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sh(1)				 User Commands				 sh(1)

       sh, jsh - standard and job control shell	and command interpreter

       /usr/bin/sh [-acefhiknprstuvx] [argument...]

       /usr/xpg4/bin/sh	[ +- abCefhikmnoprstuvx] [ +- o	option...] [-c string]

       /usr/bin/jsh [-acefhiknprstuvx] [argument...]

       The /usr/bin/sh utility is a command programming	language that executes
       commands	read from a terminal or	a file.

       The /usr/xpg4/bin/sh utility is a standards compliant shell. This util-
       ity provides all	the functionality of ksh(1), except in cases discussed
       in ksh(1) where differences in behavior exist.

       The  jsh	 utility is an interface to the	shell that provides all	of the
       functionality of	sh and enables job control (see	 Job  Control  section

       Arguments to the	shell are listed in the	Invocation section below.

       A  blank	 is  a	tab or a space.	A name is a sequence of	ASCII letters,
       digits, or underscores, beginning with a	letter or an underscore. A pa-
       rameter	is a name, a digit, or any of the characters *,	@, #, ?, -, $,
       and !.

       A simple-command	is a sequence of non-blank words separated by  blanks.
       The first word specifies	the name of the	command	to be executed.	Except
       as specified below, the remaining words are passed as arguments to  the
       invoked	command.  The  command	name  is  passed  as  argument	0 (see
       exec(2)). The value of a	simple-command is its exit status if it	termi-
       nates  normally,	or (octal) 200+status if it terminates abnormally. See
       signal(3HEAD) for a list	of status values.

       A pipeline is a sequence	of one or more commands	separated  by  |.  The
       standard	 output	of each	command	but the	last is	connected by a pipe(2)
       to the standard input of	the next command. Each command	is  run	 as  a
       separate	 process.  The	shell waits for	the last command to terminate.
       The exit	status of a pipeline is	the exit status	of the last command in
       the pipeline.

       A list is a sequence of one or more pipelines separated by ;, &,	&&, or
       ||, and optionally terminated by	; or &.	Of these four symbols, ; and &
       have  equal precedence, which is	lower than that	of && and ||. The sym-
       bols && and || also have	equal precedence. A semicolon (;)  causes  se-
       quential	 execution of the preceding pipeline, that is, the shell waits
       for the pipeline	to finish before executing any commands	following  the
       semicolon.  An  ampersand (&) causes asynchronous execution of the pre-
       ceding pipeline,	that is, the shell does	not wait for that pipeline  to
       finish.	The symbol && (||) causes the list following it	to be executed
       only if the preceding pipeline returns a	zero (non-zero)	 exit  status.
       An  arbitrary number of newlines	may appear in a	list, instead of semi-
       colons, to delimit commands.

       A command is either a simple-command or one of  the  following.	Unless
       otherwise  stated,  the value returned by a command is that of the last
       simple-command executed in the command.

       for name	[ in word ... ]	do list	done
	     Each time a for command is	executed, name is set to the next word
	     taken  from the in	word list. If in word ... is omitted, then the
	     for command executes the do list once for each positional parame-
	     ter  that is set (see Parameter Substitution section below). Exe-
	     cution ends when there are	no more	words in the list.

       case word in [ pattern [	| pattern ] ) list ;; ]	...  esac
	     A case command executes the list associated with the  first  pat-
	     tern  that	 matches word. The form	of the patterns	is the same as
	     that used for file-name generation	(see File Name Generation sec-
	     tion),  except  that a slash, a leading dot, or a dot immediately
	     following a slash need not	be matched explicitly.

       if list ; then list ; [ elif list ; then	list ; ] ... [ else list  ;  ]

	      The list following if is executed	and, if	it returns a zero exit
	      status, the list following the first then	 is  executed.	Other-
	      wise,  the  list following elif is executed and, if its value is
	      zero, the	list following the  next  then	is  executed.  Failing
	      that, the	else list is executed. If no else list or then list is
	      executed,	then the if command returns a zero exit	status.

       while list do list done
	     A while command repeatedly	executes the while list	 and,  if  the
	     exit status of the	last command in	the list is zero, executes the
	     do	list; otherwise	the loop terminates. If	no commands in the  do
	     list  are	executed,  then	 the while command returns a zero exit
	     status; until may be used in place	of while to  negate  the  loop
	     termination test.

	     Execute list in a sub-shell.

       { list;}
	     list  is  executed	 in the	current	(that is, parent) shell. The {
	     must be followed by a space.

       name () { list;}
	     Define a function which is	referenced by name. The	 body  of  the
	     function  is  the list of commands	between	{ and }. The { must be
	     followed by a space. Execution of functions  is  described	 below
	     (see Execution section).  The { and } are unnecessary if the body
	     of	the function is	a command as defined above, under Commands.

