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SMARTCTL(8)		    SMART Monitoring Tools		   SMARTCTL(8)

NAME
       smartctl	- Control and Monitor Utility for SMART	Disks

SYNOPSIS
       smartctl	[options] device

DESCRIPTION
       [This  man  page	is generated for the FreeBSD version of	smartmontools.
       It does not contain info	specific to other platforms.]

       smartctl	controls the Self-Monitoring, Analysis and Reporting  Technol-
       ogy  (SMART)  system  built into	most ATA/SATA and SCSI/SAS hard	drives
       and solid-state drives.	The purpose of SMART is	to monitor the	relia-
       bility  of  the hard drive and predict drive failures, and to carry out
       different types of drive	self-tests.  smartctl also supports some  fea-
       tures  not  related  to	SMART.	This version of	smartctl is compatible
       with ACS-3, ACS-2, ATA8-ACS, ATA/ATAPI-7	 and  earlier  standards  (see
       REFERENCES below).

       smartctl	 also  provides	support	for SCSI tape drives and changers (see
       TAPE DRIVES below).

       The user	must specify the device	to be controlled  or  interrogated  as
       the  final argument to smartctl.	 The command set used by the device is
       often derived from the device path but may need help with the '-d'  op-
       tion  (for  more	information see	the section on "ATA, SCSI command sets
       and SAT"	below).	 Device	paths are as follows:

       FREEBSD:	Use  the  forms	 "/dev/ad[0-9]+"  for  IDE/ATA	 devices   and
		"/dev/da[0-9]+"	 or  "/dev/pass[0-9]+"	for SCSI devices.  For
		SATA devices on	AHCI bus use "/dev/ada[0-9]+" format.  For  HP
		Smart  Array  RAID  controllers, use "/dev/ciss[0-9]" (and see
		the -d option, below).

       if '-' is specified as the device path, smartctl	reads  and  interprets
       it's own	debug output from standard input.  See '-r ataioctl' below for
       details.

       smartctl	guesses	the device type	if possible.  If necessary,  the  '-d'
       option can be used to override this guess.

       Note that the printed output of smartctl	displays most numerical	values
       in base 10 (decimal), but some values are displayed in base  16	(hexa-
       decimal).  To distinguish them, the base	16 values are always displayed
       with a leading "0x", for	example: "0xff".  This man  page  follows  the
       same convention.

OPTIONS
       The  options  are grouped below into several categories.	 smartctl will
       execute the corresponding  commands  in	the  order:  INFORMATION,  EN-
       ABLE/DISABLE, DISPLAY DATA, RUN/ABORT TESTS.

       SHOW INFORMATION	OPTIONS:

       -h, --help, --usage
	      Prints a usage message to	STDOUT and exits.

       -V, --version, --copyright, --license
	      Prints  version,	copyright, license, home page and SVN revision
	      information for your copy	of smartctl to STDOUT and then exits.

       -i, --info
	      Prints the device	model number, serial number, firmware version,
	      and  ATA Standard	version/revision information.  Says if the de-
	      vice supports SMART, and if so, whether SMART  support  is  cur-
	      rently  enabled  or  disabled.   If  the device supports Logical
	      Block Address mode (LBA mode) print current user drive  capacity
	      in  bytes.   (If drive has a user	protected area reserved, or is
	      "clipped", this may be smaller than the potential	maximum	 drive
	      capacity.)  Indicates if the drive is in the smartmontools data-
	      base (see	'-v' options below).  If so, the  drive	 model	family
	      may  also	 be  printed.	If  '-n' (see below) is	specified, the
	      power mode of the	drive is printed.

	      [NVMe] For NVMe devices the information  is  obtained  from  the
	      Identify Controller and the Identify Namespace data structure.

       --identify[=[w][nvb]]
	      [ATA  only]  Prints  an  annotated  table	of the IDENTIFY	DEVICE
	      data.  By	default, only valid words (words not equal  to	0x0000
	      or  0xffff)  and	nonzero	bits and bit fields are	printed.  This
	      can be changed by	the optional argument which consists of	one or
	      two  characters  from the	set 'wnvb'.  The character 'w' enables
	      printing of all 256 words.  The character	'n' suppresses	print-
	      ing  of bits, 'v'	enables	printing of all	bits from valid	words,
	      'b' enables printing of all bits.	  For  example	'--identify=n'
	      (valid words, no bits) produces the shortest output and '--iden-
	      tify=wb' (all words, all bits) produces the longest output.

       -a, --all
	      Prints all SMART information about the disk.   For  ATA  devices
	      this is equivalent to
	      '-H -i -c	-A -l error -l selftest	-l selective'
	      and for SCSI, this is equivalent to
	      '-H -i -A	-l error -l selftest'.
	      For NVMe,	this is	equivalent to
	      '-H -i -c	-A -l error'.
	      Note  that  for ATA disks	this does not enable the non-SMART op-
	      tions and	the SMART options which	require	support	for 48-bit ATA
	      commands.

       -x, --xall
	      Prints  all  SMART  and  non-SMART information about the device.
	      For ATA devices this is equivalent to
	      '-H -i -g	all -g wcreorder -c -A -f  brief  -l  xerror,error  -l
	      xselftest,selftest  -l  selective	-l directory -l	scttemp	-l sc-
	      terc -l devstat -l defects -l sataphy'.
	      and for SCSI disks, this is equivalent to
	      '-H -i -g	all -A -l error	-l selftest -l background -l sasphy -l
	      defects -l env_rep'.
	      and for SCSI zoned disks,	add -l zdevstat
	      and for SCSI tape	drivers	and changers, add -l tapedevstat
	      For NVMe,	this is	equivalent to
	      '-H -i -c	-A -l error'.

       --scan Scans  for  devices and prints each device name, device type and
	      protocol ([ATA] or [SCSI]) info.	May  be	 used  in  conjunction
	      with  '-d	 TYPE'	to  restrict the scan to a specific TYPE.  See
	      also info	about platform specific	device scan and	the DEVICESCAN
	      directive	on smartd(8) man page.

       --scan-open
	      Same as --scan, but also tries to	open each device before	print-
	      ing device info.	The device open	may change the device type due
	      to autodetection (see also '-d test').

	      This option can be used to create	a draft	smartd.conf file.  All
	      options after '--' are appended to each output line.  For	 exam-
	      ple:
	      smartctl --scan-open -- -a -W 4,45,50 -m admin@work > smartd.conf

	      Multiple '-d TYPE' options may be	specified with '--scan[-open]'
	      to combine the scan results of more than one TYPE.

       -g NAME,	--get=NAME
	      Get non-SMART device settings.  See '-s, --set' below  for  fur-
	      ther info.

       RUN-TIME	BEHAVIOR OPTIONS:

       -j, --json[=cgiosuvy]
	      Enables JSON or YAML output mode.

	      The  output  could be modified or	enhanced by the	optional argu-
	      ment which consists of one  or  more  characters	from  the  set
	      'cgiosuvy':
	      'c':  Outputs  compact format without extra spaces and newlines.
	      By default, output is pretty-printed.  If	used with YAML format,
	      the indentation of arrays	is reduced.
	      'g':  Outputs  JSON structure as single assignments to allow the
	      usage of grep.  Each assignment reflects the absolute path of  a
	      value.  The syntax is compatible with gron:
	      'json.KEY1[INDEX2].KEY3 =	VALUE;'.
	      'o':  Includes the full original plaintext output	of smartctl as
	      a	JSON array 'smartctl.output[]'.
	      's': Outputs JSON	object elements	sorted by  key.	  By  default,
	      object elements are ordered as generated internally.
	      'v':  Enables  verbose  output  of possible unsafe integers.  If
	      specified, values	which may exceed JSON  safe  integer  (53-bit)
	      range  are  always  output  as  a	number (with some 'KEY') and a
	      string ('KEY_s'),	regardless of the actual value.	 Values	 which
	      may  exceed 64-bit range are also	output as a little endian byte
	      array ('KEY_le').	 By default, the additional elements are  only
	      output if	the value actually exceeds the range.
	      'y': [NEW	EXPERIMENTAL SMARTCTL FEATURE] Outputs in YAML format.

	      The  following two arguments are primarily indented for develop-
	      ment:
	      'i': Includes lines from the plaintext output which  print  info
	      already  implemented  for	 JSON  output.	 The  lines  appear as
	      strings with key 'smartctl_NNNN_i'.
	      'u': Includes lines from the plaintext output which  print  info
	      still  unimplemented  for	 JSON  output.	 The  lines  appear as
	      strings with key 'smartctl_NNNN_u'.

       -q TYPE,	--quietmode=TYPE
	      Specifies	that smartctl should run in one	of the quiet modes de-
	      scribed here.  The valid arguments to this option	are:

	      errorsonly  - only print:	For the	'-l error' option, if nonzero,
	      the number of errors recorded in the SMART  error	 log  and  the
	      power-on	time when they occurred; For the '-l selftest' option,
	      errors recorded in the device self-test log; For	the  '-H'  op-
	      tion,  SMART  "disk  failing"  status or device Attributes (pre-
	      failure or usage)	which failed either now	or in  the  past;  For
	      the  '-A'	option,	device Attributes (pre-failure or usage) which
	      failed either now	or in the past.

	      silent - print no	output.	 The only way to learn about what  was
	      found is to use the exit status of smartctl (see EXIT STATUS be-
	      low).

	      noserial - Do not	print the serial number	of the device.

       -d TYPE,	--device=TYPE
	      Specifies	the type of the	device.	 The valid arguments  to  this
	      option are:

	      auto  - attempt to guess the device type from the	device name or
	      from controller type info	provided by the	 operating  system  or
	      from a matching USB ID entry in the drive	database.  This	is the
	      default.

	      test - prints the	guessed	TYPE, then opens the device and	prints
	      the (possibly changed) TYPE name and then	exits without perform-
	      ing any further commands.

	      ata - the	device type is ATA.  This prevents smartctl from issu-
	      ing SCSI commands	to an ATA device.

	      scsi - the device	type is	SCSI.  This prevents smartctl from is-
	      suing ATA	commands to a SCSI device.

	      nvme[,NSID] - the	device type is NVM Express  (NVMe).   The  op-
	      tional parameter NSID specifies the namespace id (in hex)	passed
	      to the driver.  Use 0xffffffff for the broadcast	namespace  id.
	      The default for NSID is the namespace id addressed by the	device
	      name.

	      sat[,auto][,N] - the device type	is  SCSI  to  ATA  Translation
	      (SAT).   This  is	for ATA	disks that have	a SCSI to ATA Transla-
	      tion Layer (SATL)	between	the disk  and  the  operating  system.
	      SAT  defines  two	 ATA  PASS THROUGH SCSI	commands, one 12 bytes
	      long and the other 16 bytes long.	 The default is	 the  16  byte
	      variant  which  can be overridden	with either '-d	sat,12'	or '-d
	      sat,16'.

	      If '-d sat,auto' is specified, device  type  SAT	(for  ATA/SATA
	      disks)  is  only	used  if  the SCSI INQUIRY data	reports	a SATL
	      (VENDOR: "ATA	").  Otherwise device type SCSI	(for  SCSI/SAS
	      disks) is	used.

	      usbcypress - this	device type is for ATA disks that are behind a
	      Cypress USB to PATA bridge.  This	will use the ATACB proprietary
	      scsi  pass  through command.  The	default	SCSI operation code is
	      0x24,  but  although  it	can  be	 overridden  with  '-d	usbcy-
	      press,0xN',  where  N is the scsi	operation code,	you're running
	      the risk of damage to the	device or filesystems on it.

	      usbjmicron[,p][,x][,PORT]	- this device type is for  SATA	 disks
	      that  are	 behind	a JMicron USB to PATA/SATA bridge.  The	48-bit
	      ATA commands (required e.g. for '-l xerror', see below)  do  not
	      work with	all of these bridges and are therefore disabled	by de-
	      fault.  These commands can be enabled by '-d usbjmicron,x'.   If
	      two  disks  are  connected  to a bridge with two ports, an error
	      message is printed if no PORT is specified.   The	 port  can  be
	      specified	 by  '-d usbjmicron[,x],PORT' where PORT is 0 (master)
	      or 1 (slave).  This is not necessary if the device uses  a  port
	      multiplier to connect multiple disks to one port.	 The disks ap-
	      pear under separate /dev/ice names  then.	  CAUTION:  Specifying
	      ',x'  for	 a device which	does not support it results in I/O er-
	      rors and may disconnect the drive.   The	same  applies  if  the
	      specified	PORT does not exist or is not connected	to a disk.

