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SFORMAT	draft(1)	    Schily's USER COMMANDS	      SFORMAT draft(1)

NAME
       sformat - SCSI disk formatting/partitioning/analysis/repair utility

SYNOPSIS
       sformat [options] target	lun [scsibus]
       sformat [options]

       The first form will select the named disk directly.  Have a look	at the
       chapter about Following The Main	Thread for more	details.

       The second form will scan all SCSI busses and enter a  selection	 menu.
       Have  a	look at	the chapter about The SCSI Selection Menu for more de-
       tails.

       Sformat will never destroy or modify any	data  unless  explicitly  con-
       firmed  just  before the	(possibly) destructive action.	Have a look at
       the chapter about How To	Answer Questions first.

DESCRIPTION
       Sformat is the first SCSI  disk	formatting  utility  that  runs	 under
       SunOS.  Long before Sun decided that formatting and partitioning	a disk
       from a stand alone program is less convenient than doing	this job  from
       a running UNIX, sformat has been	available.

       Sformat leads the beginner through a thread menu	and allows the experi-
       enced user to do	more things than he could do with other	 disk  mainte-
       nance  programs.	All partitioning jobs can be done without the need for
       a desk calculator.

       If you want to do more than simple things, you  should  carefully  read
       the  whole  manual. It contains many tips and tricks that will help you
       to recover disks	that would have	to be sent back	 to  the  manufacturer
       for repair otherwise.  Sformat includes the competence of more than ten
       years in	disk handling and will be able to repair more disks than other
       disk maintenance	programs.  Sformat offers special maintenance tests to
       find the	reason for complex disk	failures.

Disk Database Entries
       Be nice to other	users of sformat.  Create database  (sformat.dat)  en-
       tries for disks that are	not in the data	base using the -Proto flag and
       mail them to the	author.	 This helps other users	and you	too.  See sec-
       tion on Creating	Disk Database Entries below.

OPTIONS
       -help, -h	 Print	a  summary  of	the most important options for
			 sformat.

       -xhelp		 Print a summary of less frequently used  options  for
			 sformat.

       -version		 Prints	the sformat version number string and exists.

       -ask		 Ask  again  at	 certain  critical sections. This will
			 currently prompt before modifying the	disk  when  in
			 repair	mode.

       -auto, -a	 autoformat  mode (for production systems).  When this
			 option	is in effect, sformat will not ask whether  to
			 modify	 the  format and partition parameters and will
			 only format disks that	are known in  the  data	 base.
			 There will be only one	question to answer.  This will
			 immediately start the formatting process.  The	 -auto
			 option	 enables certain additional verifications that
			 will guarantee	that the disks have a  known  firmware
			 release and will inform the user that the disk	is bad
			 if certain quality tests failed.  The disk  will  not
			 be  formatted	if the signature code in the data base
			 is bad.  This option has not been verified during the
			 last  three years.  If	you need this mode ask the au-
			 thor for additional verification of the code.

       Cveri=#,	C=#	 Number	of blocks/verify.  Sformat normally  will  try
			 to  verify  1000  sectors with	one SCSI command. Some
			 old disk firmware may not able	to deal	with a	number
			 that will imply to read a number of sectors that will
			 not fit in the	local memory of	the disk.

       CWveri=#, CW=#	 Number	of blocks/write-verify.	 The limitation	 noted
			 with  the Cveri option	applies	here again and even on
			 newer disks.

       data=name	 Name of disk database file (default:  'sformat.dat').
			 Use  this  option to force sformat to use a different
			 disk database than the	default.  In any case, sformat
			 will  search  in  the current directory first.	 If no
			 file of the appropriate name was found	in the current
			 directory, sformat looks in the following path:
			 /usr/local/share/sformat.

       debug=#,	-d	 Set  the  misc	debug value to # (with debug=#)	or in-
			 crement the misc debug	level by one (with -d).	If you
			 specify -dd, this equals to debug=2.

       kdebug=#, kd=#	 Tell  the scg-driver to modify	the kernel debug value
			 while SCSI commands are running.

       xdebug=#, xd=#	 Set the debug level for the parser  of	 the  external
			 disk database.

       -defmodes	 Get default mode parameters from disk.	Normally sfor-
			 mat retrieves the default modes parameters  from  the
			 disk  by  default when	the disk is unformatted	or has
			 no sun	label and the current mode  parameter  if  the
			 disk  has a valid sun label.  This option tells sfor-
			 mat retrieve the default mode parameters in any case.

