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SCREEN(1)		    General Commands Manual		     SCREEN(1)

       screen -	screen manager with VT100/ANSI terminal	emulation

       screen [	-options ] [ cmd [ args	] ]
       screen -r [[pid.]tty[.host]]
       screen -r sessionowner/[[pid.]tty[.host]]

       Screen is a full-screen window manager that multiplexes a physical ter-
       minal between several processes (typically interactive  shells).	  Each
       virtual terminal	provides the functions of a DEC	VT100 terminal and, in
       addition, several control functions from	the ISO	6429  (ECMA  48,  ANSI
       X3.64)  and ISO 2022 standards (e.g. insert/delete line and support for
       multiple	character sets).  There	is a  scrollback  history  buffer  for
       each virtual terminal and a copy-and-paste mechanism that allows	moving
       text regions between windows.

       When screen is called, it creates a single window with a	 shell	in  it
       (or  the	 specified  command) and then gets out of your way so that you
       can use the program as you normally would.  Then, at any	time, you  can
       create new (full-screen)	windows	with other programs in them (including
       more shells), kill existing windows, view a list	of windows, turn  out-
       put  logging  on	and off, copy-and-paste	text between windows, view the
       scrollback history, switch between windows in whatever manner you wish,
       etc.  All  windows  run	their  programs	completely independent of each
       other. Programs continue	to run when their window is currently not vis-
       ible and	even when the whole screen session is detached from the	user's
       terminal.  When a program terminates, screen (per  default)  kills  the
       window  that  contained	it.  If	this window was	in the foreground, the
       display switches	to the previous	window;	if none	are left,  screen  ex-
       its.  Shells usually distinguish	between	running	as login-shell or sub-
       shell.  Screen runs them	as  sub-shells,	 unless	 told  otherwise  (See
       "shell" .screenrc command).

       Everything  you type is sent to the program running in the current win-
       dow.  The only exception	to this	is the one keystroke that is  used  to
       initiate	a command to the window	manager.  By default, each command be-
       gins with a control-a (abbreviated C-a from now on), and	is followed by
       one  other  keystroke.	The command character and all the key bindings
       can be fully customized to be anything you like,	though they are	always
       two characters in length.

       Screen  does  not  understand the prefix	"C-" to	mean control, although
       this notation is	used in	this manual for	readability.  Please  use  the
       caret  notation ("^A" instead of	"C-a") as arguments to e.g. the	escape
       command or the -e option.  Screen will also print out  control  charac-
       ters in caret notation.

       The  standard way to create a new window	is to type "C-a	c".  This cre-
       ates a new window running a shell and switches to that  window  immedi-
       ately,  regardless  of  the state of the	process	running	in the current
       window.	Similarly, you can create a new	window with a  custom  command
       in  it  by  first binding the command to	a keystroke (in	your .screenrc
       file or at the "C-a :" command line) and	then using it  just  like  the
       "C-a  c"	command.  In addition, new windows can be created by running a
       command like:

	      screen emacs prog.c

       from a shell prompt within a previously created window.	This will  not
       run  another  copy  of screen, but will instead supply the command name
       and its arguments to the	window manager (specified in the $STY environ-
       ment variable) who will use it to create	the new	window.	 The above ex-
       ample would start the emacs editor (editing prog.c) and switch  to  its
       window. - Note that you cannot transport	environment variables from the
       invoking	shell to the application (emacs	in this	case), because	it  is
       forked from the parent screen process, not from the invoking shell.

       If  "/etc/utmp"	is  writable  by screen, an appropriate	record will be
       written to this file for	each window, and removed when  the  window  is
       terminated.   This  is useful for working with "talk", "script",	"shut-
       down", "rsend", "sccs" and other	similar	programs  that	use  the  utmp
       file to determine who you are. As long as screen	is active on your ter-
       minal, the terminal's own record	is removed from	 the  utmp  file.  See
       also "C-a L".

       Before  you  begin to use screen	you'll need to make sure you have cor-
       rectly selected your terminal type, just	as you	would  for  any	 other
       termcap/terminfo	program.  (You can do this by using tset for example.)

       If  you're  impatient  and want to get started without doing a lot more
       reading,	you should remember this one command:  "C-a ?".	 Typing	 these
       two characters will display a list of the available screen commands and
       their bindings. Each keystroke is discussed in the section "DEFAULT KEY
       BINDINGS".  The	manual section "CUSTOMIZATION" deals with the contents
       of your .screenrc.

       If your terminal	is a "true" auto-margin	terminal (it doesn't allow the
       last position on	the screen to be updated without scrolling the screen)
       consider	using a	version	of your	terminal's termcap that	has  automatic
       margins	turned off. This will ensure an	accurate and optimal update of
       the screen in all circumstances.	Most terminals nowadays	 have  "magic"
       margins	(automatic margins plus	usable last column). This is the VT100
       style type and perfectly	suited for screen.  If all  you've  got	 is  a
       "true"  auto-margin  terminal screen will be content to use it, but up-
       dating a	character put into the last position on	the screen may not  be
       possible	until the screen scrolls or the	character is moved into	a safe
       position	in some	other way. This	delay can be shortened by using	a ter-
       minal with insert-character capability.

       Screen has the following	command-line options:

       -a   include all	capabilities (with some	minor exceptions) in each win-
	    dow's termcap, even	if screen must redraw parts of the display  in
	    order to implement a function.