	      The Prolific PL2507/3507 USB bridges with	older firmware support
	      a	pass-through command similar to	JMicron	and work with '-d usb-
	      jmicron,0'.  Newer Prolific firmware requires a modified command
	      which can	be selected by '-d usbjmicron,p'.  Note	that this does
	      not yet support the SMART	status command.

	      usbprolific - this device	type is	for SATA disks that are	behind
	      a	Prolific PL2571/2771/2773/2775 USB to SATA bridge.

	      usbsunplus - this	device type is for SATA	disks that are	behind
	      a	SunplusIT USB to SATA bridge.

	      sntasmedia  -  [NEW  EXPERIMENTAL	 SMARTCTL FEATURE] this	device
	      type is for NVMe disks that are behind an	ASMedia	 USB  to  NVMe
	      bridge.

	      sntjmicron[,NSID]	 - this	device type is for NVMe	disks that are
	      behind a JMicron USB to NVMe  bridge.   The  optional  parameter
	      NSID  specifies  the namespace id	(in hex) passed	to the driver.
	      The  default  namespace  id  is  the  broadcast	namespace   id
	      (0xffffffff).

	      sntrealtek  -  [NEW  EXPERIMENTAL	 SMARTCTL FEATURE] this	device
	      type is for NVMe disks that are behind a	Realtek	 USB  to  NVMe
	      bridge.

	      marvell  -  [Linux only] interact	with SATA disks	behind Marvell
	      chip-set controllers  (using  the	 Marvell  rather  than	libata
	      driver).

	      megaraid,N - [FreeBSD and	Linux only] the	device consists	of one
	      or more SCSI/SAS disks connected to a MegaRAID controller.   The
	      non-negative  integer N (in the range of 0 to 127	inclusive) de-
	      notes which disk on the controller is monitored. This  interface
	      will also	work for Dell PERC controllers.	 Use syntax such as:
	      smartctl -a -d megaraid,2	/dev/mfi0
	      smartctl -a -d megaraid,0	/dev/mrsas0

	      3ware,N -	[FreeBSD and Linux only] the device consists of	one or
	      more ATA disks connected to a 3ware RAID controller.   The  non-
	      negative	integer	 N  (in	the range from 0 to 127	inclusive) de-
	      notes which disk on the controller  is  monitored.   Use	syntax
	      such as:
	      smartctl -a -d 3ware,2 /dev/sda  [Linux only]
	      smartctl -a -d 3ware,0 /dev/twe0
	      smartctl -a -d 3ware,1 /dev/twa0
	      smartctl -a -d 3ware,1 /dev/twl0 [Linux only]
	      smartctl -a -d 3ware,1 /dev/tws0 [FreeBSD	only]
	      The  first  two forms, which refer to devices /dev/sda-z (depre-
	      cated) and /dev/twe0-15, may be used  with  3ware	 series	 6000,
	      7000,  and  8000 series controllers that use the 3x-xxxx driver.
	      The devices /dev/twa0-15,	must be	used with  3ware  9000	series
	      controllers,   which   use  the  3w-9xxx	driver.	  The  devices
	      /dev/twl0-15 [Linux] or /dev/tws0-15 [FreeBSD] must be used with
	      the  3ware/LSI  9750  series  controllers	 which	use the	3w-sas
	      driver.

	      Note that	if the special character  device  nodes	 /dev/tw[ls]?,
	      /dev/twa?	  and /dev/twe?	do not exist, or exist with the	incor-
	      rect major or minor numbers, smartctl will recreate them on  the
	      fly.

	      areca,N  -  [FreeBSD, Linux, Windows and Cygwin only] the	device
	      consists of one or more SATA disks connected to  an  Areca  SATA
	      RAID controller.	The positive integer N (in the range from 1 to
	      24 inclusive) denotes which disk on the controller is monitored.
	      On FreeBSD use syntax such as:
	      smartctl -a -d areca,2 /dev/arcmsr1
	      smartctl -a -d areca,3 /dev/arcmsr2
	      The  first  line	above  addresses  the second disk on the first
	      Areca RAID controller.  The second line addresses	the third disk
	      on the second Areca RAID controller.

	      Important:  the Areca controller must have firmware version 1.46
	      or later.	 Lower-numbered	firmware versions will give (harmless)
	      SCSI error messages and no SMART information.

	      areca,N/E	- [FreeBSD, Linux, Windows and Cygwin only] the	device
	      consists of one or more SATA or SAS disks	connected to an	 Areca
	      SAS RAID controller.  The	integer	N (range 1 to 128) denotes the
	      channel (slot) and E (range 1 to 8) denotes the enclosure.   Im-
	      portant:	This  requires	Areca  SAS controller firmware version
	      1.51 or later.

	      cciss,N -	[FreeBSD and Linux only] the device consists of	one or
	      more  SCSI/SAS  or  SATA	disks  connected  to a cciss RAID con-
	      troller.	The non-negative integer N (in the range from 0	to  15
	      inclusive) denotes which disk on the controller is monitored.

	      Option  '-d  sat,auto+...'  is implicitly	enabled	to detect SATA
	      disks.  Use '-d scsi+cciss,N' to disable it.

	      To look at disks behind HP Smart Array controllers,  use	syntax
	      such as:
	      smartctl -a -d cciss,0 /dev/ciss0	   (under FreeBSD)

	      hpt,L/M/N	 - [FreeBSD and	Linux only] the	device consists	of one
	      or more ATA disks	 connected  to	a  HighPoint  RocketRAID  con-
	      troller.	 The  integer L	is the controller id, the integer M is
	      the channel number, and the integer N is the PMPort number if it
	      is  available.   The  allowed values of L	are from 1 to 4	inclu-
	      sive, M are from 1 to 128	inclusive and N	from 1 to 4 if	PMPort
	      available.   And	also  these values are limited by the model of
	      the HighPoint RocketRAID controller.  Use	syntax such as:
	      smartctl -a -d hpt,1/3 /dev/hptrr	   (under FreeBSD)
	      smartctl -a -d hpt,1/2/3 /dev/hptrr    (under FreeBSD)
	      Note that	the /dev/sda-z form should be the  device  node	 which
	      stands  for the disks derived from the HighPoint RocketRAID con-
	      trollers under Linux and under FreeBSD, it is the	character  de-
	      vice which the driver registered (eg, /dev/hptrr,	/dev/hptmv6).

	      intelliprop,N[+TYPE] - the device	consists of multiple ATA disks
	      connected	to an Intelliprop controller.  The integer  N  is  the
	      port  number  from  0 to 3 of the	ATA drive to be	targeted.  The
	      TYPE can be ata(default),	sat, or	a USB controller listed	above.
	      Note:  if	 a  type of ATA	does not work, try a type of sat.  Use
	      syntax such as:
	      smartctl -a -d intelliprop,1 /dev/sda    (under Linux)
	      smartctl -a -d intelliprop,1+sat /dev/sda	   (under Linux)
	      WARNING: The disks are selected by write commands	to the ATA De-
	      vice  Vendor  Specific  Log  at address 0xc0.  Using this	option
	      with other devices may have undesirable side effects.

	      jmb39x[-q],N[,sLBA][,force][+TYPE] - [NEW	EXPERIMENTAL  SMARTCTL
	      FEATURE] the device consists of multiple SATA disks connected to
	      a	JMicron	JMB39x RAID port multiplier.  The suffix '-q'  selects
	      a	 slightly  different command variant used by some QNAP NAS de-
	      vices.  The integer N is the port	number from 0 to 4.
	      WARNING: The ATA pass-through commands are issued	via READ/WRITE
	      commands	to  LBA	33 of the RAID volume.	Using this option with
	      other devices may	overwrite this sector.
	      The LBA could be selected	in the range 33	(last sector of	a GPT)
	      to 62 (last sector of traditional	boot area).
	      By default, access to the	device is refused if the selected sec-
	      tor is not zero filled.  The 'force' flag	disables this check.
	      WARNING: Original	sector data is not written back	if smartctl is
	      aborted with a signal.

	      jms56x,N[,sLBA][,force][+TYPE] - [NEW EXPERIMENTAL SMARTCTL FEA-
	      TURE] the	device consists	of multiple SATA disks connected to  a
	      JMicron  JMS56x  USB to SATA RAID	bridge.	 See 'jmb39x...' above
	      for valid	arguments.

       -T TYPE,	--tolerance=TYPE
	      [ATA only] Specifies how tolerant	smartctl should	be of ATA  and
	      SMART command failures.

	      The  behavior  of	 smartctl  depends upon	whether	the command is
	      "optional" or "mandatory".  Here "mandatory" means "required  by
	      the ATA Specification if the device implements the SMART command
	      set" and "optional" means	"not required by the ATA Specification
	      even  if	the  device  implements	 the  SMART command set."  The
	      "mandatory" ATA and SMART	commands are: (1) ATA IDENTIFY DEVICE,
	      (2)  SMART  ENABLE/DISABLE  ATTRIBUTE  AUTOSAVE,	(3)  SMART EN-
	      ABLE/DISABLE, and	(4) SMART RETURN STATUS.

	      The valid	arguments to this option are:

	      normal - exit on failure of any mandatory	SMART command, and ig-
	      nore  all	 failures of optional SMART commands.  This is the de-
	      fault.  Note that	on some	 devices,  issuing  unimplemented  op-
	      tional  SMART  commands doesn't cause an error.  This can	result
	      in misleading smartctl messages such as "Feature	X  not	imple-
	      mented", followed	shortly	by "Feature X: enabled".  In most such
	      cases, contrary to the final message, Feature X is not enabled.

	      conservative - exit on failure of	any optional SMART command.

	      permissive - ignore  failure(s)  of  mandatory  SMART  commands.
	      This option may be given more than once.	Each additional	use of
	      this option will cause one more additional  failure  to  be  ig-
	      nored.   Note  that  the use of this option can lead to messages
	      like "Feature X not supported", followed shortly by  "Feature  X
	      enable failed".  In a few	such cases, contrary to	the final mes-
	      sage, Feature X is enabled.

	      verypermissive - equivalent to giving a large number of '-T per-
	      missive'	options:  ignore  failures  of any number of mandatory
	      SMART commands.  Please see the note above.

       -b TYPE,	--badsum=TYPE
	      [ATA only] Specifies the action smartctl should take if a	check-
	      sum error	is detected in the: (1)	Device Identity	Structure, (2)
	      SMART Self-Test Log Structure, (3) SMART Attribute Value	Struc-
	      ture,  (4) SMART Attribute Threshold Structure, or (5) ATA Error
	      Log Structure.

	      The valid	arguments to this option are:

	      warn - report the	incorrect checksum but carry on	 in  spite  of
	      it.  This	is the default.

	      exit - exit smartctl.

	      ignore - continue	silently without issuing a warning.

       -r TYPE,	--report=TYPE
	      Intended	primarily  to help smartmontools developers understand
	      the behavior of smartmontools on non-conforming or  poorly  con-
	      forming  hardware.   This	 option	 reports  details  of smartctl
	      transactions with	the device.  The option	can be	used  multiple
	      times.   When  used  just	once, it shows a record	of the ioctl()
	      transactions with	the device.  When used more than once, the de-
	      tail  of	these ioctl() transactions are reported	in greater de-
	      tail.  The valid arguments to this option	are:

	      ioctl - report all ioctl() transactions.

	      ataioctl - report	only ioctl() transactions with ATA devices.

	      scsiioctl	- report only ioctl() transactions with	SCSI  devices.
	      Invoking this once shows the SCSI	commands in hex	and the	corre-
	      sponding status.	Invoking it a second time adds a  hex  listing
	      of  the first 64 bytes of	data send to, or received from the de-
	      vice.

	      nvmeioctl	- report only ioctl() transactions with	NVMe devices.

	      Any argument may include a positive integer to specify the level
	      of  detail that should be	reported.  The argument	should be fol-
	      lowed by a comma then the	integer	with no	spaces.	 For  example,
	      ataioctl,2  The  default	level is 1, so '-r ataioctl,1' and '-r
	      ataioctl'	are equivalent.

	      For testing purposes, the	output of '-r ataioctl,2' can later be
	      parsed  by  smartctl  itself if '-' is used as device path argu-
	      ment.  The ATA command input parameters, sector data and	return
	      values  are reconstructed	from the debug report read from	stdin.
	      Then smartctl internally simulates an ATA	device with  the  same
	      behaviour.  This is does not work	for SCSI devices yet.

