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SETKEY(8)               FreeBSD System Manager's Manual              SETKEY(8)

     setkey -- manually manipulate the IPsec SA/SP database

     setkey [-v] -c
     setkey [-v] -f filename
     setkey [-aPlv] -D
     setkey [-Pv] -F
     setkey [-h] -x

     The setkey utility adds, updates, dumps, or flushes Security Association
     Database (SAD) entries as well as Security Policy Database (SPD) entries
     in the kernel.

     The setkey utility takes a series of operations from the standard input
     (if invoked with -c) or the file named filename (if invoked with -f

     -D      Dump the SAD entries.  If with -P, the SPD entries are dumped.

     -F      Flush the SAD entries.  If with -P, the SPD entries are flushed.

     -a      The setkey utility usually does not display dead SAD entries with
             -D.  If with -a, the dead SAD entries will be displayed as well.
             A dead SAD entry means that it has been expired but remains in
             the system because it is referenced by some SPD entries.

     -h      Add hexadecimal dump on -x mode.

     -l      Loop forever with short output on -D.

     -v      Be verbose.  The program will dump messages exchanged on PF_KEY
             socket, including messages sent from other processes to the ker-

     -x      Loop forever and dump all the messages transmitted to PF_KEY
             socket.  -xx makes each timestamps unformatted.

   Configuration syntax
     With -c or -f on the command line, setkey accepts the following configu-
     ration syntax.  Lines starting with hash signs (`#') are treated as com-
     ment lines.

     add [-46n] src dst protocol spi [extensions] algorithm ... ;
             Add an SAD entry.  add can fail with multiple reasons, including
             when the key length does not match the specified algorithm.

     get [-46n] src dst protocol spi ;
             Show an SAD entry.

     delete [-46n] src dst protocol spi ;
             Remove an SAD entry.

     deleteall [-46n] src dst protocol ;
             Remove all SAD entries that match the specification.

     flush [protocol] ;
             Clear all SAD entries matched by the options.  -F on the command
             line achieves the same functionality.

     dump [protocol] ;
             Dumps all SAD entries matched by the options.  -D on the command
             line achieves the same functionality.

     spdadd [-46n] src_range dst_range upperspec policy ;
             Add an SPD entry.

     spddelete [-46n] src_range dst_range upperspec -P direction ;
             Delete an SPD entry.

     spdflush ;
             Clear all SPD entries.  -FP on the command line achieves the same

     spddump ;
             Dumps all SPD entries.  -DP on the command line achieves the same

     Meta-arguments are as follows:

     dst     Source/destination of the secure communication is specified as
             IPv4/v6 address.  The setkey utility can resolve a FQDN into
             numeric addresses.  If the FQDN resolves into multiple addresses,
             setkey will install multiple SAD/SPD entries into the kernel by
             trying all possible combinations.  -4, -6 and -n restricts the
             address resolution of FQDN in certain ways.  -4 and -6 restrict
             results into IPv4/v6 addresses only, respectively.  -n avoids
             FQDN resolution and requires addresses to be numeric addresses.

             protocol is one of following:
             esp         ESP based on rfc2406
             esp-old     ESP based on rfc1827
             ah          AH based on rfc2402
             ah-old      AH based on rfc1826
             ipcomp      IPComp
             tcp         TCP-MD5 based on rfc2385

     spi     Security Parameter Index (SPI) for the SAD and the SPD.  spi must
             be a decimal number, or a hexadecimal number with `0x' prefix.
             SPI values between 0 and 255 are reserved for future use by IANA
             and they cannot be used.  TCP-MD5 associations must use 0x1000
             and therefore only have per-host granularity at this time.

             take some of the following:
             -m mode     Specify a security protocol mode for use.  mode is
                         one of following: transport, tunnel or any.  The
                         default value is any.
             -r size     Specify window size of bytes for replay prevention.
                         size must be decimal number in 32-bit word.  If size
                         is zero or not specified, replay check does not take
             -u id       Specify the identifier of the policy entry in SPD.
                         See policy.
             -f pad_option
                         defines the content of the ESP padding.  pad_option
                         is one of following:
                         zero-pad    All of the padding are zero.
                         random-pad  A series of randomized values are set.
                         seq-pad     A series of sequential increasing numbers
                                     started from 1 are set.
             -f nocyclic-seq
                         Do not allow cyclic sequence number.
             -lh time
             -ls time    Specify hard/soft life time duration of the SA.