       -A   Adapt  the	sizes of all windows to	the size of the	current	termi-
	    nal.  By default, screen tries to restore  its  old	 window	 sizes
	    when  attaching to resizable terminals (those with "WS" in its de-
	    scription, e.g. suncmd or some xterm).

       -c file
	    override the default configuration file from "$HOME/.screenrc"  to

       -d|-D []
	    does  not  start screen, but detaches the elsewhere	running	screen
	    session. It	has the	same effect as typing "C-a  d"	from  screen's
	    controlling	 terminal.  -D	is  the	equivalent to the power	detach
	    key.  If no	session	can be detached, this option  is  ignored.  In
	    combination	 with  the  -r/-R  option more powerful	effects	can be

       -d -r   Reattach	a session and if necessary detach it first.

       -d -R   Reattach	a session and if necessary detach or  even  create  it

       -d -RR  Reattach	 a  session  and if necessary detach or	create it. Use
	       the first session if more than one session is available.

       -D -r   Reattach	a session. If necessary	 detach	 and  logout  remotely

       -D -R   Attach here and now. In detail this means: If a session is run-
	       ning, then reattach. If necessary detach	 and  logout  remotely
	       first.	If  it	was not	running	create it and notify the user.
	       This is the author's favorite.

       -D -RR  Attach here and now. Whatever that means, just do it.

	    Note: It is	always a good idea to check the	status	of  your  ses-
	    sions by means of "screen -list".

       -e xy
	    specifies the command character to be x and	the character generat-
	    ing	a literal command character to y (when typed after the command
	    character).	  The default is "C-a" and `a',	which can be specified
	    as "-e^Aa".	 When creating a screen	session, this option sets  the
	    default  command character.	In a multiuser session all users added
	    will start off with	this command character.	But when attaching  to
	    an	already	 running session, this option changes only the command
	    character of the attaching user.  This option is equivalent	to ei-
	    ther the commands "defescape" or "escape" respectively.

       -f, -fn,	and -fa
	    turns  flow-control	 on, off, or "automatic	switching mode".  This
	    can	also be	defined	through	the "defflow" .screenrc	command.

       -h num
	    Specifies the history scrollback buffer to be num lines high.

       -i   will cause the interrupt key (usually C-c) to interrupt  the  dis-
	    play  immediately  when  flow-control  is  on.   See the "defflow"
	    .screenrc command for details.  The	use of this option is discour-

       -l and -ln
	    turns  login  mode	on  or off (for	/etc/utmp updating).  This can
	    also be defined through the	"deflogin" .screenrc command.

       -ls [match]
       -list [match]
	    does not start screen, but prints a	list of  strings
	    identifying	 your screen sessions.	Sessions marked	`detached' can
	    be resumed with "screen -r". Those marked `attached'  are  running
	    and	 have a	controlling terminal. If the session runs in multiuser
	    mode, it is	marked `multi'.	Sessions marked	as  `unreachable'  ei-
	    ther  live on a different host or are `dead'.  An unreachable ses-
	    sion is considered dead, when its name matches either the name  of
	    the	 local	host,  or the specified	parameter, if any.  See	the -r
	    flag for a description how to construct matches.  Sessions	marked
	    as `dead' should be	thoroughly checked and removed.	 Ask your sys-
	    tem	administrator if you are not sure. Remove  sessions  with  the
	    -wipe option.

       -L   tells  screen to turn on automatic output logging for the windows.
	    By default,	logfile's name is screenlog.1. You can sets new	 name:
	    add	it right after -L option e.g. "screen -L my_logfile".

       -m   causes  screen  to	ignore	the  $STY  environment	variable. With
	    "screen -m"	creation of a  new  session  is	 enforced,  regardless
	    whether  screen  is	 called	 from within another screen session or
	    not. This flag has a special meaning in connection with  the  `-d'

       -d -m   Start screen in "detached" mode.	This creates a new session but
	       doesn't attach  to  it.	This  is  useful  for  system  startup

       -D -m   This  also starts screen	in "detached" mode, but	doesn't	fork a
	       new process. The	command	exits if the session terminates.

       -O   selects a more optimal output mode for your	terminal  rather  than
	    true  VT100	 emulation (only affects auto-margin terminals without
	    `LP').  This can also be set in your .screenrc by specifying  `OP'
	    in a "termcap" command.

       -p number_or_name|-|=|+
	    Preselect  a window. This is useful	when you want to reattach to a
	    specific window or you want	to send	a command via the "-X"	option
	    to a specific window. As with screen's select command, "-" selects
	    the	blank window. As a special case	for reattach,  "="  brings  up
	    the	 windowlist on the blank window, while a "+" will create a new
	    window. The	command	will not be executed if	the  specified	window
	    could not be found.

       -q   Suppress printing of error messages. In combination	with "-ls" the
	    exit value is as follows: 9	indicates  a  directory	 without  ses-
	    sions.  10	indicates  a directory with running but	not attachable
	    sessions. 11 (or more) indicates 1 (or more) usable	sessions.   In
	    combination	 with  "-r" the	exit value is as follows: 10 indicates
	    that there is no session to	resume.	12 (or	more)  indicates  that
	    there  are	2  (or more) sessions to resume	and you	should specify
	    which one to choose.  In all other cases "-q" has no effect.

       -Q   Some commands now can be queried from a remote session using  this
	    flag,  e.g.	 "screen  -Q  windows".	The commands will send the re-
	    sponse to the stdout of the	querying process. If there was an  er-
	    ror	 in  the  command,  then the querying process will exit	with a
	    non-zero status.