       -n POWERMODE[,STATUS[,STATUS2]],	--nocheck=POWERMODE[,STATUS[,STATUS2]]
	      [ATA]  [SCSI:  NEW  EXPERIMENTAL	SMARTCTL FEATURE] Specifies if
	      smartctl should exit before performing any checks	when  the  de-
	      vice  is	in a low-power mode.  It may be	used to	prevent	a disk
	      from being spun-up by smartctl.  The power mode  is  ignored  by
	      default.

	      Note: If this option is used it may also be necessary to specify
	      the device type with the '-d' option.  Otherwise the device  may
	      spin up due to commands issued during device type	autodetection.

	      By default, exit status 2	is returned if the device is in	one of
	      the specified low-power modes.  This status is also returned  if
	      the  device  open	 or identification failed (see EXIT STATUS be-
	      low).  The optional STATUS parameter allows one to override this
	      default.	STATUS is an integer in	the range from 0 to 255	inclu-
	      sive.  For example use '-n standby,0' to return success if a de-
	      vice  is in SLEEP	or STANDBY mode.  Use '-n standby,3' to	return
	      a	unique exit status in this case.

	      The valid	arguments to this option are:

	      never - check the	device always, but print  the  power  mode  if
	      '-i' is specified.

	      sleep[,STATUS[,STATUS2]]	-  check  the  device  unless it is in
	      SLEEP mode.

	      standby[,STATUS[,STATUS2]] - check the device unless  it	is  in
	      SLEEP  or	STANDBY	mode.  In these	modes most disks are not spin-
	      ning, so if you want to prevent a	disk from spinning up, this is
	      probably what you	want.

	      idle[,STATUS[,STATUS2]]  -  check	 the  device  unless  it is in
	      SLEEP, STANDBY or	IDLE mode.  In the IDLE	state, most disks  are
	      still spinning, so this is probably not what you want.

	      The  '-n'	 option	is ignored if the power	mode check is not sup-
	      ported or	returns	an unknown value.
	      [ATA only][NEW EXPERIMENTAL SMARTCTL FEATURE]  If	 the  optional
	      STATUS2  parameter is specified, smartctl	exits immediately with
	      STATUS2 in this case.  For example use '-n standby,3,5'  to  re-
	      turn unique exit statuses	in the STANDBY and UNSUPPORTED cases.

       SMART FEATURE ENABLE/DISABLE COMMANDS:

	      Note:  if	multiple options are used to both enable and disable a
	      feature, then both the enable and	disable	commands will  be  is-
	      sued.   The enable command will always be	issued before the cor-
	      responding disable command.

       -s VALUE, --smart=VALUE
	      Enables or disables SMART	on device.   The  valid	 arguments  to
	      this option are on and off.

	      [ATA] Note that the ATA commands SMART ENABLE/DISABLE OPERATIONS
	      were declared obsolete in	ATA ACS-4 Revision 10 (Nov 2015).

	      [SCSI tape drive or changer] It is not necessary (or useful)  to
	      enable SMART to see the TapeAlert	messages.

       -o VALUE, --offlineauto=VALUE
	      [ATA  only]  Enables  or	disables SMART automatic offline test,
	      which scans the drive every four hours for disk  defects.	  This
	      command  can be given during normal system operation.  The valid
	      arguments	to this	option are on and off.

	      Note that	the SMART automatic offline test command is listed  as
	      "Obsolete"  in every version of the ATA and ATA/ATAPI Specifica-
	      tions.  It was originally	part of	 the  SFF-8035i	 Revision  2.0
	      specification,  but  was	never  part  of	any ATA	specification.
	      However it is implemented	and used by  many  vendors.   You  can
	      tell if automatic	offline	testing	is supported by	seeing if this
	      command enables and disables it, as indicated by the 'Auto  Off-
	      line  Data  Collection'  part  of	 the SMART capabilities	report
	      (displayed with '-c').

	      SMART provides three basic categories  of	 testing.   The	 first
	      category,	 called	"online" testing, has no effect	on the perfor-
	      mance of the device.  It is turned on by the '-s on' option.

	      The second category of  testing  is  called  "offline"  testing.
	      This  type of test can, in principle, degrade the	device perfor-
	      mance.  The '-o on' option causes	this  offline  testing	to  be
	      carried  out, automatically, on a	regular	scheduled basis.  Nor-
	      mally, the disk will suspend offline testing while disk accesses
	      are taking place,	and then automatically resume it when the disk
	      would otherwise be idle, so in practice it  has  little  effect.
	      Note  that a one-time offline test can also be carried out imme-
	      diately upon receipt of a	user command.  See  the	 '-t  offline'
	      option below, which causes a one-time offline test to be carried
	      out immediately.

	      The choice (made by the SFF-8035i	and ATA	specification authors)
	      of  the  word testing for	these first two	categories is unfortu-
	      nate, and	often leads to confusion.  In  fact  these  first  two
	      categories  of  online  and offline testing could	have been more
	      accurately described as online and offline data collection.

	      The results of this automatic or immediate offline testing (data
	      collection) are reflected	in the values of the SMART Attributes.
	      Thus, if problems	or errors are detected,	the  values  of	 these
	      Attributes will go below their failure thresholds; some types of
	      errors may also appear in	the SMART error	log.  These are	 visi-
	      ble with the '-A'	and '-l	error' options respectively.

	      Some  SMART  attribute  values  are updated only during off-line
	      data collection activities; the rest are updated	during	normal
	      operation	of the device or during	both normal operation and off-
	      line testing.  The Attribute value table produced	 by  the  '-A'
	      option  indicates	this in	the UPDATED column.  Attributes	of the
	      first type are labeled "Offline" and Attributes  of  the	second
	      type are labeled "Always".

	      The  third  category of testing (and the only category for which
	      the word 'testing' is really an appropriate  choice)  is	"self"
	      testing.	 This  third  type  of test is only performed (immedi-
	      ately) when a command to run it is issued.  The  '-t'  and  '-X'
	      options  can  be	used  to  carry	out and	abort such self-tests;
	      please see below for further details.

	      Any errors detected in the self testing will  be	shown  in  the
	      SMART  self-test	log, which can be examined using the '-l self-
	      test' option.

	      Note: in this manual page, the word "Test" is used in connection
	      with  the	second category	just described,	e.g. for the "offline"
	      testing.	The words "Self-test" are used in connection with  the
	      third category.

       -S VALUE, --saveauto=VALUE
	      [ATA]  Enables  or disables SMART	autosave of device vendor-spe-
	      cific Attributes.	 The valid arguments to	this option are	on and
	      off.   Note that this feature is preserved across	disk power cy-
	      cles, so you should only need to issue it	once.

	      The ATA standard does not	specify	 a  method  to	check  whether
	      SMART autosave is	enabled.  Unlike SCSI (below), smartctl	is un-
	      able to print a warning if autosave is disabled.

	      Note that	the ATA	commands SMART	ENABLE/DISABLE	AUTOSAVE  were
	      declared obsolete	in ATA ACS-4 Revision 10 (Nov 2015).

	      [SCSI]  For  SCSI	 devices  this toggles the value of the	Global
	      Logging Target Save Disabled (GLTSD) bit	in  the	 Control  Mode
	      Page.   Some  disk  manufacturers	set this bit by	default.  This
	      prevents error counters, power-up	hours and  other  useful  data
	      from  being  placed in non-volatile storage, so these values may
	      be reset to zero the next	time the device	is  power-cycled.   If
	      the  GLTSD  bit  is set then 'smartctl -a' will issue a warning.
	      Use on to	clear the GLTSD	bit and	thus enable saving counters to
	      non-volatile storage.  For extreme streaming-video type applica-
	      tions you	might consider using off to set	the GLTSD bit.

       -g NAME,	--get=NAME, -s NAME[,VALUE], --set=NAME[,VALUE]
	      Gets/sets	non-SMART device settings.  Note that the '--set'  op-
	      tion  shares  its	short option '-s' with '--smart'.  Valid argu-
	      ments are:

	      all - Gets all values.  This is equivalent to
	      '-g aam -g apm -g	lookahead -g security -g wcache	-g  rcache  -g
	      dsn'

	      aam[,N|off]  -  [ATA only] Gets/sets the Automatic Acoustic Man-
	      agement (AAM) feature (if	supported).  A value of	128  sets  the
	      most  quiet  (slowest)  mode and 254 the fastest (loudest) mode,
	      'off' disables AAM.  Devices may	support	 intermediate  levels.
	      Values  below  128 are defined as	vendor specific	(0) or retired
	      (1 to 127).  Note	that the AAM feature was declared obsolete  in
	      ATA ACS-2	Revision 4a (Dec 2010).

	      apm[,N|off] - [ATA only] Gets/sets the Advanced Power Management
	      (APM) feature on device (if supported).  If a  value  between  1
	      and  254	is provided, it	will attempt to	enable APM and set the
	      specified	value, 'off' disables APM.  Note the  actual  behavior
	      depends  on  the	drive,	for example some drives	disable	APM if
	      their value is set above 128.  Values below 128 are supposed  to
	      allow  drive  spindown,  values  128 and above adjust only head-
	      parking frequency, although the actual behavior defined is  also
	      vendor-specific.

	      lookahead[,on|off]  -  [ATA  only] Gets/sets the read look-ahead
	      feature (if supported).  Read look-ahead is usually  enabled  by
	      default.

	      security	-  [ATA	 only] Gets the	status of ATA Security feature
	      (if supported).  If ATA Security is enabled an ATA user password
	      is set.  The drive will be locked	on next	reset then.

	      security-freeze -	[ATA only] Sets	ATA Security feature to	frozen
	      mode.  This prevents that	the drive accepts  any	security  com-
	      mands  until  next reset.	 Note that the frozen mode may already
	      be set by	BIOS or	OS.

	      standby,[N|off] -	[ATA] Sets the standby	(spindown)  timer  and
	      places  the  drive in the	IDLE mode.  A value of 0 or 'off' dis-
	      ables the	standby	timer.	Values from 1 to 240 specify  timeouts
	      from  5  seconds	to  20 minutes in 5 second increments.	Values
	      from 241 to 251 specify timeouts from 30 minutes to 330  minutes
	      in 30 minute increments.	Value 252 specifies 21 minutes.	 Value
	      253 specifies a vendor specific time between  8  and  12	hours.
	      Value  255 specifies 21 minutes and 15 seconds.  Some drives may
	      use a vendor specific interpretation for the values.  Note  that
	      there  is	 no  get option	because	ATA standards do not specify a
	      method to	read the standby timer.	 If '-s	standby,now'  is  also
	      specified,  the  drive is	immediately placed in the STANDBY mode
	      without temporarily placing it in	the IDLE mode.	Note that  ATA
	      standards	 do  not  specify  a  command to set the standby timer
	      without affecting	the power mode.
	      [SCSI: NEW EXPERIMENTAL SMARTCTL FEATURE]	Only  the  set	option
	      with 'standby,off' or 'standby,0'	is accepted and	will place the
	      SCSI disk	into "ACTIVE" power condition.

	      standby,now - [ATA] Places the drive in the STANDBY mode.	  This
	      usually  spins down the drive.  The setting of the standby timer
	      is not affected unless '-s standby,[N|off]' is also specified.
	      [SCSI: NEW EXPERIMENTAL SMARTCTL FEATURE]	Only the set option is
	      accepted	and  will  place  the SCSI disk	into "STANDBY_Z" power
	      condition.

	      wcache[,on|off] -	[ATA] Gets/sets	the volatile write cache  fea-
	      ture  (if	supported).  The write cache is	usually	enabled	by de-
	      fault.

	      wcache[,on|off] -	[SCSI]	Gets/sets  the	'Write	Cache  Enable'
	      (WCE) bit	(if supported).	 The write cache is usually enabled by
	      default.

	      wcache-sct[,ata|on|off[,p]] - [ATA  only]	 Gets/sets  the	 write
	      cache  feature  through SCT Feature Control (if supported).  The
	      state of write cache in SCT Feature Control could	be "Controlled
	      by ATA", "Force Enabled",	or "Force Disabled".  SCT Feature con-
	      trol  overwrites	the  setting  by  ATA  Set  Features   command
	      (wcache[,on|off]	option).   If  SCT  Feature Control sets write
	      cache as "Force Enabled" or "Force  Disabled",  the  setting  of
	      wcache[,on|off]  is  ignored  by the drive.  SCT Feature Control
	      usually sets write cache as "Controlled by ATA" by default.   If
	      ',p' is specified, the setting is	preserved across power cycles.

	      wcreorder[,on|off[,p]]  -	 [ATA  only] Gets/sets Write Cache Re-
	      ordering.	 If it is disabled (off), disk write scheduling	is ex-
	      ecuted on	a first-in-first-out (FIFO) basis.  If Write Cache Re-
	      ordering is enabled (on),	then disk write	scheduling may be  re-
	      ordered  by  the drive.  If write	cache is disabled, the current
	      Write Cache Reordering state is remembered but has no effect  on
	      non-cached  writes,  which  are  always written in the order re-
	      ceived.  The state of Write Cache	Reordering has	no  effect  on
	      either  NCQ  or  LCQ queued commands.  If	',p' is	specified, the
	      setting is preserved across power	cycles.

	      rcache[,on|off] -	[SCSI only] Gets/sets the 'Read	Cache Disable'
	      (RCE) bit.  'Off'	value disables read cache (if supported).  The
	      read cache is usually enabled by default.

	      dsn[,on|off] - [ATA only]	Gets/sets the  DSN  feature  (if  sup-
	      ported).	The dsn	is usually disabled by default.

