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SMARTCTL(8)			  2011-10-20			   SMARTCTL(8)

NAME
       smartctl	- Control and Monitor Utility for SMART	Disks

SYNOPSIS
       smartctl	[options] device

FULL PATH
       /usr/local/sbin/smartctl

PACKAGE	VERSION
       smartmontools-5.42 2011-10-20 r3458

DESCRIPTION
       [This  man  page	is generated for the FreeBSD version of	smartmontools.
       It does not contain info	specific to other platforms.]

       smartctl	controls the Self-Monitoring, Analysis and Reporting  Technol-
       ogy  (SMART) system built into many ATA-3 and later ATA,	IDE and	SCSI-3
       hard drives. The	purpose	of SMART is to monitor the reliability of  the
       hard drive and predict drive failures, and to carry out different types
       of drive	self-tests.  This  version  of	smartctl  is  compatible  with
       ATA/ATAPI-7 and earlier standards (see REFERENCES below)

       smartctl	is a command line utility designed to perform SMART tasks such
       as printing the SMART self-test and error logs, enabling	and  disabling
       SMART automatic testing,	and initiating device self-tests. Note:	if the
       user issues a SMART command that	is (apparently)	not implemented	by the
       device,	smartctl  will	print  a warning message but issue the command
       anyway (see the -T, --tolerance option below).  This should  not	 cause
       problems:  on  most  devices,  unimplemented SMART commands issued to a
       drive are ignored and/or	return an error.

       smartctl	also provides support for polling TapeAlert messages from SCSI
       tape drives and changers.

       The  user  must	specify	the device to be controlled or interrogated as
       the final argument to smartctl. The command set used by the  device  is
       often  derived  from  the  device  path but may need help with the '-d'
       option (for more	information see	the section on "ATA, SCSI command sets
       and SAT"	below).	Device paths are as follows:

       FREEBSD:	Use   the   forms  "/dev/ad[0-9]+"  for	 IDE/ATA  devices  and
		"/dev/da[0-9]+"	or "/dev/pass[0-9]+" for  SCSI	devices.   For
		SATA devices on	AHCI bus use "/dev/ada[0-9]+" format.

       if  '-'	is specified as	the device path, smartctl reads	and interprets
       it's own	debug output from standard input.  See '-r ataioctl' below for
       details.

       Based  on  the device path, smartctl will guess the device type (ATA or
       SCSI).  If necessary, the '-d' option can be  used  to  over-ride  this
       guess

       Note that the printed output of smartctl	displays most numerical	values
       in base 10 (decimal), but some values are displayed in base  16	(hexa-
       decimal).  To distinguish them, the base	16 values are always displayed
       with a leading "0x", for	example: "0xff". This  man  page  follows  the
       same convention.

OPTIONS
       The  options  are grouped below into several categories.	 smartctl will
       execute	the  corresponding  commands  in   the	 order:	  INFORMATION,
       ENABLE/DISABLE, DISPLAY DATA, RUN/ABORT TESTS.

       SHOW INFORMATION	OPTIONS:

       -h, --help, --usage
	      Prints a usage message to	STDOUT and exits.

       -V, --version, --copyright, --license
	      Prints  version,	copyright, license, home page and SVN revision
	      information for your copy	of smartctl to STDOUT and then	exits.
	      Please  include  this  information  if you are reporting bugs or
	      problems.

       -i, --info
	      Prints the device	model number, serial number, firmware version,
	      and  ATA	Standard  version/revision  information.   Says	if the
	      device supports SMART, and if so,	whether	SMART support is  cur-
	      rently  enabled  or  disabled.   If  the device supports Logical
	      Block Address mode (LBA mode) print current user drive  capacity
	      in bytes.	(If drive is has a user	protected area reserved, or is
	      "clipped", this may be smaller than the potential	maximum	 drive
	      capacity.)  Indicates if the drive is in the smartmontools data-
	      base (see	'-v' options below).  If so, the  drive	 model	family
	      may also be printed. If '-n' (see	below) is specified, the power
	      mode of the drive	is printed.

       -a, --all
	      Prints all SMART information about the disk, or TapeAlert	infor-
	      mation about the tape drive or changer.  For ATA devices this is
	      equivalent to
	      '-H -i -c	-A -l error -l selftest	-l selective'
	      and for SCSI, this is equivalent to
	      '-H -i -A	-l error -l selftest'.
	      Note that	for ATA	disks  this  does  not	enable	the  non-SMART
	      options  and  the	SMART options which require support for	48-bit
	      ATA commands.

       -x, --xall
	      Prints all SMART and non-SMART information about the device. For
	      ATA devices this is equivalent to
	      '-H -i -c	-A -f brief -l xerror,error -l xselftest,selftest
	      -l selective -l directory	-l scttemp -l scterc -l	sataphy'.
	      and for SCSI, this is equivalent to
	      '-H -i -A	-l error -l selftest -l	background -l sasphy'.

       --scan Scans  for  devices and prints each device name, device type and
	      protocol ([ATA] or [SCSI]) info.	May  be	 used  in  conjunction
	      with  '-d	 TYPE'	to  restrict the scan to a specific TYPE.  See
	      also info	about platform specific	device scan and	the DEVICESCAN
	      directive	on smartd(8) man page.

       --scan-open
	      Same as --scan, but also tries to	open each device before	print-
	      ing device info.	The device open	may change the device type due
	      to autodetection (see also '-d test').

	      This option can be used to create	a draft	smartd.conf file.  All
	      options after '--' are appended to each output line.  For	 exam-
	      ple:
	      smartctl --scan-open -- -a -W 4,45,50 -m admin@work > smartd.conf

       RUN-TIME	BEHAVIOR OPTIONS:

       -q TYPE,	--quietmode=TYPE
	      Specifies	that smartctl should run in one	of the two quiet modes
	      described	here.  The valid arguments to this option are:

	      errorsonly - only	print: For the '-l error' option, if  nonzero,
	      the  number  of  errors  recorded	in the SMART error log and the
	      power-on time when they occurred;	For the	'-l selftest'  option,
	      errors  recorded	in  the	 device	 self-test  log;  For the '-H'
	      option,  SMART  "disk  failing"  status  or  device   Attributes
	      (pre-failure  or	usage) which failed either now or in the past;
	      For the '-A' option, device Attributes  (pre-failure  or	usage)
	      which failed either now or in the	past.

	      silent  -	print no output.  The only way to learn	about what was
	      found is to use the exit status of smartctl (see	RETURN	VALUES
	      below).

	      noserial - Do not	print the serial number	of the device.

       -d TYPE,	--device=TYPE
	      Specifies	 the  type of the device.  The valid arguments to this
	      option are:

	      auto - attempt to	guess the device type from the device name  or
	      from  controller	type  info provided by the operating system or
	      from a matching USB ID entry in the drive	database.  This	is the
	      default.

	      test - prints the	guessed	type, then opens the device and	prints
	      the (possibly changed) TYPE name and then	 exists	 without  per-
	      forming any further commands.

	      ata - the	device type is ATA.  This prevents smartctl from issu-
	      ing SCSI commands	to an ATA device.

	      scsi - the device	type is	SCSI.	This  prevents	smartctl  from
	      issuing ATA commands to a	SCSI device.

	      sat - the	device type is SCSI to ATA Translation (SAT).  This is
	      for ATA disks that have a	SCSI to	ATA  Translation  (SAT)	 Layer
	      (SATL)  between  the disk	and the	operating system.  SAT defines
	      two ATA PASS THROUGH SCSI	commands, one 12 bytes	long  and  the
	      other  16	 bytes long.  The default is the 16 byte variant which
	      can be overridden	with either '-d	sat,12'	or '-d sat,16'.

	      usbcypress - this	device type is for ATA disks that are behind a
	      Cypress USB to PATA bridge.  This	will use the ATACB proprietary
	      scsi pass	through	command.  The default SCSI operation  code  is
	      0x24,  but  although  it	can  be	 overridden  with  '-d	usbcy-
	      press,0xN', where	N is the scsi operation	code,  you're  running
	      the risk of damage to the	device or filesystems on it.

	      usbjmicron  - this device	type is	for SATA disks that are	behind
	      a	JMicron	USB to PATA/SATA  bridge.   The	 48-bit	 ATA  commands
	      (required	 e.g. for '-l xerror', see below) do not work with all
	      of these bridges and are therefore disabled by  default.	 These
	      commands	can be enabled by '-d usbjmicron,x'.  If two disks are
	      connected	to a bridge  with  two	ports,	an  error  message  is
	      printed  if  no PORT is specified.  The port can be specified by
	      '-d usbjmicron[,x],PORT' where PORT is 0 (master)	or 1  (slave).
	      This  is	not  necessary if the device uses a port multiplier to
	      connect multiple disks to	one port.  The disks appear under sep-
	      arate  /dev/ice  names  then.   CAUTION:	Specifying  ',x' for a
	      device which does	not support it results in I/O errors  and  may
	      disconnect  the  drive.	The same applies if the	specified PORT
	      does not exist or	is not connected to a disk.

	      usbsunplus - this	device type is for SATA	disks that are	behind
	      a	SunplusIT USB to SATA bridge.

	      3ware,N -	[FreeBSD and Linux only] the device consists of	one or
	      more ATA disks connected to a 3ware RAID controller.   The  non-
	      negative	integer	 N  (in	 the  range  from  0 to	127 inclusive)
	      denotes which disk on the	controller is monitored.   Use	syntax
	      such as:
	      smartctl -a -d 3ware,2 /dev/sda
	      smartctl -a -d 3ware,0 /dev/twe0
	      smartctl -a -d 3ware,1 /dev/twa0
	      smartctl -a -d 3ware,1 /dev/twl0
	      The  first  two  forms,  which  refer  to	devices	/dev/sda-z and
	      /dev/twe0-15, may	be used	with 3ware series 6000,	7000, and 8000
	      series  controllers  that	use the	3x-xxxx	driver.	 Note that the
	      /dev/sda-z form is deprecated starting with the Linux 2.6	kernel
	      series  and may not be supported by the Linux kernel in the near
	      future.  The final form, which refers to	devices	 /dev/twa0-15,
	      must  be	used with 3ware	9000 series controllers, which use the
	      3w-9xxx driver.

	      The devices /dev/twl0-15 must be used with  the  3ware/LSI  9750
	      series controllers which use the 3w-sas driver.