	    The	commands that can be queried now are:

       -r []
       -r sessionowner/[]
	    resumes a detached screen session.	No other options (except  com-
	    binations  with -d/-D) may be specified, though an optional	prefix
	    of [pid.] may be needed to	distinguish  between  multiple
	    detached  screen  sessions.	 The second form is used to connect to
	    another user's screen session which	runs in	multiuser  mode.  This
	    indicates  that  screen should look	for sessions in	another	user's
	    directory. This requires setuid-root.

       -R   resumes screen only	when it's unambiguous  which  one  to  attach,
	    usually  when  only	one screen is detached.	Otherwise lists	avail-
	    able sessions.  -RR	attempts to resume the first  detached	screen
	    session  it	 finds.	 If successful,	all other command-line options
	    are	ignored.  If no	detached session exists, starts	a new  session
	    using the specified	options, just as if -R had not been specified.
	    The	option is set by default if screen is  run  as	a  login-shell
	    (actually screen uses "-xRR" in that case).	 For combinations with
	    the	-d/-D option see there.

       -s program
	    sets the default shell to the program specified,  instead  of  the
	    value  in the environment variable $SHELL (or "/bin/sh" if not de-
	    fined).  This can also be defined through  the  "shell"  .screenrc
	    command.  See also there.

       -S sessionname
	    When  creating a new session, this option can be used to specify a
	    meaningful name for	the session. This name identifies the  session
	    for	"screen	-list" and "screen -r" actions.	It substitutes the de-
	    fault [] suffix.

       -t name
	    sets the title (a.k.a.) for	the default shell  or  specified  pro-
	    gram.  See also the	"shelltitle" .screenrc command.

       -T term
	    Set	the $TERM environment variable using the specified term	as op-
	    posed to the default setting of screen.

       -U   Run	screen in UTF-8	mode. This option tells	screen that your  ter-
	    minal sends	and understands	UTF-8 encoded characters. It also sets
	    the	default	encoding for new windows to `utf8'.

       -v   Print version number.

       -wipe [match]
	    does the same as "screen -ls", but removes destroyed sessions  in-
	    stead  of  marking them as `dead'.	An unreachable session is con-
	    sidered dead, when its name	matches	either the name	of  the	 local
	    host,  or the explicitly given parameter, if any.  See the -r flag
	    for	a description how to construct matches.

       -x   Attach to a	not detached screen  session.  (Multi  display	mode).
	    Screen  refuses  to	attach from within itself.  But	when cascading
	    multiple screens, loops are	not detected; take care.

       -X   Send the specified command to a running screen  session.  You  may
	    use	 the  -S option	to specify the screen session if you have sev-
	    eral screen	sessions running. You can use the -d or	-r  option  to
	    tell screen	to look	only for attached or detached screen sessions.
	    Note that this command doesn't work	if  the	 session  is  password

       -4   Resolve hostnames only to IPv4 addresses.

       -6   Resolve hostnames only to IPv6 addresses.

       As  mentioned,  each screen command consists of a "C-a" followed	by one
       other character.	 For your convenience, all commands that are bound  to
       lower-case  letters  are	also bound to their control character counter-
       parts (with the exception of "C-a a"; see below), thus, "C-a c" as well
       as  "C-a	 C-c"  can be used to create a window. See section "CUSTOMIZA-
       TION" for a description of the command.

       The following table shows the default key bindings:

       C-a '	   (select)	 Prompt	for a window name or number to	switch

       C-a "	   (windowlist -b)
				 Present a list	of all windows for selection.

       C-a 0	   (select 0)
	^a|	      a|
       C-a 9	   (select 9)
       C-a -	   (select -)	 Switch	 to  window  number  0	- 9, or	to the
				 blank window.

       C-a tab	   (focus)	 Switch	the input focus	to  the	 next  region.
				 See also split, remove, only.

       C-a C-a	   (other)	 Toggle	 to  the  window displayed previously.
				 Note that this	binding	defaults to  the  com-
				 mand  character  typed	twice, unless overrid-
				 den.  For instance, if	 you  use  the	option
				 "-e]x", this command becomes "]]".

       C-a a	   (meta)	 Send  the  command character (C-a) to window.
				 See escape command.

       C-a A	   (title)	 Allow the user	to enter a name	for  the  cur-
				 rent window.

       C-a b
       C-a C-b	   (break)	 Send a	break to window.

       C-a B	   (pow_break)	 Reopen	the terminal line and send a break.

       C-a c
       C-a C-c	   (screen)	 Create	 a  new	window with a shell and	switch
				 to that window.

       C-a C	   (clear)	 Clear the screen.

       C-a d
       C-a C-d	   (detach)	 Detach	screen from this terminal.

       C-a D D	   (pow_detach)	 Detach	and logout.

       C-a f
       C-a C-f	   (flow)	 Toggle	flow on, off or	auto.

       C-a F	   (fit)	 Resize	the window to the current region size.

       C-a C-g	   (vbell)	 Toggles screen's visual bell mode.

       C-a h	   (hardcopy)	 Write a hardcopy of the current window	to the
				 file "hardcopy.n".

       C-a H	   (log)	 Begins/ends  logging of the current window to
				 the file "screenlog.n".

       C-a i
       C-a C-i	   (info)	 Show info about this window.

       C-a k
       C-a C-k	   (kill)	 Destroy current window.

       C-a l
       C-a C-l	   (redisplay)	 Fully refresh current window.