       SMART READ AND DISPLAY DATA OPTIONS:

       -H, --health
	      Prints the health	status of the device.

	      [SCSI  tape drive	or changer] For	SCSI tape drives the TapeAlert
	      log page is not checked for pending alerts unless	this option is
	      given twice (see TAPE DRIVES for the rationale).

	      If  the  device reports failing health status, this means	either
	      that the device has already failed, or that it is	predicting its
	      own  failure within the next 24 hours.  If this happens, use the
	      '-a' option to get more information, and get your	data  off  the
	      disk and to someplace safe as soon as you	can.

	      [ATA] Health status is obtained by checking the (boolean)	result
	      returned by the SMART RETURN STATUS command.  The	 return	 value
	      of this ATA command may be unknown due to	limitations or bugs in
	      some layer (e.g. RAID controller or USB bridge firmware) between
	      disk  and	 operating  system.   In  this case, smartctl prints a
	      warning and checks whether any Prefailure	SMART Attribute	 value
	      is less than or equal to its threshold (see '-A' below).

	      [SCSI]  Health  status  is  obtained  by checking	the Additional
	      Sense Code (ASC) and Additional Sense Code Qualifier (ASCQ) from
	      Informal	Exceptions  (IE)  log  page (if	supported) and/or from
	      SCSI sense data.

	      [SCSI tape drive or changer] TapeAlert  status  is  obtained  by
	      reading  the  TapeAlert  log page	only when this option is given
	      twice.

	      [NVMe] NVMe status is obtained by	reading	the "Critical Warning"
	      byte from	the SMART/Health Information log.

       -c, --capabilities
	      [ATA]  Prints  only  the generic SMART capabilities.  These show
	      what SMART features are implemented and how the device will  re-
	      spond  to	 some of the different SMART commands.	For example it
	      shows if the device logs errors, if it supports offline  surface
	      scanning,	 and  so  on.  If the device can carry out self-tests,
	      this option also shows the estimated time	required to run	 those
	      tests.

	      [NVMe] Prints various NVMe device	capabilities obtained from the
	      Identify Controller and the Identify Namespace data structure.

       -A, --attributes
	      [ATA] Prints only	the vendor specific SMART Attributes.  The At-
	      tributes	are numbered from 1 to 253 and have specific names and
	      ID numbers.  For example Attribute 12 is	"power	cycle  count":
	      how many times has the disk been powered up.

	      Each  Attribute  has  a  "Raw"  value, printed under the heading
	      "RAW_VALUE", and a "Normalized" value printed under the  heading
	      "VALUE".	 [Note:	 smartctl prints these values in base-10.]  In
	      the example just given, the "Raw Value" for Attribute  12	 would
	      be  the  actual number of	times that the disk has	been power-cy-
	      cled, for	example	365 if the disk	has been turned	 on  once  per
	      day  for exactly one year.  Each vendor uses their own algorithm
	      to convert this "Raw" value to a "Normalized" value in the range
	      from  1  to 254.	Please keep in mind that smartctl only reports
	      the different Attribute types, values, and  thresholds  as  read
	      from  the	 device.  It does not carry out	the conversion between
	      "Raw" and	"Normalized"  values:  this  is	 done  by  the	disk's
	      firmware.

	      The  conversion from Raw value to	a quantity with	physical units
	      is not specified by the SMART standard.  In most cases, the val-
	      ues  printed by smartctl are sensible.  For example the tempera-
	      ture Attribute generally has its raw value equal to the tempera-
	      ture in Celsius.	However	in some	cases vendors use unusual con-
	      ventions.	 For example the Hitachi disk on my laptop reports its
	      power-on	hours  in  minutes,  not  hours.  Some IBM disks track
	      three temperatures rather	than one, in their raw values.	And so
	      on.

	      Each  Attribute  also has	a Threshold value (whose range is 0 to
	      255) which is printed under the heading "THRESH".	 If  the  Nor-
	      malized value is less than or equal to the Threshold value, then
	      the Attribute is said to have failed.  If	 the  Attribute	 is  a
	      pre-failure Attribute, then disk failure is imminent.

	      Each  Attribute also has a "Worst" value shown under the heading
	      "WORST".	This is	the smallest (closest to failure)  value  that
	      the disk has recorded at any time	during its lifetime when SMART
	      was enabled.  [Note however that some vendors firmware may actu-
	      ally  increase  the  "Worst"  value  for	some  "rate-type"  At-
	      tributes.]

	      The Attribute table printed  out	by  smartctl  also  shows  the
	      "TYPE"  of  the  Attribute.   Attributes are one of two possible
	      types: Pre-failure or Old	age.  Pre-failure Attributes are  ones
	      which, if	less than or equal to their threshold values, indicate
	      pending disk failure.  Old age, or usage	Attributes,  are  ones
	      which  indicate end-of-product life from old-age or normal aging
	      and wearout, if the Attribute value is less than or equal	to the
	      threshold.   Please  note: the fact that an Attribute is of type
	      'Pre-fail' does not mean that your disk is about	to  fail!   It
	      only  has	 this  meaning	if  the	Attribute's current Normalized
	      value is less than or equal to the threshold value.

	      If the Attribute's current Normalized  value  is	less  than  or
	      equal to the threshold value, then the "WHEN_FAILED" column will
	      display "FAILING_NOW".  If not, but the worst recorded value  is
	      less than	or equal to the	threshold value, then this column will
	      display "In_the_past".  If the "WHEN_FAILED" column has no entry
	      (indicated  by  a	 dash: '-') then this Attribute	is OK now (not
	      failing) and has also never failed in the	past.

	      The table	column labeled "UPDATED" shows if the SMART  Attribute
	      values  are  updated  during  both normal	operation and off-line
	      testing, or only during offline testing.	The former are labeled
	      "Always" and the latter are labeled "Offline".

	      So  to  summarize:  the  Raw  Attribute values are the ones that
	      might have a real	physical interpretation, such as  "Temperature
	      Celsius",	 "Hours",  or  "Start-Stop Cycles".  Each manufacturer
	      converts these, using their detailed knowledge of	the disk's op-
	      erations	and  failure  modes, to	Normalized Attribute values in
	      the range	1-254.	The current and	 worst	(lowest	 measured)  of
	      these  Normalized	Attribute values are stored on the disk, along
	      with a Threshold value that the manufacturer has determined will
	      indicate that the	disk is	going to fail, or that it has exceeded
	      its design age or	aging limit.  smartctl does not	calculate  any
	      of the Attribute values, thresholds, or types, it	merely reports
	      them from	the SMART data on the device.

	      Note that	starting with ATA/ATAPI-4, revision 4, the meaning  of
	      these  Attribute	fields has been	made entirely vendor-specific.
	      However most newer ATA/SATA disks	seem to	respect	their meaning,
	      so we have retained the option of	printing the Attribute values.

	      Solid-state  drives  use	different meanings for some of the at-
	      tributes.	 In this case the attribute name printed  by  smartctl
	      is  incorrect  unless  the drive is already in the smartmontools
	      drive database.

	      Note that	the ATA	command	SMART READ DATA	was declared  obsolete
	      in ATA ACS-4 Revision 10 (Nov 2015).

	      [SCSI]  For  SCSI	devices	the "attributes" are obtained from the
	      temperature and start-stop cycle	counter	 log  pages.   Certain
	      vendor  specific	attributes  are	listed if recognised.  The at-
	      tributes are output in a relatively free format  (compared  with
	      ATA disk attributes).

	      [NVMe]  For  NVMe	 devices  the attributes are obtained from the
	      SMART/Health Information log.

       -f FORMAT, --format=FORMAT
	      [ATA only] Selects the output format of the attributes:

	      old - Old	smartctl format.  This is the default unless the  '-x'
	      option is	specified.

	      brief  -	New  format which fits into 80 columns (except in some
	      rare cases).  This format	also decodes four additional attribute
	      flags.  This is the default if the '-x' option is	specified.

	      hex,id - Print all attribute IDs as hexadecimal numbers.

	      hex,val -	Print all normalized values as hexadecimal numbers.

	      hex - Same as '-f	hex,id -f hex,val'.

       -l TYPE,	--log=TYPE
	      Prints  various device logs.  The	valid arguments	to this	option
	      are:

	      error - [ATA] prints the Summary SMART error log.	  SMART	 disks
	      maintain	a log of the most recent five non-trivial errors.  For
	      each of these errors, the	disk power-on lifetime	at  which  the
	      error  occurred  is  recorded,  as  is  the device status	(idle,
	      standby, etc) at the time	of the error.  For some	 common	 types
	      of errors, the Error Register (ER) and Status Register (SR) val-
	      ues are decoded and printed as text.  The	meanings of these are:
		 ABRT:	Command	ABoRTed
		 AMNF:	Address	Mark Not Found
		 CCTO:	Command	Completion Timed Out
		 EOM:	End Of Media
		 ICRC:	Interface Cyclic Redundancy Code (CRC) error
		 IDNF:	IDentity Not Found
		 ILI:	(packet	command-set specific)
		 MC:	Media Changed
		 MCR:	Media Change Request
		 NM:	No Media
		 obs:	obsolete
		 TK0NF:	TracK 0	Not Found
		 UNC:	UNCorrectable Error in Data
		 WP:	Media is Write Protected
	      In addition, up to the last five commands	that preceded the  er-
	      ror  are	listed,	along with a timestamp measured	from the start
	      of the corresponding power cycle.	 This is displayed in the form
	      Dd+HH:MM:SS.msec	where D	is the number of days, HH is hours, MM
	      is minutes, SS is	seconds	and msec is milliseconds.  [Note: this
	      time  stamp wraps	after 2^32 milliseconds, or 49 days 17 hours 2
	      minutes and 47.296 seconds.]  The	key  ATA  disk	registers  are
	      also  recorded in	the log.  The final column of the error	log is
	      a	text-string description	of the ATA command defined by the Com-
	      mand  Register  (CR) and Feature Register	(FR) values.  Commands
	      that are obsolete	in the most current spec are listed like this:
	      READ LONG	(w/ retry) [OBS-4], indicating that the	command	became
	      obsolete with or in the ATA-4 specification.  Similarly, the no-
	      tation [RET-N] is	used to	indicate that a	command	was retired in
	      the ATA-N	specification.	Some commands are not defined  in  any
	      version  of the ATA specification	but are	in common use nonethe-
	      less; these are marked [NS], meaning non-standard.

	      The ATA Specification (ATA  ACS-2	 Revision  7,  Section	A.7.1)
	      says: "Error log data structures shall include, but are not lim-
	      ited to, Uncorrectable errors, ID	Not Found errors for which the
	      LBA  requested  was valid, servo errors, and write fault errors.
	      Error log	data structures	shall not include errors attributed to
	      the receipt of faulty commands."	The definitions	of these terms
	      are:
	      UNC (UNCorrectable): data	is uncorrectable.  This	refers to data
	      which  has  been	read  from  the	 disk, but for which the Error
	      Checking and Correction (ECC) codes are  inconsistent.   In  ef-
	      fect, this means that the	data can not be	read.
	      IDNF (ID Not Found): user-accessible address could not be	found.
	      For READ LOG type	commands, IDNF can also	indicate that a	device
	      data log structure checksum was incorrect.

