendor-specific.
	      However most newer ATA/SATA disks	seem to	respect	their meaning,
	      so we have retained the option of	printing the Attribute values.

	      Solid-state drives use different meanings	for some  of  the  at-
	      tributes.	  In  this case	the attribute name printed by smartctl
	      is incorrect unless the drive is already	in  the	 smartmontools
	      drive database.

	      Note  that the ATA command SMART READ DATA was declared obsolete
	      in ATA ACS-4 Revision 10 (Nov 2015).

	      [SCSI] For SCSI devices the "attributes" are obtained  from  the
	      temperature  and	start-stop  cycle  counter log pages.  Certain
	      vendor specific attributes are listed if	recognised.   The  at-
	      tributes	are  output in a relatively free format	(compared with
	      ATA disk attributes).

	      [NVMe] For NVMe devices the attributes  are  obtained  from  the
	      SMART/Health Information log.

       -f FORMAT, --format=FORMAT
	      [ATA only] Selects the output format of the attributes:

	      old  - Old smartctl format.  This	is the default unless the '-x'
	      option is	specified.

	      brief - New format which fits into 80 columns  (except  in  some
	      rare cases).  This format	also decodes four additional attribute
	      flags.  This is the default if the '-x' option is	specified.

	      hex,id - Print all attribute IDs as hexadecimal numbers.

	      hex,val -	Print all normalized values as hexadecimal numbers.

	      hex - Same as '-f	hex,id -f hex,val'.

       -l TYPE,	--log=TYPE
	      Prints various device logs.  The valid arguments to this	option
	      are:

	      error  -	[ATA] prints the Summary SMART error log.  SMART disks
	      maintain a log of	the most recent	five non-trivial errors.   For
	      each  of	these  errors, the disk	power-on lifetime at which the
	      error occurred is	recorded,  as  is  the	device	status	(idle,
	      standby,	etc)  at the time of the error.	 For some common types
	      of errors, the Error Register (ER) and Status Register (SR) val-
	      ues are decoded and printed as text.  The	meanings of these are:
		 ABRT:	Command	ABoRTed
		 AMNF:	Address	Mark Not Found
		 CCTO:	Command	Completion Timed Out
		 EOM:	End Of Media
		 ICRC:	Interface Cyclic Redundancy Code (CRC) error
		 IDNF:	IDentity Not Found
		 ILI:	(packet	command-set specific)
		 MC:	Media Changed
		 MCR:	Media Change Request
		 NM:	No Media
		 obs:	obsolete
		 TK0NF:	TracK 0	Not Found
		 UNC:	UNCorrectable Error in Data
		 WP:	Media is Write Protected
	      In  addition, up to the last five	commands that preceded the er-
	      ror are listed, along with a timestamp measured from  the	 start
	      of the corresponding power cycle.	 This is displayed in the form
	      Dd+HH:MM:SS.msec where D is the number of	days, HH is hours,  MM
	      is minutes, SS is	seconds	and msec is milliseconds.  [Note: this
	      time stamp wraps after 2^32 milliseconds,	or 49 days 17 hours  2
	      minutes  and  47.296  seconds.]	The key	ATA disk registers are
	      also recorded in the log.	 The final column of the error log  is
	      a	text-string description	of the ATA command defined by the Com-
	      mand Register (CR) and Feature Register (FR)  values.   Commands
	      that are obsolete	in the most current spec are listed like this:
	      READ LONG	(w/ retry) [OBS-4], indicating that the	command	became
	      obsolete with or in the ATA-4 specification.  Similarly, the no-
	      tation [RET-N] is	used to	indicate that a	command	was retired in
	      the  ATA-N  specification.  Some commands	are not	defined	in any
	      version of the ATA specification but are in common use  nonethe-
	      less; these are marked [NS], meaning non-standard.

	      The  ATA	Specification  (ATA  ACS-2  Revision 7,	Section	A.7.1)
	      says: "Error log data structures shall include, but are not lim-
	      ited to, Uncorrectable errors, ID	Not Found errors for which the
	      LBA requested was	valid, servo errors, and write	fault  errors.
	      Error log	data structures	shall not include errors attributed to
	      the receipt of faulty commands."	The definitions	of these terms
	      are:
	      UNC (UNCorrectable): data	is uncorrectable.  This	refers to data
	      which has	been read from the  disk,  but	for  which  the	 Error
	      Checking	and  Correction	 (ECC) codes are inconsistent.	In ef-
	      fect, this means that the	data can not be	read.
	      IDNF (ID Not Found): user-accessible address could not be	found.
	      For READ LOG type	commands, IDNF can also	indicate that a	device
	      data log structure checksum was incorrect.

	      If the command that caused the error was a READ  or  WRITE  com-
	      mand,  then  the	Logical	Block Address (LBA) at which the error
	      occurred will be printed in base 10 and base 16.	The LBA	 is  a
	      linear  address,	which  counts  512-byte	 sectors  on the disk,
	      starting from zero.  (Because of the limitations	of  the	 SMART
	      error  log, if the LBA is	greater	than 0xfffffff,	then either no
	      error log	entry will be made, or the error log entry  will  have
	      an  incorrect  LBA.   This may happen for	drives with a capacity
	      greater than 128 GiB or 137 GB.)	On Linux systems the smartmon-
	      tools web	page has instructions about how	to convert the LBA ad-
	      dress to the name	of the disk file containing the	erroneous disk
	      sector.

	      Please  note  that  some manufacturers ignore the	ATA specifica-
	      tions, and make entries in the error log if the device  receives
	      a	command	which is not implemented or is not valid.

	      error  -	[SCSI]	prints	the error counter log pages for	reads,
	      write and	verifies.  The verify row is only output if it has  an
	      element other than zero.

	      error[,NUM]  -  [NVMe]  prints  the  NVMe	Error Information log.
	      Only the 16 most recent log  entries  are	 printed  by  default.
	      This  number  can	be changed by the optional parameter NUM.  The
	      maximum number of	log entries is vendor specific (in  the	 range
	      from 1 to	256 inclusive).

	      xerror[,NUM][,error] - [ATA only]	prints the Extended Comprehen-
	      sive SMART error log (General Purpose Log	address	0x03).	Unlike
	      the  Summary SMART error log (see	'-l error' above), it provides
	      sufficient space to log the contents of the 48-bit LBA  register
	      set introduced with ATA-6.  It also supports logs	with more than
	      one sector.  Each	sector holds up	to 4 log entries.  The	actual
	      number of	log sectors is vendor specific.

