Skip site navigation (1)Skip section navigation (2)

FreeBSD Manual Pages

  
 
  

home | help
SHAR(1)			    General Commands Manual		       SHAR(1)

NAME
       shar - create shell archives

SYNOPSIS
       shar [ options ]	file ...
       shar -S [ options ]

DESCRIPTION
       Shar  creates "shell archives" (or shar files) which are	in text	format
       and can be mailed.  These files may be unpacked later by	executing them
       with /bin/sh.  The resulting archive is sent to standard	out unless the
       -o option is given.  A wide range of features provide extensive	flexi-
       bility  in manufacturing	shars and in specifying	shar "smartness".  Ar-
       chives may be "vanilla" or comprehensive.

OPTIONS
       Options have a one letter version starting with -  or  a	 long  version
       starting	 with  --.   The exception is --help, --version, --no-i18n and
       --print-text-domain-dir which does not have short versions.   Mandatory
       arguments to long options are mandatory for short options too.  Options
       can be given in any order.  Some	options	depend on each other:
	    The	-o option is required if the -l	or -L option is	used.
	    The	-n option is required if the -a	option is used.
	    See	-V below.

   Giving feedback:
       --help Print a help summary on standard output, then immediately	exits.

       --version
	      Print the	version	number of the program on standard output, then
	      immediately exits.

       -q --quiet --silent
	      Do  not  output  verbose messages	locally	when producing the ar-
	      chive.

   Selecting files:
       -p  --intermix-type
	      Allow positional parameter options.  The options -B, -T, -z  and
	      -Z may be	embedded, and files to the right of the	option will be
	      processed	in the specified mode.

       -S  --stdin-file-list
	      Read list	of files to be packed from the standard	 input	rather
	      than  from the command line.  Input must be in a form similar to
	      that generated by	the find command, one filename per line.  This
	      switch  is especially useful when	the command line will not hold
	      the list of files	to be packed.  For example:

	      find . -type f -print | sort | shar -S -Z	-L50 -o	/tmp/big

	      If -p is specified on the	command	line, then the options -B, -T,
	      -z and -Z	may be included	in the standard	input (on a line sepa-
	      rate from	filenames).  The maximum number	of lines  of  standard
	      input, file names	and options, may not exceed 1024.

   Splitting output:
       -o XXX  --output-prefix=XXX
	      Save  the	archive	to files XXX.01	thru XXX.nn instead of sending
	      it to standard out.  Must	be used	when the -l or the -L switches
	      are used.

       -l XX  --whole-size-limit=XX
	      Limit  the  output  file size to XXk bytes but don't split input
	      files.

       -L XX  --split-size-limit=XX
	      Limit output file	size to	XXk bytes and split  files  if	neces-
	      sary.   The  archive  parts created with this option must	be un-
	      packed in	correct	order.

   Controlling the shar	headers:
       -n name	--archive-name=name
	      Name of archive to be included in	the header of the shar	files.
	      See the -a switch.

       -s who@where  --submitter=who@where
	      Override automatically determined	submitter name.

       -a  --net-headers
	      Allows automatic generation of headers:
		   Submitted-by: who@where
		   Archive-name: <name>/part##
	      The <name> must be given with the	-n switch.  If name includes a
	      '/' "/part" isn't	used.  Thus:
		 -n xyzzy		       produces:
					       xyzzy/part01
					       xyzzy/part02

		 -n xyzzy/patch		       produces:
					       xyzzy/patch01
					       xyzzy/patch02

		 -n xyzzy/patch01.	       produces:
					       xyzzy/patch01.01
					       xyzzy/patch01.02

	      The who@where can	be explicitly stated with the -s switch	if the
	      default  isn't  appropriate.   Who@where is essentially built as
	      `whoami`@`uname`.

       -c  --cut-mark
	      Start the	shar with a cut	line.  A line  saying  'Cut  here'  is
	      placed at	the start of each output file.

   Selecting how files are stocked:
       -M  --mixed-uuencode
	      Mixed  mode.   Determine if the files are	text or	binary and ar-
	      chive correctly (default).  Files	found to be binary  are	 uude-
	      coded  prior  to	packing	(USE OF	UUENCODE IS NOT	APPRECIATED BY
	      MANY ON THE NET).

       -T  --text-files
	      Treat all	files as text.

       -B  --uuencode
	      Treat all	files as binary, use uuencode prior to packing.	  This
	      increases	 the  size  of	the  archive.  The recipient must have
	      uudecode in order	to unpack.  (USE OF UUENCODE IS	 NOT  APPRECI-
	      ATED BY MANY ON THE NET).

       -z  --gzip
	      Gzip  and	 uuencode  all	files prior to packing.	 The recipient
	      must have	uudecode and gzip in order to unpack (USE OF  UUENCODE
	      AND GZIP IS NOT APPRECIATED BY MANY ON THE NET).

       -g LEVEL	 --level-for-gzip=LEVEL
	      When  doing  compression,	 use  '-LEVEL' as a parameter to gzip.
	      Default is 9.  The -g option turns on the	-z option by default.

       -Z  --compress
	      Compress and uuencode all	files prior to packing.	 The recipient
	      must have	uudecode and compress in order to unpack (USE OF UUEN-
	      CODE AND COMPRESS	IS NOT APPRECIATED BY MANY ON THE  NET).   Op-
	      tion -C is synonymous to -Z, but is being	deprecated.