	      Note  that  if  the  special  character  device nodes /dev/twl?,
	      /dev/twa?	 and /dev/twe? do not exist, or	exist with the	incor-
	      rect  major or minor numbers, smartctl will recreate them	on the
	      fly.  Typically /dev/twa0	refers to the first  9000-series  con-
	      troller,	/dev/twa1 refers to the	second 9000 series controller,
	      and so on.  The /dev/twl0	 devices  refers  to  the  first  9750
	      series  controller,  /dev/twl1 resfers to	the second 9750	series
	      controller, and so on.  Likewise /dev/twe0 refers	to  the	 first
	      6/7/8000-series  controller,  /dev/twe1  refers  to  the	second
	      6/7/8000 series controller, and so on.

	      Note that	for the	6/7/8000  controllers,	any  of	 the  physical
	      disks  can  be queried or	examined using any of the 3ware's SCSI
	      logical device  /dev/sd?	 entries.   Thus,  if  logical	device
	      /dev/sda	is made	up of two physical disks (3ware	ports zero and
	      one) and logical device /dev/sdb is made up of two other	physi-
	      cal  disks  (3ware ports two and three) then you can examine the
	      SMART data on any	of the four physical disks using  either  SCSI
	      device  /dev/sda or /dev/sdb.  If	you need to know which logical
	      SCSI device a particular physical	disk (3ware port)  is  associ-
	      ated  with, use the dmesg	or SYSLOG output to show which SCSI ID
	      corresponds to a particular 3ware	unit, and then use  the	 3ware
	      CLI or 3dm tool to determine which ports (physical disks)	corre-
	      spond to particular 3ware	units.

	      If the value of N	corresponds to a port that does	not  exist  on
	      the 3ware	controller, or to a port that does not physically have
	      a	disk attached to it, the behavior of smartctl depends upon the
	      specific	controller model, firmware, Linux kernel and platform.
	      In some cases you	will get a warning  message  that  the	device
	      does  not	 exist.	  In  other  cases  you	will be	presented with
	      'void' data for a	non-existent device.

	      Note that	if the /dev/sd?	addressing form	is  used,  then	 older
	      3w-xxxx  drivers do not pass the "Enable Autosave" ('-S on') and
	      "Enable Automatic	Offline" ('-o on') commands to the  disk,  and
	      produce  these  types of harmless	syslog error messages instead:
	      "3w-xxxx:	tw_ioctl(): Passthru size (123392) too big".  This can
	      be  fixed	 by  upgrading	to version 1.02.00.037 or later	of the
	      3w-xxxx driver, or  by  applying	a  patch  to  older  versions.
	      Alternatively, use the character device /dev/twe0-15 interface.

	      The  selective  self-test	 functions  ('-t select,A-B') are only
	      supported	using the  character  device  interface	 /dev/twl0-15,
	      /dev/twa0-15 and /dev/twe0-15.  The necessary WRITE LOG commands
	      can not be passed	through	the SCSI interface.

	      cciss,N -	[FreeBSD and Linux only] the device consists of	one or
	      more  SCSI/SAS  disks connected to a cciss RAID controller.  The
	      non-negative integer N (in the range from	 0  to	15  inclusive)
	      denotes which disk on the	controller is monitored.

	      If the controller	firmware or driver provides a SAT Layer	it may
	      be possible to  monitor  also  SATA  disks  by  specifiying  '-d
	      sat+cciss,N'.

	      hpt,L/M/N	 - [FreeBSD and	Linux only] the	device consists	of one
	      or more ATA disks	 connected  to	a  HighPoint  RocketRAID  con-
	      troller.	 The  integer L	is the controller id, the integer M is
	      the channel number, and the integer N is the PMPort number if it
	      is  available.   The  allowed values of L	are from 1 to 4	inclu-
	      sive, M are from 1 to 16 inclusive and N from 1 to 4  if	PMPort
	      available.   And	also  these values are limited by the model of
	      the HighPoint RocketRAID controller.  Use	syntax such as:
	      smartctl -a -d hpt,1/3 /dev/hptrr	   (under FreeBSD)
	      smartctl -a -d hpt,1/2/3 /dev/hptrr    (under FreeBSD)
	      Note that	the /dev/sda-z form should be the  device  node	 which
	      stands  for the disks derived from the HighPoint RocketRAID con-
	      trollers under Linux and under  FreeBSD,	it  is	the  character
	      device	which	the   driver   registered   (eg,   /dev/hptrr,
	      /dev/hptmv6).

       -T TYPE,	--tolerance=TYPE
	      [ATA only] Specifies how tolerant	smartctl should	be of ATA  and
	      SMART command failures.

	      The  behavior  of	 smartctl  depends upon	whether	the command is
	      "optional" or "mandatory". Here "mandatory" means	 "required  by
	      the ATA/ATAPI-5 Specification if the device implements the SMART
	      command  set"  and  "optional"  means  "not  required   by   the
	      ATA/ATAPI-5  Specification  even	if  the	 device	implements the
	      SMART command set."  The "mandatory" ATA and SMART commands are:
	      (1)  ATA	IDENTIFY  DEVICE,  (2)	SMART ENABLE/DISABLE ATTRIBUTE
	      AUTOSAVE,	(3) SMART ENABLE/DISABLE, and (4) SMART	RETURN STATUS.

	      The valid	arguments to this option are:

	      normal - exit on failure of any  mandatory  SMART	 command,  and
	      ignore  all  failures  of	 optional SMART	commands.  This	is the
	      default.	Note  that  on	some  devices,	issuing	 unimplemented
	      optional SMART commands doesn't cause an error.  This can	result
	      in misleading smartctl messages such as "Feature	X  not	imple-
	      mented", followed	shortly	by "Feature X: enabled".  In most such
	      cases, contrary to the final message, Feature X is not enabled.

	      conservative - exit on failure of	any optional SMART command.

	      permissive - ignore  failure(s)  of  mandatory  SMART  commands.
	      This option may be given more than once.	Each additional	use of
	      this option  will	 cause	one  more  additional  failure	to  be
	      ignored.	 Note that the use of this option can lead to messages
	      like "Feature X not implemented",	followed  shortly  by  "Error:
	      unable  to  enable Feature X".  In a few such cases, contrary to
	      the final	message, Feature X is enabled.

	      verypermissive - equivalent to giving a large number of '-T per-
	      missive'	options:  ignore  failures  of any number of mandatory
	      SMART commands.  Please see the note above.

       -b TYPE,	--badsum=TYPE
	      [ATA only] Specifies the action smartctl should take if a	check-
	      sum error	is detected in the: (1)	Device Identity	Structure, (2)
	      SMART Self-Test Log Structure, (3) SMART Attribute Value	Struc-
	      ture,  (4) SMART Attribute Threshold Structure, or (5) ATA Error
	      Log Structure.

	      The valid	arguments to this option are:

	      warn - report the	incorrect checksum but carry on	 in  spite  of
	      it.  This	is the default.

	      exit - exit smartctl.

	      ignore - continue	silently without issuing a warning.

       -r TYPE,	--report=TYPE
	      Intended	primarily  to help smartmontools developers understand
	      the behavior of smartmontools on non-conforming or  poorly  con-
	      forming  hardware.   This	 option	 reports  details  of smartctl
	      transactions with	the device.  The option	can be	used  multiple
	      times.   When  used  just	once, it shows a record	of the ioctl()
	      transactions with	the device.  When used	more  than  once,  the
	      detail  of  these	 ioctl()  transactions are reported in greater
	      detail.  The valid arguments to this option are:

	      ioctl - report all ioctl() transactions.

	      ataioctl - report	only ioctl() transactions with ATA devices.

	      scsiioctl	- report only ioctl() transactions with	SCSI  devices.
	      Invoking this once shows the SCSI	commands in hex	and the	corre-
	      sponding status. Invoking	it a second time adds a	hex listing of
	      the first	64 bytes of data send to, or received from the device.

	      Any argument may include a positive integer to specify the level
	      of detail	that should be reported.  The argument should be  fol-
	      lowed  by	a comma	then the integer with no spaces.  For example,
	      ataioctl,2 The default level is 1, so '-r	 ataioctl,1'  and  '-r
	      ataioctl'	are equivalent.

	      For testing purposes, the	output of '-r ataioctl,2' can later be
	      parsed by	smartctl itself	if '-' is used as  device  path	 argu-
	      ment.   The ATA command input parameters,	sector data and	return
	      values are reconstructed from the	debug report read from	stdin.
	      Then  smartctl  internally simulates an ATA device with the same
	      behaviour. This is does not work for SCSI	devices	yet.

       -n POWERMODE, --nocheck=POWERMODE
	      [ATA only] Specifies if smartctl should exit  before  performing
	      any  checks  when	 the  device is	in a low-power mode. It	may be
	      used to prevent a	disk from being	spun-up	by smartctl. The power
	      mode  is	ignored	by default.  A nonzero exit status is returned
	      if the device is in one of the specified	low-power  modes  (see
	      RETURN VALUES below).

	      Note: If this option is used it may also be necessary to specify
	      the device type with the '-d' option.  Otherwise the device  may
	      spin up due to commands issued during device type	autodetection.

	      The valid	arguments to this option are:

	      never  -	check  the  device always, but print the power mode if
	      '-i' is specified.

	      sleep - check the	device unless it is in SLEEP mode.

	      standby -	check the device unless	it  is	in  SLEEP  or  STANDBY
	      mode.   In  these	 modes	most disks are not spinning, so	if you
	      want to prevent a	disk from spinning up, this is	probably  what
	      you want.

	      idle  -  check the device	unless it is in	SLEEP, STANDBY or IDLE
	      mode.  In	the IDLE state,	most disks are still spinning, so this
	      is probably not what you want.

       SMART FEATURE ENABLE/DISABLE COMMANDS:

	      Note:  if	multiple options are used to both enable and disable a
	      feature, then both the  enable  and  disable  commands  will  be
	      issued.	The  enable  command  will always be issued before the
	      corresponding disable command.

       -s VALUE, --smart=VALUE
	      Enables or disables SMART	on device.   The  valid	 arguments  to
	      this option are on and off.  Note	that the command '-s on' (per-
	      haps used	with with the '-o on' and '-S on' options)  should  be
	      placed  in  a  start-up  script for your machine,	for example in
	      rc.local or rc.sysinit. In principle the SMART feature  settings
	      are  preserved  over  power-cycling,  but	 it doesn't hurt to be
	      sure. It is not necessary	(or useful) to enable SMART to see the
	      TapeAlert	messages.