	      Only the 8 most recent error log entries are printed by default.
	      This number can be changed by the	optional parameter NUM.

	      If ',error' is appended and the Extended Comprehensive SMART er-
	      ror  log	is  not	 supported, the	Summary	SMART self-test	log is
	      printed.

	      Please note that recent drives may report	errors only in the Ex-
	      tended  Comprehensive  SMART error log.  The Summary SMART error
	      log may be reported as supported but is always empty then.

	      selftest - [ATA] prints the SMART	self-test log.	The disk main-
	      tains  a	self-test  log	showing	the results of the self	tests,
	      which can	be run using the '-t'  option  described  below.   For
	      each of the most recent twenty-one self-tests, the log shows the
	      type of test (short or extended, off-line	or  captive)  and  the
	      final status of the test.	 If the	test did not complete success-
	      fully, then the percentage of the	test remaining is shown.   The
	      time  at	which  the  test took place, measured in hours of disk
	      lifetime,	is also	printed.  [Note: this time stamp  wraps	 after
	      2^16  hours, or 2730 days	and 16 hours, or about 7.5 years.]  If
	      any errors were detected,	the Logical Block Address (LBA)	of the
	      first error is printed in	decimal	notation.

	      selftest	-  [SCSI]  the	self-test  log for a SCSI device has a
	      slightly different format	than for an ATA	device.	 For  each  of
	      the most recent twenty self-tests, it shows the type of test and
	      the status (final	or in progress)	of the test.   SCSI  standards
	      use  the	terms "foreground" and "background" (rather than ATA's
	      corresponding "captive" and "off-line") and "short"  and	"long"
	      (rather  than ATA's corresponding	"short"	and "extended")	to de-
	      scribe the type of the test.  The	printed	segment	number is only
	      relevant	when  a	test fails in the third	or later test segment.
	      It identifies the	test that failed and consists  of  either  the
	      number of	the segment that failed	during the test, or the	number
	      of the test that failed and the number of	the segment  in	 which
	      the test was run,	using a	vendor-specific	method of putting both
	      numbers into a single byte.  The Logical Block Address (LBA)  of
	      the  first  error	 is  printed in	hexadecimal notation.  If pro-
	      vided, the SCSI Sense Key	(SK), Additional Sense Code (ASC)  and
	      Additional  Sense	 Code  Qualifier (ASCQ)	are also printed.  The
	      self tests can be	run using the '-t' option described below (us-
	      ing the ATA test terminology).

	      xselftest[,NUM][,selftest]  -  [ATA  only]  prints  the Extended
	      SMART self-test log (General Purpose Log address 0x07).	Unlike
	      the  SMART  self-test log	(see '-l selftest' above), it supports
	      48-bit LBA and logs with more  than  one	sector.	  Each	sector
	      holds up to 19 log entries.  The actual number of	log sectors is
	      vendor specific.

	      Only the 25 most recent log  entries  are	 printed  by  default.
	      This number can be changed by the	optional parameter NUM.

	      If  ',selftest' is appended and the Extended SMART self-test log
	      is not supported,	the old	SMART self-test	log is printed.

	      selective	- [ATA only] Please see	the '-t	select'	 option	 below
	      for  a description of selective self-tests.  The selective self-
	      test log shows the start/end Logical Block  Addresses  (LBA)  of
	      each  of the five	test spans, and	their current test status.  If
	      the span is being	tested or the remainder	of the disk  is	 being
	      read-scanned,  the  current  65536-sector	 block	of  LBAs being
	      tested is	also displayed.	  The  selective  self-test  log  also
	      shows  if	 a read-scan of	the remainder of the disk will be car-
	      ried out after the selective self-test has  completed  (see  '-t
	      afterselect'  option)  and the time delay	before restarting this
	      read-scan	if it is interrupted (see '-t pending' option).

	      directory[,gs] - [ATA only] if the device	supports  the  General
	      Purpose  Logging	feature	set (ATA-6 and above) then this	prints
	      the Log Directory	(the log at address  0).   The	Log  Directory
	      shows  what  logs	are available and their	length in sectors (512
	      bytes).  The contents of the logs	at address  1  [Summary	 SMART
	      error log] and at	address	6 [SMART self-test log]	may be printed
	      using the	previously-described error and selftest	 arguments  to
	      this  option.   If  your version of smartctl supports 48-bit ATA
	      commands,	both the General Purpose Log (GPL) and SMART Log  (SL)
	      directories  are	printed	in one combined	table.	The output can
	      be restricted to the GPL directory or SL directory by '-l	direc-
	      tory,q' or '-l directory,s' respectively.

	      background - [SCSI only] the background scan results log outputs
	      information derived from Background Media	Scans (BMS) done after
	      power  up	 and/or	 periodically  (e.g. every 24 hours) on	recent
	      SCSI disks.  If supported, the BMS status	is output first, indi-
	      cating  whether  a background scan is currently underway (and if
	      so a progress percentage), the amount of time the	disk has  been
	      powered  up  and	the  number  of	scans already completed.  Then
	      there is a header	and a line for each background	scan  "event".
	      These  will  typically  be either	recovered or unrecoverable er-
	      rors.  That latter group may need	some attention.	  There	 is  a
	      description  of the background scan mechanism in section 4.18 of
	      SBC-3 revision 6 (see www.t10.org	).

	      scttemp, scttempsts, scttemphist - [ATA only]  prints  the  disk
	      temperature  information provided	by the SMART Command Transport
	      (SCT) commands.  The option 'scttempsts' prints current tempera-
	      ture  and	temperature ranges returned by the SCT Status command,
	      'scttemphist' prints temperature limits and the temperature his-
	      tory table returned by the SCT Data Table	command, and 'scttemp'
	      prints both.  The	temperature values are preserved across	 power
	      cycles.	The  logging  interval	can be configured with the '-l
	      scttempint,N[,p]'	option,	see below.  The	SCT commands were  in-
	      troduced	in  ATA8-ACS  and  were	 also  supported by many ATA-7
	      disks.

	      scttempint,N[,p] - [ATA only] clears the SCT temperature history
	      table  and  sets	the time interval for temperature logging to N
	      minutes.	If ',p'	is specified, the setting is preserved	across
	      power  cycles.   Otherwise,  the setting is volatile and will be
	      reverted to the last non-volatile	setting	by the next  hard  re-
	      set.   The  default  interval is vendor specific,	typical	values
	      are 1, 2,	or 5 minutes.