	      If  the  command	that caused the	error was a READ or WRITE com-
	      mand, then the Logical Block Address (LBA) at  which  the	 error
	      occurred	will  be printed in base 10 and	base 16.  The LBA is a
	      linear address, which  counts  512-byte  sectors	on  the	 disk,
	      starting	from  zero.   (Because of the limitations of the SMART
	      error log, if the	LBA is greater than 0xfffffff, then either  no
	      error  log  entry	will be	made, or the error log entry will have
	      an incorrect LBA.	 This may happen for drives  with  a  capacity
	      greater than 128 GiB or 137 GB.)	On Linux systems the smartmon-
	      tools web	page has instructions about how	to convert the LBA ad-
	      dress to the name	of the disk file containing the	erroneous disk
	      sector.

	      Please note that some manufacturers ignore  the  ATA  specifica-
	      tions,  and make entries in the error log	if the device receives
	      a	command	which is not implemented or is not valid.

	      error - [SCSI] prints the	error counter  log  pages  for	reads,
	      write  and verifies.  The	verify row is only output if it	has an
	      element other than zero.

	      error[,NUM] - [NVMe] prints  the	NVMe  Error  Information  log.
	      Only  the	 16  most  recent  log entries are printed by default.
	      This number can be changed by the	optional parameter  NUM.   The
	      maximum  number  of log entries is vendor	specific (in the range
	      from 1 to	256 inclusive).

	      xerror[,NUM][,error] - [ATA only]	prints the Extended Comprehen-
	      sive SMART error log (General Purpose Log	address	0x03).	Unlike
	      the Summary SMART	error log (see '-l error' above), it  provides
	      sufficient  space	to log the contents of the 48-bit LBA register
	      set introduced with ATA-6.  It also supports logs	with more than
	      one  sector.  Each sector	holds up to 4 log entries.  The	actual
	      number of	log sectors is vendor specific.

	      Only the 8 most recent error log entries are printed by default.
	      This number can be changed by the	optional parameter NUM.

	      If ',error' is appended and the Extended Comprehensive SMART er-
	      ror log is not supported,	the Summary  SMART  self-test  log  is
	      printed.

	      Please note that recent drives may report	errors only in the Ex-
	      tended Comprehensive SMART error log.  The Summary  SMART	 error
	      log may be reported as supported but is always empty then.

	      selftest - [ATA] prints the SMART	self-test log.	The disk main-
	      tains a self-test	log showing the	results	 of  the  self	tests,
	      which  can  be  run  using the '-t' option described below.  For
	      each of the most recent twenty-one self-tests, the log shows the
	      type  of	test  (short or	extended, off-line or captive) and the
	      final status of the test.	 If the	test did not complete success-
	      fully,  then the percentage of the test remaining	is shown.  The
	      time at which the	test took place, measured  in  hours  of  disk
	      lifetime,	 is  also printed.  [Note: this	time stamp wraps after
	      2^16 hours, or 2730 days and 16 hours, or	about 7.5 years.]   If
	      any errors were detected,	the Logical Block Address (LBA)	of the
	      first error is printed in	decimal	notation.

	      selftest - [SCSI]	the self-test log for  a  SCSI	device	has  a
	      slightly	different  format than for an ATA device.  For each of
	      the most recent twenty self-tests, it shows the type of test and
	      the  status  (final or in	progress) of the test.	SCSI standards
	      use the terms "foreground" and "background" (rather  than	 ATA's
	      corresponding  "captive"	and "off-line")	and "short" and	"long"
	      (rather than ATA's corresponding "short" and "extended") to  de-
	      scribe the type of the test.  The	printed	segment	number is only
	      relevant when a test fails in the	third or later	test  segment.
	      It  identifies  the  test	that failed and	consists of either the
	      number of	the segment that failed	during the test, or the	number
	      of  the  test that failed	and the	number of the segment in which
	      the test was run,	using a	vendor-specific	method of putting both
	      numbers  into a single byte.  The	Logical	Block Address (LBA) of
	      the first	error is printed in  hexadecimal  notation.   If  pro-
	      vided,  the SCSI Sense Key (SK), Additional Sense	Code (ASC) and
	      Additional Sense Code Qualifier (ASCQ) are  also	printed.   The
	      self tests can be	run using the '-t' option described below (us-
	      ing the ATA test terminology).

	      xselftest[,NUM][,selftest] -  [ATA  only]	 prints	 the  Extended
	      SMART  self-test log (General Purpose Log	address	0x07).	Unlike
	      the SMART	self-test log (see '-l selftest' above),  it  supports
	      48-bit  LBA  and	logs  with  more than one sector.  Each	sector
	      holds up to 19 log entries.  The actual number of	log sectors is
	      vendor specific.

	      Only  the	 25  most  recent  log entries are printed by default.
	      This number can be changed by the	optional parameter NUM.

	      If ',selftest' is	appended and the Extended SMART	self-test  log
	      is not supported,	the old	SMART self-test	log is printed.

	      selective	 -  [ATA only] Please see the '-t select' option below
	      for a description	of selective self-tests.  The selective	 self-
	      test  log	 shows	the start/end Logical Block Addresses (LBA) of
	      each of the five test spans, and their current test status.   If
	      the  span	 is being tested or the	remainder of the disk is being
	      read-scanned, the	 current  65536-sector	block  of  LBAs	 being
	      tested  is  also	displayed.   The  selective self-test log also
	      shows if a read-scan of the remainder of the disk	will  be  car-
	      ried  out	 after	the selective self-test	has completed (see '-t
	      afterselect' option) and the time	delay before  restarting  this
	      read-scan	if it is interrupted (see '-t pending' option).

	      directory[,gs]  -	 [ATA only] if the device supports the General
	      Purpose Logging feature set (ATA-6 and above) then  this	prints
	      the  Log	Directory  (the	 log at	address	0).  The Log Directory
	      shows what logs are available and	their length in	 sectors  (512
	      bytes).	The  contents  of the logs at address 1	[Summary SMART
	      error log] and at	address	6 [SMART self-test log]	may be printed
	      using  the  previously-described error and selftest arguments to
	      this option.  If your version of smartctl	 supports  48-bit  ATA
	      commands,	 both the General Purpose Log (GPL) and	SMART Log (SL)
	      directories are printed in one combined table.  The  output  can
	      be restricted to the GPL directory or SL directory by '-l	direc-
	      tory,q' or '-l directory,s' respectively.

	      background - [SCSI only] the background scan results log outputs
	      information derived from Background Media	Scans (BMS) done after
	      power up and/or periodically (e.g. every	24  hours)  on	recent
	      SCSI disks.  If supported, the BMS status	is output first, indi-
	      cating whether a background scan is currently underway  (and  if
	      so  a progress percentage), the amount of	time the disk has been
	      powered up and the number	 of  scans  already  completed.	  Then
	      there  is	 a header and a	line for each background scan "event".
	      These will typically be either recovered	or  unrecoverable  er-
	      rors.   That  latter  group may need some	attention.  There is a
	      description of the background scan mechanism in section 4.18  of
	      SBC-3 revision 6 (see www.t10.org	).

	      scttemp,	scttempsts,  scttemphist  - [ATA only] prints the disk
	      temperature information provided by the SMART Command  Transport
	      (SCT) commands.  The option 'scttempsts' prints current tempera-
	      ture and temperature ranges returned by the SCT Status  command,
	      'scttemphist' prints temperature limits and the temperature his-
	      tory table returned by the SCT Data Table	command, and 'scttemp'
	      prints  both.  The temperature values are	preserved across power
	      cycles.  The logging interval can	be  configured	with  the  '-l
	      scttempint,N[,p]'	 option, see below.  The SCT commands were in-
	      troduced in ATA8-ACS and	were  also  supported  by  many	 ATA-7
	      disks.

	      scttempint,N[,p] - [ATA only] clears the SCT temperature history
	      table and	sets the time interval for temperature	logging	 to  N
	      minutes.	 If ',p' is specified, the setting is preserved	across
	      power cycles.  Otherwise,	the setting is volatile	 and  will  be
	      reverted	to  the	last non-volatile setting by the next hard re-
	      set.  The	default	interval is vendor  specific,  typical	values
	      are 1, 2,	or 5 minutes.

	      scterc[,READTIME,WRITETIME][,p|reset] - [ATA only] prints	values
	      and descriptions of the SCT  Error  Recovery  Control  settings.
	      These  are equivalent to TLER (as	used by	Western	Digital), CCTL
	      (as used by Samsung and Hitachi/HGST) and	ERC (as	used  by  Sea-
	      gate).   READTIME	 and WRITETIME arguments (deciseconds) set the
	      specified	values.	 Values	of 0 disable the feature, other	values
	      less  than  65  are probably not supported.  For RAID configura-
	      tions, this is typically set to 70,70 deciseconds.
	      [NEW EXPERIMENTAL	SMARTCTL FEATURE]  If  'scterc,READTIME,WRITE-
	      TIME,p'  is specified, these time	values will be persistent over
	      a	power-on reset.	 If 'scterc,p' is  specified,  the  persistent
	      over  power-on  values are printed.  If 'scterc,reset' is	speci-
	      fied, all	SCT timer settings are restored	to the	manufacturer's
	      default value.  The ',p' and ',reset' options require the	device
	      to support ATA ACS-4 or higher.

	      devstat[,PAGE] - [ATA only] prints values	 and  descriptions  of
	      the ATA Device Statistics	log pages (General Purpose Log address
	      0x04).  If no PAGE number	is specified, entries  from  all  sup-
	      ported  pages  are printed.  If PAGE 0 is	specified, the list of
	      supported	pages is printed.  Device Statistics was introduced in
	      ACS-2 and	is only	supported by some recent devices.

	      defects[,NUM]  -	[ATA] prints LBA and hours values from the ATA
	      Pending Defects log (General Purpose Log	address	 0x0c).	  Only
	      the 31 entries from first	log page are printed by	default.  This
	      number can be changed by the optional parameter NUM.   The  size
	      of  the  log  and	 the order of the entries are vendor specific.
	      The Pending Defects log was introduced in	ACS-4 Revision 01 (Mar
	      2014).

	      defects  - [SCSI:	NEW EXPERIMENTAL SMARTCTL FEATURE] prints LBAs
	      that the background scan was unable to read (i.e.	a defect). En-
	      tries,  if  any,	show  the  defective  LBA and the value	of the
	      power-on hours (since  manufacture)  when	 the  background  scan
	      found  the  defect. Note these pending defects may appear	in ad-
	      vance of any application trying to read a	defective LBA.

	      envrep - [SCSI only: NEW EXPERIMENTAL SMARTCTL  FEATURE]	prints
	      values  and descriptions of the SCSI Environmental reporting log
	      page. This includes one or more  temperatures  and  may  include
	      relative humidities. Lifetime maximums and minimums are also re-
	      ported.

	      sataphy[,reset] -	[SATA only] prints values and descriptions  of
	      the  SATA	Phy Event Counters (General Purpose Log	address	0x11).
	      If '-l sataphy,reset' is specified, all counters are reset after
	      reading  the  values.   This  also  works	 for SATA devices with
	      Packet interface like CD/DVD drives.

	      sasphy[,reset] - [SAS (SCSI) only] prints	 values	 and  descrip-
	      tions  of	 the  SAS  (SSP)  Protocol Specific log	page (log page
	      0x18).  If '-l sasphy,reset' is specified, all counters are  re-
	      set after	reading	the values.

	      tapealert	 -  [SCSI  tape	 drives	and changers: NEW EXPERIMENTAL
	      SMARTCTL FEATURE]	prints values and descriptions	of  the	 (SSC)
	      Tape  Alert log page. See	TAPE DRIVES below for issue associated
	      with printing this log page.

	      tapedevstat - [SCSI tape drives and changers:  NEW  EXPERIMENTAL
	      SMARTCTL	FEATURE]  prints  values and descriptions of the (SSC)
	      Device Statistics	log page.

	      zdevstat - [SCSI zoned disks: NEW	EXPERIMENTAL SMARTCTL FEATURE]
	      prints values and	descriptions of	the Zoned Block	Device Statis-
	      tics log page (ZBC-2).

	      gplog,ADDR[,FIRST[-LAST|+SIZE]] -	[ATA only] prints a  hex  dump
	      of any log accessible via	General	Purpose	Logging	(GPL) feature.
	      The log address ADDR is the hex address listed in	the log	direc-
	      tory  (see  '-l  directory'  above).   The  range	of log sectors
	      (pages)  can  be	specified  by  decimal	values	FIRST-LAST  or
	      FIRST+SIZE.   FIRST defaults to 0, SIZE defaults to 1.  LAST can
	      be set to	'max' to specify the last page of the log.

	      smartlog,ADDR[,FIRST[-LAST|+SIZE]] - [ATA	 only]	prints	a  hex
	      dump  of any log accessible via SMART Read Log command.  See '-l
	      gplog,...' above for parameter syntax.