       -o VALUE, --offlineauto=VALUE
	      [ATA  only]  Enables  or	disables SMART automatic offline test,
	      which scans the drive every four hours for  disk	defects.  This
	      command  can be given during normal system operation.  The valid
	      arguments	to this	option are on and off.

	      Note that	the SMART automatic offline test command is listed  as
	      "Obsolete"  in every version of the ATA and ATA/ATAPI Specifica-
	      tions.  It was originally	part of	 the  SFF-8035i	 Revision  2.0
	      specification,  but  was	never  part  of	any ATA	specification.
	      However it is implemented	and used by many vendors. [Good	 docu-
	      mentation	can be found in	IBM's Official Published Disk Specifi-
	      cations.	For example the	IBM Travelstar 40GNX Hard  Disk	 Drive
	      Specifications (Revision 1.1, 22 April 2002, Publication # 1541,
	      Document S07N-7715-02) page 164. You can also read the SFF-8035i
	      Specification  --	 see REFERENCES	below.]	 You can tell if auto-
	      matic offline testing is supported by  seeing  if	 this  command
	      enables  and disables it,	as indicated by	the 'Auto Offline Data
	      Collection' part of the  SMART  capabilities  report  (displayed
	      with '-c').

	      SMART  provides  three  basic  categories	of testing.  The first
	      category,	called "online"	testing, has no	effect on the  perfor-
	      mance of the device.  It is turned on by the '-s on' option.

	      The second category of testing is	called "offline" testing. This
	      type of test can,	in principle, degrade the device  performance.
	      The  '-o	on'  option  causes this offline testing to be carried
	      out, automatically, on a regular scheduled basis.	 Normally, the
	      disk will	suspend	offline	testing	while disk accesses are	taking
	      place, and then automatically resume it when the disk would oth-
	      erwise  be idle, so in practice it has little effect.  Note that
	      a	one-time offline test can also be carried out immediately upon
	      receipt  of  a user command.  See	the '-t	offline' option	below,
	      which causes a one-time offline test to be carried  out  immedi-
	      ately.

	      The choice (made by the SFF-8035i	and ATA	specification authors)
	      of the word testing for these first two categories  is  unfortu-
	      nate,  and  often	 leads	to confusion.  In fact these first two
	      categories of online and offline testing could  have  been  more
	      accurately described as online and offline data collection.

	      The results of this automatic or immediate offline testing (data
	      collection) are reflected	in the values of the SMART Attributes.
	      Thus,  if	 problems  or errors are detected, the values of these
	      Attributes will go below their failure thresholds; some types of
	      errors may also appear in	the SMART error	log. These are visible
	      with the '-A' and	'-l error' options respectively.

	      Some SMART attribute values are  updated	only  during  off-line
	      data  collection	activities; the	rest are updated during	normal
	      operation	of the device or  during  both	normal	operation  and
	      off-line	testing.   The	Attribute  value table produced	by the
	      '-A' option indicates this in the	UPDATED	column.	 Attributes of
	      the  first type are labeled "Offline" and	Attributes of the sec-
	      ond type are labeled "Always".

	      The third	category of testing (and the only category  for	 which
	      the  word	 'testing'  is really an appropriate choice) is	"self"
	      testing.	This third type	of test	 is  only  performed  (immedi-
	      ately)  when  a  command to run it is issued.  The '-t' and '-X'
	      options can be used to carry  out	 and  abort  such  self-tests;
	      please see below for further details.

	      Any  errors  detected  in	 the self testing will be shown	in the
	      SMART self-test log, which can be	examined using the  '-l	 self-
	      test' option.

	      Note: in this manual page, the word "Test" is used in connection
	      with the second category just described, e.g. for	the  "offline"
	      testing.	 The words "Self-test" are used	in connection with the
	      third category.

       -S VALUE, --saveauto=VALUE
	      [ATA] Enables or disables	SMART autosave of  device  vendor-spe-
	      cific  Attributes. The valid arguments to	this option are	on and
	      off.  Note that this feature  is	preserved  across  disk	 power
	      cycles, so you should only need to issue it once.

	      The  ATA	standard  does	not  specify a method to check whether
	      SMART autosave is	enabled.  Unlike  SCSI	(below),  smartctl  is
	      unable to	print a	warning	if autosave is disabled.

	      [SCSI]  For  SCSI	 devices  this toggles the value of the	Global
	      Logging Target Save Disabled (GLTSD) bit	in  the	 Control  Mode
	      Page. Some disk manufacturers set	this bit by default. This pre-
	      vents error counters, power-up hours and other useful data  from
	      being  placed  in	 non-volatile  storage,	so these values	may be
	      reset to zero the	next time the device is	power-cycled.  If  the
	      GLTSD bit	is set then 'smartctl -a' will issue a warning.	Use on
	      to clear the GLTSD  bit  and  thus  enable  saving  counters  to
	      non-volatile  storage. For extreme streaming-video type applica-
	      tions you	might consider using off to set	the GLTSD bit.

       SMART READ AND DISPLAY DATA OPTIONS:

       -H, --health
	      Check: Ask the device to report its SMART	health status or pend-
	      ing  TapeAlert  messages.	  SMART	status is based	on information
	      that it has gathered from	online and offline tests,  which  were
	      used  to	determine/update  its  SMART vendor-specific Attribute
	      values. TapeAlert	status is obtained by  reading	the  TapeAlert
	      log page.

	      If  the  device reports failing health status, this means	either
	      that the device has already failed, or that it is	predicting its
	      own  failure within the next 24 hours.  If this happens, use the
	      '-a' option to get more information, and get your	data  off  the
	      disk and to someplace safe as soon as you	can.

       -c, --capabilities
	      [ATA  only]  Prints  only	the generic SMART capabilities.	 These
	      show what	SMART features are implemented and how the device will
	      respond to some of the different SMART commands.	For example it
	      shows if the device logs errors, if it supports offline  surface
	      scanning,	 and  so  on.  If the device can carry out self-tests,
	      this option also shows the estimated time	required to run	 those
	      tests.

	      Note  that  the  time  required to run the Self-tests (listed in
	      minutes) are fixed.  However the time required to	run the	 Imme-
	      diate  Offline Test (listed in seconds) is variable.  This means
	      that if you issue	a command to perform an	Immediate Offline test
	      with the '-t offline' option, then the time may jump to a	larger
	      value and	then count down	as the Immediate Offline Test is  car-
	      ried  out.   Please see REFERENCES below for further information
	      about the	the flags and capabilities described by	this option.

       -A, --attributes
	      [ATA] Prints only	the vendor  specific  SMART  Attributes.   The
	      Attributes  are  numbered	 from 1	to 253 and have	specific names
	      and ID numbers. For example Attribute 12 is "power cycle count":
	      how many times has the disk been powered up.

	      Each  Attribute  has  a  "Raw"  value, printed under the heading
	      "RAW_VALUE", and a "Normalized" value printed under the  heading
	      "VALUE".	 [Note:	 smartctl prints these values in base-10.]  In
	      the example just given, the "Raw Value" for Attribute  12	 would
	      be   the	 actual	 number	 of  times  that  the  disk  has  been
	      power-cycled, for	example	365 if the disk	 has  been  turned  on
	      once  per	 day for exactly one year.  Each vendor	uses their own
	      algorithm	to convert this	"Raw" value to a "Normalized" value in
	      the range	from 1 to 254.	Please keep in mind that smartctl only
	      reports the different Attribute types, values, and thresholds as
	      read  from  the  device.	 It  does not carry out	the conversion
	      between "Raw" and	"Normalized"  values:  this  is	 done  by  the
	      disk's firmware.

	      The  conversion from Raw value to	a quantity with	physical units
	      is not specified by the SMART standard. In most cases, the  val-
	      ues  printed by smartctl are sensible.  For example the tempera-
	      ture Attribute generally has its raw value equal to the tempera-
	      ture in Celsius.	However	in some	cases vendors use unusual con-
	      ventions.	 For example the Hitachi disk on my laptop reports its
	      power-on hours in	minutes, not hours. Some IBM disks track three
	      temperatures rather than one, in their raw values.  And so on.

	      Each Attribute also has a	Threshold value	(whose range is	 0  to
	      255)  which  is printed under the	heading	"THRESH".  If the Nor-
	      malized value is less than or equal to the Threshold value, then
	      the  Attribute  is  said	to have	failed.	 If the	Attribute is a
	      pre-failure Attribute, then disk failure is imminent.

	      Each Attribute also has a	"Worst"	value shown under the  heading
	      "WORST".	 This  is the smallest (closest	to failure) value that
	      the disk has recorded at any time	during its lifetime when SMART
	      was enabled.  [Note however that some vendors firmware may actu-
	      ally  increase  the   "Worst"   value   for   some   "rate-type"
	      Attributes.]

	      The  Attribute  table  printed  out  by  smartctl	also shows the
	      "TYPE" of	the Attribute. Attributes  are	one  of	 two  possible
	      types:  Pre-failure or Old age.  Pre-failure Attributes are ones
	      which, if	less than or equal to their threshold values, indicate
	      pending  disk  failure.	Old age, or usage Attributes, are ones
	      which indicate end-of-product life from old-age or normal	 aging
	      and wearout, if the Attribute value is less than or equal	to the
	      threshold.  Please note: the fact	that an	Attribute is  of  type
	      'Pre-fail'  does	not  mean that your disk is about to fail!  It
	      only has this meaning  if	 the  Attribute's  current  Normalized
	      value is less than or equal to the threshold value.

	      If  the  Attribute's  current  Normalized	 value is less than or
	      equal to the threshold value, then the "WHEN_FAILED" column will
	      display  "FAILING_NOW".  If not, but the worst recorded value is
	      less than	or equal to the	threshold value, then this column will
	      display "In_the_past".  If the "WHEN_FAILED" column has no entry
	      (indicated by a dash: '-') then this Attribute is	 OK  now  (not
	      failing) and has also never failed in the	past.

	      The  table column	labeled	"UPDATED" shows	if the SMART Attribute
	      values are updated during	both  normal  operation	 and  off-line
	      testing, or only during offline testing.	The former are labeled
	      "Always" and the latter are labeled "Offline".