	      scterc[,READTIME,WRITETIME] - [ATA only] prints values  and  de-
	      scriptions  of  the  SCT Error Recovery Control settings.	 These
	      are equivalent to	TLER (as used by Western  Digital),  CCTL  (as
	      used  by Samsung and Hitachi/HGST) and ERC (as used by Seagate).
	      READTIME and WRITETIME arguments (deciseconds) set the specified
	      values.  Values of 0 disable the feature,	other values less than
	      65 are probably not supported.  For RAID configurations, this is
	      typically	set to 70,70 deciseconds.

	      devstat[,PAGE]  -	 [ATA  only] prints values and descriptions of
	      the ATA Device Statistics	log pages (General Purpose Log address
	      0x04).   If  no  PAGE number is specified, entries from all sup-
	      ported pages are printed.	 If PAGE 0 is specified, the  list  of
	      supported	pages is printed.  Device Statistics was introduced in
	      ACS-2 and	is only	supported by some recent devices.

	      defects[,NUM] - [ATA only] prints	LBA and	hours values from  the
	      ATA  Pending  Defects  log  (General  Purpose Log	address	0x0c).
	      Only the 31 entries from first log page are printed by  default.
	      This  number  can	be changed by the optional parameter NUM.  The
	      size of the log and the order of the  entries  are  vendor  spe-
	      cific.  The Pending Defects log was introduced in	ACS-4 Revision
	      01 (Mar 2014).

	      sataphy[,reset] -	[SATA only] prints values and descriptions  of
	      the  SATA	Phy Event Counters (General Purpose Log	address	0x11).
	      If '-l sataphy,reset' is specified, all counters are reset after
	      reading  the  values.   This  also  works	 for SATA devices with
	      Packet interface like CD/DVD drives.

	      sasphy[,reset] - [SAS (SCSI) only] prints	 values	 and  descrip-
	      tions  of	 the  SAS  (SSP)  Protocol Specific log	page (log page
	      0x18).  If '-l sasphy,reset' is specified, all counters are  re-
	      set after	reading	the values.

	      gplog,ADDR[,FIRST[-LAST|+SIZE]]  -  [ATA only] prints a hex dump
	      of any log accessible via	General	Purpose	Logging	(GPL) feature.
	      The log address ADDR is the hex address listed in	the log	direc-
	      tory (see	'-l directory'	above).	  The  range  of  log  sectors
	      (pages)  can  be	specified  by  decimal	values	FIRST-LAST  or
	      FIRST+SIZE.  FIRST defaults to 0,	SIZE defaults to 1.  LAST  can
	      be set to	'max' to specify the last page of the log.

	      smartlog,ADDR[,FIRST[-LAST|+SIZE]]  -  [ATA  only]  prints a hex
	      dump of any log accessible via SMART Read	Log command.  See  '-l
	      gplog,...' above for parameter syntax.

	      For example, all these commands:
		smartctl -l gplog,0x80,10-15 /dev/sda
		smartctl -l gplog,0x80,10+6 /dev/sda
		smartctl -l smartlog,0x80,10-15	/dev/sda
	      print pages 10-15	of log 0x80 (first host	vendor specific	log).

	      The  hex	dump  format  is compatible with the 'xxd -r' command.
	      This command:
		smartctl -l gplog,0x11 /dev/sda	| grep ^0 | xxd	-r >log.bin
	      writes a binary representation of	the one	sector log 0x11	 (SATA
	      Phy Event	Counters) to file log.bin.

	      nvmelog,PAGE,SIZE	 -  [NVMe only]	prints a hex dump of the first
	      SIZE bytes from the NVMe log with	identifier PAGE.   PAGE	 is  a
	      hexadecimal  number  in  the  range from 0x1 to 0xff.  SIZE is a
	      hexadecimal number in the	range from 0x4	to  0x4000  (16	 KiB).
	      WARNING:	Do  not	specify	the identifier of an unknown log page.
	      Reading a	log page may have undesirable side effects.

	      ssd - [ATA] prints the Solid State Device	Statistics  log	 page.
	      This has the same	effect as '-l devstat,7', see above.

	      ssd  -  [SCSI]  prints the Solid State Media percentage used en-
	      durance indicator.  A value of  0	 indicates  as	new  condition
	      while  100 indicates the device is at the	end of its lifetime as
	      projected	by the manufacturer.  The value	may reach 255.

       -v ID,FORMAT[:BYTEORDER][,NAME],	--vendorattribute=ID,FORMAT...
	      [ATA only] Sets a	vendor-specific	raw value print	FORMAT,	an op-
	      tional  BYTEORDER	 and  an optional NAME for Attribute ID.  This
	      option may be used multiple times.

	      The Attribute ID can be in the range 1 to	255.  If 'N' is	speci-
	      fied as ID, the settings for all Attributes are changed.

	      The  optional  BYTEORDER	consists of 1 to 8 characters from the
	      set '012345rvwz'.	 The characters	'0' to '5' select the  byte  0
	      to 5 from	the 48-bit raw value, 'r' selects the reserved byte of
	      the attribute data block,	'v' selects the	normalized value,  'w'
	      selects  the  worst  value and 'z' inserts a zero	byte.  The de-
	      fault BYTEORDER is '543210' for all  48-bit  formats,  'r543210'
	      for  the	54-bit formats,	and '543210wv' for the 64-bit formats.
	      For example, '-v 5,raw48:012345' prints the raw value of	attri-
	      bute 5 with big endian instead of	little endian byte ordering.

	      The  NAME	 is  a	string of letters, digits and underscore.  Its
	      length should not	exceed 23 characters.  The '-P showall'	option
	      reports an error if this is the case.

	      -v  help	-  Prints (to STDOUT) a	list of	all valid arguments to
	      this option, then	exits.