       The following words are only recognized as the first word of a  command
       and when	not quoted:

	if   then   else  elif	fi  case  esac	for  while  until  do  done  {

   Comments Lines
       A word beginning	with # causes that word	and all	the following  charac-
       ters up to a newline to be ignored.

   Command Substitution
       The shell reads commands	from the string	between	two grave accents (``)
       and the standard	output from these commands may be used as all or  part
       of a word. Trailing newlines from the standard output are removed.

       No  interpretation is done on the string	before the string is read, ex-
       cept to remove backslashes (\) used to escape other  characters.	 Back-
       slashes	may  be	used to	escape a grave accent (`) or another backslash
       (\) and are removed before the command string is	read.  Escaping	 grave
       accents allows nested command substitution. If the command substitution
       lies within a pair of double quotes (" ...` ...`	...  "),  a  backslash
       used  to	escape a double	quote (\") will	be removed; otherwise, it will
       be left intact.

       If a backslash is used to escape	a newline character  (\newline),  both
       the  backslash  and  the	 newline are removed (see the later section on
       Quoting). In addition, backslashes used to escape dollar	signs (\$) are
       removed.	 Since no parameter substitution is done on the	command	string
       before it is read, inserting a backslash	to escape a dollar sign	has no
       effect.	Backslashes  that  precede characters other than \, `, ", new-
       line, and $ are left intact when	the command string is read.

   Parameter Substitution
       The character $ is used to introduce  substitutable  parameters.	 There
       are  two	types of parameters, positional	and keyword. If	parameter is a
       digit, it is a positional parameter. Positional parameters may  be  as-
       signed  values by set. Keyword parameters (also known as	variables) may
       be assigned values by writing:

	      name=value [ name=value ]	...

       Pattern-matching	is not performed on value. There cannot	be a  function
       and a variable with the same name.

	     The  value,  if  any, of the parameter is substituted. The	braces
	     are required only when parameter is followed by a letter,	digit,
	     or	 underscore that is not	to be interpreted as part of its name.
	     If	parameter is * or @, all the positional	 parameters,  starting
	     with  $1,	are substituted	(separated by spaces). Parameter $0 is
	     set from argument zero when the shell is invoked.

	     If	parameter is set and is	non-null, substitute its value;	other-
	     wise substitute word.

	     If	 parameter  is not set or is null set it to word; the value of
	     the parameter is substituted. Positional parameters  may  not  be
	     assigned in this way.

	     If	parameter is set and is	non-null, substitute its value;	other-
	     wise, print word and exit from the	shell. If word is omitted, the
	     message "parameter	null or	not set" is printed.

	     If	 parameter  is set and is non-null, substitute word; otherwise
	     substitute	nothing.

       In the above, word is not evaluated unless it is	to be used as the sub-
       stituted	 string,  so  that,  in	the following example, pwd is executed
       only if d is not	set or is null:

	      echo ${d:-`pwd`}

       If the colon (:)	is omitted from	the above expressions, the shell  only
       checks whether parameter	is set or not.

       The following parameters	are automatically set by the shell.

       #     The number	of positional parameters in decimal.

       -     Flags supplied to the shell on invocation or by the set command.

       ?     The  decimal  value  returned  by the last	synchronously executed

       $     The process number	of this	shell.

       !     The process number	of the last background command invoked.

       The following parameters	are used by the	shell. The parameters in  this
       section are also	referred to as environment variables.

       HOME  The  default argument (home directory) for	the cd command,	set to
	     the user's	login directory	by login(1)  from  the	password  file
	     (see passwd(4)).

       PATH  The search	path for commands (see Execution section below).

	     The search	path for the cd	command.

       MAIL  If	this parameter is set to the name of a mail file and the MAIL-
	     PATH  parameter is	not set, the shell informs the user of the ar-
	     rival of mail in the specified file.

	     This  parameter  specifies	 how often (in seconds)	the shell will
	     check for the arrival of mail in the files	specified by the MAIL-
	     PATH  or  MAIL  parameters.  The default value is 600 seconds (10
	     minutes). If set to 0, the	shell will check before	each prompt.

	     A colon-separated list of file names. If this parameter  is  set,
	     the  shell	 informs the user of the arrival of mail in any	of the
	     specified files. Each file	name can be followed by	% and  a  mes-
	     sage that will be printed when the	modification time changes. The
	     default message is, you have mail.

       PS1   Primary prompt string, by default " $ ".

       PS2   Secondary prompt string, by default " > ".

       IFS   Internal field separators,	normally space,	tab, and newline  (see
	     Blank Interpretation section).

	     If	 this  parameter  is set to the	name of	a file writable	by the
	     user, the shell will write	an accounting record in	the  file  for
	     each shell	procedure executed.

       SHELL When the shell is invoked,	it scans the environment (see Environ-
	     ment section below) for this name.