	      So to summarize: the Raw Attribute  values  are  the  ones  that
	      might  have a real physical interpretation, such as "Temperature
	      Celsius",	"Hours", or "Start-Stop	 Cycles".   Each  manufacturer
	      converts	these,	using  their  detailed knowledge of the	disk's
	      operations and failure modes, to Normalized Attribute values  in
	      the  range  1-254.   The	current	and worst (lowest measured) of
	      these Normalized Attribute values	are stored on the disk,	 along
	      with a Threshold value that the manufacturer has determined will
	      indicate that the	disk is	going to fail, or that it has exceeded
	      its  design age or aging limit.  smartctl	does not calculate any
	      of the Attribute values, thresholds, or types, it	merely reports
	      them from	the SMART data on the device.

	      Note  that starting with ATA/ATAPI-4, revision 4,	the meaning of
	      these Attribute fields has been made  entirely  vendor-specific.
	      However most ATA/ATAPI-5 disks seem to respect their meaning, so
	      we have retained the option of printing the Attribute values.

	      [SCSI] For SCSI devices the "attributes" are obtained  from  the
	      temperature and start-stop cycle counter log pages. Certain ven-
	      dor specific attributes are listed if recognised.	The attributes
	      are  output  in a	relatively free	format (compared with ATA disk
	      attributes).

       -f FORMAT, --format=FORMAT
	      [ATA only] Selects the output format of the  attributes  to  one
	      of:

	      old  -  Old smartctl format. This	is the default unless the '-x'
	      option is	specified.

	      brief - New format which fits into 80  colums  (except  in  some
	      rare cases).  This format	also decodes four additional attribute
	      flags.  This is the default if the '-x' option is	specified.

       -l TYPE,	--log=TYPE
	      Prints either the	SMART Error Log, the SMART Self-Test Log,  the
	      SMART Selective Self-Test	Log [ATA only],	the Log	Directory [ATA
	      only], or	the Background Scan  Results  Log  [SCSI  only].   The
	      valid arguments to this option are:

	      error  -	[ATA] prints the Summary SMART error log.  SMART disks
	      maintain a log of	the most recent	five non-trivial  errors.  For
	      each  of	these  errors, the disk	power-on lifetime at which the
	      error occurred is	recorded,  as  is  the	device	status	(idle,
	      standby,	etc)  at the time of the error.	 For some common types
	      of errors, the Error Register (ER) and Status Register (SR) val-
	      ues are decoded and printed as text. The meanings	of these are:
		 ABRT:	Command	ABoRTed
		 AMNF:	Address	Mark Not Found
		 CCTO:	Command	Completion Timed Out
		 EOM:	End Of Media
		 ICRC:	Interface Cyclic Redundancy Code (CRC) error
		 IDNF:	IDentity Not Found
		 ILI:	(packet	command-set specific)
		 MC:	Media Changed
		 MCR:	Media Change Request
		 NM:	No Media
		 obs:	obsolete
		 TK0NF:	TracK 0	Not Found
		 UNC:	UNCorrectable Error in Data
		 WP:	Media is Write Protected
	      In  addition,  up	 to  the  last five commands that preceded the
	      error are	listed,	along with a timestamp measured	from the start
	      of  the corresponding power cycle. This is displayed in the form
	      Dd+HH:MM:SS.msec where D is the number of	days, HH is hours,  MM
	      is minutes, SS is	seconds	and msec is milliseconds.  [Note: this
	      time stamp wraps after 2^32 milliseconds,	or 49 days 17 hours  2
	      minutes  and  47.296  seconds.]	The key	ATA disk registers are
	      also recorded in the log.	 The final column of the error log  is
	      a	text-string description	of the ATA command defined by the Com-
	      mand Register (CR) and Feature Register (FR)  values.   Commands
	      that  are	 obsolete  in the most current (ATA-7) spec are	listed
	      like this: READ LONG (w/ retry)  [OBS-4],	 indicating  that  the
	      command  became  obsolete	 with  or  in the ATA-4	specification.
	      Similarly, the notation [RET-N] is used to indicate that a  com-
	      mand  was	retired	in the ATA-N specification.  Some commands are
	      not defined in any version of the	ATA specification but  are  in
	      common use nonetheless; these are	marked [NS], meaning non-stan-
	      dard.

	      The ATA Specification (ATA-5 Revision  1c,  Section  8.41.6.8.2)
	      says:  "Error  log  structures  shall  include  UNC errors, IDNF
	      errors for which the address requested was valid,	servo  errors,
	      write  fault  errors,  etc.  Error log data structures shall not
	      include errors attributed	to the receipt of faulty commands such
	      as  command codes	not implemented	by the device or requests with
	      invalid parameters or invalid  addresses."  The  definitions  of
	      these terms are:
	      UNC (UNCorrectable): data	is uncorrectable.  This	refers to data
	      which has	been read from the  disk,  but	for  which  the	 Error
	      Checking	and  Correction	 (ECC)	codes  are  inconsistent.   In
	      effect, this means that the data can not be read.
	      IDNF (ID Not Found): user-accessible address could not be	found.
	      For READ LOG type	commands, IDNF can also	indicate that a	device
	      data log structure checksum was incorrect.

	      If the command that caused the error was a READ  or  WRITE  com-
	      mand,  then  the	Logical	Block Address (LBA) at which the error
	      occurred will be printed in base 10 and base 16.	The LBA	 is  a
	      linear  address,	which  counts  512-byte	 sectors  on the disk,
	      starting from zero.  (Because of the limitations	of  the	 SMART
	      error  log, if the LBA is	greater	than 0xfffffff,	then either no
	      error log	entry will be made, or the error log entry  will  have
	      an  incorrect  LBA.  This	 may happen for	drives with a capacity
	      greater than 128 GiB or 137 GB.) On Linux	systems	the  smartmon-
	      tools  web  page	has  instructions about	how to convert the LBA
	      address to the name of the disk file  containing	the  erroneous
	      disk sector.

	      Please  note  that  some manufacturers ignore the	ATA specifica-
	      tions, and make entries in the error log if the device  receives
	      a	command	which is not implemented or is not valid.

	      error  -	[SCSI]	prints	the error counter log pages for	reads,
	      write and	verifies.  The verify row is only output if it has  an
	      element other than zero.

	      xerror[,NUM][,error] - [ATA only]	prints the Extended Comprehen-
	      sive SMART error log (General Purpose Log	address	0x03).	Unlike
	      the  Summary SMART error log (see	'-l error' above), it provides
	      sufficient space to log the contents of the 48-bit LBA  register
	      set introduced with ATA-6.  It also supports logs	with more than
	      one sector.  Each	sector holds up	to 4 log entries.  The	actual
	      number of	log sectors is vendor specific,	typical	values for HDD
	      are 2 (Samsung), 5 (Seagate) or 6	(WD).  Some recent SSD devices
	      have much	larger error logs.

	      Only the 8 most recent error log entries are printed by default.
	      This number can be changed by the	optional parameter NUM.

	      If ',error' is appended and  the	Extended  Comprehensive	 SMART
	      error  log  is not supported, the	Summary	SMART self-test	log is
	      printed.

	      Please note that some recent (e.g. Samsung) drives report	errors
	      only  in the Extended Comprehensive SMART	error log. The Summary
	      SMART error log can be read but is always	empty.

	      selftest - [ATA] prints the SMART	self-test log.	The disk main-
	      tains  a	self-test  log	showing	the results of the self	tests,
	      which can	be run using the '-t'  option  described  below.   For
	      each of the most recent twenty-one self-tests, the log shows the
	      type of test (short or extended, off-line	or  captive)  and  the
	      final status of the test.	 If the	test did not complete success-
	      fully, then the percentage of the	test remaining is shown.   The
	      time  at	which  the  test took place, measured in hours of disk
	      lifetime,	is also	printed. [Note:	this time  stamp  wraps	 after
	      2^16  hours,  or 2730 days and 16	hours, or about	7.5 years.] If
	      any errors were detected,	the Logical Block Address (LBA)	of the
	      first  error  is	printed	in decimal notation.  On Linux systems
	      the smartmontools	web page has instructions about	how to convert
	      this  LBA	 address  to  the name of the disk file	containing the
	      erroneous	block.

	      selftest - [SCSI]	the self-test log for  a  SCSI	device	has  a
	      slightly	different  format than for an ATA device.  For each of
	      the most recent twenty self-tests, it shows the type of test and
	      the  status  (final  or in progress) of the test.	SCSI standards
	      use the terms "foreground" and "background" (rather  than	 ATA's
	      corresponding  "captive"	and "off-line")	and "short" and	"long"
	      (rather than ATA's  corresponding	 "short"  and  "extended")  to
	      describe	the  type  of the test.	 The printed segment number is
	      only relevant when a test	fails in the third or later test  seg-
	      ment.  It	identifies the test that failed	and consists of	either
	      the number of the	segment	that failed during the	test,  or  the
	      number  of the test that failed and the number of	the segment in
	      which the	test  was  run,	 using	a  vendor-specific  method  of
	      putting  both  numbers  into  a  single byte.  The Logical Block
	      Address (LBA) of the first error is printed in hexadecimal nota-
	      tion.   On Linux systems the smartmontools web page has instruc-
	      tions about how to convert this LBA address to the name  of  the
	      disk file	containing the erroneous block.	 If provided, the SCSI
	      Sense Key	(SK), Additional Sense Code (ASC) and Additional Sense
	      Code Qualifier (ASQ) are also printed. The self tests can	be run
	      using the	'-t' option described below (using the ATA test	termi-
	      nology).

	      xselftest[,NUM][,selftest]  -  [ATA  only]  prints  the Extended
	      SMART self-test log (General Purpose Log address	0x07).	Unlike
	      the  SMART  self-test log	(see '-l selftest' above), it supports
	      48-bit LBA and logs with more  than  one	sector.	  Each	sector
	      holds  up	to 19 log entries. The actual number of	log sectors is
	      vendor specific, typical values are 1 (Seagate) or 2 (Samsung).

	      Only the 25 most recent log entries are printed by default. This
	      number can be changed by the optional parameter NUM.