	      For example, all these commands:
		smartctl -l gplog,0x80,10-15 /dev/sda
		smartctl -l gplog,0x80,10+6 /dev/sda
		smartctl -l smartlog,0x80,10-15	/dev/sda
	      print pages 10-15	of log 0x80 (first host	vendor specific	log).

	      The hex dump format is compatible	with  the  'xxd	 -r'  command.
	      This command:
		smartctl -l gplog,0x11 /dev/sda	| grep ^0 | xxd	-r >log.bin
	      writes  a	binary representation of the one sector	log 0x11 (SATA
	      Phy Event	Counters) to file log.bin.

	      nvmelog,PAGE,SIZE	- [NVMe	only] prints a hex dump	of  the	 first
	      SIZE  bytes  from	 the NVMe log with identifier PAGE.  PAGE is a
	      hexadecimal number in the	range from 0x1 to  0xff.   SIZE	 is  a
	      hexadecimal  number  in  the  range from 0x4 to 0x4000 (16 KiB).
	      WARNING: Do not specify the identifier of	an unknown  log	 page.
	      Reading a	log page may have undesirable side effects.

	      ssd  -  [ATA] prints the Solid State Device Statistics log page.
	      This has the same	effect as '-l devstat,7', see above.

	      ssd - [SCSI] prints the Solid State Media	 percentage  used  en-
	      durance  indicator.   A  value  of  0 indicates as new condition
	      while 100	indicates the device is	at the end of its lifetime  as
	      projected	by the manufacturer.  The value	may reach 255.

       -v ID,FORMAT[:BYTEORDER][,NAME],	--vendorattribute=ID,FORMAT...
	      [ATA only] Sets a	vendor-specific	raw value print	FORMAT,	an op-
	      tional BYTEORDER and an optional NAME for	 Attribute  ID.	  This
	      option may be used multiple times.

	      The Attribute ID can be in the range 1 to	255.  If 'N' is	speci-
	      fied as ID, the settings for all Attributes are changed.

	      The optional BYTEORDER consists of 1 to 8	 characters  from  the
	      set  '012345rvwz'.   The characters '0' to '5' select the	byte 0
	      to 5 from	the 48-bit raw value, 'r' selects the reserved byte of
	      the  attribute data block, 'v' selects the normalized value, 'w'
	      selects the worst	value and 'z' inserts a	zero  byte.   The  de-
	      fault  BYTEORDER	is  '543210' for all 48-bit formats, 'r543210'
	      for the 54-bit formats, and '543210wv' for the  64-bit  formats.
	      For  example, '-v	5,raw48:012345'	prints the raw value of	attri-
	      bute 5 with big endian instead of	little endian byte ordering.

	      The NAME is a string of letters,	digits	and  underscore.   Its
	      length should not	exceed 23 characters.  The '-P showall'	option
	      reports an error if this is the case.

	      -v help -	Prints (to STDOUT) a list of all  valid	 arguments  to
	      this option, then	exits.

	      Valid arguments for FORMAT are:

	      raw8  -  Print the Raw value as six 8-bit	unsigned base-10 inte-
	      gers.  This may be useful	for decoding the meaning  of  the  Raw
	      value.

	      raw16 - Print the	Raw value as three 16-bit unsigned base-10 in-
	      tegers.  This may	be useful for decoding the meaning of the  Raw
	      value.

	      raw48  -	Print the Raw value as a 48-bit	unsigned base-10 inte-
	      ger.  This is the	default	for most attributes.

	      hex48 - Print the	Raw value as a 12  digit  hexadecimal  number.
	      This may be useful for decoding the meaning of the Raw value.

	      raw56  -	Print the Raw value as a 54-bit	unsigned base-10 inte-
	      ger.  This includes the reserved byte which follows  the	48-bit
	      raw value.

	      hex56  -	Print  the Raw value as	a 14 digit hexadecimal number.
	      This includes the	reserved byte which  follows  the  48-bit  raw
	      value.

	      raw64  -	Print the Raw value as a 64-bit	unsigned base-10 inte-
	      ger.  This includes two bytes from the normalized	and worst  at-
	      tribute value.  This raw format is used by some SSD devices with
	      Indilinx controller.

	      hex64 - Print the	Raw value as a 16  digit  hexadecimal  number.
	      This  includes two bytes from the	normalized and worst attribute
	      value.  This raw format is used by some SSD devices with	Indil-
	      inx controller.

	      min2hour	-  Raw Attribute is power-on time in minutes.  Its raw
	      value will be displayed in the form "Xh+Ym".  Here X  is	hours,
	      and  Y  is  minutes  in  the  range 0-59 inclusive.  Y is	always
	      printed with two digits, for example "06"	or "31"	or "00".

	      sec2hour - Raw Attribute is power-on time	in seconds.   Its  raw
	      value  will  be  displayed  in  the  form	"Xh+Ym+Zs".  Here X is
	      hours, Y is minutes in the range 0-59 inclusive, and Z  is  sec-
	      onds  in	the  range 0-59	inclusive.  Y and Z are	always printed
	      with two digits, for example "06"	or "31"	or "00".

	      halfmin2hour - Raw Attribute is power-on time, measured in units
	      of  30 seconds.  This format is used by some Samsung disks.  Its
	      raw value	will be	displayed in the  form	"Xh+Ym".   Here	 X  is
	      hours,  and  Y is	minutes	in the range 0-59 inclusive.  Y	is al-
	      ways printed with	two digits, for	example	"06" or	"31" or	"00".

	      msec24hour32 - Raw Attribute is power-on time measured in	32-bit
	      hours  and  24-bit milliseconds since last hour update.  It will
	      be displayed in the form "Xh+Ym+Z.Ms".  Here X is	 hours,	 Y  is
	      minutes, Z is seconds and	M is milliseconds.

	      tempminmax  -  Raw Attribute is the disk temperature in Celsius.
	      Info about Min/Max temperature is	printed	if available.  This is
	      the  default for Attributes 190 and 194.	The recording interval
	      (lifetime, last power cycle, last	soft  reset)  of  the  min/max
	      values is	device specific.

	      temp10x  -  Raw  Attribute  is ten times the disk	temperature in
	      Celsius.

	      raw16(raw16) - Print the raw attribute as	a 16-bit value and two
	      optional	16-bit values if these words are nonzero.  This	is the
	      default for Attributes 5 and 196.

	      raw16(avg16) - Raw attribute is spin-up time.  It	is printed  as
	      a	 16-bit	 value	and  an	optional "Average" 16-bit value	if the
	      word is nonzero.	This is	the default for	Attribute 3.

	      raw24(raw8) - Print the raw attribute  as	 a  24-bit  value  and
	      three optional 8-bit values if these bytes are nonzero.  This is
	      the default for Attribute	9.

	      raw24/raw24 - Raw	Attribute contains  two	 24-bit	 values.   The
	      first is the number of load cycles.  The second is the number of
	      unload cycles.  The difference between these two values  is  the
	      number  of  times	 that  the  drive was unexpectedly powered off
	      (also called an emergency	unload).  As a rule of thumb, the  me-
	      chanical stress created by one emergency unload is equivalent to
	      that created by one hundred normal unloads.

	      raw24/raw32 - Raw	attribute is an	error rate which consists of a
	      24-bit error count and a 32-bit total count.

	      The following old	arguments to '-v' are also still valid:

	      9,minutes	- same as: 9,min2hour,Power_On_Minutes.

	      9,seconds	- same as: 9,sec2hour,Power_On_Seconds.

	      9,halfminutes - same as: 9,halfmin2hour,Power_On_Half_Minutes.

	      9,temp - same as:	9,tempminmax,Temperature_Celsius.

	      192,emergencyretractcyclect   -	same  as:  192,raw48,Emerg_Re-
	      tract_Cycle_Ct

	      193,loadunload - same as:	193,raw24/raw24.

	      194,10xCelsius - same as:	194,temp10x,Temperature_Celsius_x10.

	      194,unknown - same as: 194,raw48,Unknown_Attribute.

	      197,increasing - same as:	197,raw48,Total_Pending_Sectors.  Also
	      means  that  Attribute number 197	(Current Pending Sector	Count)
	      is not reset  if	uncorrectable  sectors	are  reallocated  (see
	      smartd.conf(5) man page).

	      198,increasing  -	 same  as:  198,raw48,Total_Offl_Uncorrectabl.
	      Also means that Attribute	number 198 (Offline Uncorrectable Sec-
	      tor Count) is not	reset if uncorrectable sectors are reallocated
	      (see smartd.conf(5) man page).

	      198,offlinescanuncsectorct    -	 same	 as:	198,raw48,Off-
	      line_Scan_UNC_SectCt.

	      200,writeerrorcount - same as: 200,raw48,Write_Error_Count.

	      201,detectedtacount - same as: 201,raw48,Detected_TA_Count.

	      220,temp - same as: 220,tempminmax,Temperature_Celsius.

       -F TYPE,	--firmwarebug=TYPE
	      [ATA  only]  Modifies the	behavior of smartctl to	compensate for
	      some known and understood	device firmware	or driver  bug.	  This
	      option may be used multiple times.  The valid arguments are:

	      none  - Assume that the device firmware obeys the	ATA specifica-
	      tions.  This is the default, unless the device has  presets  for
	      '-F'  in	the  drive database.  Using this option	on the command
	      line will	override any preset values.

	      nologdir - Suppresses read attempts of SMART or  GP  Log	Direc-
	      tory.   Support  for all standard	logs is	assumed	without	an ac-
	      tual check.  Some	Intel SSDs may freeze  if  log	address	 0  is
	      read.

	      samsung -	In some	Samsung	disks (example:	model SV4012H Firmware
	      Version: RM100-08) some of the two- and four-byte	quantities  in
	      the  SMART data structures are byte-swapped (relative to the ATA
	      specification).  Enabling	this option tells smartctl to evaluate
	      these  quantities	 in byte-reversed order.  Some signs that your
	      disk needs this option are (1) no	self-test  log	printed,  even
	      though  you  have	 run self-tests; (2) very large	numbers	of ATA
	      errors reported in the ATA error log; (3)	strange	and impossible
	      values for the ATA error log timestamps.

	      samsung2	-  In  some Samsung disks the number of	ATA errors re-
	      ported is	byte swapped.  Enabling	this option tells smartctl  to
	      evaluate	this  quantity	in byte-reversed order.	 An indication
	      that your	Samsung	disk needs this	option is that	the  self-test
	      log  is  printed correctly, but there are	a very large number of
	      errors in	the SMART error	log.  This is because the error	 count
	      is byte swapped.	Thus a disk with five errors (0x0005) will ap-
	      pear to have 20480 errors	(0x5000).

	      samsung3 - Some Samsung disks (at	least  SP2514N	with  Firmware
	      VF100-37)	report a self-test still in progress with 0% remaining
	      when the test was	already	completed.  Enabling this option modi-
	      fies  the	 output	of the self-test execution status (see options
	      '-c' or '-a' above) accordingly.

	      xerrorlba	- Fixes	LBA byte ordering  in  Extended	 Comprehensive
	      SMART error log.	Some disks use little endian byte ordering in-
	      stead of ATA register ordering to	specify	the LBA	 addresses  in
	      the log entries.

	      swapid  -	 Fixes byte swapped ATA	identify strings (device name,
	      serial number, firmware version) returned	by some	 buggy	device
	      drivers.

       -P TYPE,	--presets=TYPE
	      [ATA  only] Specifies whether smartctl should use	any preset op-
	      tions that are available for this	drive.	 By  default,  if  the
	      drive is recognized in the smartmontools database, then the pre-
	      sets are used.

	      The argument show	will show any preset options  for  your	 drive
	      and  the	argument  showall  will	 show  all known drives	in the
	      smartmontools database, along with  their	 preset	 options.   If
	      there  are  no presets for your drive and	you think there	should
	      be (for example, a -v or -F option is needed to get smartctl  to
	      display  correct	values)	 then please contact the smartmontools
	      developers so that this information can be added to  the	smart-
	      montools	database.   Contact  information is at the end of this
	      man page.