             -E ealgo key
                         Specify an encryption algorithm ealgo for ESP.
             -E ealgo key -A aalgo key
                         Specify a encryption algorithm ealgo, as well as a
                         payload authentication algorithm aalgo, for ESP.
             -A aalgo key
                         Specify an authentication algorithm for AH.
             -C calgo [-R]
                         Specify a compression algorithm for IPComp.  If -R is
                         specified, spi field value will be used as the IPComp
                         CPI (compression parameter index) on wire as is.  If
                         -R is not specified, the kernel will use well-known
                         CPI on wire, and spi field will be used only as an
                         index for kernel internal usage.

             key must be double-quoted character string, or a series of hexa-
             decimal digits preceded by `0x'.

             Possible values for ealgo, aalgo and calgo are specified in sepa-
             rate section.

             These are selections of the secure communication specified as
             IPv4/v6 address or IPv4/v6 address range, and it may accompany
             TCP/UDP port specification.  This takes the following form:


             prefixlen and port must be decimal number.  The square bracket
             around port is really necessary.  They are not manpage metachar-
             acters.  For FQDN resolution, the rules applicable to src and dst
             apply here as well.

             Upper-layer protocol to be used.  You can use one of words in
             /etc/protocols as upperspec.  Or icmp6, ip4, and any can be spec-
             ified.  any stands for ``any protocol''.  Also you can use the
             protocol number.  You can specify a type and/or a code of ICMPv6
             when upper-layer protocol is ICMPv6.  The specification can be
             placed after icmp6.  A type is separated with a code by single
             comma.  A code must be specified anytime.  When a zero is speci-
             fied, the kernel deals with it as a wildcard.  Note that the ker-
             nel cannot distinguish a wildcard from that a type of ICMPv6 is
             zero.  For example, the following means the policy does not
             require IPsec for any inbound Neighbor Solicitation:

                   spdadd ::/0 ::/0 icmp6 135,0 -P in none;

             NOTE: upperspec does not work against forwarding case at this
             moment, as it requires extra reassembly at forwarding node (not
             implemented at this moment).  We have many protocols in
             /etc/protocols, but protocols except of TCP, UDP and ICMP may not
             be suitable to use with IPsec.  You have to consider and be care-
             ful to use them.

     policy  policy is the one of the following three formats:

           -P direction discard
           -P direction none
           -P direction ipsec protocol/mode/src-dst/level [...]

             You must specify the direction of its policy as direction.
             Either out or in are used.  discard means the packet matching
             indexes will be discarded.  none means that IPsec operation will
             not take place onto the packet.  ipsec means that IPsec operation
             will take place onto the packet.  The part of
             protocol/mode/src-dst/level specifies the rule how to process the
             packet.  Either ah, esp or ipcomp is to be set as protocol.  mode
             is either transport or tunnel.  If mode is tunnel, you must spec-
             ify the end-points addresses of the SA as src and dst with `-'
             between these addresses which is used to specify the SA to use.
             If mode is transport, both src and dst can be omitted.  level is
             to be one of the following: default, use, require or unique.  If
             the SA is not available in every level, the kernel will request
             getting SA to the key exchange daemon.  default means the kernel
             consults to the system wide default against protocol you speci-
             fied, e.g., esp_trans_deflev sysctl variable, when the kernel
             processes the packet.  use means that the kernel use a SA if it
             is available, otherwise the kernel keeps normal operation.
             require means SA is required whenever the kernel sends a packet
             matched with the policy.  unique is the same to require.  In
             addition, it allows the policy to bind with the unique out-bound
             SA.  You just specify the policy level unique, racoon(8) will
             configure the SA for the policy.  If you configure the SA by man-
             ual keying for that policy, you can put the decimal number as the
             policy identifier after unique separated by colon `:' like the
             following; unique:number.  In order to bind this policy to the
             SA, number must be between 1 and 32767.  It corresponds to
             extensions -u of the manual SA configuration.  When you want to
             use SA bundle, you can define multiple rules.  For example, if an
             IP header was followed by AH header followed by ESP header fol-
             lowed by an upper layer protocol header, the rule would be:
                   esp/transport//require ah/transport//require;
             The rule order is very important.