       C-a L	   (login)	 Toggle	this  windows  login  slot.  Available
				 only  if  screen  is configured to update the
				 utmp database.

       C-a m
       C-a C-m	   (lastmsg)	 Repeat	the last message displayed in the mes-
				 sage line.

       C-a M	   (monitor)	 Toggles monitoring of the current window.

       C-a space
       C-a n
       C-a C-n	   (next)	 Switch	to the next window.

       C-a N	   (number)	 Show  the  number  (and title)	of the current

       C-a backspace
       C-a C-h
       C-a p
       C-a C-p	   (prev)	 Switch	to the previous	window (opposite of C-
				 a n).

       C-a q
       C-a C-q	   (xon)	 Send a	control-q to the current window.

       C-a Q	   (only)	 Delete	 all regions but the current one.  See
				 also split, remove, focus.

       C-a r
       C-a C-r	   (wrap)	 Toggle	the current window's line-wrap setting
				 (turn	the current window's automatic margins
				 on and	off).

       C-a s
       C-a C-s	   (xoff)	 Send a	control-s to the current window.

       C-a S	   (split)	 Split the current  region  horizontally  into
				 two new ones.	See also only, remove, focus.

       C-a t
       C-a C-t	   (time)	 Show system information.

       C-a v	   (version)	 Display the version and compilation date.

       C-a C-v	   (digraph)	 Enter digraph.

       C-a w
       C-a C-w	   (windows)	 Show a	list of	window.

       C-a W	   (width)	 Toggle	80/132 columns.

       C-a x
       C-a C-x	   (lockscreen)	 Lock this terminal.

       C-a X	   (remove)	 Kill  the  current  region.   See also	split,
				 only, focus.

       C-a z
       C-a C-z	   (suspend)	 Suspend screen.   Your	 system	 must  support
				 BSD-style job-control.

       C-a Z	   (reset)	 Reset	the virtual terminal to	its "power-on"

       C-a .	   (dumptermcap) Write out a ".termcap"	file.

       C-a ?	   (help)	 Show key bindings.

       C-a \	   (quit)	 Kill all windows and terminate	screen.

       C-a :	   (colon)	 Enter command line mode.

       C-a [
       C-a C-[
       C-a esc	   (copy)	 Enter copy/scrollback mode.

       C-a C-]
       C-a ]	   (paste .)	 Write the contents of the paste buffer	to the
				 stdin queue of	the current window.

       C-a {
       C-a }	   (history)	 Copy and paste	a previous (command) line.

       C-a >	   (writebuf)	 Write paste buffer to a file.

       C-a <	   (readbuf)	 Reads the screen-exchange file	into the paste

       C-a =	   (removebuf)	 Removes the file used by C-a <	and C-a	>.

       C-a ,	   (license)	 Shows where screen comes from,	where it  went
				 to and	why you	can use	it.

       C-a _	   (silence)	 Start/stop  monitoring	the current window for

       C-a |	   (split -v)	 Split the current region vertically into  two
				 new ones.

       C-a *	   (displays)	 Show a	listing	of all currently attached dis-

       The "socket directory" defaults either to $HOME/.screen	or  simply  to
       /tmp/screens  or	 preferably  to	 /usr/local/screens chosen at compile-
       time. If	screen is installed setuid-root, then the administrator	should
       compile	screen with an adequate	(not NFS mounted) socket directory. If
       screen is not running setuid-root, the user can specify	any  mode  700
       directory in the	environment variable $SCREENDIR.

       When  screen  is	 invoked, it executes initialization commands from the
       files "/usr/local/etc/screenrc" and ".screenrc" in the user's home  di-
       rectory.	 These	are the	"programmer's defaults"	that can be overridden
       in the following	ways: for the global screenrc file screen searches for
       the  environment	 variable  $SYSSCREENRC	 (this override	feature	may be
       disabled	at compile-time). The user specific screenrc file is  searched
       in  $SCREENRC,  then $HOME/.screenrc.  The command line option -c takes
       precedence over the above user screenrc files.

       Commands	in these files are used	to  set	 options,  bind	 functions  to
       keys,  and to automatically establish one or more windows at the	begin-
       ning of your screen session.  Commands are listed one  per  line,  with
       empty lines being ignored.  A command's arguments are separated by tabs
       or spaces, and may be surrounded	by single or  double  quotes.	A  `#'
       turns  the rest of the line into	a comment, except in quotes.  Unintel-
       ligible lines are warned	about and ignored.  Commands may contain  ref-
       erences	to environment variables. The syntax is	the shell-like "$VAR "
       or "${VAR}". Note that this causes incompatibility with previous	screen
       versions,  as  now the '$'-character has	to be protected	with '\' if no
       variable	substitution shall be performed. A string in single-quotes  is
       also protected from variable substitution.

       Two  configuration  files are shipped as	examples with your screen dis-
       tribution: "etc/screenrc" and "etc/etcscreenrc".	They contain a	number
       of useful examples for various commands.

       Customization  can  also	 be  done 'on-line'. To	enter the command mode
       type `C-a :'. Note that commands	starting  with	"def"  change  default
       values, while others change current settings.