       See environ(5) for descriptions of the following	environment  variables
       that affect the execution of sh:	LC_CTYPE and LC_MESSAGES.

       The  shell  gives default values	to PATH, PS1, PS2, MAILCHECK, and IFS.
       Default values for HOME and MAIL	are set	by login(1).

   Blank Interpretation
       After parameter and command substitution, the results  of  substitution
       are  scanned  for  internal  field separator characters (those found in
       IFS) and	split into distinct arguments where such characters are	found.
       Explicit	 null  arguments  ("" or '') are retained. Implicit null argu-
       ments (those resulting from parameters that have	 no  values)  are  re-

   Input/Output	Redirection
       A command's input and output may	be redirected using a special notation
       interpreted by the shell. The following may appear anywhere in  a  sim-
       ple-command or may precede or follow a command and are not passed on as
       arguments to the	invoked	command. Note: Parameter and command substitu-
       tion occurs before word or digit	is used.

       <word Use file word as standard input (file descriptor 0).

       >word Use file word as standard output (file descriptor 1). If the file
	     does not exist, it	is created; otherwise, it is truncated to zero

	     Use  file	word as	standard output. If the	file exists, output is
	     appended to it by first seeking to	the EOF. Otherwise,  the  file
	     is	created.

	     Open file word for	reading	and writing as standard	input.

	     After  parameter  and  command  substitution is done on word, the
	     shell input is read up to the first line that  literally  matches
	     the  resulting word, or to	an EOF.	If, however, the hyphen	(-) is
	     appended to <<:

	     1.	leading	tabs are stripped from word before the shell input  is
		read  (but after parameter and command substitution is done on

	     2.	leading	tabs are stripped from the shell input as it  is  read
		and before each	line is	compared with word; and

	     3.	shell  input  is  read	up  to	the  first line	that literally
		matches	the resulting word, or to an EOF.

       If any character	of word	is quoted (see Quoting section later), no  ad-
       ditional	 processing  is	 done  to the shell input. If no characters of
       word are	quoted:

	     1.	parameter and command substitution occurs;

	     2.	(escaped) \newlines are	removed; and

	     3.	\ must be used to quote	the characters \, $, and `.

	     The resulting document becomes the	standard input.

	     Use the file associated with file descriptor  digit  as  standard
	     input. Similarly for the standard output using >&digit.

       <&-   The  standard  input is closed. Similarly for the standard	output
	     using >&-.

       If any of the above is preceded by a digit, the file  descriptor	 which
       will  be	 associated  with the file is that specified by	the digit (in-
       stead of	the default 0 or 1). For example:

       ... 2>&1

       associates file descriptor 2 with the file  currently  associated  with
       file descriptor 1.

       The order in which redirections are specified is	significant. The shell
       evaluates redirections left-to-right. For example:

       ... 1>xxx 2>&1

       first associates	file descriptor	1 with file xxx.  It  associates  file
       descriptor  2 with the file associated with file	descriptor 1 (that is,
       xxx). If	the order of redirections were	reversed,  file	 descriptor  2
       would  be  associated with the terminal (assuming file descriptor 1 had
       been) and file descriptor 1 would be associated with file xxx.

       Using the terminology introduced	on the first page, under Commands,  if
       a  command  is composed of several simple commands, redirection will be
       evaluated for the entire	command	before it is evaluated for each	simple
       command.	 That is, the shell evaluates redirection for the entire list,
       then each pipeline within the list, then	each command within each pipe-
       line, then each list within each	command.

       If  a command is	followed by &, the default standard input for the com-
       mand is the empty file, /dev/null. Otherwise, the environment  for  the
       execution  of  a	 command contains the file descriptors of the invoking
       shell as	modified by input/output specifications.

   File	Name Generation
       Before a	command	is executed, each command  word	 is  scanned  for  the
       characters  *, ?, and [.	If one of these	characters appears the word is
       regarded	as a pattern. The word is replaced with	alphabetically	sorted
       file  names  that  match	 the  pattern.	If  no file name is found that
       matches the pattern, the	word is	left unchanged.	The character .	at the
       start of	a file name or immediately following a /, as well as the char-
       acter / itself, must be matched explicitly.

       *     Matches any string, including the null string.

       ?     Matches any single	character.

       [...] Matches any one of	the enclosed characters. A pair	of  characters
	     separated	by - matches any character lexically between the pair,
	     inclusive.	If the first character following the opening [ is a !,
	     any character not enclosed	is matched.

       Notice  that  all quoted	characters (see	below) must be matched explic-
       itly in a filename.

       The following characters	have a special meaning to the shell and	 cause
       termination of a	word unless quoted:

       ;  &  (	)  |  ^	 <  >  newline	space  tab

       A  character  may be quoted (that is, made to stand for itself) by pre-
       ceding it with a	backslash (\) or inserting it between a	pair of	 quote
       marks  ('' or ""). During processing, the shell may quote certain char-
       acters to prevent them from taking on a	special	 meaning.  Backslashes
       used  to	 quote a single	character are removed from the word before the
       command is executed. The	pair \newline is removed from  a  word	before
       command and parameter substitution.