	      If  ',selftest' is appended and the Extended SMART self-test log
	      is not supported,	the old	SMART self-test	log is printed.

	      selective	- [ATA only] Please see	the '-t	select'	 option	 below
	      for  a  description  of  selective  self-tests.	The  selective
	      self-test	log shows the start/end	Logical	Block Addresses	 (LBA)
	      of  each	of the five test spans,	and their current test status.
	      If the span is being tested or the  remainder  of	 the  disk  is
	      being read-scanned, the current 65536-sector block of LBAs being
	      tested is	also displayed.	  The  selective  self-test  log  also
	      shows  if	 a read-scan of	the remainder of the disk will be car-
	      ried out after the selective self-test has  completed  (see  '-t
	      afterselect'  option)  and the time delay	before restarting this
	      read-scan	if it is interrupted (see '-t pending'	option).  This
	      is  a new	smartmontools feature; please report unusual or	incor-
	      rect behavior to the smartmontools-support mailing list.

	      directory[,gs] - [ATA only] if the device	supports  the  General
	      Purpose  Logging	feature	set (ATA-6 and above) then this	prints
	      the Log Directory	(the log at address  0).   The	Log  Directory
	      shows  what  logs	are available and their	length in sectors (512
	      bytes).  The contents of the logs	at address  1  [Summary	 SMART
	      error log] and at	address	6 [SMART self-test log]	may be printed
	      using the	previously-described error and selftest	 arguments  to
	      this  option.   If  your version of smartctl supports 48-bit ATA
	      commands,	both the General Purpose Log (GPL) and SMART Log  (SL)
	      directories are printed in one combined table. The output	can be
	      restricted to the	GPL directory or SL directory  by  '-l	direc-
	      tory,q' or '-l directory,s' respectively.

	      background - [SCSI only] the background scan results log outputs
	      information derived from Background Media	Scans (BMS) done after
	      power  up	 and/or	 periodocally  (e.g. every 24 hours) on	recent
	      SCSI disks. If supported,	the BMS	status is output first,	 indi-
	      cating  whether  a background scan is currently underway (and if
	      so a progress percentage), the amount of time the	disk has  been
	      powered up and the number	of scans already completed. Then there
	      is a header and a	line for each background scan  "event".	 These
	      will typically be	either recovered or unrecoverable errors. That
	      latter group may need some attention. There is a description  of
	      the  background scan mechansim in	section	4.18 of	SBC-3 revision
	      6	(see www.t10.org ).

	      scttemp, scttempsts, scttemphist - [ATA only]  prints  the  disk
	      temperature  information provided	by the SMART Command Transport
	      (SCT) commands.  The option 'scttempsts' prints current tempera-
	      ture  and	temperature ranges returned by the SCT Status command,
	      'scttemphist' prints temperature limits and the temperature his-
	      tory table returned by the SCT Data Table	command, and 'scttemp'
	      prints both.  The	temperature values are preserved across	 power
	      cycles.	The  logging  interval	can be configured with the '-l
	      scttempint,N[,p]'	option,	see  below.   The  SCT	commands  were
	      introduced in ATA-8 ACS and were also supported by in many ATA-7
	      disks.

	      scttempint,N[,p] - [ATA only] clears the SCT temperature history
	      table  and  sets	the time interval for temperature logging to N
	      minutes.	If ',p'	is specified, the setting is preserved	across
	      power  cycles.   Otherwise,  the setting is volatile and will be
	      reverted to the last  non-volatile  setting  by  the  next  hard
	      reset.   The default interval is vendor specific,	typical	values
	      are 1, 2,	or 5 minutes.

	      scterc[,READTIME,WRITETIME]  -  [ATA  only]  prints  values  and
	      descriptions  of	the SCT	Error Recovery Control settings. These
	      are equivalent to	TLER (as used by Western  Digital),  CCTL  (as
	      used by Samsung and Hitachi) and ERC (as used by Seagate). READ-
	      TIME and WRITETIME arguments  (deciseconds)  set	the  specified
	      values.  Values of 0 disable the feature,	other values less than
	      65 are probably not supported. For RAID configurations, this  is
	      typically	set to 70,70 deciseconds.

	      devstat[,PAGE]  -	[ATA only] [NEW	EXPERIMENTAL SMARTCTL FEATURE]
	      prints values and	descriptions of	the ATA	Device Statistics  log
	      pages  (General Purpose Log address 0x04).  If no	PAGE number is
	      specified, entries from all supported  pages  are	 printed.   If
	      PAGE  0  is  specified,  the list	of supported pages is printed.
	      Device Statistics	was introduced in ATA-8	ACS and	is  only  sup-
	      ported  by  some	recent	devices	(e.g. Intel 320	and 710	Series
	      SSDs).

	      sataphy[,reset] -	[SATA only] prints values and descriptions  of
	      the  SATA	Phy Event Counters (General Purpose Log	address	0x11).
	      If '-l sataphy,reset' is specified, all counters are reset after
	      reading the values.

	      sasphy[,reset]  -	 [SAS  (SCSI) only] prints values and descrip-
	      tions of the SAS (SSP) Protocol  Specific	 log  page  (log  page
	      0x18).   If  '-l	sasphy,reset'  is  specified, all counters are
	      reset after reading the values.

	      gplog,ADDR[,FIRST[-LAST|+SIZE]] -	[ATA only] prints a  hex  dump
	      of any log accessible via	General	Purpose	Logging	(GPL) feature.
	      The log address ADDR is the hex address listed in	the log	direc-
	      tory  (see  '-l  directory'  above).   The  range	of log sectors
	      (pages)  can  be	specified  by  decimal	values	FIRST-LAST  or
	      FIRST+SIZE.   FIRST defaults to 0, SIZE defaults to 1.  LAST can
	      be set to	'max' to specify the last page of the log.

	      smartlog,ADDR[,FIRST[-LAST|+SIZE]] - [ATA	 only]	prints	a  hex
	      dump  of any log accessible via SMART Read Log command.  See '-l
	      gplog,...' above for parameter syntax.

	      For example, all these commands:
		smartctl -l gplog,0x80,10-15 /dev/sda
		smartctl -l gplog,0x80,10+6 /dev/sda
		smartctl -l smartlog,0x80,10-15	/dev/sda
	      print pages 10-15	of log 0x80 (first host	vendor specific	log).

	      The hex dump format is compatible	with  the  'xxd	 -r'  command.
	      This command:
		smartctl -l gplog,0x11 /dev/sda	| grep ^0 | xxd	-r >log.bin
	      writes  a	binary representation of the one sector	log 0x11 (SATA
	      Phy Event	Counters) to file log.bin.

	      ssd - [ATA] prints the Solid State Device	Statistics  log	 page.
	      This has the same	effect as '-l devstat,7', see above.

	      ssd  -  [SCSI]  prints  the  Solid  State	 Media percentage used
	      endurance	indicator. A value of 0	 indicates  as	new  condition
	      while  100 indicates the device is at the	end of its lifetime as
	      projected	by the manufacturer. The value may reach 255.

       -v   ID,FORMAT[:BYTEORDER][,NAME],   --vendorattribute=ID,FORMAT[:BYTE-
       ORDER][,NAME]
	      [ATA  only]  Sets	 a  vendor-specific raw	value print FORMAT, an
	      optional BYTEORDER and an	optional NAME for Attribute ID.	  This
	      option may be used multiple times.

	      The  Attribute ID	can be in the range 1 to 255. If 'N' is	speci-
	      fied as ID, the settings for all Attributes are changed.

	      The optional BYTEORDER consists of 1 to 8	 characters  from  the
	      set '012345rvwz'.	The characters '0' to '5' select the byte 0 to
	      5	from the 48-bit	raw value, 'r' selects the  reserved  byte  of
	      the  attribute data block, 'v' selects the normalized value, 'w'
	      selects the worst	value  and  'z'	 inserts  a  zero  byte.   The
	      default  BYTEORDER is '543210' for all 48-bit formats, 'r543210'
	      for the 54-bit formats, and '543210wv' for the  64-bit  formats.
	      For  example,  '-v  5,raw48:012345'  prints  the	raw  value  of
	      attribute	5 with big endian instead of little endian byte	order-
	      ing.

	      The  NAME	 is  a	string of letters, digits and underscore.  Its
	      length should not	exceed 23 characters.  The '-P showall'	option
	      reports an error if this is the case.

	      -v  help	-  Prints (to STDOUT) a	list of	all valid arguments to
	      this option, then	exits.

	      Valid arguments for FORMAT are:

	      raw8 - Print the Raw value as six	8-bit unsigned	base-10	 inte-
	      gers.   This  may	 be useful for decoding	the meaning of the Raw
	      value.

	      raw16 - Print the	Raw value as  three  16-bit  unsigned  base-10
	      integers.	  This	may  be	useful for decoding the	meaning	of the
	      Raw value.

	      raw48 - Print the	Raw value as a 48-bit unsigned	base-10	 inte-
	      ger.  This is the	default	for most attributes.

	      hex48  -	Print  the Raw value as	a 12 digit hexadecimal number.
	      This may be useful for decoding the meaning of the Raw value.

	      raw64 - Print the	Raw value as a 64-bit unsigned	base-10	 inte-
	      ger.   This  includes  two  bytes	 from the normalized and worst
	      attribute	value.	This new raw format is used by some recent SSD
	      devices.

	      hex64  -	Print  the Raw value as	a 16 digit hexadecimal number.
	      This includes two	bytes from the normalized and worst  attribute
	      value.  This new raw format is used by some recent SSD devices.

	      min2hour	-  Raw Attribute is power-on time in minutes.  Its raw
	      value will be displayed in the form "Xh+Ym".  Here X  is	hours,
	      and  Y  is  minutes  in  the  range 0-59 inclusive.  Y is	always
	      printed with two digits, for example "06"	or "31"	or "00".

	      sec2hour - Raw Attribute is power-on time	in seconds.   Its  raw
	      value  will  be  displayed  in  the  form	"Xh+Ym+Zs".  Here X is
	      hours, Y is minutes in the range 0-59 inclusive, and Z  is  sec-
	      onds  in	the  range 0-59	inclusive.  Y and Z are	always printed
	      with two digits, for example "06"	or "31"	or "00".

	      halfmin2hour - Raw Attribute is power-on time, measured in units
	      of  30 seconds.  This format is used by some Samsung disks.  Its
	      raw value	will be	displayed in the  form	"Xh+Ym".   Here	 X  is
	      hours,  and  Y  is  minutes  in  the range 0-59 inclusive.  Y is
	      always printed with two digits, for  example  "06"  or  "31"  or
	      "00".

	      msec24hour32 - Raw Attribute is power-on time measured in	32-bit
	      hours and	24-bit milliseconds since last hour update.   It  will
	      be  displayed  in	 the form "Xh+Ym+Z.Ms".	 Here X	is hours, Y is
	      minutes, Z is seconds and	M is milliseconds.

	      tempminmax - Raw Attribute is the	disk temperature  in  Celsius.
	      Info about Min/Max temperature is	printed	if available.  This is
	      the default for Attributes 190 and 194.  The recording  interval
	      (lifetime,  last	power  cycle,  last soft reset)	of the min/max
	      values is	device specific.

	      temp10x -	Raw Attribute is ten times  the	 disk  temperature  in
	      Celsius.

	      raw16(raw16) - Print the raw attribute as	a 16-bit value and two
	      optional 16-bit values if	these words are	nonzero.  This is  the
	      default for Attributes 5 and 196.

	      raw16(avg16)  - Raw attribute is spin-up time.  It is printed as
	      a	16-bit value and an optional "Average"	16-bit	value  if  the
	      word is nonzero.	This is	the default for	Attribute 3.

	      raw24/raw24  -  Raw  Attribute  contains	two 24-bit values. The
	      first is the number of load cycles.  The second is the number of
	      unload  cycles.	The difference between these two values	is the
	      number of	times that the	drive  was  unexpectedly  powered  off
	      (also  called  an	 emergency  unload).  As  a rule of thumb, the
	      mechanical stress	created	by one emergency unload	is  equivalent
	      to that created by one hundred normal unloads.

	      raw24/raw32 - Raw	attribute is an	error rate which consists of a
	      24-bit error count and a 32-bit total count.