	      The valid	arguments to this option are:

	      use - if a drive is recognized, then use the stored presets  for
	      it.   This  is the default.  Note	that presets will NOT override
	      additional Attribute interpretation ('-v N,something')  command-
	      line options or explicit '-F' command-line options..

	      ignore - do not use presets.

	      show  -  show if the drive is recognized in the database,	and if
	      so, its presets, then exit.

	      showall -	list all recognized drives, and	the presets  that  are
	      set  for	them,  then exit.  This	also checks the	drive database
	      regular expressions and settings for syntax errors.

	      The '-P showall' option takes up to two  optional	 arguments  to
	      match a specific drive type and firmware version.	 The command:
		smartctl -P showall
	      lists all	entries, the command:
		smartctl -P showall 'MODEL'
	      lists all	entries	matching MODEL,	and the	command:
		smartctl -P showall 'MODEL' 'FIRMWARE'
	      lists  all  entries  for this MODEL and a	specific FIRMWARE ver-
	      sion.

       -B [+]FILE, --drivedb=[+]FILE
	      [ATA only] Read the drive	database from FILE.  The new  database
	      replaces the built in database by	default.  If '+' is specified,
	      then the new entries prepend the built in	entries.

	      Optional	 entries   are	 read	from   the    file    /usr/lo-
	      cal/etc/smart_drivedb.h if this option is	not specified.

	      If /usr/local/share/smartmontools/drivedb.h is present, the con-
	      tents of this file is used instead of the	built in table.

	      Run /usr/local/sbin/update-smart-drivedb	to  update  this  file
	      from the smartmontools SVN repository.

	      The  database  files  use	 the same C/C++	syntax that is used to
	      initialize the built in database array.	C/C++  style  comments
	      are allowed.  Example:

		/* Full	entry: */
		{
		  "Model family",    //	Info about model family/series.
		  "MODEL1.*REGEX",   //	Regular	expression to match model of device.
		  "VERSION.*REGEX",  //	Regular	expression to match firmware version(s).
		  "Some	warning",    //	Warning	message.
		  "-v 9,minutes"     //	String of preset -v and	-F options.
		},
		/* Minimal entry: */
		{
		  "",		     //	No model family/series info.
		  "MODEL2.*REGEX",   //	Regular	expression to match model of device.
		  "",		     //	All firmware versions.
		  "",		     //	No warning.
		  ""		     //	No options preset.
		},
		/* USB ID entry: */
		{
		  "USB:	Device;	Bridge", // Info about USB device and bridge name.
		  "0x1234:0xabcd",   //	Regular	expression to match vendor:product ID.
		  "0x0101",	     //	Regular	expression to match bcdDevice.
		  "",		     //	Not used.
		  "-d sat"	     //	String with device type	option.
		},
		/* ... */

       SMART RUN/ABORT OFFLINE TEST AND	self-test OPTIONS:

       -t TEST,	--test=TEST
	      Executes	TEST immediately.  The '-C' option can be used in con-
	      junction with this option	to run the short or long (and also for
	      ATA devices, selective or	conveyance) self-tests in captive mode
	      (known as	"foreground mode" for SCSI devices).  Note  that  only
	      one test type can	be run at a time, so only one test type	should
	      be specified per command line.  Note also	that if	a computer  is
	      shutdown	or power cycled	during a self-test, no harm should re-
	      sult.  The self-test will	either be aborted or will resume auto-
	      matically.

	      All  '-t TEST' commands can be given during normal system	opera-
	      tion unless captive mode ('-C' option) is	used.  A running self-
	      test  can,  however, degrade performance of the drive.  Frequent
	      I/O requests from	the operating system increase the duration  of
	      a	test.  These impacts may vary from device to device.

	      If  a  test  failure  occurs then	the device may discontinue the
	      testing and report the result immediately.

	      [ATA] Note that the ATA command SMART EXECUTE OFF-LINE IMMEDIATE
	      (the command to start a test) was	declared obsolete in ATA ACS-4
	      Revision 10 (Nov 2015).

	      The valid	arguments to this option are:

	      offline -	[ATA] runs SMART Immediate Offline Test.  This immedi-
	      ately  starts  the  test	described  above.  This	command	can be
	      given during normal system operation.  The effects of this  test
	      are  visible only	in that	it updates the SMART Attribute values,
	      and if errors are	found they will	appear in the SMART error log,
	      visible with the '-l error' option.

	      If  the  '-c'  option  to	smartctl shows that the	device has the
	      "Suspend Offline collection upon new  command"  capability  then
	      you  can	track the progress of the Immediate Offline test using
	      the '-c' option to smartctl.  If the '-c'	option show  that  the
	      device has the "Abort Offline collection upon new	command" capa-
	      bility then most commands	will abort the Immediate Offline Test,
	      so  you  should  not  try	to track the progress of the test with
	      '-c', as it will abort the test.

	      offline -	[SCSI] runs the	default	self test in  foreground.   No
	      entry is placed in the self test log.

	      short - [ATA] runs SMART Short Self Test (usually	under ten min-
	      utes).  This command can be given	during normal system operation
	      (unless  run in captive mode - see the '-C' option below).  This
	      is a test	in a different category	than the  immediate  or	 auto-
	      matic  offline tests.  The "Self"	tests check the	electrical and
	      mechanical performance as	well as	the read  performance  of  the
	      disk.   Their  results  are reported in the Self Test Error Log,
	      readable with the	'-l selftest' option.  Note that on some disks
	      the  progress of the self-test can be monitored by watching this
	      log during the self-test;	with other disks use the  '-c'	option
	      to monitor progress.

	      short - [SCSI] runs the "Background short" self-test.

	      long  -  [ATA] runs SMART	Extended Self Test (tens of minutes to
	      several hours).  This is a longer	and more thorough  version  of
	      the Short	Self Test described above.  Note that this command can
	      be given during normal system operation (unless run  in  captive
	      mode - see the '-C' option below).

	      long - [SCSI] runs the "Background long" self-test.

	      conveyance  - [ATA only] runs a SMART Conveyance Self Test (min-
	      utes).  This self-test routine is	intended  to  identify	damage
	      incurred during transporting of the device.  This	self-test rou-
	      tine should take on the order of minutes to complete.  Note that
	      this command can be given	during normal system operation (unless
	      run in captive mode - see	the '-C' option	below).

	      select,N-M, select,N+SIZE	- [ATA only] runs  a  SMART  Selective
	      Self  Test,  to  test  a	range  of disk Logical Block Addresses
	      (LBAs), rather than the entire disk.  Each range of LBAs that is
	      checked  is  called  a "span" and	is specified by	a starting LBA
	      (N) and an ending	LBA (M)	with N less than or equal to  M.   The
	      range  can  also be specified as N+SIZE.	A span at the end of a
	      disk can be specified by N-max.

	      For example the commands:
		smartctl -t select,10-20 /dev/sda
		smartctl -t select,10+11 /dev/sda
	      both runs	a self test on one span	 consisting  of	 LBAs  ten  to
	      twenty (inclusive).  The command:
		smartctl -t select,100000000-max /dev/sda
	      run  a  self  test from LBA 100000000 up to the end of the disk.
	      The '-t' option can be given up to five times,  to  test	up  to
	      five spans.  For example the command:
		smartctl -t select,0-100 -t select,1000-2000 /dev/sda
	      runs  a  self test on two	spans.	The first span consists	of 101
	      LBAs and the second span consists	of 1001	LBAs.  Note  that  the
	      spans can	overlap	partially or completely, for example:
		smartctl -t select,0-10	-t select,5-15 -t select,10-20 /dev/sda
	      The  results  of	the  selective self-test can be	obtained (both
	      during and after the test) by printing the SMART self-test  log,
	      using the	'-l selftest' option to	smartctl.

	      Selective	 self tests are	particularly useful as disk capacities
	      increase:	an extended self test (smartctl	-t long) can take sev-
	      eral  hours.  Selective self-tests are helpful if	(based on SYS-
	      LOG error	messages, previous failed self-tests, or  SMART	 error
	      log  entries)  you  suspect  that	a disk is having problems at a
	      particular range of Logical Block	Addresses (LBAs).

	      Selective	self-tests can be run during normal  system  operation
	      (unless done in captive mode - see the '-C' option below).

	      The  following  variants	of the selective self-test command use
	      spans based on the ranges	from past tests	already	stored on  the
	      disk:

	      select,redo[+SIZE]  -  [ATA  only] redo the last SMART Selective
	      Self Test	using the same LBA range.  The starting	LBA is identi-
	      cal  to  the LBA used by last test, same for ending LBA unless a
	      new span size is specified by optional +SIZE argument.

	      For example the commands:
		smartctl -t select,10-20 /dev/sda
		smartctl -t select,redo	/dev/sda
		smartctl -t select,redo+20 /dev/sda
	      have the same effect as:
		smartctl -t select,10-20 /dev/sda
		smartctl -t select,10-20 /dev/sda
		smartctl -t select,10-29 /dev/sda

	      select,next[+SIZE] - [ATA	only] runs a SMART Selective Self Test
	      on  the LBA range	which follows the range	of the last test.  The
	      starting LBA is set to (ending LBA +1) of	the last test.	A  new
	      span size	may be specified by the	optional +SIZE argument.

	      For example the commands:
		smartctl -t select,0-999 /dev/sda
		smartctl -t select,next	/dev/sda
		smartctl -t select,next+2000 /dev/sda
	      have the same effect as:
		smartctl -t select,0-999 /dev/sda
		smartctl -t select,1000-1999 /dev/sda
		smartctl -t select,2000-3999 /dev/sda

	      If  the  last  test  ended  at the last LBA of the disk, the new
	      range starts at LBA 0.  The span size of the last	span of	a disk
	      is  adjusted  such  that	the total number of spans to check the
	      full disk	will  not  be  changed	by  future  uses  of  '-t  se-
	      lect,next'.

	      select,cont[+SIZE] - [ATA	only] performs a 'redo'	(above)	if the
	      self test	status reports that the	last test was aborted  by  the
	      host.  Otherwise it run the 'next' (above) test.

	      afterselect,on - [ATA only] perform an offline read scan after a
	      Selective	self-test has completed.  This option must be used to-
	      gether with one or more of the select,N-M	options	above.	If the
	      LBAs that	have been specified in the  Selective  self-test  pass
	      the  test	 with no errors	found, then read scan the remainder of
	      the disk.	 If the	device is powered-cycled while this read  scan
	      is  in progress, the read	scan will be automatically resumed af-
	      ter a time specified by the  pending  timer  (see	 below).   The
	      value of this option is preserved	between	selective self-tests.

	      afterselect,off  -  [ATA only] do	not read scan the remainder of
	      the disk after a Selective self-test has completed.  This	option
	      must  be use together with one or	more of	the select,N-M options
	      above.  The value	of this	option is preserved between  selective
	      self-tests.

	      pending,N	 -  [ATA only] set the pending offline read scan timer
	      to N minutes.  Here N is an integer in the range from 0 to 65535
	      inclusive.   If the device is powered off	during a read scan af-
	      ter a Selective self-test, then resume the test automatically  N
	      minutes  after  power-up.	 This option must be use together with
	      one or more of the select,N-M options above.  The	value of  this
	      option is	preserved between selective self-tests.

	      vendor,N	- [ATA only] issues the	ATA command SMART EXECUTE OFF-
	      LINE IMMEDIATE with subcommand N in LBA LOW register.  The  sub-
	      command  is  specified as	a hex value in the range 0x00 to 0xff.
	      Subcommands 0x40-0x7e and	0x90-0xff are reserved for vendor spe-
	      cific  use,  see	table 61 of T13/1699-D Revision	6a (ATA8-ACS).
	      Note that	the subcommands	0x00-0x04, 0x7f,  0x81-0x84  are  sup-
	      ported  by  other	smartctl options (e.g. 0x01: '-t short', 0x7f:
	      '-X', 0x82: '-C -t long').

	      WARNING: Only run	subcommands documented by the  vendor  of  the
	      device.

	      Example  for some	Intel SSDs only: The subcommand	0x40 ('-t ven-
	      dor,0x40') clears	the timed workload  related  SMART  attributes
	      (226,  227,  228).  Note that the	raw values of these attributes
	      are held at 65535	(0xffff) until the workload timer  reaches  60
	      minutes.

	      force - start new	self-test even if another test is already run-
	      ning.  By	default	a running self-test will not be	interrupted to
	      begin another test.

       -C, --captive
	      [ATA]  Runs self-tests in	captive	mode.  This has	no effect with
	      '-t offline' or if the '-t' option is not	used.

	      WARNING: Tests run in captive mode may busy out  the  drive  for
	      the  length of the test.	Only run captive tests on drives with-
	      out any mounted partitions!