       -dmdl		 Do not	use manufacturer defect	list when formatting a
			 disk.	 This  implies	that  a	disk that is formatted
			 with this option will have bad	blocks.	 However  some
			 disks	that may not be	formatted because the manufac-
			 turer defect list is broken may become	 usable	 again
			 when this option is in	effect.

       ESDI=#		 Pass  ESDI  command  #	to the drive and print the re-
			 sult.	 This  will  only  work	 if  an	 EMULEX	  MD21
			 SCSI/ESDI bridge controller is	present.

       -force		 Force	to  continue at	certain	errors.	This will cur-
			 rently	prompt after the format	command	fails.

       -greassign	 Reassign blocks.  This	is the guru  mode,  don't  use
			 this.	Read  the description for the -reassign	option
			 for more details.  This option	will simply prompt for
			 block numbers and then	reassign them regardless of if
			 they need to be reassigned or not. On some disks  the
			 block may seem	to be defective	even after reassigning
			 it because the	old data is copied to the new location
			 without  recomputing  the CRC.	 On other disk the old
			 data will be lost. These problems will	not  arise  if
			 you use the -reassign option instead.

       -ign_not_found	 Ignore	 record	 not  found errors while verifying the
			 disk.	This option is useful when  trying  to	repair
			 disks	with  many  defects  (see maxbad option). Some
			 disk errors may cause the whole track to appear  bad.
			 If  the  reported  error in these cases is record not
			 found,	You should first try to	repair as many	blocks
			 as  possible  with this option	in effect and then re-
			 pair the remaining blocks without this	option.

       -inq		 Retrieve and print SCSI inquiry data for any type  of
			 device.  This is useful even on tape drives and scan-
			 ners.

       maxbad=#		 When sformat is doing a surface analysis  after  for-
			 matting  the disk, it collects	a number of bad	blocks
			 (usually up to	1023), then reassigns  them  and  then
			 reformats  the	 disk to guarantee that	the disk speed
			 will not be reduced by	mapped bad blocks.  Some disks
			 with many defective blocks will seem to have more de-
			 fective blocks	than they really have, but these false
			 defective  blocks  need  not  to be reassigned.  This
			 case may be triggered if a defective  block  directly
			 follows  the  index.	In  this  case the whole track
			 seems to be bad.  If you tell sformat to reformat the
			 disk  after  repairing	one bad	block (maxbad=1), this
			 problem will go away.

       -modes		 Interactive modesense/modeselect.  Each mode page ex-
			 ists in 4 versions:
			 default  (PROM),  current  (RAM),  saved  (DISK)  and
			 changeable (BITMASK).
			 You may currently view	any page if  you  specify  the
			 page number.  This is currently under construction.

       -noformat	 Force	not to format disk even	when formatting	of the
			 disk has been confirmed.  This	option may be used  to
			 modify	mode parameters	without	formatting the disk.

       -nomap		 Do  not  map SCSI address to logical disk name. WARN-
			 ING: If you use this option, sformat is not  able  to
			 check	whether	 the disk has mounted partitions. This
			 may damage mounted file systems.

       -noparity	 Try to	disable	parity checking	on all	SCSI  commands
			 that  are  sent by sformat.  This may not be possible
			 in all	implementations	of the scg-driver.

       -nowait		 Do not	wait  after  formatting	 the  disk.  Normally,
			 sformat  will	prompt	for a modification of the disk
			 label and partition table before starting  to	verify
			 the  disk.  If	this option is in effect, sformat will
			 immediately start to verify the  disk	after  format-
			 ting.

       -no_defaults	 Do  not  set heuristic	defaults. If this option is in
			 effect, all disk parameters must be  either  retriev-
			 able  from disk or, if	not available, provided	by the
			 user.

       -prdefect	 Get and print defect data. This may be	used to	 print
			 the manufacturer and grown defect list	that is	stored
			 on the	disk.

       -prgeom		 Get and print geometry	data. This is  an  old	option
			 but  it is useful to get all mode pages that are sup-
			 ported	by this	disk.

       -prcurgeom	 Get and print geometry	data. This  is	basically  the
			 same  as  -prgeom except that -prgeom will obtain the
			 default mode pages, -prcurgeom	will report  the  cur-
			 rent values.

       -Proto		 This  option  will  cause  sformat to generate	a data
			 base entry for	the current disk.  Make	sure that this
			 data  base  entry  will be generated with the correct
			 format	time.  Sformat is able	to  compute  a	format
			 time  from the	disk geometry, but newer disks seem to
			 need more time	than computed.	If the format time  is
			 too short, the	formatting may be aborted and the disk
			 will not be accessible	 until	formatted  again  com-
			 pletely.