	      The following old	arguments to '-v' are also still valid:

	      9,minutes	- same as: 9,min2hour,Power_On_Minutes.

	      9,seconds	- same as: 9,sec2hour,Power_On_Seconds.

	      9,halfminutes - same as: 9,halfmin2hour,Power_On_Half_Minutes.

	      9,temp - same as:	9,tempminmax,Temperature_Celsius.

	      192,emergencyretractcyclect	  -	     same	   as:
	      192,raw48,Emerg_Retract_Cycle_Ct

	      193,loadunload - same as:	193,raw24/raw24.

	      194,10xCelsius - same as:	194,temp10x,Temperature_Celsius_x10.

	      194,unknown - same as: 194,raw48,Unknown_Attribute.

	      197,increasing - same as:	197,raw48,Total_Pending_Sectors.  Also
	      means that Attribute number 197 (Current Pending	Sector	Count)
	      is  not  reset  if  uncorrectable	 sectors  are reallocated (see
	      smartd.conf(5) man page).

	      198,increasing  -	 same  as:  198,raw48,Total_Offl_Uncorrectabl.
	      Also means that Attribute	number 198 (Offline Uncorrectable Sec-
	      tor Count) is not	reset if uncorrectable sectors are reallocated
	      (see smartd.conf(5) man page).

	      198,offlinescanuncsectorct    -	 same	 as:	198,raw48,Off-
	      line_Scan_UNC_SectCt.

	      200,writeerrorcount - same as: 200,raw48,Write_Error_Count.

	      201,detectedtacount - same as: 201,raw48,Detected_TA_Count.

	      220,temp - same as: 220,raw48,Temperature_Celsius.

	      Note: a table of hard drive models, listing which	Attribute cor-
	      responds	   to	  temperature,	   can	   be	  found	   at:
	      http://www.guzu.net/linux/hddtemp.db

       -F TYPE,	--firmwarebug=TYPE
	      [ATA only] Modifies the behavior of smartctl to  compensate  for
	      some known and understood	device firmware	or driver bug.	Except
	      'swapid',	the arguments to this option are  exclusive,  so  that
	      only the final option given is used.  The	valid values are:

	      none  - Assume that the device firmware obeys the	ATA specifica-
	      tions.  This is the default, unless the device has  presets  for
	      '-F' in the device database (see note below).

	      samsung -	In some	Samsung	disks (example:	model SV4012H Firmware
	      Version: RM100-08) some of the two- and four-byte	quantities  in
	      the  SMART data structures are byte-swapped (relative to the ATA
	      specification).  Enabling	this option tells smartctl to evaluate
	      these  quantities	 in byte-reversed order.  Some signs that your
	      disk needs this option are (1) no	self-test  log	printed,  even
	      though  you  have	 run self-tests; (2) very large	numbers	of ATA
	      errors reported in the ATA error log; (3)	strange	and impossible
	      values for the ATA error log timestamps.

	      samsung2	-  In  some  Samsung  disks  the  number of ATA	errors
	      reported is byte swapped.	 Enabling this option  tells  smartctl
	      to  evaluate this	quantity in byte-reversed order. An indication
	      that your	Samsung	disk needs this	option is that	the  self-test
	      log  is  printed correctly, but there are	a very large number of
	      errors in	the SMART error	log.  This is because the error	 count
	      is  byte	swapped.   Thus	 a disk	with five errors (0x0005) will
	      appear to	have 20480 errors (0x5000).

	      samsung3 - Some Samsung disks (at	least  SP2514N	with  Firmware
	      VF100-37)	report a self-test still in progress with 0% remaining
	      when the test was	already	completed. Enabling this option	 modi-
	      fies  the	 output	of the self-test execution status (see options
	      '-c' or '-a' above) accordingly.

	      Note that	an explicit '-F'  option  on  the  command  line  will
	      over-ride	 any  preset  values  for  '-F'	 (see  the '-P'	option
	      below).

	      swapid - Fixes byte swapped ATA identify strings	(device	 name,
	      serial  number,  firmware	version) returned by some buggy	device
	      drivers.

       -P TYPE,	--presets=TYPE
	      [ATA only] Specifies whether  smartctl  should  use  any	preset
	      options  that  are  available for	this drive. By default,	if the
	      drive is recognized in the smartmontools database, then the pre-
	      sets are used.

	      smartctl	can  automatically  set	 appropriate options for known
	      drives.  For example, the	Maxtor 4D080H4	uses  Attribute	 9  to
	      stores  power-on	time  in  minutes whereas most drives use that
	      Attribute	to store the power-on time in hours.  The command-line
	      option '-v 9,minutes' ensures that smartctl correctly interprets
	      Attribute	9 in this case,	but that option	is preset for the Max-
	      tor  4D080H4  and	 so  need  not be specified by the user	on the
	      smartctl command line.

	      The argument show	will show any preset options  for  your	 drive
	      and  the	argument  showall  will	 show  all known drives	in the
	      smartmontools database, along with  their	 preset	 options.   If
	      there  are  no presets for your drive and	you think there	should
	      be (for example, a -v or -F option is needed to get smartctl  to
	      display  correct	values)	 then please contact the smartmontools
	      developers so that this information can be added to  the	smart-
	      montools	database.   Contact  information is at the end of this
	      man page.

	      The valid	arguments to this option are:

	      use - if a drive is recognized, then use the stored presets  for
	      it.   This  is the default. Note that presets will NOT over-ride
	      additional  Attribute  interpretation  ('-v  N,something')  com-
	      mand-line	options	or explicit '-F' command-line options..

	      ignore - do not use presets.

	      show  -  show if the drive is recognized in the database,	and if
	      so, its presets, then exit.

	      showall -	list all recognized drives, and	the presets  that  are
	      set  for	them,  then exit.  This	also checks the	drive database
	      regular expressions and settings for syntax errors.

	      The '-P showall' option takes up to two  optional	 arguments  to
	      match a specific drive type and firmware version.	The command:
		smartctl -P showall
	      lists all	entries, the command:
		smartctl -P showall 'MODEL'
	      lists all	entries	matching MODEL,	and the	command:
		smartctl -P showall 'MODEL' 'FIRMWARE'
	      lists  all  entries  for this MODEL and a	specific FIRMWARE ver-
	      sion.

       -B [+]FILE, --drivedb=[+]FILE
	      [ATA only] Read the drive	database from FILE.  The new  database
	      replaces the built in database by	default.  If '+' is specified,
	      then the new entries prepend the built in	entries.

	      Optional	   entries     are     read	from	 the	  file
	      /usr/local/etc/smart_drivedb.h if	this option is not specified.

	      If /usr/local/share/smartmontools/drivedb.h is present, the con-
	      tents of this file is used instead of the	built in table.

	      Run /usr/local/sbin/update-smart-drivedb	to  update  this  file
	      from the smartmontools SVN repository.

	      The  database  files  use	 the same C/C++	syntax that is used to
	      initialize the built in database array. C/C++ style comments are
	      allowed.	Example:

		/* Full	entry: */
		{
		  "Model family",    //	Info about model family/series.
		  "MODEL1.*REGEX",   //	Regular	expression to match model of device.
		  "VERSION.*REGEX",  //	Regular	expression to match firmware version(s).
		  "Some	warning",    //	Warning	message.
		  "-v 9,minutes"     //	String of preset -v and	-F options.
		},
		/* Minimal entry: */
		{
		  "",		     //	No model family/series info.
		  "MODEL2.*REGEX",   //	Regular	expression to match model of device.
		  "",		     //	All firmware versions.
		  "",		     //	No warning.
		  ""		     //	No options preset.
		},
		/* USB ID entry: */
		{
		  "USB:	Device;	Bridge", // Info about USB device and bridge name.
		  "0x1234:0xabcd",   //	Regular	expression to match vendor:product ID.
		  "0x0101",	     //	Regular	expression to match bcdDevice.
		  "",		     //	Not used.
		  "-d sat"	     //	String with device type	option.
		},
		/* ... */

       SMART RUN/ABORT OFFLINE TEST AND	SELF-TEST OPTIONS:

       -t TEST,	--test=TEST
	      Executes	TEST immediately.  The '-C' option can be used in con-
	      junction with this option	to run the short or long (and also for
	      ATA devices, selective or	conveyance) self-tests in captive mode
	      (known as	"foreground mode" for SCSI devices).  Note  that  only
	      one test type can	be run at a time, so only one test type	should
	      be specified per command line.  Note also	that if	a computer  is
	      shutdown	or  power  cycled  during  a self-test,	no harm	should
	      result.  The self-test will either be  aborted  or  will	resume
	      automatically.

	      The valid	arguments to this option are:

	      offline -	[ATA] runs SMART Immediate Offline Test.  This immedi-
	      ately starts the test described  above.	This  command  can  be
	      given  during normal system operation.  The effects of this test
	      are visible only in that it updates the SMART Attribute  values,
	      and if errors are	found they will	appear in the SMART error log,
	      visible with the '-l error' option.