       All  characters enclosed	between	a pair of single quote marks (''), ex-
       cept a single quote, are	quoted by the shell. Backslash has no  special
       meaning	inside	a  pair	of single quotes. A single quote may be	quoted
       inside a	pair of	double quote marks (for	example, "'"),	but  a	single
       quote can not be	quoted inside a	pair of	single quotes.

       Inside a	pair of	double quote marks (""), parameter and command substi-
       tution occurs and the shell quotes the results to avoid blank interpre-
       tation  and  file  name	generation.  If	 $* is within a	pair of	double
       quotes, the positional parameters are substituted and quoted, separated
       by quoted spaces	("$1 $2	..."). However,	if $@ is within	a pair of dou-
       ble quotes, the positional parameters are substituted and quoted, sepa-
       rated  by  unquoted spaces ("$1""$2"  ... ). \ quotes the characters \,
       `, , (comma), and $. The	pair \newline is removed before	parameter  and
       command	substitution. If a backslash precedes characters other than \,
       `, , (comma), $,	and newline, then the backslash	itself	is  quoted  by
       the shell.

       When used interactively,	the shell prompts with the value of PS1	before
       reading a command. If at	any time a newline is typed and	further	 input
       is  needed  to  complete	 a command, the	secondary prompt (that is, the
       value of	PS2) is	issued.

       The environment (see environ(5))	is a list of name-value	pairs that  is
       passed  to  an  executed	 program  in the same way as a normal argument
       list. The shell interacts with the environment in several ways. On  in-
       vocation,  the  shell scans the environment and creates a parameter for
       each name found,	giving it the corresponding value.  If the user	 modi-
       fies  the  value	 of any	of these parameters or creates new parameters,
       none of these affects the environment unless the	export command is used
       to  bind	 the shell's parameter to the environment (see also set	-a). A
       parameter may be	removed	from the environment with the  unset  command.
       The  environment	 seen  by any executed command is thus composed	of any
       unmodified name-value pairs originally inherited	by  the	 shell,	 minus
       any pairs removed by unset, plus	any modifications or additions,	all of
       which must be noted in export commands.

       The environment for any simple-command may be augmented by prefixing it
       with one	or more	assignments to parameters. Thus:

       TERM=450	 command


       (export TERM; TERM=450;	 command

       are  equivalent as far as the execution of command is concerned if com-
       mand is not a Special Command. If command is a Special Command, then

       TERM=450	  command

       will modify the TERM variable in	the current shell.

       If the -k flag is set, all keyword arguments are	placed in the environ-
       ment,  even if they occur after the command name. The following example
       first prints a=b	c and c:

       echo a=b	 c

       a=b  c

       set  -k

       echo a=b	 c


       The INTERRUPT and QUIT signals for an invoked command  are  ignored  if
       the command is followed by &. Otherwise,	signals	have the values	inher-
       ited by the shell from its parent, with the exception of	signal 11 (but
       see also	the trap command below).

       Each  time  a  command is executed, the command substitution, parameter
       substitution, blank interpretation, input/output	redirection, and file-
       name  generation	 listed	 above	are  carried  out. If the command name
       matches the name	of a defined function, the function is executed	in the
       shell process (note how this differs from the execution of shell	script
       files, which require a sub-shell	for invocation). If the	 command  name
       does  not  match	the name of a defined function,	but matches one	of the
       Special Commands	listed below, it is executed in	the shell process.

       The positional parameters $1, $2, ... are set to	the arguments  of  the
       function. If the	command	name matches neither a Special Command nor the
       name of a defined function, a new process is created and	an attempt  is
       made to execute the command via exec(2).

       The shell parameter PATH	defines	the search path	for the	directory con-
       taining the command. Alternative	directory names	 are  separated	 by  a
       colon (:). The default path is /usr/bin.	The current directory is spec-
       ified by	a null path name, which	can appear immediately after the equal
       sign, between two colon delimiters anywhere in the path list, or	at the
       end of the path list. If	the command name contains a / the search  path
       is  not	used. Otherwise, each directory	in the path is searched	for an
       executable file.	If the file has	execute	permission but is not an a.out
       file, it	is assumed to be a file	containing shell commands. A sub-shell
       is spawned to read it. A	parenthesized command is also  executed	 in  a

       The location in the search path where a command was found is remembered
       by the shell (to	help avoid unnecessary execs later).  If  the  command
       was  found  in a	relative directory, its	location must be re-determined
       whenever	the current directory changes. The shell  forgets  all	remem-
       bered  locations	 whenever  the PATH variable is	changed	or the hash -r
       command is executed (see	below).