       -r		 reformat  only	 mode  (gives  less  messages on label
			 menu)

       -randrw		 The random read/write test is a method	to find	 prob-
			 lems  that  may be a result of	first seeking to a new
			 place on disk and then	writing	data to	it  as	it  is
			 frequently  done  by  the  Unix file system.  This is
			 usually caused	by an inode  or	 super	block  update.
			 The above problems may	be a result of bad bearings in
			 the disk.  If the disk	does not produce errors	 while
			 this  test is running,	there will no harm to the data
			 on disk. However, if you assume that the disk is bad,
			 the  data on disk may get corrupted.  To minimize the
			 risk of data loss, the	 first	block  containing  the
			 disk  label (partition) and the last block containing
			 the sinfo data	(a sformat specific area)  will	 never
			 be written to.

       -reassign	 Reassign  a  list  of blocks sformat will prompt for.
			 This is the preferred command when trying to repair a
			 block	or  a  list of blocks with already known block
			 addresses.  If	you don't know the address of a	defec-
			 tive  block,  use  the	 -repair option.  Sformat will
			 first try to read the old content  of	the  defective
			 block and then	try to refresh the data	by writing the
			 old data to the block.	 If it fails to	write  to  the
			 block,	sformat	will reassign the defective block.  If
			 the block does	not cause errors after	rewriting  the
			 data  in  it, sformat will ask	if the block should be
			 reassigned anyway.  NOTE: there  are  many  cases  in
			 which	a  block seems to be defective but actually is
			 not.  If for any reason, the disk will	be powered off
			 during	 writing or if there is	electro	magnetic noise
			 the CRC for a block may  get  corrupted  without  any
			 physical  harm	to the magnetic	media. These cases can
			 be repaired by	writing	again to the block.

       -refresh_only	 Sformat will not try to reassign a block  that	 still
			 fails	after  rewriting  (refreshing) the data	in it.
			 This option is	useful in conjunction with the	-reas-
			 sign and the -repair option.

       -repair		 This  is  a  combination of the -verify and -reassign
			 option.  Sformat will first verify the	disk and  then
			 use the list of bad sectors found to repair the disk.

       RW=#		 Number	 of  random  R/W  loops	 that is used with the
			 -randrw option.  The default is the number of	physi-
			 cal  sectors  / 100.  This will not last too long and
			 is enough to cover every cylinder of the disk.

       -scsi_compliant	 Be as SCSI-compliant as possible. This	will some  old
			 disk  cause to	fail in	reporting mode pages correctly
			 and may be used to see	if a disk has these problems.

       -seek		 Do random or full stroke seek tests on	the disk. This
			 is  done  by  reading	data; trying to	do full	stroke
			 seek tests my be impossible because of	the  cache  of
			 the disk.

       -setmodes	 Do  a SCSI modeselect with all	parameters, that would
			 have been necessary for a format, but do  not	format
			 the  disk.  This allows to modify the mode pages of a
			 disk without reformatting it.	If the -smp option  is
			 used  in  conjunction with -setmodes the mode parame-
			 ters will not be saved. In this case, the mode	param-
			 eters	of the disk will return	to their old values if
			 a reset or a power cycle occurs.

       -silent,	-s	 Do not	print out the status of	failed commands.

       -smp		 Do not	try to save mode parameters when setting them.
			 This  option  is  useful  if a	nearly totally damaged
			 disk must be reformatted. Some	disk  controllers,  in
			 this  case will reject	to format the disk if the area
			 on disk where this data will be stored	is not	acces-
			 sible before formatting the disk.

       -start		 Send  a  SCSI	START UNIT command to the device. This
			 will normally spin up the spindle motor of a disk.

       -stop		 Send a	SCSI STOP UNIT command	to  the	 device.  This
			 will normally spin down the spindle motor of a	disk.

       timeout=#	 This  option  will set	the default kernel timeout for
			 all SCSI commands that	are send by sformat to #  sec-
			 onds.	The  default value is 20 seconds.  This	option
			 does not affect the timeout for the format command.

       -tr, -t		 This is an  option  that  is  only  useful  with  old
			 Adaptec  SCSI	bridge controllers.  These controllers
			 are not able to deal with logical sector  numbers  in
			 some cases. Therefore these numbers have to be	trans-
			 lated to the cylinder/head/bfi	form before.  This  is
			 done  by  seeking  to the named block and reading the
			 sector	header.	It may fail if the  block  has	a  bad
			 sector	header.