       The following commands are available:

       acladd usernames	[crypted-pw]
       addacl usernames

       Enable  users to	fully access this screen session. Usernames can	be one
       user or a comma separated list of users.	This command enables to	attach
       to  the screen session and performs the equivalent of `aclchg usernames
       +rwx "#?"'.  executed. To add a user with restricted  access,  use  the
       `aclchg'	 command  below.  If an	optional second	parameter is supplied,
       it should be a crypted password for the named user(s).  `Addacl'	 is  a
       synonym to `acladd'.  Multi user	mode only.

       aclchg usernames	permbits list
       chacl usernames permbits	list

       Change permissions for a	comma separated	list of	users. Permission bits
       are represented as `r', `w' and `x'. Prefixing `+' grants  the  permis-
       sion,  `-' removes it. The third	parameter is a comma separated list of
       commands	and/or windows (specified either by number or title). The spe-
       cial  list `#' refers to	all windows, `?' to all	commands. if usernames
       consists	of a single `*', all known users are affected.	A command  can
       be  executed  when  the user has	the `x'	bit for	it.  The user can type
       input to	a window when he has its `w' bit set and no other user obtains
       a  writelock  for  this	window.	 Other bits are	currently ignored.  To
       withdraw	the writelock from another user	in window 2: `aclchg  username
       -w+w 2'.	 To allow read-only access to the session: `aclchg username -w
       "#"'. As	soon as	a user's name is known to screen he can	attach to  the
       session and (per	default) has full permissions for all command and win-
       dows. Execution permission for the acl commands,	`at' and others	should
       also  be	 removed  or  the user may be able to regain write permission.
       Rights of the special username nobody cannot be changed (see  the  "su"
       command).  `Chacl' is a synonym to `aclchg'.  Multi user	mode only.

       acldel username

       Remove a	user from screen's access control list.	If currently attached,
       all the user's displays are detached from the session. He cannot	attach
       again.  Multi user mode only.

       aclgrp username [groupname]

       Creates	groups	of  users that share common access rights. The name of
       the group is the	username of the	group leader. Each member of the group
       inherits	 the  permissions  that	 are granted to	the group leader. That
       means, if a user	fails an access	check, another check is	made  for  the
       group  leader.	A  user	 is  removed from all groups the special value
       "none" is used for groupname.  If the second parameter is  omitted  all
       groups the user is in are listed.

       aclumask	[[users]+bits |[users]-bits a|.	]
       umask [[users]+bits |[users]-bits a|. ]

       This specifies the access other users have to windows that will be cre-
       ated by the caller of the command.  Users may be	no,  one  or  a	 comma
       separated list of known usernames. If no	users are specified, a list of
       all currently known users is assumed.  Bits is any combination  of  ac-
       cess  control  bits allowed defined with	the "aclchg" command. The spe-
       cial username "?" predefines the	access that not	yet known  users  will
       be  granted  to any window initially.  The special username "??"	prede-
       fines the access	that not yet known users are granted to	 any  command.
       Rights  of  the special username	nobody cannot be changed (see the "su"
       command).  `Umask' is a synonym to `aclumask'.

       activity	message

       When any	activity occurs	in a background	window	that  is  being	 moni-
       tored, screen displays a	notification in	the message line.  The notifi-
       cation message can be re-defined	by means of  the  "activity"  command.
       Each occurrence of `%' in message is replaced by	the number of the win-
       dow in which activity has occurred, and each occurrence of `^G' is  re-
       placed  by  the definition for bell in your termcap (usually an audible
       bell).  The default message is

		   'Activity in	window %n'

       Note that monitoring is off for all windows by default, but can be  al-
       tered by	use of the "monitor" command (C-a M).

       allpartial on|off

       If  set	to  on,	 only  the  current cursor line	is refreshed on	window
       change.	This affects all windows  and  is  useful  for	slow  terminal
       lines.  The previous setting of full/partial refresh for	each window is
       restored	with "allpartial off".	This is	a global flag that immediately
       takes  effect on	all windows overriding the "partial" settings. It does
       not change the default redraw behavior of newly created windows.

       altscreen on|off

       If set to on, "alternate	screen"	support	is enabled in  virtual	termi-
       nals, just like in xterm.  Initial setting is `off'.

       at [identifier][#|*|%] command [args a| ]

       Execute	a  command  at other displays or windows as if it had been en-
       tered there.  "At" changes the context (the `current window'  or	 `cur-
       rent display' setting) of the command. If the first parameter describes
       a non-unique context, the command will be executed multiple  times.  If
       the  first  parameter  is  of the form `identifier*' then identifier is
       matched against user names.  The	command	is executed once for each dis-
       play  of	 the  selected	user(s). If the	first parameter	is of the form
       `identifier%' identifier	is  matched  against  displays.	 Displays  are
       named  after the	ttys they attach. The prefix `/dev/' or	`/dev/tty' may
       be omitted from the identifier.	If identifier has a `#'	or nothing ap-
       pended  it  is  matched	against	window numbers and titles. Omitting an
       identifier in front of the `#', `*' or `%'-character selects all	users,
       displays	 or  windows because a prefix-match is performed. Note that on
       the affected display(s) a short message will  describe  what  happened.
       Permission  is  checked	for initiator of the "at" command, not for the
       owners of the affected display(s).  Note	that the '#'  character	 works
       as  a comment introducer	when it	is preceded by whitespace. This	can be
       escaped by prefixing a '\'.  Permission is checked for the initiator of
       the "at"	command, not for the owners of the affected display(s).
       Caveat: When matching against windows, the command is executed at least
       once per	window.	Commands that change the internal arrangement of  win-
       dows  (like "other") may	be called again. In shared windows the command
       will be repeated	for each attached display. Beware, when	issuing	toggle
       commands	 like  "login"!	 Some commands (e.g. "process")	require	that a
       display is associated with the target windows.  These commands may  not
       work correctly under "at" looping over windows.