   Special Commands
       Input/output redirection	is now permitted for these commands. File  de-
       scriptor	1 is the default output	location. When Job Control is enabled,
       additional Special Commands are added to	the shell's  environment  (see
       Job Control section below).

       :     No	 effect;  the  command	does  nothing. A zero exit code	is re-

       . filename
	     Read and execute commands from filename and  return.  The	search
	     path  specified  by PATH is used to find the directory containing

       bg [%jobid ...]
	     When Job Control is enabled, the  bg  command  is	added  to  the
	     user's environment	to manipulate jobs. Resumes the	execution of a
	     stopped job in the	background. If %jobid is omitted  the  current
	     job is assumed. (See Job Control section below for	more detail.)

       break [ n ]
	     Exit from the enclosing for or while loop,	if any.	If n is	speci-
	     fied, break n levels.

       cd [ argument ]
	     Change the	current	directory to  argument.	 The  shell  parameter
	     HOME  is the default argument. The	shell parameter	CDPATH defines
	     the search	path for the directory containing  argument.  Alterna-
	     tive  directory  names  are separated by a	colon (:). The default
	     path is <null> (specifying	the current directory).	Note: The cur-
	     rent directory is specified by a null path	name, which can	appear
	     immediately after the equal sign or between the colon  delimiters
	     anywhere  else  in	the path list. If argument begins with a / the
	     search path is not	used. Otherwise, each directory	in the path is
	     searched for argument.

       chdir [ dir ]
	     chdir  changes the	shell's	working	directory to directory dir. If
	     no	argument is given, change to the home directory	of  the	 user.
	     If	dir is a relative pathname not found in	the current directory,
	     check for it in those directories listed in the CDPATH  variable.
	     If	 dir is	the name of a shell variable whose value starts	with a
	     /,	change to the directory	named by that value.

       continue	[ n ]
	     Resume the	next iteration of the enclosing	for or while loop.  If
	     n is specified, resume at the n-th	enclosing loop.

       echo [ arguments	... ]
	     The  words	 in arguments are written to the shell's standard out-
	     put, separated by space characters. See echo(1) for fuller	 usage
	     and description.

       eval [ argument ... ]
	     The  arguments  are  read as input	to the shell and the resulting
	     command(s)	executed.

       exec [ argument ... ]
	     The command specified by the arguments is executed	 in  place  of
	     this shell	without	creating a new process.	Input/output arguments
	     may appear	and, if	no other arguments are given, cause the	 shell
	     input/output to be	modified.

       exit [ n	]
	     Causes  the  calling  shell or shell script to exit with the exit
	     status specified by n. If n is omitted the	exit status is that of
	     the  last	command	 executed (an EOF will also cause the shell to

       export [	name ... ]
	     The given names are marked	for automatic export to	 the  environ-
	     ment  of  subsequently  executed  commands.  If  no arguments are
	     given, variable names that	have been marked for export during the
	     current  shell's  execution  are listed. (Variable	names exported
	     from a parent shell are listed only if they  have	been  exported
	     again  during  the	current	shell's	execution.) Function names are
	     not exported.

       fg [%jobid ...]
	     When Job Control is enabled, the  fg  command  is	added  to  the
	     user's  environment  to manipulate	jobs. This command resumes the
	     execution of a stopped job	in the foreground and  also  moves  an
	     executing	background job into the	foreground. If %jobid is omit-
	     ted, the current job is assumed. (See Job Control	section	 below
	     for more detail.)

	     Use in shell scripts to support command syntax standards (see in-
	     tro(1)). This command parses positional parameters	and checks for
	     legal options. See	getoptcvt(1) for usage and description.

       hash [ -r ] [ name ... ]
	     For  each	name,  the  location in	the search path	of the command
	     specified by name is determined and remembered by the shell.  The
	     -r	option causes the shell	to forget all remembered locations. If
	     no	arguments are given, information about remembered commands  is
	     presented.	Hits is	the number of times a command has been invoked
	     by	the shell process. Cost	is a measure of	the work  required  to
	     locate  a	command	in the search path. If a command is found in a
	     "relative"	directory in the search	path, after changing  to  that
	     directory,	 the  stored location of that command is recalculated.
	     Commands for which	this will be done are indicated	by an asterisk
	     (*)  adjacent  to	the hits information. Cost will	be incremented
	     when the recalculation is done.

       jobs [-p|-l] [%jobid ...]

       jobs -x command [arguments]
	     Reports all jobs that are stopped or executing in the background.
	     If	%jobid is omitted, all jobs that are stopped or	running	in the
	     background	will be	reported. (See Job Control section  below  for
	     more detail.)

       kill [ -sig ] %job ...