	      [SCSI] Runs the self-test	in "Foreground"	mode.

       -X, --abort
	      Aborts non-captive SMART Self Tests.   Note  that	 this  command
	      will  abort the Offline Immediate	Test routine only if your disk
	      has the "Abort Offline collection	upon new command" capability.

ATA, SCSI command sets and SAT
       In the past there has been a clear distinction between storage  devices
       that  used  the	ATA and	SCSI command sets.  This distinction was often
       reflected in their device naming	and hardware.  Now various SCSI	trans-
       ports  (e.g.  SAS,  FC  and  iSCSI) can interconnect to both SCSI disks
       (e.g. FC	and SAS) and ATA disks (especially SATA).  USB and  IEEE  1394
       storage	devices	 use the SCSI command set externally but almost	always
       contain ATA or SATA disks (or flash).  The storage subsystems  in  some
       operating  systems  have	 started to remove the distinction between ATA
       and SCSI	in their device	naming policies.

       99% of operations that an OS performs on	a disk involve	the  SCSI  IN-
       QUIRY,  READ  CAPACITY,	READ  and WRITE	commands, or their ATA equiva-
       lents.  Since the SCSI commands are slightly more  general  than	 their
       ATA  equivalents,  many	OSes are generating SCSI commands (mainly READ
       and WRITE) and letting a	lower level translate them to their ATA	equiv-
       alents  as  the	need  arises.	An  important note here	is that	"lower
       level" may be in	external equipment and hence outside the control of an
       OS.

       SCSI to ATA Translation (SAT) is	a standard (ANSI INCITS	431-2007) that
       specifies how this translation is done.	For the	other 1% of operations
       that  an	 OS performs on	a disk,	SAT provides two options.  First is an
       optional	ATA PASS-THROUGH SCSI command (there are two  variants).   The
       second  is  a  translation from the closest SCSI	command.  Most current
       interest	is in the "pass-through" option.

       The relevance to	smartmontools (and hence smartctl) is that its	inter-
       actions with disks fall solidly into the	"1%" category.	So even	if the
       OS can happily treat (and name) a disk as "SCSI",  smartmontools	 needs
       to  detect the native command set and act accordingly.  As more storage
       manufacturers (including	external SATA drives) comply with SAT,	smart-
       montools	is able	to automatically distinguish the native	command	set of
       the device.  In some cases the '-d sat' option is needed	on the command
       line.

       There are also virtual disks which typically have no useful information
       to convey to smartmontools, but could conceivably in  the  future.   An
       example	of a virtual disk is the OS's view of a	RAID 1 box.  There are
       most likely two SATA disks inside a RAID	1 box.	Addressing those  SATA
       disks  from a distant OS	is a challenge for smartmontools.  Another ap-
       proach is running a tool	like smartmontools inside the RAID 1 box (e.g.
       a  Network  Attached  Storage  (NAS)  box)  and fetching	the logs via a
       browser.

TAPE DRIVES
       Commands	for SCSI Tape drives as	defined	in the	SSC-4  standard	 (ANSI
       INCITS  516-2013).  SSC	stands	for  "SCSI Streaming Commands".	 Draft
       standards can be	found at <https://www.t10.org/>	.

       Many SMART related features of SCSI  disks  are	shared	by  SCSI  tape
       drives.	 One  important	 tape-specific	log page is called "TapeAlert"
       which is	used to	report abnormal	 conditions.  Unlike  most  other  log
       pages  the  TapeAlert log page clears pending alerts after that page is
       fetched (i.e. read from the  tape  drive).  To  be  more	 precise,  the
       TapeAlert log page is cleared for the I_T nexus (initiator-target pair)
       that sent the (SCSI LOG SENSE) command; so another initiator  (e.g.   a
       HBA  on another machine)	will still have	pending	alerts reported. [This
       clearing	action can be controlled by the	TAPLSD bit is the [SSC]	Device
       Configuration  Extension	 mode page but the original and	default	action
       remains:	clear any pending TapeAlerts.  The sdparm utility can be  used
       to access and change TAPLSD.]

       Previous	 versions of smartctl have supported polling the TapeAlert log
       page when the --health option is	given. This clearing of	pending	alerts
       has  created  problems  for  other tape-specific	tools. This version of
       smartctl	will only fetch	the TapeAlert log page if the --health	option
       is  given  twice	in the command line invocation (or the --log=tapealert
       option is given).

       There are other tape-specific log pages such as --log=tapedevstat  that
       behave  normally	 (i.e.	they don't change any state information	in the
       tape drive).

EXAMPLES
       smartctl	-a /dev/sda
       Print a large amount of SMART information for drive /dev/sda.

       smartctl	-s off /dev/sdd
       Disable SMART monitoring	and data log collection	on drive /dev/sdd.

       smartctl	--smart=on --offlineauto=on --saveauto=on /dev/sda
       Enable SMART on drive /dev/sda, enable automatic	offline	testing	 every
       four  hours, and	enable autosaving of SMART Attributes.	This is	a good
       start-up	line for your system's init files.  You	can issue this command
       on a running system.

       smartctl	-t long	/dev/sdc
       Begin an	extended self-test of drive /dev/sdc.  You can issue this com-
       mand on a running system.  The results can be seen in the self-test log
       visible with the	'-l selftest' option after it has completed.

       smartctl	-s on -t offline /dev/sda
       Enable  SMART on	the disk, and begin an immediate offline test of drive
       /dev/sda.  You can issue	this command on	a running system.  The results
       are only	used to	update the SMART Attributes, visible with the '-A' op-
       tion.  If any device errors occur, they are logged to the  SMART	 error
       log, which can be seen with the '-l error' option.

       smartctl	-A -v 9,minutes	/dev/sda
       Shows the vendor	Attributes, when the disk stores its power-on time in-
       ternally	in minutes rather than hours.

       smartctl	-q errorsonly -H -l selftest /dev/sda
       Produces	output only if the device returns failing SMART	status,	or  if
       some of the logged self-tests ended with	errors.

       smartctl	-q silent -a /dev/sda
       Examine all SMART data for device /dev/sda, but produce no printed out-
       put.  You must use the exit status (the $?  shell variable) to learn if
       any  Attributes	are  out  of bound, if the SMART status	is failing, if
       there are errors	recorded in the	self-test log, or if there are	errors
       recorded	in the disk error log.

       smartctl	-a -d 3ware,0 /dev/twl0
       Examine all SMART data for the first SATA (not SAS) disk	connected to a
       3ware RAID 9750 controller card.

       smartctl	-t long	-d areca,4 /dev/sg2
       Start a long self-test on the fourth SATA disk connected	 to  an	 Areca
       RAID controller addressed by /dev/sg2.

       smartctl	-a -d hpt,1/3 /dev/sda (under Linux)
       smartctl	-a -d hpt,1/3 /dev/hptrr (under	FreeBSD)
       Examine	all  SMART  data for the (S)ATA	disk directly connected	to the
       third channel of	the first HighPoint RocketRAID controller card.

       smartctl	-t short -d hpt,1/1/2 /dev/sda (under Linux)
       smartctl	-t short -d hpt,1/1/2 /dev/hptrr (under	FreeBSD)
       Start a short self-test on the (S)ATA disk connected to	second	pmport
       on the first channel of the first HighPoint RocketRAID controller card.

       smartctl	 -t  select,10-100 -t select,30-300 -t afterselect,on -t pend-
       ing,45 /dev/sda
       Run a selective self-test on LBAs 10 to 100 and 30 to 300.   After  the
       these  LBAs  have been tested, read-scan	the remainder of the disk.  If
       the disk	is power-cycled	during the read-scan, resume the scan 45  min-
       utes after power	to the device is restored.

       smartctl	-a -d cciss,0 /dev/cciss/c0d0
       Examine	all  SMART  data  for the first	SCSI disk connected to a cciss
       RAID controller card.

EXIT STATUS
       The exit	statuses of smartctl are defined by a bitmask.	If all is well
       with  the  disk,	 the  exit status (return value) of smartctl is	0 (all
       bits turned off).  If a problem occurs, or an error,  potential	error,
       or  fault  is  detected,	 then  a non-zero status is returned.  In this
       case, the eight different bits in the exit status  have	the  following
       meanings	 for  ATA disks; some of these values may also be returned for
       SCSI disks.

       Bit 0: Command line did not parse.

       Bit 1: Device open failed, device did not  return  an  IDENTIFY	DEVICE
	      structure,  or  device  is  in a low-power mode (see '-n'	option
	      above).

       Bit 2: Some SMART or other ATA command to the disk failed, or there was
	      a	 checksum  error  in  a	 SMART data structure (see '-b'	option
	      above).

       Bit 3: SMART status check returned "DISK	FAILING".

       Bit 4: We found prefail Attributes <= threshold.

       Bit 5: SMART status check returned "DISK	OK" but	 we  found  that  some
	      (usage  or  prefail)  Attributes	have been <= threshold at some
	      time in the past.

       Bit 6: The device error log contains records of errors.

       Bit 7: The device self-test log contains	records	of errors.  [ATA only]
	      Failed  self-tests outdated by a newer successful	extended self-
	      test are ignored.

       To test within the shell	for whether or	not  the  different  bits  are
       turned on or off, you can use the following type	of construction	(which
       should work with	any POSIX compatible shell):
       smartstat=$(($? & 8))
       This looks at only at bit 3 of the exit status $?  (since 8=2^3).   The
       shell  variable	$smartstat  will  be nonzero if	SMART status check re-
       turned "disk failing" and zero otherwise.

       This shell script prints	all status bits:
       val=$?; mask=1
       for i in	0 1 2 3	4 5 6 7; do
	 echo "Bit $i: $(((val & mask) && 1))"
	 mask=$((mask << 1))
       done

FILES
       /usr/local/sbin/smartctl
	      full path	of this	executable.

       /usr/local/share/smartmontools/drivedb.h
	      drive database (see '-B' option).

       /usr/local/etc/smart_drivedb.h
	      optional local drive database (see '-B' option).

AUTHORS
       Bruce Allen (project initiator),
       Christian Franke	 (project  manager,  Windows  port  and	 all  sort  of
       things),
       Douglas Gilbert (SCSI subsystem),
       Volker Kuhlmann (moderator of support and database mailing list),
       Gabriele	Pohl (wiki & development team support),
       Alex Samorukov (FreeBSD port and	more, new Trac wiki).

       Many other individuals have made	contributions and corrections, see AU-
       THORS, ChangeLog	and repository files.

       The first smartmontools code was	derived	from the  smartsuite  package,
       written by Michael Cornwell and Andre Hedrick.

REPORTING BUGS
       To submit a bug report, create a	ticket in smartmontools	wiki:
       <https://www.smartmontools.org/>.
       Alternatively send the info to the smartmontools	support	mailing	list:
       <https://listi.jpberlin.de/mailman/listinfo/smartmontools-support>.

SEE ALSO
       smartd(8).
       update-smart-drivedb(8).

REFERENCES
       Please see the following	web site for more info:	<https://www.smartmon-
       tools.org/>

       An introductory article about smartmontools is  Monitoring  Hard	 Disks
       with  SMART,  by	Bruce Allen, Linux Journal, January 2004, pages	74-77.
       See <https://www.linuxjournal.com/article/6983>.

       If you would like to understand better how SMART	 works,	 and  what  it
       does,  a	good place to start is with Sections 4.8 and 6.54 of the first
       volume of the 'AT Attachment  with  Packet  Interface-7'	 (ATA/ATAPI-7)
       specification  Revision	4b.   This  documents  the SMART functionality
       which the smartmontools utilities provide access	to.

       The functioning of SMART	was originally defined by the SFF-8035i	 revi-
       sion 2 and the SFF-8055i	revision 1.4 specifications.  These are	publi-
       cations of the Small Form Factors (SFF) Committee.

       Links to	these and other	documents may be found on the  Links  page  of
       the smartmontools Wiki at <https://www.smartmontools.org/wiki/Links>.

PACKAGE	VERSION
       smartmontools-7.3 2022-02-28 r5338
       $Id: smartctl.8.in 5333 2022-02-26 00:15:22Z dpgilbert $

smartmontools-7.3		  2022-02-28			   SMARTCTL(8)

NAME | SYNOPSIS | DESCRIPTION | OPTIONS | ATA, SCSI command sets and SAT | TAPE DRIVES | EXAMPLES | EXIT STATUS | FILES | AUTHORS | REPORTING BUGS | SEE ALSO | REFERENCES | PACKAGE VERSION

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