	      Valid arguments for FORMAT are:

	      raw8 - Print the Raw value as six	8-bit unsigned	base-10	 inte-
	      gers.   This  may	 be useful for decoding	the meaning of the Raw
	      value.

	      raw16 - Print the	Raw value as three 16-bit unsigned base-10 in-
	      tegers.	This may be useful for decoding	the meaning of the Raw
	      value.

	      raw48 - Print the	Raw value as a 48-bit unsigned	base-10	 inte-
	      ger.  This is the	default	for most attributes.

	      hex48  -	Print  the Raw value as	a 12 digit hexadecimal number.
	      This may be useful for decoding the meaning of the Raw value.

	      raw56 - Print the	Raw value as a 54-bit unsigned	base-10	 inte-
	      ger.   This  includes the	reserved byte which follows the	48-bit
	      raw value.

	      hex56 - Print the	Raw value as a 14  digit  hexadecimal  number.
	      This  includes  the  reserved  byte which	follows	the 48-bit raw
	      value.

	      raw64 - Print the	Raw value as a 64-bit unsigned	base-10	 inte-
	      ger.   This includes two bytes from the normalized and worst at-
	      tribute value.  This raw format is used by some SSD devices with
	      Indilinx controller.

	      hex64  -	Print  the Raw value as	a 16 digit hexadecimal number.
	      This includes two	bytes from the normalized and worst  attribute
	      value.   This raw	format is used by some SSD devices with	Indil-
	      inx controller.

	      min2hour - Raw Attribute is power-on time	in minutes.   Its  raw
	      value  will  be displayed	in the form "Xh+Ym".  Here X is	hours,
	      and Y is minutes in the  range  0-59  inclusive.	 Y  is	always
	      printed with two digits, for example "06"	or "31"	or "00".

	      sec2hour	-  Raw Attribute is power-on time in seconds.  Its raw
	      value will be displayed in  the  form  "Xh+Ym+Zs".   Here	 X  is
	      hours,  Y	 is minutes in the range 0-59 inclusive, and Z is sec-
	      onds in the range	0-59 inclusive.	 Y and Z  are  always  printed
	      with two digits, for example "06"	or "31"	or "00".

	      halfmin2hour - Raw Attribute is power-on time, measured in units
	      of 30 seconds.  This format is used by some Samsung disks.   Its
	      raw  value  will	be  displayed  in the form "Xh+Ym".  Here X is
	      hours, and Y is minutes in the range 0-59	inclusive.  Y  is  al-
	      ways printed with	two digits, for	example	"06" or	"31" or	"00".

	      msec24hour32 - Raw Attribute is power-on time measured in	32-bit
	      hours and	24-bit milliseconds since last hour update.   It  will
	      be  displayed  in	 the form "Xh+Ym+Z.Ms".	 Here X	is hours, Y is
	      minutes, Z is seconds and	M is milliseconds.

	      tempminmax - Raw Attribute is the	disk temperature  in  Celsius.
	      Info about Min/Max temperature is	printed	if available.  This is
	      the default for Attributes 190 and 194.  The recording  interval
	      (lifetime,  last	power  cycle,  last soft reset)	of the min/max
	      values is	device specific.

	      temp10x -	Raw Attribute is ten times  the	 disk  temperature  in
	      Celsius.

	      raw16(raw16) - Print the raw attribute as	a 16-bit value and two
	      optional 16-bit values if	these words are	nonzero.  This is  the
	      default for Attributes 5 and 196.

	      raw16(avg16)  - Raw attribute is spin-up time.  It is printed as
	      a	16-bit value and an optional "Average"	16-bit	value  if  the
	      word is nonzero.	This is	the default for	Attribute 3.

	      raw24(raw8)  -  Print  the  raw  attribute as a 24-bit value and
	      three optional 8-bit values if these bytes are nonzero.  This is
	      the default for Attribute	9.

	      raw24/raw24  -  Raw  Attribute  contains two 24-bit values.  The
	      first is the number of load cycles.  The second is the number of
	      unload  cycles.	The difference between these two values	is the
	      number of	times that the	drive  was  unexpectedly  powered  off
	      (also  called an emergency unload).  As a	rule of	thumb, the me-
	      chanical stress created by one emergency unload is equivalent to
	      that created by one hundred normal unloads.

	      raw24/raw32 - Raw	attribute is an	error rate which consists of a
	      24-bit error count and a 32-bit total count.

	      The following old	arguments to '-v' are also still valid:

	      9,minutes	- same as: 9,min2hour,Power_On_Minutes.

	      9,seconds	- same as: 9,sec2hour,Power_On_Seconds.

	      9,halfminutes - same as: 9,halfmin2hour,Power_On_Half_Minutes.

	      9,temp - same as:	9,tempminmax,Temperature_Celsius.

	      192,emergencyretractcyclect  -  same   as:   192,raw48,Emerg_Re-
	      tract_Cycle_Ct

	      193,loadunload - same as:	193,raw24/raw24.

	      194,10xCelsius - same as:	194,temp10x,Temperature_Celsius_x10.

	      194,unknown - same as: 194,raw48,Unknown_Attribute.

	      197,increasing - same as:	197,raw48,Total_Pending_Sectors.  Also
	      means that Attribute number 197 (Current Pending	Sector	Count)
	      is  not  reset  if  uncorrectable	 sectors  are reallocated (see
	      smartd.conf(5) man page).

	      198,increasing  -	 same  as:  198,raw48,Total_Offl_Uncorrectabl.
	      Also means that Attribute	number 198 (Offline Uncorrectable Sec-
	      tor Count) is not	reset if uncorrectable sectors are reallocated
	      (see smartd.conf(5) man page).

	      198,offlinescanuncsectorct    -	 same	 as:	198,raw48,Off-
	      line_Scan_UNC_SectCt.

	      200,writeerrorcount - same as: 200,raw48,Write_Error_Count.

	      201,detectedtacount - same as: 201,raw48,Detected_TA_Count.

	      220,temp - same as: 220,tempminmax,Temperature_Celsius.

       -F TYPE,	--firmwarebug=TYPE
	      [ATA only] Modifies the behavior of smartctl to  compensate  for
	      some  known  and understood device firmware or driver bug.  This
	      option may be used multiple times.  The valid arguments are:

	      none - Assume that the device firmware obeys the ATA  specifica-
	      tions.   This  is	the default, unless the	device has presets for
	      '-F' in the drive	database.  Using this option  on  the  command
	      line will	override any preset values.

	      nologdir	-  Suppresses  read attempts of	SMART or GP Log	Direc-
	      tory.  Support for all standard logs is assumed without  an  ac-
	      tual  check.   Some  Intel  SSDs	may freeze if log address 0 is
	      read.

	      samsung -	In some	Samsung	disks (example:	model SV4012H Firmware
	      Version:	RM100-08) some of the two- and four-byte quantities in
	      the SMART	data structures	are byte-swapped (relative to the  ATA
	      specification).  Enabling	this option tells smartctl to evaluate
	      these quantities in byte-reversed	order.	Some signs  that  your
	      disk  needs  this	 option	are (1)	no self-test log printed, even
	      though you have run self-tests; (2) very large  numbers  of  ATA
	      errors reported in the ATA error log; (3)	strange	and impossible
	      values for the ATA error log timestamps.