	      If the '-c' option to smartctl shows that	 the  device  has  the
	      "Suspend	Offline	 collection  upon new command" capability then
	      you can track the	progress of the	Immediate Offline  test	 using
	      the  '-c'	 option	to smartctl.  If the '-c' option show that the
	      device has the "Abort Offline collection upon new	command" capa-
	      bility then most commands	will abort the Immediate Offline Test,
	      so you should not	try to track the progress  of  the  test  with
	      '-c', as it will abort the test.

	      offline  -  [SCSI]  runs the default self	test in	foreground. No
	      entry is placed in the self test log.

	      short - [ATA] runs SMART Short Self Test (usually	under ten min-
	      utes).  This command can be given	during normal system operation
	      (unless run in captive mode - see	the '-C' option	below).	  This
	      is  a  test  in a	different category than	the immediate or auto-
	      matic offline tests.  The	"Self" tests check the electrical  and
	      mechanical  performance  as  well	as the read performance	of the
	      disk.  Their results are reported	in the Self  Test  Error  Log,
	      readable with the	'-l selftest' option.  Note that on some disks
	      the progress of the self-test can	be monitored by	watching  this
	      log  during  the self-test; with other disks use the '-c'	option
	      to monitor progress.

	      short - [SCSI] runs the "Background short" self-test.

	      long - [ATA] runs	SMART Extended Self Test  (tens	 of  minutes).
	      This  is	a  longer  and more thorough version of	the Short Self
	      Test described above.  Note that this command can	be given  dur-
	      ing  normal  system  operation (unless run in captive mode - see
	      the '-C' option below).

	      long - [SCSI] runs the "Background long" self-test.

	      conveyance - [ATA	only] runs a SMART Conveyance Self Test	 (min-
	      utes).   This  self-test	routine	is intended to identify	damage
	      incurred during transporting of the device. This self-test  rou-
	      tine should take on the order of minutes to complete.  Note that
	      this command can be given	during normal system operation (unless
	      run in captive mode - see	the '-C' option	below).

	      select,N-M,  select,N+SIZE  -  [ATA only]	runs a SMART Selective
	      Self Test, to test a  range  of  disk  Logical  Block  Addresses
	      (LBAs), rather than the entire disk.  Each range of LBAs that is
	      checked is called	a "span" and is	specified by  a	 starting  LBA
	      (N)  and	an  ending LBA (M) with	N less than or equal to	M. The
	      range can	also be	specified as N+SIZE. A span at the  end	 of  a
	      disk can be specified by N-max.

	      For example the commands:
		smartctl -t select,10-20 /dev/hda
		smartctl -t select,10+11 /dev/hda
	      both  runs  a  self  test	 on one	span consisting	of LBAs	ten to
	      twenty (inclusive). The command:
		smartctl -t select,100000000-max /dev/hda
	      run a self test from LBA 100000000 up to the end	of  the	 disk.
	      The  '-t'	 option	 can  be given up to five times, to test up to
	      five spans.  For example the command:
		smartctl -t select,0-100 -t select,1000-2000 /dev/hda
	      runs a self test on two spans.  The first	span consists  of  101
	      LBAs  and	 the second span consists of 1001 LBAs.	 Note that the
	      spans can	overlap	partially or completely, for example:
		smartctl -t select,0-10	-t select,5-15 -t select,10-20 /dev/hda
	      The results of the selective self-test  can  be  obtained	 (both
	      during  and after	the test) by printing the SMART	self-test log,
	      using the	'-l selftest' option to	smartctl.

	      Selective	self tests are particularly useful as disk  capacities
	      increase:	an extended self test (smartctl	-t long) can take sev-
	      eral hours.  Selective self-tests	are helpful if (based on  SYS-
	      LOG  error  messages, previous failed self-tests,	or SMART error
	      log entries) you suspect that a disk is  having  problems	 at  a
	      particular range of Logical Block	Addresses (LBAs).

	      Selective	 self-tests  can be run	during normal system operation
	      (unless done in captive mode - see the '-C' option below).

	      The following variants of	the selective  self-test  command  use
	      spans  based on the ranges from past tests already stored	on the
	      disk:

	      select,redo[+SIZE] - [ATA	only] redo the	last  SMART  Selective
	      Self  Test using the same	LBA range. The starting	LBA is identi-
	      cal to the LBA used by last test,	same for ending	LBA  unless  a
	      new span size is specified by optional +SIZE argument.

	      For example the commands:
		smartctl -t select,10-20 /dev/hda
		smartctl -t select,redo	/dev/hda
		smartctl -t select,redo+20 /dev/hda
	      have the same effect as:
		smartctl -t select,10-20 /dev/hda
		smartctl -t select,10-20 /dev/hda
		smartctl -t select,10-29 /dev/hda

	      select,next[+SIZE] - [ATA	only] runs a SMART Selective Self Test
	      on the LBA range which follows the range of the last  test.  The
	      starting	LBA  is	set to (ending LBA +1) of the last test. A new
	      span size	may be specified by the	optional +SIZE argument.

	      For example the commands:
		smartctl -t select,0-999 /dev/hda
		smartctl -t select,next	/dev/hda
		smartctl -t select,next+2000 /dev/hda
	      have the same effect as:
		smartctl -t select,0-999 /dev/hda
		smartctl -t select,1000-1999 /dev/hda
		smartctl -t select,2000-3999 /dev/hda

	      If the last test ended at	the last LBA  of  the  disk,  the  new
	      range  starts at LBA 0. The span size of the last	span of	a disk
	      is adjusted such that the	total number of	 spans	to  check  the
	      full   disk   will   not	be  changed  by	 future	 uses  of  '-t
	      select,next'.

	      select,cont[+SIZE] - [ATA	only] performs a 'redo'	(above)	if the
	      self  test  status reports that the last test was	aborted	by the
	      host. Otherwise it run the 'next'	(above)	test.

	      afterselect,on - [ATA only] perform an offline read scan after a
	      Selective	 Self-test  has	 completed.  This  option must be used
	      together with one	or more	of the select,N-M  options  above.  If
	      the  LBAs	 that  have  been specified in the Selective self-test
	      pass the test with no errors found, then read scan the remainder
	      of  the  disk.   If the device is	powered-cycled while this read
	      scan is in progress, the read scan will be automatically resumed
	      after  a	time  specified	by the pending timer (see below).  The
	      value of this option is preserved	between	selective self-tests.

	      afterselect,off -	[ATA only] do not read scan the	 remainder  of
	      the disk after a Selective self-test has completed.  This	option
	      must be use together with	one or more of the select,N-M  options
	      above.   The value of this option	is preserved between selective
	      self-tests.

	      pending,N	- [ATA only] set the pending offline read  scan	 timer
	      to N minutes.  Here N is an integer in the range from 0 to 65535
	      inclusive.  If the device	is powered  off	 during	 a  read  scan
	      after  a Selective self-test, then resume	the test automatically
	      N	minutes	after power-up.	 This option must be use together with
	      one  or  more of the select,N-M options above. The value of this
	      option is	preserved between selective self-tests.

	      vendor,N - [ATA only] issues the ATA command SMART EXECUTE  OFF-
	      LINE  IMMEDIATE  with subcommand N in LBA	LOW register. The sub-
	      command is specified as a	hex value in the range 0x00  to	 0xff.
	      Subcommands 0x40-0x7e and	0x90-0xff are reserved for vendor spe-
	      cific use, see table 61 of T13/1699-D  Revision  6a  (ATA8-ACS).
	      Note that	the subcommands	0x00-0x04,0x7f,0x81-0x84 are supported
	      by other smartctl	options	(e.g. 0x01: '-t	 short',  0x7f:	 '-X',
	      0x82: '-C	-t long').

	      WARNING:	Only  run  subcommands documented by the vendor	of the
	      device.

	      Example for Intel	(X18-M/X25-M G2	and 320	Series)	SSDs only: The
	      subcommand  0x40	('-t  vendor,0x40')  clears the	timed workload
	      related SMART attributes (226, 227, 228).	  Note	that  the  raw
	      values  of these attributes are held at 65535 (0xffff) until the
	      workload timer reaches 60	minutes.

	      scttempint,N[,p]	-  is  no  longer  supported,  use  '-l	  sct-
	      tempint,N[,p]' instead, see above.

       -C, --captive
	      [ATA]  Runs self-tests in	captive	mode.  This has	no effect with
	      '-t offline' or if the '-t' option is not	used.

	      WARNING: Tests run in captive mode may busy out  the  drive  for
	      the  length of the test.	Only run captive tests on drives with-
	      out any mounted partitions!

	      [SCSI] Runs the self-test	in "Foreground"	mode.

       -X, --abort
	      Aborts non-captive SMART Self Tests.   Note  that	 this  command
	      will  abort the Offline Immediate	Test routine only if your disk
	      has the "Abort Offline collection	upon new command" capability.

ATA, SCSI command sets and SAT
       In the past there has been a clear distinction between storage  devices
       that  used  the	ATA  and SCSI command sets. This distinction was often
       reflected in their device naming	and hardware. Now various SCSI	trans-
       ports  (e.g.  SAS,  FC  and  iSCSI) can interconnect to both SCSI disks
       (e.g. FC	and SAS) and ATA disks (especially SATA). USB  and  IEEE  1394
       storage	devices	 use the SCSI command set externally but almost	always
       contain ATA or SATA disks (or flash). The storage  subsystems  in  some
       operating  systems  have	 started to remove the distinction between ATA
       and SCSI	in their device	naming policies.

       99% of operations that an OS  performs  on  a  disk  involve  the  SCSI
       INQUIRY,	 READ  CAPACITY, READ and WRITE	commands, or their ATA equiva-
       lents. Since the	SCSI commands are slightly more	general	than their ATA
       equivalents,  many  OSes	 are generating	SCSI commands (mainly READ and
       WRITE) and letting a lower level	translate them to  their  ATA  equiva-
       lents  as the need arises. An important note here is that "lower	level"
       may be in external equipment and	hence outside the control of an	OS.

       SCSI to ATA Translation (SAT) is	a standard (ANSI INCITS	431-2007) that
       specifies  how this translation is done.	For the	other 1% of operations
       that an OS performs on a	disk, SAT provides two options.	 First	is  an
       optional	 ATA  PASS-THROUGH  SCSI command (there	are two	variants). The
       second is a translation from the	closest	 SCSI  command.	 Most  current
       interest	is in the "pass-through" option.

       The  relevance to smartmontools (and hence smartctl) is that its	inter-
       actions with disks fall solidly into the	"1%" category. So even if  the
       OS  can	happily	treat (and name) a disk	as "SCSI", smartmontools needs
       to detect the native command set	and act	accordingly.  As more  storage
       manufacturers  (including external SATA drives) comply with SAT,	smart-
       montools	is able	to automatically distinguish the native	command	set of
       the  device. In some cases the '-d sat' option is needed	on the command
       line.