       VL=#		 Set  the  number of verify passes that	are done after
			 formatting a disk to #. The default value is  5.   In
			 write	verify	mode,  this  number is doubled because
			 sformat will alternate	write verify and  read	verify
			 passes	in this	case.

       -verbose, -v	 outdated verbose option for SCSI commands.

       -V		 Increment  the	 verbose level in respect of SCSI com-
			 mand transport	by one.	 This helps to debug  problems
			 with  SCSI commands.  If you get incomprehensible er-
			 ror messages you should use this flag to get more de-
			 tailed	 output.  -VV will show	data buffer content in
			 addition.  Using -V or	-VV slows down the process and
			 may be	the reason for a buffer	underrun.

       -verify		 This  options	starts sformat in verify disk (surface
			 analysis) mode.  Verifying a disk is  a  method  that
			 allows	 to scan for defects without modifying data on
			 the disk.  In this mode, the controller will read the
			 disks without transferring data to the	computer while
			 all error recovery is disabled.

       Vstart=#		 Set the first block for the -verify, -repair, -randrw
			 or  the  -seek	option to #.  This is recommended when
			 doing a surface analysis on large disks where	is  is
			 known	that  the  bad	sector	is near	the end	of the
			 disk.

       Vend=#		 Set the last block for	the -verify, -repair,  -randrw
			 or  the  -seek	option to #.  This is recommended when
			 doing a surface analysis on large disks where	is  is
			 known	that the bad sectors are not at	the end	of the
			 disk.

       -wrveri		 If this option	is used	in while formatting a disk, it
			 tells	sformat	 to  write  verify the disk instead of
			 only read verifying it	after formatting.   If	it  is
			 used  in combination with the -verify option, sformat
			 will write verify the disk without prior  formatting.
			 In  both cases, the old data on disk will be damaged.
			 Write verifying a disk	is recommended if the disk  is
			 older	than  two  years or has	unusual	defects. Usual
			 defects in this context are recovered read errors and
			 defects that disappear	when simply writing to the de-
			 fect sector.

How To Answer Questions
       There are four types of questions.

       o      Questions	that can be answered with yes or no.  Yes may  be  ab-
	      breviated	 with  'y' or 'Y'.  These questions are	always assumed
	      to be answered with no if	 you  simply  enter  carriage  return.
	      NOTE:  the  latter  is always a safe answer.  All	questions that
	      request confirmation for actions that may	damage or modify  data
	      on  disk are formed in such a way	that answering them with no or
	      carriage return will not harm any	data.	All  answers  to  this
	      type of questions	except [y]es or	[Y]ES are interpreted as if no
	      has been entered.

       o      Questions	that need a string as input.  If you simply enter car-
	      riage  return  to	 this type of question,	no modification	of the
	      default string will be done.

       o      Questions	that need a word selected from a list of  valid	 words
	      as input.	 If you	enter '?', you will get	a list of possible in-
	      put to that question.  Each word is on a separate	 line  an  (in
	      some cases) is followed by a explanation how to use it.

       o      Questions	 that  need a number within a certain range.  For this
	      type of questions, sformat displays the current  value  and  the
	      valid  range  in	parenthesis.  The default radix	for numbers is
	      ten. If you need to enter	a hexadecimal number precede  it  with
	      0x if you	need to	enter an octal number, precede it with 0.

	      ^	     Entering  an  accent circumflex '^' will set the value to
		     the smallest possible

	      $	     Entering an dollar	sign '$' will set  the	value  to  the
		     greatest possible

	      +	     Entering  a plus sign will	increment the current value by
		     one.

	      -	     Entering a	minus sign will	decrement the current value by
		     one.

	      <CR>   Entering  a  carriage  return will	not modify the current
		     value.  If	the default value is -1, you need to supply  a
		     valid value to be allowed to leave	the question menu.

       All questions that do not request a simple string (second type of ques-
       tion) will accept a question mark '?' to	display	online help.