	      samsung2 - In some Samsung disks the number of  ATA  errors  re-
	      ported  is byte swapped.	Enabling this option tells smartctl to
	      evaluate this quantity in	byte-reversed  order.	An  indication
	      that  your  Samsung disk needs this option is that the self-test
	      log is printed correctly,	but there are a	very large  number  of
	      errors  in the SMART error log.  This is because the error count
	      is byte swapped.	Thus a disk with five errors (0x0005) will ap-
	      pear to have 20480 errors	(0x5000).

	      samsung3	-  Some	 Samsung disks (at least SP2514N with Firmware
	      VF100-37)	report a self-test still in progress with 0% remaining
	      when the test was	already	completed.  Enabling this option modi-
	      fies the output of the self-test execution status	 (see  options
	      '-c' or '-a' above) accordingly.

	      xerrorlba	 -  Fixes  LBA byte ordering in	Extended Comprehensive
	      SMART error log.	Some disks use little endian byte ordering in-
	      stead  of	 ATA register ordering to specify the LBA addresses in
	      the log entries.

	      swapid - Fixes byte swapped ATA identify strings	(device	 name,
	      serial  number,  firmware	version) returned by some buggy	device
	      drivers.

       -P TYPE,	--presets=TYPE
	      [ATA only] Specifies whether smartctl should use any preset  op-
	      tions  that  are	available  for this drive.  By default,	if the
	      drive is recognized in the smartmontools database, then the pre-
	      sets are used.

	      The  argument  show  will	show any preset	options	for your drive
	      and the argument showall will  show  all	known  drives  in  the
	      smartmontools  database,	along  with  their preset options.  If
	      there are	no presets for your drive and you think	 there	should
	      be  (for example,	a -v or	-F option is needed to get smartctl to
	      display correct values) then please  contact  the	 smartmontools
	      developers  so  that this	information can	be added to the	smart-
	      montools database.  Contact information is at the	 end  of  this
	      man page.

	      The valid	arguments to this option are:

	      use  - if	a drive	is recognized, then use	the stored presets for
	      it.  This	is the default.	 Note that presets will	 NOT  override
	      additional  Attribute interpretation ('-v	N,something') command-
	      line options or explicit '-F' command-line options..

	      ignore - do not use presets.

	      show - show if the drive is recognized in	the database,  and  if
	      so, its presets, then exit.

	      showall  -  list all recognized drives, and the presets that are
	      set for them, then exit.	This also checks  the  drive  database
	      regular expressions and settings for syntax errors.

	      The  '-P	showall'  option takes up to two optional arguments to
	      match a specific drive type and firmware version.	 The command:
		smartctl -P showall
	      lists all	entries, the command:
		smartctl -P showall 'MODEL'
	      lists all	entries	matching MODEL,	and the	command:
		smartctl -P showall 'MODEL' 'FIRMWARE'
	      lists all	entries	for this MODEL and a  specific	FIRMWARE  ver-
	      sion.

       -B [+]FILE, --drivedb=[+]FILE
	      [ATA  only] Read the drive database from FILE.  The new database
	      replaces the built in database by	default.  If '+' is specified,
	      then the new entries prepend the built in	entries.

	      Optional	  entries    are   read	  from	 the   file   /usr/lo-
	      cal/etc/smart_drivedb.h if this option is	not specified.

	      If /usr/local/share/smartmontools/drivedb.h is present, the con-
	      tents of this file is used instead of the	built in table.

	      Run  /usr/local/sbin/update-smart-drivedb	 to  update  this file
	      from the smartmontools SVN repository.

	      The database files use the same C/C++ syntax  that  is  used  to
	      initialize  the  built  in database array.  C/C++	style comments
	      are allowed.  Example:

		/* Full	entry: */
		{
		  "Model family",    //	Info about model family/series.
		  "MODEL1.*REGEX",   //	Regular	expression to match model of device.
		  "VERSION.*REGEX",  //	Regular	expression to match firmware version(s).
		  "Some	warning",    //	Warning	message.
		  "-v 9,minutes"     //	String of preset -v and	-F options.
		},
		/* Minimal entry: */
		{
		  "",		     //	No model family/series info.
		  "MODEL2.*REGEX",   //	Regular	expression to match model of device.
		  "",		     //	All firmware versions.
		  "",		     //	No warning.
		  ""		     //	No options preset.
		},
		/* USB ID entry: */
		{
		  "USB:	Device;	Bridge", // Info about USB device and bridge name.
		  "0x1234:0xabcd",   //	Regular	expression to match vendor:product ID.
		  "0x0101",	     //	Regular	expression to match bcdDevice.
		  "",		     //	Not used.
		  "-d sat"	     //	String with device type	option.
		},
		/* ... */

       SMART RUN/ABORT OFFLINE TEST AND	self-test OPTIONS:

       -t TEST,	--test=TEST
	      Executes TEST immediately.  The '-C' option can be used in  con-
	      junction with this option	to run the short or long (and also for
	      ATA devices, selective or	conveyance) self-tests in captive mode
	      (known  as  "foreground mode" for	SCSI devices).	Note that only
	      one test type can	be run at a time, so only one test type	should
	      be  specified per	command	line.  Note also that if a computer is
	      shutdown or power	cycled during a	self-test, no harm should  re-
	      sult.  The self-test will	either be aborted or will resume auto-
	      matically.

	      All '-t TEST' commands can be given during normal	system	opera-
	      tion unless captive mode ('-C' option) is	used.  A running self-
	      test can,	however, degrade performance of	the  drive.   Frequent
	      I/O  requests from the operating system increase the duration of
	      a	test.  These impacts may vary from device to device.

	      If a test	failure	occurs then the	 device	 may  discontinue  the
	      testing and report the result immediately.

	      [ATA] Note that the ATA command SMART EXECUTE OFF-LINE IMMEDIATE
	      (the command to start a test) was	declared obsolete in ATA ACS-4
	      Revision 10 (Nov 2015).

	      The valid	arguments to this option are:

	      offline -	[ATA] runs SMART Immediate Offline Test.  This immedi-
	      ately starts the test described  above.	This  command  can  be
	      given  during normal system operation.  The effects of this test
	      are visible only in that it updates the SMART Attribute  values,
	      and if errors are	found they will	appear in the SMART error log,
	      visible with the '-l error' option.