       attrcolor attrib	[attribute/color-modifier]

       This  command can be used to highlight attributes by changing the color
       of the text. If the attribute attrib is in use,	the  specified	attri-
       bute/color  modifier is also applied. If	no modifier is given, the cur-
       rent one	is deleted. See	the "STRING ESCAPES" chapter for the syntax of
       the  modifier. Screen understands two pseudo-attributes,	"i" stands for
       high-intensity foreground color and "I" for  high-intensity  background


	      attrcolor	b "R"

       Change the color	to bright red if bold text is to be printed.

	      attrcolor	u "-u b"

       Use blue	text instead of	underline.

	      attrcolor	b ".I"

       Use  bright  colors  for	bold text. Most	terminal emulators do this al-

	      attrcolor	i "+b"

       Make bright colored text	also bold.

       autodetach on|off

       Sets whether screen will	automatically detach upon hangup, which	 saves
       all  your running programs until	they are resumed with a	screen -r com-
       mand.  When turned off, a hangup	signal will terminate screen  and  all
       the processes it	contains. Autodetach is	on by default.

       autonuke	on|off

       Sets  whether  a	 clear screen sequence should nuke all the output that
       has not been written to the terminal. See also "obuflimit".

       backtick	id lifespan autorefresh	cmd args_a|
       backtick	id

       Program the backtick command with the numerical id id.  The  output  of
       such  a command is used for substitution	of the "%`" string escape. The
       specified lifespan is the number	of seconds the	output	is  considered
       valid.  After  this  time,  the command is run again if a corresponding
       string escape is	encountered.  The autorefresh  parameter  triggers  an
       automatic  refresh  for caption and hardstatus strings after the	speci-
       fied number of seconds. Only the	last line of output is used  for  sub-
       If both the lifespan and	the autorefresh	parameters are zero, the back-
       tick program is expected	to stay	in the background and generate	output
       once  in	a while.  In this case,	the command is executed	right away and
       screen stores the last line of output.  If  a  new  line	 gets  printed
       screen will automatically refresh the hardstatus	or the captions.
       The  second  form  of the command deletes the backtick command with the
       numerical id id.

       bce [on|off]

       Change background-color-erase setting. If "bce" is set to on, all char-
       acters  cleared	by an erase/insert/scroll/clear	operation will be dis-
       played in the current background	color.	Otherwise  the	default	 back-
       ground color is used.

       bell_msg	[message]

       When a bell character is	sent to	a background window, screen displays a
       notification in the message line.  The notification message can be  re-
       defined by this command.	 Each occurrence of `%'	in message is replaced
       by the number of	the window to which a bell has been sent, and each oc-
       currence	of `^G'	is replaced by the definition for bell in your termcap
       (usually	an audible bell).  The default message is

		   'Bell in window %n'

       An empty	message	can be supplied	to the "bell_msg" command to  suppress
       output of a message line	(bell_msg "").	Without	parameter, the current
       message is shown.

       bind [-c	class] key [command [args]]

       Bind a command to a key.	 By default, most of the commands provided  by
       screen  are  bound to one or more keys as indicated in the "DEFAULT KEY
       BINDINGS" section, e.g. the command to create a new window is bound  to
       "C-c"  and  "c".	  The  "bind"  command can be used to redefine the key
       bindings	and to define new bindings.  The key argument is either	a sin-
       gle  character,	a two-character	sequence of the	form "^x" (meaning "C-
       x"), a backslash	followed by an octal number (specifying	the ASCII code
       of  the character), or a	backslash followed by a	second character, such
       as "\^" or "\\".	 The argument can also be quoted, if you like.	If  no
       further	argument is given, any previously established binding for this
       key is removed.	The command argument can be any	command	listed in this

       If  a  command class is specified via the "-c" option, the key is bound
       for the specified class.	Use the	"command" command to activate a	class.
       Command	classes	 can be	used to	create multiple	command	keys or	multi-
       character bindings.

       Some examples:

		   bind	' ' windows
		   bind	^k
		   bind	k
		   bind	K kill
		   bind	^f screen telnet foobar
		   bind	\033 screen -ln	-t root	-h 1000	9 su

       would bind the space key	to the command that displays a list of windows
       (so  that the command usually invoked by	"C-a C-w" would	also be	avail-
       able as "C-a space"). The next three  lines  remove  the	 default  kill
       binding	from "C-a C-k" and "C-a	k".  "C-a K" is	then bound to the kill
       command.	Then it	binds "C-f" to the command "create  a  window  with  a
       TELNET  connection  to  foobar",	 and bind "escape" to the command that
       creates an non-login window with	a.k.a. "root" in slot #9, with a supe-
       ruser shell and a scrollback buffer of 1000 lines.

		   bind	-c demo1 0 select 10
		   bind	-c demo1 1 select 11
		   bind	-c demo1 2 select 12
		   bindkey "^B"	command	-c demo1

       makes "C-b 0" select window 10, "C-b 1" window 11, etc.

		   bind	-c demo2 0 select 10
		   bind	-c demo2 1 select 11
		   bind	-c demo2 2 select 12
		   bind	- command -c demo2

       makes "C-a - 0" select window 10, "C-a -	1" window 11, etc.

       bindkey [-d] [-m] [-a] [[-k|-t] string [cmd args]]