       kill -l
	     Sends  either the TERM (terminate)	signal or the specified	signal
	     to	the specified jobs or processes. Signals are either  given  by
	     number  or	 by  names  (as	given in signal(3HEAD) stripped	of the
	     prefix "SIG" with the exception that SIGCHD is  named  CHLD).  If
	     the  signal  being	sent is	TERM (terminate) or HUP	(hangup), then
	     the job or	process	will be	sent a CONT (continue) signal if it is
	     stopped. The argument job can be the process id of	a process that
	     is	not a member of	one of the active jobs.	See Job	 Control  sec-
	     tion  below for a description of the format of job. In the	second
	     form, kill	-l, the	signal numbers	and  names  are	 listed.  (See

       login [ argument	... ]
	     Equivalent	 to  `exec  login argument....'	See login(1) for usage
	     and description.

       newgrp [	argument ]
	     Equivalent	to exec	newgrp argument. See newgrp(1) for  usage  and

       pwd   Print the current working directory. See pwd(1) for usage and de-

       read name ...
	     One line is read from the standard	input and, using the  internal
	     field  separator,	IFS  (normally	space or tab), to delimit word
	     boundaries, the first word	is assigned to	the  first  name,  the
	     second word to the	second name, and so forth, with	leftover words
	     assigned to the last name.	Lines can be continued using \newline.
	     Characters	 other	than  newline  can be quoted by	preceding them
	     with a backslash. These backslashes are removed before words  are
	     assigned to names,	and no interpretation is done on the character
	     that follows the backslash. The return code is 0, unless  an  EOF
	     is	encountered.

       readonly	[ name ... ]
	     The  given	 names are marked readonly and the values of the these
	     names may not be changed by subsequent assignment.	 If  no	 argu-
	     ments are given, a	list of	all readonly names is printed.

       return [	n ]
	     Causes  a	function to exit with the return value specified by n.
	     If	n is omitted, the return status	is that	of  the	 last  command

       set [ -aefhkntuvx [ argument ...	] ]

	      -a    Mark variables which are modified or created for export.

	      -e    Exit  immediately  if a command exits with a non-zero exit

	      -f    Disable file name generation.

	      -h    Locate and remember	function commands as functions are de-
		    fined  (function  commands	are  normally located when the
		    function is	executed).

	      -k    All	keyword	arguments are placed in	the environment	for  a
		    command, not just those that precede the command name.

	      -n    Read commands but do not execute them.

	      -t    Exit after reading and executing one command.

	      -u    Treat unset	variables as an	error when substituting.

	      -v    Print shell	input lines as they are	read.

	      -x    Print commands and their arguments as they are executed.

	      -	    Do not change any of the flags; useful in setting $1 to -.

	      Using + rather than - causes these flags to be turned off. These
	      flags can	also be	used upon invocation of	the shell. The current
	      set of flags may be found	in $-. The remaining arguments are po-
	      sitional parameters and are assigned, in order, to $1,  $2,  ...
	      If no arguments are given, the values of all names are printed.

       shift [ n ]
	     The positional parameters from $n+1 ... are renamed $1 ...	. If n
	     is	not given, it is assumed to be 1.

       stop pid	...
	     Halt execution of the process number pid. (see ps(1)).

	     Stops the execution of the	current	shell (but not if  it  is  the
	     login shell).

       test  Evaluate  conditional  expressions. See test(1) for usage and de-

       times Print the accumulated user	and system  times  for	processes  run
	     from the shell.

       trap [ argument n [ n2 ... ]]
	     The  command  argument  is	to be read and executed	when the shell
	     receives numeric or symbolic signal(s) (n).  (Note:  argument  is
	     scanned  once  when  the  trap  is	 set and once when the trap is
	     taken.) Trap commands are executed	in order of signal  number  or
	     corresponding symbolic names. Any attempt to set a	trap on	a sig-
	     nal that was ignored on entry to the current  shell  is  ineffec-
	     tive.  An attempt to trap on signal 11 (memory fault) produces an
	     error. If argument	is absent, all trap(s) n are  reset  to	 their
	     original  values.	If argument is the null	string,	this signal is
	     ignored by	the shell and by the commands it invokes. If n	is  0,
	     the command argument is executed on exit from the shell. The trap
	     command with no arguments prints a	list  of  commands  associated
	     with each signal number.

       type [ name ... ]
	     For  each name, indicate how it would be interpreted if used as a
	     command name.

       ulimit [	[-HS] [-a | -cdfnstv] ]

       ulimit [	[-HS] [-c | -d | -f | -n | -s |	-t | -v] ] limit
	     ulimit prints or sets hard	or soft	resource limits. These	limits
	     are described in getrlimit(2).

	     If	 limit is not present, ulimit prints the specified limits. Any
	     number of limits may be printed at	one time. The -a option	prints
	     all limits.