	      If the '-c' option to smartctl shows that	 the  device  has  the
	      "Suspend	Offline	 collection  upon new command" capability then
	      you can track the	progress of the	Immediate Offline  test	 using
	      the  '-c'	 option	to smartctl.  If the '-c' option show that the
	      device has the "Abort Offline collection upon new	command" capa-
	      bility then most commands	will abort the Immediate Offline Test,
	      so you should not	try to track the progress  of  the  test  with
	      '-c', as it will abort the test.

	      offline  -  [SCSI] runs the default self test in foreground.  No
	      entry is placed in the self test log.

	      short - [ATA] runs SMART Short Self Test (usually	under ten min-
	      utes).  This command can be given	during normal system operation
	      (unless run in captive mode - see	the '-C' option	below).	  This
	      is  a  test  in a	different category than	the immediate or auto-
	      matic offline tests.  The	"Self" tests check the electrical  and
	      mechanical  performance  as  well	as the read performance	of the
	      disk.  Their results are reported	in the Self  Test  Error  Log,
	      readable with the	'-l selftest' option.  Note that on some disks
	      the progress of the self-test can	be monitored by	watching  this
	      log  during  the self-test; with other disks use the '-c'	option
	      to monitor progress.

	      short - [SCSI] runs the "Background short" self-test.

	      long - [ATA] runs	SMART Extended Self Test (tens of  minutes  to
	      several  hours).	 This is a longer and more thorough version of
	      the Short	Self Test described above.  Note that this command can
	      be  given	 during	normal system operation	(unless	run in captive
	      mode - see the '-C' option below).

	      long - [SCSI] runs the "Background long" self-test.

	      conveyance - [ATA	only] runs a SMART Conveyance Self Test	 (min-
	      utes).   This  self-test	routine	is intended to identify	damage
	      incurred during transporting of the device.  This	self-test rou-
	      tine should take on the order of minutes to complete.  Note that
	      this command can be given	during normal system operation (unless
	      run in captive mode - see	the '-C' option	below).

	      select,N-M,  select,N+SIZE  -  [ATA only]	runs a SMART Selective
	      Self Test, to test a  range  of  disk  Logical  Block  Addresses
	      (LBAs), rather than the entire disk.  Each range of LBAs that is
	      checked is called	a "span" and is	specified by  a	 starting  LBA
	      (N)  and	an ending LBA (M) with N less than or equal to M.  The
	      range can	also be	specified as N+SIZE.  A	span at	the end	 of  a
	      disk can be specified by N-max.

	      For example the commands:
		smartctl -t select,10-20 /dev/sda
		smartctl -t select,10+11 /dev/sda
	      both  runs  a  self  test	 on one	span consisting	of LBAs	ten to
	      twenty (inclusive).  The command:
		smartctl -t select,100000000-max /dev/sda
	      run a self test from LBA 100000000 up to the end	of  the	 disk.
	      The  '-t'	 option	 can  be given up to five times, to test up to
	      five spans.  For example the command:
		smartctl -t select,0-100 -t select,1000-2000 /dev/sda
	      runs a self test on two spans.  The first	span consists  of  101
	      LBAs  and	 the second span consists of 1001 LBAs.	 Note that the
	      spans can	overlap	partially or completely, for example:
		smartctl -t select,0-10	-t select,5-15 -t select,10-20 /dev/sda
	      The results of the selective self-test  can  be  obtained	 (both
	      during  and after	the test) by printing the SMART	self-test log,
	      using the	'-l selftest' option to	smartctl.

	      Selective	self tests are particularly useful as disk  capacities
	      increase:	an extended self test (smartctl	-t long) can take sev-
	      eral hours.  Selective self-tests	are helpful if (based on  SYS-
	      LOG  error  messages, previous failed self-tests,	or SMART error
	      log entries) you suspect that a disk is  having  problems	 at  a
	      particular range of Logical Block	Addresses (LBAs).

	      Selective	 self-tests  can be run	during normal system operation
	      (unless done in captive mode - see the '-C' option below).

	      The following variants of	the selective  self-test  command  use
	      spans  based on the ranges from past tests already stored	on the
	      disk:

	      select,redo[+SIZE] - [ATA	only] redo the	last  SMART  Selective
	      Self Test	using the same LBA range.  The starting	LBA is identi-
	      cal to the LBA used by last test,	same for ending	LBA  unless  a
	      new span size is specified by optional +SIZE argument.

	      For example the commands:
		smartctl -t select,10-20 /dev/sda
		smartctl -t select,redo	/dev/sda
		smartctl -t select,redo+20 /dev/sda
	      have the same effect as:
		smartctl -t select,10-20 /dev/sda
		smartctl -t select,10-20 /dev/sda
		smartctl -t select,10-29 /dev/sda

	      select,next[+SIZE] - [ATA	only] runs a SMART Selective Self Test
	      on the LBA range which follows the range of the last test.   The
	      starting	LBA is set to (ending LBA +1) of the last test.	 A new
	      span size	may be specified by the	optional +SIZE argument.

	      For example the commands:
		smartctl -t select,0-999 /dev/sda
		smartctl -t select,next	/dev/sda
		smartctl -t select,next+2000 /dev/sda
	      have the same effect as:
		smartctl -t select,0-999 /dev/sda
		smartctl -t select,1000-1999 /dev/sda
		smartctl -t select,2000-3999 /dev/sda

	      If the last test ended at	the last LBA  of  the  disk,  the  new
	      range starts at LBA 0.  The span size of the last	span of	a disk
	      is adjusted such that the	total number of	 spans	to  check  the
	      full  disk  will	not  be	 changed  by  future  uses  of '-t se-
	      lect,next'.

	      select,cont[+SIZE] - [ATA	only] performs a 'redo'	(above)	if the
	      self  test  status reports that the last test was	aborted	by the
	      host.  Otherwise it run the 'next' (above) test.

	      afterselect,on - [ATA only] perform an offline read scan after a
	      Selective	self-test has completed.  This option must be used to-
	      gether with one or more of the select,N-M	options	above.	If the
	      LBAs  that  have	been specified in the Selective	self-test pass
	      the test with no errors found, then read scan the	 remainder  of
	      the  disk.  If the device	is powered-cycled while	this read scan
	      is in progress, the read scan will be automatically resumed  af-
	      ter  a  time  specified  by  the pending timer (see below).  The
	      value of this option is preserved	between	selective self-tests.

	      afterselect,off -	[ATA only] do not read scan the	 remainder  of
	      the disk after a Selective self-test has completed.  This	option
	      must be use together with	one or more of the select,N-M  options
	      above.   The value of this option	is preserved between selective
	      self-tests.