       This  command manages screen's input translation	tables.	Every entry in
       one of the tables tells screen how to react if a	 certain  sequence  of
       characters is encountered. There	are three tables: one that should con-
       tain actions programmed by the user, one	for the	default	 actions  used
       for  terminal  emulation	 and  one  for screen's	copy mode to do	cursor
       movement. See section "INPUT TRANSLATION" for a	list  of  default  key
       If  the	-d  option  is	given,	bindkey	modifies the default table, -m
       changes the copy	mode table and with neither option the user  table  is
       selected.   The	argument string	is the sequence	of characters to which
       an action is bound. This	can either be a	fixed string or	a termcap key-
       board capability	name (selectable with the -k option).
       Some  keys  on a	VT100 terminal can send	a different string if applica-
       tion mode is turned on (e.g the cursor keys).  Such keys	have  two  en-
       tries in	the translation	table. You can select the application mode en-
       try by specifying the -a	option.
       The -t option tells screen not to do inter-character timing. One	cannot
       turn off	the timing if a	termcap	capability is used.
       Cmd  can	 be any	of screen's commands with an arbitrary number of args.
       If cmd is omitted the key-binding is removed from the table.
       Here are	some examples of keyboard bindings:

	       bindkey -d
       Show all	of the default key bindings. The application mode entries  are
       marked with [A].

	       bindkey -k k1 select 1
       Make the	"F1" key switch	to window one.

	       bindkey -t foo stuff barfoo
       Make "foo" an abbreviation of the word "barfoo".	Timeout	is disabled so
       that users can type slowly.

	       bindkey "\024" mapdefault
       This key-binding	makes "^T" an escape character	for  key-bindings.  If
       you  did	the above "stuff barfoo" binding, you can enter	the word "foo"
       by typing "^Tfoo". If you want to insert	a "^T" you have	to  press  the
       key twice (i.e.,	escape the escape binding).

	       bindkey -k F1 command
       Make the	F11 (not F1!) key an alternative screen	escape (besides	^A).

       break [duration]

       Send a break signal for duration*0.25 seconds to	this window.  For non-
       Posix systems the time interval may be  rounded	up  to	full  seconds.
       Most useful if a	character device is attached to	the window rather than
       a shell process (See also chapter "WINDOW TYPES"). The maximum duration
       of a break signal is limited to 15 seconds.


       Activate	the screen blanker. First the screen is	cleared. If no blanker
       program is defined, the cursor is turned	off, otherwise,	the program is
       started	and  it's output is written to the screen.  The	screen blanker
       is killed with the first	keypress, the read key is discarded.
       This command is normally	used together with the "idle" command.

       blankerprg [program args]

       Defines a blanker program. Disables the blanker program if an empty ar-
       gument  is  given.  Shows the currently set blanker program if no argu-
       ments are given.

       breaktype [tcsendbreak|TIOCSBRK |TCSBRK]

       Choose one of the available methods of generating a  break  signal  for
       terminal	 devices.  This	command	should affect the current window only.
       But it still behaves identical to "defbreaktype". This will be  changed
       in  the	future.	  Calling  "breaktype"	with no	parameter displays the
       break method for	the current window.

       bufferfile [exchange-file]

       Change the filename used	for reading and	writing	with the paste buffer.
       If  the	optional  argument to the "bufferfile" command is omitted, the
       default setting ("/tmp/screen-exchange")	is reactivated.	 The following
       example	will  paste  the system's password file	into the screen	window
       (using the paste	buffer,	where a	copy remains):

		   C-a : bufferfile /etc/passwd
		   C-a < C-a ]
		   C-a : bufferfile


       Swaps window with previous one on window	list.


       Swaps window with next one on window list.

       c1 [on|off]

       Change c1 code processing. "C1 on" tells	 screen	 to  treat  the	 input
       characters  between  128	 and  159 as control functions.	 Such an 8-bit
       code is normally	the same as ESC	followed by  the  corresponding	 7-bit
       code.  The  default  setting  is	to process c1 codes and	can be changed
       with the	"defc1"	command.  Users	with fonts that	have usable characters
       in the c1 positions may want to turn this off.

       caption always|splitonly	[string]
       caption string [string]

       This  command  controls	the display of the window captions. Normally a
       caption is only used if more than one window is shown  on  the  display
       (split  screen  mode).  But if the type is set to always	screen shows a
       caption even if only one	window is displayed. The default is splitonly.

       The second form changes the text	used for the caption. You can use  all
       escapes	from  the  "STRING  ESCAPES" chapter. Screen uses a default of
       `%3n %t'.

       You can mix both	forms by providing a string as an additional argument.

       charset set

       Change the current character set	slot designation and charset  mapping.
       The  first  four	 character  of	set are	treated	as charset designators
       while the fifth and sixth character must	be in range '0'	to '3' and set
       the GL/GR charset mapping. On every position a '.' may be used to indi-
       cate that the corresponding charset/mapping should not be changed  (set
       is  padded  to  six characters internally by appending '.'  chars). New
       windows have "BBBB02" as	default	charset, unless	a  "encoding"  command
       is active.
       The current setting can be viewed with the "info" command.

       chdir [directory]

       Change  the  current directory of screen	to the specified directory or,
       if called without an argument, to your home directory (the value	of the
       environment  variable $HOME).  All windows that are created by means of
       the "screen" command from within	".screenrc" or	by  means  of  "C-a  :
       screen  a|"  or "C-a c" use this	as their default directory.  Without a
       chdir command, this would be the	directory from which  screen  was  in-
       voked.	Hardcopy  and log files	are always written to the window's de-
       fault directory,	not the	current	directory of the  process  running  in
       the  window.  You can use this command multiple times in	your .screenrc
       to start	various	windows	in different default directories, but the last
       chdir value will	affect all the windows you create interactively.

       cjkwidth	[ on | off ]

       Treat ambiguous width characters	as full/half width.