The SCSI Selection Menu
       When Sformat is started without or with	insufficient  parameters,  the
       SCSI menu mode is entered.  A typical output in this case looks like:

       sparky joerg > sformat
       sformat SCSI format/analysis/repair utilities
       Release 3.1, Copyright J. Schilling

       scg0 at esp0 initiator id 7
       scg1 at esp1 initiator id 7
       scsibus0:
       c0t0d0		0) 'Quantum ' 'XP34300	       ' 'F76D'	Disk
       c0t1d0		1) 'SEAGATE ' 'ST11200N	       ' '8334'	Disk
			2) *
       c0t3d0		3) 'TOSHIBA ' 'MK537FB/	       ' '6258'	Disk
			4) 'WANGTEK ' '5150ES SCSI-36  ' 'ESB6'	Removable Tape
			5) 'EXABYTE ' 'EXB-8500-85QUE  ' '0428'	Removable Tape
			6) 'TOSHIBA ' 'XM-3401TASUNSLCD' '3593'	Removable CD-ROM
			7) HOST	ADAPTOR
       scsibus1:
       c1t0d0,c1t0d1   10) 'EMULEX  ' 'MD21/S2	   ESDI' 'D00 '	Disk
		       11) *
       c1t2d0	       12) 'Maxoptix' 'T3-1304	       ' '1.1c'	Removable Disk
		       13) *
		       14) *
		       15) *
		       16) *
		       17) HOST	ADAPTOR
       Select target -1	(0 - 12)/<cr>:

       The line:

       c0t0d0		0) 'Quantum ' 'XP34300	       ' 'F76D'	Disk

       shows  the  canonical logical disk name (in this	case c0t0d0), the menu
       number, the SCSI	inquiry	string and a description of  the  device  type
       that  was  found	 on this SCSI target.  The menu	number is directly re-
       lated to	the SCSI target	id of the device  and  the  SCSI  bus  number.
       Number  3 is SCSI target	# 3 on SCSI bus	# 0.  Number 12	is SCSI	target
       # 2 on SCSI bus # 1.  Sformat is	currently not able to deal  with  more
       than 8 targets on a bus.

       When selecting a	target (.e.g. #	0), a logical unit selection menu will
       be displayed.

       Select target -1	(0 - 6)/<cr>:0
       scsibus0	target 0:
       c0t0d0		0) 'Quantum ' 'XP34300	       ' 'F76D'	Disk
			1) 'Quantum ' 'XP34300	       ' 'F76D'	unsupported
			2) 'Quantum ' 'XP34300	       ' 'F76D'	unsupported
			3) 'Quantum ' 'XP34300	       ' 'F76D'	unsupported
			4) 'Quantum ' 'XP34300	       ' 'F76D'	unsupported
			5) 'Quantum ' 'XP34300	       ' 'F76D'	unsupported
			6) 'Quantum ' 'XP34300	       ' 'F76D'	unsupported
			7) 'Quantum ' 'XP34300	       ' 'F76D'	unsupported
       Select lun -1 (0	- 7)/<cr>:

       The logical unit	menu has the same structure as the SCSI	 target	 menu.
       If the device description contains the word unsupported,	the controller
       is not able to support a	logical	unit of	this number.   If  the	device
       description  contains the word unit not present,	the controller is able
       to support a logical unit of this number	but there is actually  no  de-
       vice connected.

       When  selecting	a specific logical unit, the main thread is entered as
       if a complete SCSI target specification has been	entered	from the  com-
       mand line.

Following The Main Thread
       If  the main formatting thread is entered, the following	stages are en-
       countered:

       Mapping and checking
			   The first thing sformat does, is to	map  the  SCSI
			   target/lun/busid  triplet  into a logical disk name
			   and to check	if some	part of	the disk is  currently
			   mounted.   This  mapping  will  be  skipped	if the
			   -nomap  options  is	specified.   If	 the  disk  is
			   mounted, the	user will be asked if it is ok to con-
			   tinue.
			   Note: this is currently the one and only question.

       Inquiry		   The second action is	getting	the inquiry data  from
			   the	device.	  The  device  type is determined from
			   this	data.

       Test if device is ready
			   The next action is to test whether  the  device  is
			   ready  and  to wait for the device to become	ready.
			   When	the device is ready, it	is recalibrated.

       Exit for	wrong device type
			   When	the device is not a disk, a worm media or  op-
			   tical memory, sformat terminates.

       Read sinfo data	   When	 the  device  is a disk, sformat tries to read
			   the sinfo data from the disk.  This allows the user
			   to  see if the device has been formatted with sfor-
			   mat before. If so, sformat will print out the  num-
			   ber of reformats and	the date of the	first and last
			   format.  Sinfo is .B	sformat	specific data that  is
			   hold	on the last block of the disk.

       Process special commands
			   If  options	tell  sformat  to take special actions
			   (like -start	or -prdefect),	they  are  done	 here.
			   Sformat terminates after processing them.