	      pending,N	- [ATA only] set the pending offline read  scan	 timer
	      to N minutes.  Here N is an integer in the range from 0 to 65535
	      inclusive.  If the device	is powered off during a	read scan  af-
	      ter  a Selective self-test, then resume the test automatically N
	      minutes after power-up.  This option must	be use	together  with
	      one  or more of the select,N-M options above.  The value of this
	      option is	preserved between selective self-tests.

	      vendor,N - [ATA only] issues the ATA command SMART EXECUTE  OFF-
	      LINE  IMMEDIATE with subcommand N	in LBA LOW register.  The sub-
	      command is specified as a	hex value in the range 0x00  to	 0xff.
	      Subcommands 0x40-0x7e and	0x90-0xff are reserved for vendor spe-
	      cific use, see table 61 of T13/1699-D  Revision  6a  (ATA8-ACS).
	      Note  that  the  subcommands 0x00-0x04, 0x7f, 0x81-0x84 are sup-
	      ported by	other smartctl options (e.g. 0x01: '-t	short',	 0x7f:
	      '-X', 0x82: '-C -t long').

	      WARNING:	Only  run  subcommands documented by the vendor	of the
	      device.

	      Example for some Intel SSDs only:	The subcommand 0x40 ('-t  ven-
	      dor,0x40')  clears  the  timed workload related SMART attributes
	      (226, 227, 228).	Note that the raw values of  these  attributes
	      are  held	 at 65535 (0xffff) until the workload timer reaches 60
	      minutes.

	      force - start new	self-test even if another test is already run-
	      ning.  By	default	a running self-test will not be	interrupted to
	      begin another test.

       -C, --captive
	      [ATA] Runs self-tests in captive mode.  This has no effect  with
	      '-t offline' or if the '-t' option is not	used.

	      WARNING:	Tests  run  in captive mode may	busy out the drive for
	      the length of the	test.  Only run	captive	tests on drives	 with-
	      out any mounted partitions!

	      [SCSI] Runs the self-test	in "Foreground"	mode.

       -X, --abort
	      Aborts  non-captive  SMART  Self	Tests.	Note that this command
	      will abort the Offline Immediate Test routine only if your  disk
	      has the "Abort Offline collection	upon new command" capability.

ATA, SCSI command sets and SAT
       In  the past there has been a clear distinction between storage devices
       that used the ATA and SCSI command sets.	 This  distinction  was	 often
       reflected in their device naming	and hardware.  Now various SCSI	trans-
       ports (e.g. SAS,	FC and iSCSI) can  interconnect	 to  both  SCSI	 disks
       (e.g.  FC  and SAS) and ATA disks (especially SATA).  USB and IEEE 1394
       storage devices use the SCSI command set	externally but	almost	always
       contain	ATA  or	SATA disks (or flash).	The storage subsystems in some
       operating systems have started to remove	the  distinction  between  ATA
       and SCSI	in their device	naming policies.

       99%  of	operations  that an OS performs	on a disk involve the SCSI IN-
       QUIRY, READ CAPACITY, READ and WRITE commands,  or  their  ATA  equiva-
       lents.	Since  the  SCSI commands are slightly more general than their
       ATA equivalents,	many OSes are generating SCSI  commands	 (mainly  READ
       and WRITE) and letting a	lower level translate them to their ATA	equiv-
       alents as the need arises.  An  important  note	here  is  that	"lower
       level" may be in	external equipment and hence outside the control of an
       OS.

       SCSI to ATA Translation (SAT) is	a standard (ANSI INCITS	431-2007) that
       specifies how this translation is done.	For the	other 1% of operations
       that an OS performs on a	disk, SAT provides two options.	 First	is  an
       optional	 ATA  PASS-THROUGH SCSI	command	(there are two variants).  The
       second is a translation from the	closest	SCSI  command.	 Most  current
       interest	is in the "pass-through" option.

       The  relevance to smartmontools (and hence smartctl) is that its	inter-
       actions with disks fall solidly into the	"1%" category.	So even	if the
       OS  can	happily	treat (and name) a disk	as "SCSI", smartmontools needs
       to detect the native command set	and act	accordingly.  As more  storage
       manufacturers  (including external SATA drives) comply with SAT,	smart-
       montools	is able	to automatically distinguish the native	command	set of
       the device.  In some cases the '-d sat' option is needed	on the command
       line.

       There are also virtual disks which typically have no useful information
       to  convey  to  smartmontools, but could	conceivably in the future.  An
       example of a virtual disk is the	OS's view of a RAID 1 box.  There  are
       most  likely two	SATA disks inside a RAID 1 box.	 Addressing those SATA
       disks from a distant OS is a challenge for smartmontools.  Another  ap-
       proach is running a tool	like smartmontools inside the RAID 1 box (e.g.
       a Network Attached Storage (NAS)	box)  and  fetching  the  logs	via  a
       browser.

EXAMPLES
       smartctl	-a /dev/sda
       Print a large amount of SMART information for drive /dev/sda.

       smartctl	-s off /dev/sdd
       Disable SMART monitoring	and data log collection	on drive /dev/sdd.

       smartctl	--smart=on --offlineauto=on --saveauto=on /dev/sda
       Enable  SMART on	drive /dev/sda,	enable automatic offline testing every
       four hours, and enable autosaving of SMART Attributes.  This is a  good
       start-up	line for your system's init files.  You	can issue this command
       on a running system.

       smartctl	-t long	/dev/sdc
       Begin an	extended self-test of drive /dev/sdc.  You can issue this com-
       mand on a running system.  The results can be seen in the self-test log
       visible with the	'-l selftest' option after it has completed.

       smartctl	-s on -t offline /dev/sda
       Enable SMART on the disk, and begin an immediate	offline	test of	 drive
       /dev/sda.  You can issue	this command on	a running system.  The results
       are only	used to	update the SMART Attributes, visible with the '-A' op-
       tion.   If  any device errors occur, they are logged to the SMART error
       log, which can be seen with the '-l error' option.

       smartctl	-A -v 9,minutes	/dev/sda
       Shows the vendor	Attributes, when the disk stores its power-on time in-
       ternally	in minutes rather than hours.

       smartctl	-q errorsonly -H -l selftest /dev/sda
       Produces	 output	only if	the device returns failing SMART status, or if
       some of the logged self-tests ended with	errors.