             Note that ``discard'' and ``none'' are not in the syntax
             described in ipsec_set_policy(3).  There are little differences
             in the syntax.  See ipsec_set_policy(3) for detail.

     The following list shows the supported algorithms.  protocol and
     algorithm are almost orthogonal.  Followings are the list of authentica-
     tion algorithms that can be used as aalgo in -A aalgo of protocol parame-

           algorithm       keylen (bits)   comment
           hmac-md5        128             ah: rfc2403
                           128             ah-old: rfc2085
           hmac-sha1       160             ah: rfc2404
                           160             ah-old: 128bit ICV (no document)
           keyed-md5       128             ah: 96bit ICV (no document)
                           128             ah-old: rfc1828
           keyed-sha1      160             ah: 96bit ICV (no document)
                           160             ah-old: 128bit ICV (no document)
           null            0 to 2048       for debugging
           hmac-sha2-256   256             ah: 96bit ICV
                           256             ah-old: 128bit ICV (no document)
           hmac-sha2-384   384             ah: 96bit ICV (no document)
                           384             ah-old: 128bit ICV (no document)
           hmac-sha2-512   512             ah: 96bit ICV (no document)
                           512             ah-old: 128bit ICV (no document)
           hmac-ripemd160  160             ah: 96bit ICV (RFC2857)
                                           ah-old: 128bit ICV (no document)
           aes-xcbc-mac    128             ah: 96bit ICV (RFC3566)
                           128             ah-old: 128bit ICV (no document)
           tcp-md5         8 to 640        tcp: rfc2385

     Followings are the list of encryption algorithms that can be used as
     ealgo in -E ealgo of protocol parameter:

           algorithm       keylen (bits)   comment
           des-cbc         64              esp-old: rfc1829, esp: rfc2405
           3des-cbc        192             rfc2451
           null            0 to 2048       rfc2410
           blowfish-cbc    40 to 448       rfc2451
           cast128-cbc     40 to 128       rfc2451
           des-deriv       64              ipsec-ciph-des-derived-01
           3des-deriv      192             no document
           rijndael-cbc    128/192/256     rfc3602
           aes-ctr         160/224/288     draft-ietf-ipsec-ciph-aes-ctr-03

     Note that the first 128 bits of a key for aes-ctr will be used as AES
     key, and remaining 32 bits will be used as nonce.

     Followings are the list of compression algorithms that can be used as
     calgo in -C calgo of protocol parameter:

           algorithm       comment
           deflate         rfc2394

     The setkey utility exits 0 on success, and >0 if an error occurs.

     add 3ffe:501:4819::1 3ffe:501:481d::1 esp 123457
             -E des-cbc 0x3ffe05014819ffff ;

     add -6 ah 123456
             -A hmac-sha1 "AH SA configuration!" ;

     add esp 0x10001
             -E des-cbc 0x3ffe05014819ffff
             -A hmac-md5 "authentication!!" ;

     get 3ffe:501:4819::1 3ffe:501:481d::1 ah 123456 ;

     flush ;

     dump esp ;

     spdadd[21][any] any
             -P out ipsec esp/tunnel/ ;

     add tcp 0x1000 -A tcp-md5 "TCP-MD5 BGP secret" ;

     ipsec_set_policy(3), racoon(8), sysctl(8)

     Changed manual key configuration for IPsec, October 1999,

     The setkey utility first appeared in WIDE Hydrangea IPv6 protocol stack
     kit.  The utility was completely re-designed in June 1998.

     The setkey utility should report and handle syntax errors better.

     For IPsec gateway configuration, src_range and dst_range with TCP/UDP
     port number do not work, as the gateway does not reassemble packets (can-
     not inspect upper-layer headers).

FreeBSD 6.2                    November 20, 2000                   FreeBSD 6.2


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