	     If	 limit	is  present, ulimit sets the specified limit to	limit.
	     The string	unlimited requests the largest valid limit. Limits may
	     be	 set  for only one resource at a time. Any user	may set	a soft
	     limit to any value	below the hard limit. Any  user	 may  lower  a
	     hard  limit.  Only	 a  super-user	may  raise  a hard limit. (See

	     The -H option specifies a hard limit. The -S option  specifies  a
	     soft  limit. If neither option is specified, ulimit will set both
	     limits and	print the soft limit.

	     The following options specify the resource	whose limits are to be
	     printed or	set. If	no option is specified,	the file size limit is
	     printed or	set.

	     -c	   maximum core	file size (in 512-byte blocks)

	     -d	   maximum size	of data	segment	or heap	(in kbytes)

	     -f	   maximum file	size (in 512-byte blocks)

	     -n	   maximum file	descriptor plus	1

	     -s	   maximum size	of stack segment (in kbytes)

	     -t	   maximum CPU time (in	seconds)

	     -v	   maximum size	of virtual memory (in kbytes)

       Run the sysdef(1M) command to obtain the	maximum	 possible  limits  for
       your system.  The values	reported are in	hexadecimal, but can be	trans-
       lated into decimal numbers using	the bc(1) utility.  See	swap(1M).)

	     As	an example of ulimit, to limit the size	of a core file dump to
	     0 Megabytes, type the following:

	     ulimit -c 0

       umask [ nnn ]
	     The  user file-creation mask is set to nnn	(see umask(1)).	If nnn
	     is	omitted, the current value of the mask is printed.

       unset [ name ...	]
	     For each name, remove  the	 corresponding	variable  or  function
	     value. The	variables PATH,	PS1, PS2, MAILCHECK, and IFS cannot be

       wait [ n	]
	     Wait for your background process whose process id is n and	report
	     its  termination  status.	If n is	omitted, all your shell's cur-
	     rently active background processes	are waited for and the	return
	     code will be zero.

       If  the shell is	invoked	through	exec(2)	and the	first character	of ar-
       gument zero is -, commands are initially	 read  from  /etc/profile  and
       from $HOME/.profile, if such files exist. Thereafter, commands are read
       as described below, which is also the case when the shell is invoked as
       /usr/bin/sh. The	flags below are	interpreted by the shell on invocation
       only. Note: Unless the -c or -s flag is specified, the  first  argument
       is  assumed  to	be the name of a file containing commands, and the re-
       maining arguments are passed as positional parameters to	 that  command

       -c string
	     If	the -c flag is present commands	are read from string.

       -i    If	 the  -i  flag is present or if	the shell input	and output are
	     attached to a terminal, this shell	is interactive.	In this	 case,
	     TERMINATE is ignored (so that kill	0 does not kill	an interactive
	     shell) and	INTERRUPT is caught and	ignored	(so that wait  is  in-
	     terruptible). In all cases, QUIT is ignored by the	shell.

       -p    If	 the  -p flag is present, the shell will not set the effective
	     user and group IDs	to the real user and group IDs.

       -r    If	the -r flag is present the shell is a  restricted  shell  (see

       -s    If	the -s flag is present or if no	arguments remain, commands are
	     read from the standard input. Any remaining arguments specify the
	     positional	parameters. Shell output (except for Special Commands)
	     is	written	to file	descriptor 2.

       The remaining flags and arguments are described under the  set  command

   Job Control (jsh)
       When the	shell is invoked as jsh, Job Control is	enabled	in addition to
       all of the functionality	described previously for  sh.  Typically,  Job
       Control	is  enabled  for  the  interactive shell only. Non-interactive
       shells typically	do not benefit from the	 added	functionality  of  Job

       With  Job Control enabled, every	command	or pipeline the	user enters at
       the terminal is called a	job. All jobs exist in one  of	the  following
       states:	foreground, background,	or stopped. These terms	are defined as

       1. A job	in the foreground has read and write access to the controlling

       2. A  job  in  the background is	denied read access and has conditional
	  write	access to the controlling terminal (see	stty(1)).

       3. A stopped job	is a job that has been placed in  a  suspended	state,
	  usually as a result of a SIGTSTP signal (see signal(3HEAD)).

       Every  job that the shell starts	is assigned a positive integer,	called
       a job number which is tracked by	the shell and will be used as an iden-
       tifier  to indicate a specific job. Additionally, the shell keeps track
       of the current and previous jobs. The current job is  the  most	recent
       job  to be started or restarted.	The previous job is the	first non-cur-
       rent job.

       The acceptable syntax for a Job Identifier is of	the form:


       where jobid may be specified in any of the following formats:

       % or +
	     For the current job.

       -     For the previous job.

	     Specify the job for which	the  command  line  uniquely  contains

       n     For job number n.

       pref  Where  pref  is a unique prefix of	the command name. For example,
	     if	the command ls -l name were  running  in  the  background,  it
	     could be referred to as %ls. pref cannot contain blanks unless it
	     is	quoted.