       smartctl	-q silent -a /dev/sda
       Examine all SMART data for device /dev/sda, but produce no printed out-
       put.  You must use the exit status (the $?  shell variable) to learn if
       any Attributes are out of bound,	if the SMART  status  is  failing,  if
       there  are errors recorded in the self-test log,	or if there are	errors
       recorded	in the disk error log.

       smartctl	-a -d 3ware,0 /dev/twl0
       Examine all SMART data for the first SATA (not SAS) disk	connected to a
       3ware RAID 9750 controller card.

       smartctl	-t long	-d areca,4 /dev/sg2
       Start  a	 long  self-test on the	fourth SATA disk connected to an Areca
       RAID controller addressed by /dev/sg2.

       smartctl	-a -d hpt,1/3 /dev/sda (under Linux)
       smartctl	-a -d hpt,1/3 /dev/hptrr (under	FreeBSD)
       Examine all SMART data for the (S)ATA disk directly  connected  to  the
       third channel of	the first HighPoint RocketRAID controller card.

       smartctl	-t short -d hpt,1/1/2 /dev/sda (under Linux)
       smartctl	-t short -d hpt,1/1/2 /dev/hptrr (under	FreeBSD)
       Start  a	 short self-test on the	(S)ATA disk connected to second	pmport
       on the first channel of the first HighPoint RocketRAID controller card.

       smartctl	-t select,10-100 -t select,30-300 -t afterselect,on  -t	 pend-
       ing,45 /dev/sda
       Run  a  selective self-test on LBAs 10 to 100 and 30 to 300.  After the
       these LBAs have been tested, read-scan the remainder of the  disk.   If
       the  disk is power-cycled during	the read-scan, resume the scan 45 min-
       utes after power	to the device is restored.

       smartctl	-a -d cciss,0 /dev/cciss/c0d0
       Examine all SMART data for the first SCSI disk  connected  to  a	 cciss
       RAID controller card.

EXIT STATUS
       The exit	statuses of smartctl are defined by a bitmask.	If all is well
       with the	disk, the exit status (return value) of	 smartctl  is  0  (all
       bits  turned  off).  If a problem occurs, or an error, potential	error,
       or fault	is detected, then a non-zero  status  is  returned.   In  this
       case,  the  eight  different bits in the	exit status have the following
       meanings	for ATA	disks; some of these values may	also be	 returned  for
       SCSI disks.

       Bit 0: Command line did not parse.

       Bit 1: Device  open  failed,  device  did not return an IDENTIFY	DEVICE
	      structure, or device is in a low-power  mode  (see  '-n'	option
	      above).

       Bit 2: Some SMART or other ATA command to the disk failed, or there was
	      a	checksum error in a SMART  data	 structure  (see  '-b'	option
	      above).

       Bit 3: SMART status check returned "DISK	FAILING".

       Bit 4: We found prefail Attributes <= threshold.

       Bit 5: SMART  status  check  returned  "DISK OK"	but we found that some
	      (usage or	prefail) Attributes have been  <=  threshold  at  some
	      time in the past.

       Bit 6: The device error log contains records of errors.

       Bit 7: The device self-test log contains	records	of errors.  [ATA only]
	      Failed self-tests	outdated by a newer successful extended	 self-
	      test are ignored.

       To  test	 within	 the  shell  for whether or not	the different bits are
       turned on or off, you can use the following type	of construction	(which
       should work with	any POSIX compatible shell):
       smartstat=$(($? & 8))
       This  looks at only at bit 3 of the exit	status $?  (since 8=2^3).  The
       shell variable $smartstat will be nonzero if  SMART  status  check  re-
       turned "disk failing" and zero otherwise.

       This shell script prints	all status bits:
       val=$?; mask=1
       for i in	0 1 2 3	4 5 6 7; do
	 echo "Bit $i: $(((val & mask) && 1))"
	 mask=$((mask << 1))
       done

FILES
       /usr/local/sbin/smartctl
	      full path	of this	executable.

       /usr/local/share/smartmontools/drivedb.h
	      drive database (see '-B' option).

       /usr/local/etc/smart_drivedb.h
	      optional local drive database (see '-B' option).

AUTHORS
       Bruce Allen (project initiator),
       Christian  Franke  (project  manager,  Windows  port  and  all  sort of
       things),
       Douglas Gilbert (SCSI subsystem),
       Volker Kuhlmann (moderator of support and database mailing list),
       Gabriele	Pohl (wiki & development team support),
       Alex Samorukov (FreeBSD port and	more, new Trac wiki).

       Many other individuals have made	contributions and corrections, see AU-
       THORS, ChangeLog	and repository files.

       The  first  smartmontools code was derived from the smartsuite package,
       written by Michael Cornwell and Andre Hedrick.

REPORTING BUGS
       To submit a bug report, create a	ticket in smartmontools	wiki:
       <https://www.smartmontools.org/>.
       Alternatively send the info to the smartmontools	support	mailing	list:
       <https://listi.jpberlin.de/mailman/listinfo/smartmontools-support>.

SEE ALSO
       smartd(8).
       update-smart-drivedb(8).

REFERENCES
       Please see the following	web site for more info:	<https://www.smartmon-
       tools.org/>

       An  introductory	 article  about	smartmontools is Monitoring Hard Disks
       with SMART, by Bruce Allen, Linux Journal, January 2004,	 pages	74-77.
       See <https://www.linuxjournal.com/article/6983>.

       If  you	would  like  to	understand better how SMART works, and what it
       does, a good place to start is with Sections 4.8	and 6.54 of the	 first
       volume  of  the	'AT  Attachment	with Packet Interface-7' (ATA/ATAPI-7)
       specification Revision 4b.   This  documents  the  SMART	 functionality
       which the smartmontools utilities provide access	to.

       The  functioning	of SMART was originally	defined	by the SFF-8035i revi-
       sion 2 and the SFF-8055i	revision 1.4 specifications.  These are	publi-
       cations of the Small Form Factors (SFF) Committee.

       Links  to  these	 and other documents may be found on the Links page of
       the smartmontools Wiki at <https://www.smartmontools.org/wiki/Links>.

PACKAGE	VERSION
       smartmontools-7.2 2020-12-30 r5155
       $Id: smartctl.8.in 5143 2020-12-21 18:34:31Z chrfranke $

smartmontools-7.2		  2020-12-30			   SMARTCTL(8)

NAME | SYNOPSIS | DESCRIPTION | OPTIONS | ATA, SCSI command sets and SAT | EXAMPLES | EXIT STATUS | FILES | AUTHORS | REPORTING BUGS | SEE ALSO | REFERENCES | PACKAGE VERSION

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