       There are also virtual disks which typically have no useful information
       to  convey  to  smartmontools,  but could conceivably in	the future. An
       example of a virtual disk is the	OS's view of a RAID 1 box.  There  are
       most  likely  two SATA disks inside a RAID 1 box. Addressing those SATA
       disks from a distant OS	is  a  challenge  for  smartmontools.  Another
       approach	 is  running  a	 tool like smartmontools inside	the RAID 1 box
       (e.g.  a	Network	Attached Storage (NAS) box) and	fetching the logs  via
       a browser.

EXAMPLES
       smartctl	-a /dev/hda
       Print  a	 large amount of SMART information for drive /dev/hda which is
       typically an ATA	(IDE) or SATA disk in Linux.

       smartctl	-a /dev/sdb
       Print a large amount of SMART information for drive /dev/sdb . This may
       be a SCSI disk or an ATA	(SATA) disk.

       smartctl	-s off /dev/hdd
       Disable SMART monitoring	and data log collection	on drive /dev/hdd .

       smartctl	--smart=on --offlineauto=on --saveauto=on /dev/hda
       Enable  SMART on	drive /dev/hda,	enable automatic offline testing every
       four hours, and enable autosaving of SMART Attributes.  This is a  good
       start-up	line for your system's init files.  You	can issue this command
       on a running system.

       smartctl	-t long	/dev/hdc
       Begin an	extended self-test of drive /dev/hdc.  You can issue this com-
       mand on a running system.  The results can be seen in the self-test log
       visible with the	'-l selftest' option after it has completed.

       smartctl	-s on -t offline /dev/hda
       Enable SMART on the disk, and begin an immediate	offline	test of	 drive
       /dev/hda.  You can issue	this command on	a running system.  The results
       are only	used to	update the SMART Attributes,  visible  with  the  '-A'
       option.	If any device errors occur, they are logged to the SMART error
       log, which can be seen with the '-l error' option.

       smartctl	-A -v 9,minutes	/dev/hda
       Shows the vendor	Attributes, when the disk  stores  its	power-on  time
       internally in minutes rather than hours.

       smartctl	-q errorsonly -H -l selftest /dev/hda
       Produces	 output	only if	the device returns failing SMART status, or if
       some of the logged self-tests ended with	errors.

       smartctl	-q silent -a /dev/hda
       Examine all SMART data for device /dev/hda, but produce no printed out-
       put.  You must use the exit status (the $?  shell variable) to learn if
       any Attributes are out of bound,	if the SMART  status  is  failing,  if
       there  are errors recorded in the self-test log,	or if there are	errors
       recorded	in the disk error log.

       smartctl	-a -d 3ware,0 /dev/sda
       Examine all SMART data for the first ATA	disk connected to a 3ware RAID
       controller card.

       smartctl	-a -d 3ware,0 /dev/twe0
       Examine all SMART data for the first ATA	disk connected to a 3ware RAID
       6000/7000/8000 controller card.

       smartctl	-a -d 3ware,0 /dev/twa0
       Examine all SMART data for the first ATA	disk connected to a 3ware RAID
       9000 controller card.

       smartctl	-a -d 3ware,0 /dev/twl0
       Examine all SMART data for the first SATA (not SAS) disk	connected to a
       3ware RAID 9750 controller card.

       smartctl	-t short -d 3ware,3 /dev/sdb
       Start a short self-test on the fourth ATA disk connected	to  the	 3ware
       RAID controller card which is the second	SCSI device /dev/sdb.

       smartctl	-t long	-d areca,4 /dev/sg2
       Start  a	 long  self-test on the	fourth SATA disk connected to an Areca
       RAID controller addressed by /dev/sg2.

       smartctl	-a -d hpt,1/3 /dev/sda (under Linux)
       smartctl	-a -d hpt,1/3 /dev/hptrr (under	FreeBSD)
       Examine all SMART data for the (S)ATA disk directly  connected  to  the
       third channel of	the first HighPoint RocketRAID controller card.

       smartctl	-t short -d hpt,1/1/2 /dev/sda (under Linux)
       smartctl	-t short -d hpt,1/1/2 /dev/hptrr (under	FreeBSD)
       Start  a	 short self-test on the	(S)ATA disk connected to second	pmport
       on the first channel of the first HighPoint RocketRAID controller card.

       smartctl	-t select,10-100 -t select,30-300 -t afterselect,on -t pending,45 /dev/hda
       Run a selective self-test on LBAs 10 to 100 and 30 to 300.   After  the
       these  LBAs  have been tested, read-scan	the remainder of the disk.  If
       the disk	is power-cycled	during the read-scan, resume the scan 45  min-
       utes after power	to the device is restored.

       smartctl	-a -d cciss,0 /dev/cciss/c0d0
       Examine	all  SMART  data  for the first	SCSI disk connected to a cciss
       RAID controller card.

RETURN VALUES
       The return values of smartctl are defined by a bitmask.	If all is well
       with  the  disk,	 the  return value (exit status) of smartctl is	0 (all
       bits turned off).  If a problem occurs, or an error,  potential	error,
       or  fault  is  detected,	 then  a non-zero status is returned.  In this
       case, the eight different bits in the return value have	the  following
       meanings	 for  ATA disks; some of these values may also be returned for
       SCSI disks.

       Bit 0: Command line did not parse.

       Bit 1: Device open failed, device did not  return  an  IDENTIFY	DEVICE
	      structure,  or  device  is  in a low-power mode (see '-n'	option
	      above).

       Bit 2: Some SMART command to the	disk failed, or	there was  a  checksum
	      error in a SMART data structure (see '-b'	option above).

       Bit 3: SMART status check returned "DISK	FAILING".

       Bit 4: We found prefail Attributes <= threshold.

       Bit 5: SMART  status  check  returned  "DISK OK"	but we found that some
	      (usage or	prefail) Attributes have been  <=  threshold  at  some
	      time in the past.

       Bit 6: The device error log contains records of errors.

       Bit 7: The device self-test log contains	records	of errors.  [ATA only]
	      Failed  self-tests  outdated  by	a  newer  successful  extended
	      self-test	are ignored.

       To  test	 within	 the  shell  for whether or not	the different bits are
       turned on or off, you can use the following type	of construction	 (this
       is bash syntax):
       smartstat=$(($? & 8))
       This  looks at only at bit 3 of the exit	status $?  (since 8=2^3).  The
       shell variable  $smartstat  will	 be  nonzero  if  SMART	 status	 check
       returned	"disk failing" and zero	otherwise.

       This bash script	prints all status bits:
       status=$?
       for ((i=0; i<8; i++)); do
	 echo "Bit $i: $((status & 2**i	&& 1))"
       done

NOTES
       The  TapeAlert  log  page  flags	are cleared for	the initiator when the
       page is read. This means	that each alert	 condition  is	reported  only
       once  by	 smartctl for each initiator for each activation of the	condi-
       tion.

AUTHOR
       Bruce Allen smartmontools-support@lists.sourceforge.net
       University of Wisconsin - Milwaukee Physics Department

CONTRIBUTORS
       The following have made large contributions to smartmontools:
       Casper Dik (Solaris SCSI	interface)
       Christian Franke	(Windows interface, C++	redesign, USB support, ...)
       Douglas Gilbert (SCSI subsystem)
       Guido Guenther (Autoconf/Automake packaging)
       Geoffrey	Keating	(Darwin	ATA interface)
       Eduard Martinescu (FreeBSD interface)
       Fr'ed'eric	L. W. Meunier (Web site	and Mailing list)
       Gabriele	Pohl (Web site and Wiki, conversion from CVS to	SVN)
       Keiji Sawada (Solaris ATA interface)
       Manfred Schwarb (Drive database)
       Sergey Svishchev	(NetBSD	interface)
       David Snyder and	Sergey Svishchev (OpenBSD interface)
       Phil Williams (User interface and drive database)
       Yuri Dario (OS/2, eComStation interface)
       Shengfeng Zhou (Linux/FreeBSD HighPoint RocketRAID interface)
       Many other individuals have made	smaller	contributions and corrections.

CREDITS
       This code was derived from the smartsuite package, written  by  Michael
       Cornwell,  and  from  the previous UCSC smartsuite package.  It extends
       these to	cover ATA-5 disks.  This code was originally  developed	 as  a
       Senior  Thesis by Michael Cornwell at the Concurrent Systems Laboratory
       (now part of the	Storage	Systems	Research Center), Jack	Baskin	School
       of    Engineering,    University	   of	 California,	Santa	 Cruz.
       http://ssrc.soe.ucsc.edu/ .

HOME PAGE FOR SMARTMONTOOLS:
       Please see the following	web site for updates,  further	documentation,
       bug reports and patches:	http://smartmontools.sourceforge.net/

SEE ALSO:
       smartd(8), badblocks(8),	ide-smart(8).

REFERENCES FOR SMART
       An  introductory	 article  about	smartmontools is Monitoring Hard Disks
       with SMART, by Bruce Allen, Linux Journal, January 2004,	 pages	74-77.
       This is http://www.linuxjournal.com/article/6983	online.

       If  you	would  like  to	understand better how SMART works, and what it
       does, a good place to start is with Sections 4.8	and 6.54 of the	 first
       volume  of  the	'AT  Attachment	with Packet Interface-7' (ATA/ATAPI-7)
       specification Revision 4b.   This  documents  the  SMART	 functionality
       which the smartmontools utilities provide access	to.

       The  functioning	of SMART was originally	defined	by the SFF-8035i revi-
       sion 2 and the SFF-8055i	revision 1.4 specifications.  These are	publi-
       cations of the Small Form Factors (SFF) Committee.

       Links  to  these	 and other documents may be found on the Links page of
       the smartmontools  Wiki	at  http://sourceforge.net/apps/trac/smartmon-
       tools/wiki/Links	.

SVN ID OF THIS PAGE:
       $Id: smartctl.8.in 3452 2011-10-15 15:22:09Z chrfranke $

smartmontools-5.42		  2011-10-20			   SMARTCTL(8)

NAME | SYNOPSIS | FULL PATH | PACKAGE VERSION | DESCRIPTION | OPTIONS | ATA, SCSI command sets and SAT | EXAMPLES | RETURN VALUES | NOTES | AUTHOR | CONTRIBUTORS | CREDITS | HOME PAGE FOR SMARTMONTOOLS: | SEE ALSO: | REFERENCES FOR SMART | SVN ID OF THIS PAGE:

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