       When Job	Control	is enabled, the	following commands are	added  to  the
       user's environment to manipulate	jobs:

       bg [%jobid ...]
	     Resumes the execution of a	stopped	job in the background. If %jo-
	     bid is omitted the	current	job is assumed.

       fg [%jobid ...]
	     Resumes the execution of a	stopped	job in	the  foreground,  also
	     moves  an executing background job	into the foreground. If	%jobid
	     is	omitted	the current job	is assumed.

       jobs [-p|-l] [%jobid ...]

       jobs -x command [arguments]
	     Reports all jobs that are stopped or executing in the background.
	     If	%jobid is omitted, all jobs that are stopped or	running	in the
	     background	will be	reported.  The	following  options  will  mod-
	     ify/enhance the output of jobs:

	     -l	   Report  the	process	 group ID and working directory	of the

	     -p	   Report only the process group ID of the jobs.

	     -x	   Replace any jobid found in command or  arguments  with  the
		   corresponding  process  group  ID, and then execute command
		   passing it arguments.

       kill [ -signal ]	%jobid
	     Builtin version of	kill to	provide	the functionality of the  kill
	     command for processes identified with a jobid.

       stop %jobid ...
	     Stops the execution of a background job(s).

	     Stops  the	 execution  of the current shell (but not if it	is the
	     login shell).

       wait [%jobid ...]
	     wait builtin accepts a job	identifier. If %jobid is omitted  wait
	     behaves as	described above	under Special Commands.

   Large File Behavior
       See largefile(5)	for the	description of the behavior of sh and jsh when
       encountering files greater than or equal	to 2 Gbyte ( 2**31 bytes).

       Errors detected by the shell, such as syntax errors, cause the shell to
       return  a non-zero exit status. If the shell is being used non-interac-
       tively execution	of the shell file is abandoned.	Otherwise,  the	 shell
       returns the exit	status of the last command executed (see also the exit
       command above).

   jsh Only
       If the shell is invoked as jsh and an attempt is	made to	exit the shell
       while there are stopped jobs, the shell issues one warning:

       There are stopped jobs.

       This  is	 the  only message. If another exit attempt is made, and there
       are still stopped jobs they will	be sent	a SIGHUP signal	from the  ker-
       nel and the shell is exited.





       See attributes(5) for descriptions of the following attributes:

       |      ATTRIBUTE	TYPE	     |	    ATTRIBUTE VALUE	   |
       |Availability		     |SUNWcsu			   |
       |CSI			     |Enabled			   |

       |      ATTRIBUTE	TYPE	     |	    ATTRIBUTE VALUE	   |
       |Availability		     |SUNWxcu4			   |
       |CSI			     |Enabled			   |

       intro(1), bc(1),	echo(1), getoptcvt(1), kill(1),	ksh(1),	login(1), new-
       grp(1), ps(1), pwd(1),  set(1),	shell_builtins(1),  stty(1),  test(1),
       umask(1),  wait(1),  rsh(1M),  su(1M),  swap(1M),  sysdef(1M),  dup(2),
       exec(2),	fork(2), getrlimit(2), pipe(2),	ulimit(2), setlocale(3C), sig-
       nal(3HEAD),  passwd(4),	profile(4),  attributes(5), environ(5),	large-
       file(5),	XPG4(5)

       The use of setuid shell scripts is strongly discouraged.

       Words used for filenames	in input/output	 redirection  are  not	inter-
       preted  for  filename  generation  (see	File  Name  Generation section
       above). For example, cat	file1 >a* will create a	file named a*.

       Because commands	in pipelines are run as	separate processes,  variables
       set in a	pipeline have no effect	on the parent shell.

       If you get the error message, "cannot fork,too many processes", try us-
       ing the wait(1) command to clean	up your	background processes. If  this
       doesn't help, the system	process	table is probably full or you have too
       many active foreground processes. There is a limit  to  the  number  of
       process	ids  associated	 with your login, and to the number the	system
       can keep	track of.

       Only the	last process in	a pipeline can be waited for.

       If a command is executed, and a command with the	same name is installed
       in a directory in the search path before	the directory where the	origi-
       nal command was found, the shell	will continue  to  exec	 the  original
       command.	Use the	hash command to	correct	this situation.

       The  Bourne  shell has a	limitation on the effective UID	for a process.
       If this UID is less than	100 (and not equal to  the  real  UID  of  the
       process), then the UID is reset to the real UID of the process.

       Because the shell implements both foreground and	background jobs	in the
       same process group, they	all receive the	same signals, which  can  lead
       to  unexpected  behavior.  It is, therefore, recommended	that other job
       control shells be used, especially in an	interactive environment.

       When the	shell executes a shell script that attempts to execute a  non-
       existent	command	interpreter, the shell returns an erroneous diagnostic
       message that the	shell script file does not exist.

SunOS 5.9			  18 Oct 2001				 sh(1)


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