       The formatting procedure	starts
			   The	next actions are in preparation	for formatting
			   the disk.  Several other things can	be  done  from
			   this	 thread.  Modifying the	disk label will	be one
			   example.  You need not to be	in fear	that following
			   this	 thread	 will modify or	harm data on the disk.
			   There will be  extra	 questions  that  secure  this
			   case.

       Test whether the	disk is	formatted
			   Several  procedures	differ	if the disk is already
			   formatted and has a valid label.

       The next	parts of the main thread will give you some questions  to  an-
       swer.   You may skip most of the	questions if you do not	want to	modify
       anything.

       If some data that is definitely needed by sformat can not be determined
       from  the  disk	or the data base, sformat will force you to answer all
       questions of a group.  Sformat will only	ask  question  for  parameters
       that  are  definitely needed or may be changed on the current disk. The
       content of the menus differ from	disk to	disk.

       Read mode data
	      Several mode pages of the	disk are read.	This data and the  in-
	      quiry data is used to search in the disk data base.
	      Sformat asks:
	      Ignore database disk parameters from 'sformat.dat'?
	      If  you don't want the data from the data	base to	be used, nego-
	      tiate the	appropriate question.  Some disks cannot be determined
	      from  the	 fetchable  data.  This	are mainly disks that are con-
	      nected to	a bridge controller e.g.  a controller	from  ESDI  to
	      SCSI.  Sformat is	able to	detect the right data in the data base
	      for disks	with changeable	media e.g. optical disks that  support
	      different	 media with different capacity and geometry.  If there
	      is more than one possible	entry for this disk in the data	base,
	      sformat asks:
	      Select alternate disk type?
	      If the disk type menu is entered,	all possible data base entries
	      are  displayed.	The  current entry is marked with '*', the de-
	      fault entry is marked with '+' and the entry most	similar	to the
	      current disk is marked with '~'.	A matching factor is displayed
	      in parenthesis. Higher values are	indicating a better match.

       Read in label data
	      If the disk is already formatted,	sformat	reads in the label and
	      ask whether to remember this data.
	      Sformat asks:
	      Ignore old disk Label?
	      I	 you confirm this question and reformat	the disk, the old par-
	      titioning	information will be lost.

       Disk Parameters Menu
	      If you want to modify some disk parameters answer	the next ques-
	      tion with	'y'.
	      Sformat asks:
	      Modify Disk Geometry Parameters?
	      This  enables to modify basic data on geometry, the interleaving
	      factor and the defect management system.	 If  you  want	to  do
	      spindle synchronization, activate	it here.

       Error Recovery
	      Error  recovery  parameters  include  read/write retry count and
	      similar.
	      Sformat asks:
	      Modify Error recovery Parameters?

       Disconnect Parameter
	      Disconnect parameters are	buffer full/empty ratio	and bus	 inac-
	      tivity limit.
	      Sformat asks:
	      Modify Disconnect	Parameters

       Alternate Label
	      If  you  want  to	use an alternate label that may	be in the data
	      base go into the next menu.
	      Sformat asks:
	      Select alternate Label?
	      The current entry	is marked  with	 '*',  the  default  entry  is
	      marked with '+'.

       Logical Label Geometry
	      Sformat  uses  an	abstract geometry in the label.	This allows to
	      have one label for a group of disks. The label geometry menu al-
	      lows to modify this abstract geometry.
	      Sformat asks:
	      Modify Label Geometry Parameters?

       SCSI Parameters
	      This  menu contains questions about command queuing, defect list
	      format and similar.  Some	disks do not support the default block
	      defect list format. Specify another format in this case here. If
	      the disk does not	support	the SCSI write-verify command, sformat
	      allows  to  split	 this into a SCSI write	and a SCSI verify com-
	      mand.  The data cannot be	compared in this case.	 If  the  disk
	      type  is	generally  flaky a data	base entry can be set up to do
	      write verify as default after formatting.	 If the	disk will  not
	      handle 1000 blocks per verify command because of a firmware bug,
	      a	smaller	value may be specified here.
	      Sformat asks:
	      Modify SCSI Parameters?

       Grown Defect List
	      If a disk	has not	been formatted before or has been refurbished,
	      you should clear the old grown defect list to get	a clean	start.
	      If the disk has bad blocks, sformat will find them after format-
	      ting  while  doing  the surface analysis.	 If the	disk has known
	      defects you should negotiate the next question to	keep  the  de-
	      fect list.
	      Sformat asks:
	      Clear old	grown defect list?