       -b BITS	--bits-per-code=BITS
	      When doing compression, use '-bBITS' as a	parameter to compress.
	      The -B option turns on the -Z option by default.	Default	 value
	      is 12.

   Protecting against transmission errors:
       -w  --no-character-count
	      Do  NOT  check each file with 'wc	-c' after unpack.  The default
	      is to check.

       -D  --no-md5-digest
	      Do NOT use 'md5sum' digest to verify the unpacked	files. The de-
	      fault is to check.

       -F  --force-prefix
	      Forces  the  prefix character (normally 'X' unless the parameter
	      to the -d	option starts with 'X')	to be prepended	to every  line
	      even  if	not  required.	 This option may slightly increase the
	      size of the archive, especially if -B or -Z is used.

       -d XXX  --here-delimiter=XXX
	      Use XXX to delimit the files in the shar	instead	 of  SHAR_EOF.
	      This is for those	who want to personalize	their shar files.

   Producing different kinds of	shars:
       -V  --vanilla-operation
	      Produce  "vanilla"  shars	 which rely only upon the existence of
	      sed and echo in the unsharing  environment.   In	addition,  "if
	      test"  must also be supported unless the -x option is used.  The
	      -V silently disables options offensive to	the "network cop"  (or
	      "brown  shirt"),	but  does warn you if it is specified with -B,
	      -z, -Z, -p or -M (any of which does or might  require  uudecode,
	      gzip or compress in the unsharing	environment).

       -P  --no-piping
	      Use temporary files instead of pipes in the shar file.

       -x  --no-check-existing
	      Overwrite	existing files without checking.  If neither -x	nor -X
	      is specified, the	unpack will check for and not overwrite	exist-
	      ing  files when unpacking	the archive.  If -c is passed as a pa-
	      rameter to the script when unpacking:

		 sh archive -c

	      then existing files will be overwritten unconditionally.

       -X  --query-user
	      When unpacking, interactively ask	the user if  files  should  be
	      overwritten.  (DO	NOT USE	FOR SHARS SUBMITTED TO THE NET).

       -m  --no-timestamp
	      Avoid  generating	'touch'	commands to restore the	file modifica-
	      tion dates when unpacking	files from the archive.

       -Q  --quiet-unshar
	      Verbose OFF.  Disables the inclusion of comments	to  be	output
	      when the archive is unpacked.

       -f  --basename
	      Restore  by filename only, rather	than path.  This option	causes
	      only file	names to be used, which	is useful when building	a shar
	      from  several directories, or another directory.	Note that if a
	      directory	name is	passed to shar,	the substructure of  that  di-
	      rectory will be restored whether -f is specified or not.

   Internationalization:
       --no-i18n
	      Do  not  produce	internationalized  shell archives, use default
	      english messages.	 By default, shar produces archives that  will
	      try  to  output messages in the unpackers	preferred language (as
	      determined by the	LANG/LC_MESSAGES environmental variables) when
	      they  are	 unpacked.   If	no message file	for the	unpackers lan-
	      guage is found at	unpack time, messages will be in english.

       --print-text-domain-dir
	      Prints the directory shar	looks in to find  messages  files  for
	      different	languages, then	immediately exits.

EXAMPLES
       shar *.c	> cprog.shar		    # all C prog sources
       shar -Q *.[ch] >	cprog.shar	    # non-verbose, .c and .h files
       shar -B -l28 -oarc.sh *.arc	    # all binary .arc files, into
					    # files arc.sh.01 thru arc.sh.NN
       shar -f /lcl/src/u*.c > u.sh	    # use only the filenames

WARNINGS
       No  chmod  or  touch is ever generated for directories created when un-
       packing.	 Thus, if a directory is given to  shar,  the  protection  and
       modification  dates  of	corresponding unpacked directory may not match
       those of	the original.

       If a directory is passed	to shar, it may	be  scanned  more  than	 once.
       Therefore, one should be	careful	not change the directory while shar is
       running.

       Be careful that the output file(s) are not included in  the  inputs  or
       shar  may loop until the	disk fills up.	Be particularly	careful	when a
       directory is passed to shar that	the output files are not in  that  di-
       rectory (or a subdirectory of that directory).

       Use  of	the  -B,  -z  or  -Z,  and especially -M, may slow the archive
       process considerably, depending on the number of	files.

       Use of -X produces shars	which WILL cause  problems  with  many	unshar
       procedures.   Use  this	feature	 only  for archives to be passed among
       agreeable parties.  Certainly, -X is NOT	for shell archives  which  are
       to  be  submitted  to  Usenet.  Usage of	-B, -z or -Z in	net shars will
       cause you to be flamed off the earth.  Not using	-m or not using	-F may
       also get	you occasional complaints.

SEE ALSO
       unshar(1)

DIAGNOSTICS
       Error  messages	for  illegal or	incompatible options, for non-regular,
       missing or inaccessible files or	for (unlikely) memory allocation fail-
       ure.

AUTHORS
       The  shar  and  unshar programs is the collective work of many authors.
       Many people contributed by reporting problems, suggesting  various  im-
       provements or submitting	actual code.  A	list of	these people is	in the
       THANKS file in the sharutils distribution.

			      September	10, 1995		       SHAR(1)

NAME | SYNOPSIS | DESCRIPTION | OPTIONS | EXAMPLES | WARNINGS | SEE ALSO | DIAGNOSTICS | AUTHORS

Want to link to this manual page? Use this URL:
<https://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?query=shar&sektion=1l&manpath=Red+Hat+9>

home | help