       Mode pages
	      If  you  want to format the disk,	you need to set	the mode pages
	      before.
	      Sformat asks:
	      Set mode pages (needed for format)?
	      However, if you do not want to format the	disk, you may  negoti-
	      ate  this	 question  and	will be	lead to	the label modification
	      menu.

       Formatting the disk
	      The next question	is the last  one  you  will  be	 asked	before
	      starting	to  format  the	 disk.	If formatting has started, you
	      will see the progress of this process indicated in the  used  up
	      percentage of the	estimated time.
	      Sformat asks:
	      Format Disk destroys all Data. Really?
	      If  you  only  want to set the mode pages, you may this question
	      with 'n'.

       Creating	and modifying the disk label
	      After the	disk has been formatted	or if the formatting has  been
	      denied, the label	menu is	entered.
	      Sformat asks:
	      Print disk label?
	      If  you  want to see the current layout of the disk label, enter
	      'y'.
	      Sformat asks:
	      Modify disk label?
	      If you want to modify the	disk label enter 'y'.

       Inside the label	modification menu
	      Sformat asks:
	      Label: _Quantum XP34300_ change ?
	      If you want to retain the	old label name,	enter <CR>, else enter
	      'y'.  Sformat will ask for the new Label name.
	      Sformat asks:
	      Enter disk label:	Quantum	XP34300
	      You  are left in the tty line edit mode and may modify the input
	      line (see	termios(4) manual page).
	      Sformat asks:
	      Volume Name: __ change ?
	      If you want to retain the	old label name,	enter <CR>, else enter
	      'y'.  Sformat will ask for the new Volume	name.
	      Sformat asks:
	      Change partition table?
	      If you want to change the	partition table	enter 'y'.
	      Sformat asks:
	      Part	Tag  Flag   Cylinders  Startsec	 #  of	Sec	  Size
	      Blocks
	      0	      root wm	   0  -	   30	      0	    67580      32.99MB
	      (31/0/0)
	      Change ?
	      If  you want to modify this partition enter 'y', otherwise enter
	      <CR> until sformat asks for the partition	you want to change.
	      Sformat asks:
	      Enter partition id Tag [root]:
	      Enter <CR> if the	partition tag is ok for	this partition,	other-
	      wise  enter  '?'	to get a list of valid partition tags or enter
	      the new partition	tag.
	      Sformat asks:
	      Enter partition permission Flags [wm]:
	      Enter <CR> if the	partition flag is ok for this partition,  oth-
	      erwise enter '?' to get a	list of	valid partition	flags or enter
	      the new partition	flag.
	      Sformat asks:
	      Enter starting cylinder 0	(0 - 3851)/_cr_:
	      Enter <CR> if the	starting cylinder is ok	 for  this  partition,
	      otherwise	enter '?' to get a list	of possible input.  XXX
	      Sformat asks:
	      Enter number of blocks 67580, 31/0/0 (0 -	8395180)/_cr_:
	      Enter <CR> if the	size is	ok for this partition, otherwise enter
	      '?' to get a list	of possible input.  XXX
	      Sformat asks:
	      Part	Tag  Flag   Cylinders  Startsec	 #  of	Sec	  Size
	      Blocks
	      0	       root  wm	     0	-    30		0    67580     32.99MB
	      (31/0/0)
	      Ok ?
	      Enter <CR> if you	still want to  modify  the  partition  record.
	      You  then	 will be asked again for all parameters	of this	parti-
	      tion.  Enter 'y' if this partition is now	ok.

	      If all partitions	are cycled through, sformat will  display  the
	      current label.
	      Sformat asks:
	      Use this label?
	      If  you  enter 'y', sformat will update the label	on disk	and go
	      into the verify mode.  Anything else will	put you	into the label
	      modification mode	again.

       Disk Verification
	      In  disk	verification mode, sformat will	do a surface analysis.
	      If a bad block is	encountered, sformat will  reassign  this  bad
	      block.  XXX

How To Format A	Disk
       The  number of defects that SCSI	disks can handle depends on the	defect
       mapping system they use.	There are several possible systems:

       The mapping system depends on the # of tracks per zone in the SCSI disk
       parameters.  Mapping area in this table means spare location.

       1)     One mapping area at the end of the disk. (tpz == 0)

       2)     One mapping area per track.	  (tpz == 1)

       3)     One mapping area per cylinder.	       (tpz == nhead)

       4)     Some mapping areas on on the disk	  (tpz > nhead)

       If  all the space in the	defect spare locations above is	used up, there
       still may be an additional mapping area at the end of the  disk.	  This
       is controlled by	the alternate tracks per volume	parameter.

       If  your	disk says no defect spare location, you	may be able to get ex-
       tra space by going into the disk	parameter menu of sformat and change a
       value. Note: some disks tell you	that some of the values	are changeable
       (there is a range in parenthesis) but actually ignore  the  new	value.
       You will	have to	read the values	after formatting to see	if the new pa-
       rameters	are in effect.

How To Modify A	Label
       Remember, don't panic. You need no desk calculator to create or	modify
       a partition table.

       The  alternate  cylinders  are historic relics. In good old days	(1982)
       when SMD	disks that were	not able to do defect mapping have been	 used,
       these alternates	were added to do the defect mapping in the driver.  In
       these days the space occupied by	these spare cylinders really has  been
       used as alternate (spare) space.

       Currently  they are only	used for some copies of	the primary disk label
       and an outdated copy of the defect list is only able to	hold  127  de-
       fects :-(.

       The  label geometry cannot be changed in	the partition menu. It must be
       set before from the Label Parameters menu.

       Print disk label?	     If	this question is  answered  with  'y',
				     the  label	 and partitioning info will be
				     displayed.

       Modify disk label?	     If	this question is  answered  with  'y',
				     the  label	 modification menu will	be en-
				     tered.

       Label: <Toshiba 1015MB> change ?
				     If	this question is  answered  with  'y',
				     the name of the label nay be modified.

       Volume Name: <5.3> change ?   If	 this  question	 is answered with 'y',
				     the system	V volume name may be altered.

       Change partition	table?	     If	this question is answered with 'y',  a
				     partition menu will be displayed.

       Use this	label?

Graphical Label	Display
       When  printing the label	or partition data, sformat uses	a simple ASCII
       graphical display to visualize the layout of the	partitions.  The  sym-
       bols used in this graphic display are described below.

       Example:

       a I--/
       b    /-----------/
       c I----------------------------------------------------------------------I
       d partition not defined
       e	     <--/
       f		/--------/
       g					<-------------------------------I
       h			 /----------------------------------------------I
       WARNING:
       part 'e'	has unaligned start.
       part 'g'	has unaligned start.

       Used symbols:

       I	 Used to mark the start	end the	end of the disk	(no error).

       X	 Partition starts before zero or exceeds end of	disk.

       /	 Partition has an adjacent start or end	with another partition
		 (no error).

       +	 Two or	mode partitions	have the start or the end at the  same
		 position  on the disk but no other partition connects to this
		 point.	 This is an error that indicates that there may	be un-
		 used space on the disk.

       <	 This  partition does not connect to another partition on it's
		 beginning.  This is an	error that indicates that there	may be
		 unused	space on the disk.

       >	 This  partition does not connect to another partition on it's
		 end.  This is an error	that indicates that there may  be  un-
		 used space on the disk.

       *	 Internal error	in the check routines (should never happen).

       Errors:

       ends behind lncyl   Partition is	bigger than possible.

       One or more parts are not within	range of part 'c'!
			   Partition  'c'  (2) should be the whole disk.  This
			   warning indicates a disk that  deviates  from  this
			   rule.

       Warnings:

       unaligned start	   The	partition starts not in	conjunction to another
			   partition.

       unaligned end	   The partition ends not in  conjunction  to  another
			   partition.

       space before start  There  is  no partition that	uses the space between
			   the beginning of the	disk and the beginning of this
			   partition.

       space after end	   There  is  no partition that	uses the space between
			   the end of this partition and the end of the	disk.

Creating Disk Database Entries
EXAMPLES
FILES
SEE ALSO
DIAGNOSTICS
NOTES
BUGS
       This is a draft of the manual changes may be daily.

AUTHOR
       Joerg Schilling
       Seestr. 110
       D-13353 Berlin
       Germany

       Mail bugs and suggestions to:

       joerg@schily.isdn.cs.tu-berlin.de or js@cs.tu-berlin.de

Joerg Schilling			   01/04/25		      SFORMAT draft(1)

NAME | SYNOPSIS | DESCRIPTION | Disk Database Entries | OPTIONS | How To Answer Questions | The SCSI Selection Menu | Following The Main Thread | How To Format A Disk | How To Modify A Label | Graphical Label Display | Creating Disk Database Entries | EXAMPLES | FILES | SEE ALSO | DIAGNOSTICS | NOTES | BUGS | AUTHOR

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