       Clears the current window and saves its image to	the scrollback buffer.


       Reorders	window on window list, removing	number gaps between them.

       colon [prefix]

       Allows  you  to	enter ".screenrc" command lines. Useful	for on-the-fly
       modification of key bindings, specific  window  creation	 and  changing
       settings.  Note	that  the "set"	keyword	no longer exists! Usually com-
       mands affect the	current	window rather than default settings for	future
       windows.	Change defaults	with commands starting with 'defa|'.

       If you consider this as the `Ex command mode' of	screen,	you may	regard
       "C-a esc" (copy mode) as	its `Vi	command	mode'.

       command [-c class]

       This command has	the same effect	as typing the screen escape  character
       (^A).  It is probably only useful for key bindings.  If the "-c"	option
       is given, select	the specified command  class.	See  also  "bind"  and

       compacthist [on|off]

       This  tells  screen  whether  to	 suppress  trailing  blank  lines when
       scrolling up text into the history buffer.

       console [on|off]

       Grabs or	un-grabs the machines console output to	a window.  Note:  Only
       the owner of /dev/console can grab the console output.  This command is
       only available if the machine supports the ioctl	TIOCCONS.


       Enter copy/scrollback mode. This	allows you to copy text	from the  cur-
       rent  window  and its history into the paste buffer. In this mode a vi-
       like `full screen editor' is active:
       Movement	keys:
	 h, C-h, or left arrow move the	cursor left.
	 j, C-n, or down arrow move the	cursor down.
	 k, C-p, or up arrow move the cursor up.
	 l ('el') or right arrow move the cursor right.
	 0 (zero) or C-a move to the leftmost column.
	 + and - positions one line up and down.
	 H, M and L move the cursor to the leftmost column of the top,	center
	   or bottom line of the window.
	 | moves to the	specified absolute column.
	 g or home moves to the	beginning of the buffer.
	 G  or	end moves to the specified absolute line (default: end of buf-
	 % jumps to the	specified percentage of	the buffer.
	 ^ or $	move to	the leftmost column, to	the first or  last  non-white-
	   space character on the line.
	 w, b, and e move the cursor word by word.
	 B, E move the cursor WORD by WORD (as in vi).
	 f/F,  t/T  move  the cursor forward/backward to the next occurence of
	   the target. (eg, '3fy' will move the	cursor to the 3rd 'y'  to  the
	 ;  and	 , Repeat the last f/F/t/T command in the same/opposite	direc-
	 C-e and C-y scroll the	display	up/down	by one line  while  preserving
	   the cursor position.
	 C-u  and  C-d	scroll	the display up/down by the specified amount of
	   lines while preserving the cursor position. (Default: half  screen-
	 C-b and C-f scroll the	display	up/down	a full screen.

	   Emacs style movement	keys can be customized by a .screenrc command.
	   (E.g. markkeys "h=^B:l=^F:$=^E") There is no	simple	method	for  a
	   full	emacs-style keymap, as this involves multi-character codes.

	   The	copy range is specified	by setting two marks. The text between
	   these marks will be highlighted. Press:
	 space or enter	to set the  first  or  second  mark  respectively.  If
	   mousetrack  is  set to `on',	marks can also be set using left mouse
	 Y and y used to mark one whole	line or	to mark	from start of line.
	 W marks exactly one word.
       Repeat count:
	   Any of these	commands can be	prefixed with a	repeat count number by
	   pressing digits
	 0..9 which is taken as	a repeat count.
	   Example:  "C-a  C-[	H  10 j	5 Y" will copy lines 11	to 15 into the
	   paste buffer.
	 / Vi-like search forward.
	 ? Vi-like search backward.
	 C-a s Emacs style incremental search forward.
	 C-r Emacs style reverse i-search.
	 n Find	next search pattern.
	 N Find	previous search	pattern.
	   There are however some keys that act	differently than  in  vi.   Vi
	   does	 not  allow one	to yank	rectangular blocks of text, but	screen
	   does. Press:
	 c or C	to set the left	or right margin	 respectively.	If  no	repeat
	   count is given, both	default	to the current cursor position.
	   Example: Try	this on	a rather full text screen: "C-a	[ M 20 l SPACE
	   c 10	l 5 j C	SPACE".

	   This	moves one to the middle	line of	the screen, moves in  20  col-
	   umns	 left,	marks the beginning of the paste buffer, sets the left
	   column, moves 5 columns down, sets the right	column,	and then marks
	   the end of the paste	buffer.	Now try:
	   "C-a	[ M 20 l SPACE 10 l 5 j	SPACE"

	   and notice the difference in	the amount of text copied.
	 J  joins lines. It toggles between 4 modes: lines separated by	a new-
	   line	character (012), lines glued seamless, lines  separated	 by  a
	   single  whitespace  and  comma  separated  lines. Note that you can
	   prepend the newline character with a	carriage return	character,  by
	   issuing a "crlf on".
	 v  or	V is for all the vi users with ":set numbers" -	it toggles the
	   left	margin between column 9	and 1. Press
	 a before the final space key to toggle	in append mode.	Thus the  con-
	   tents  of the paste buffer will not be overwritten, but is appended
	 A toggles in append mode and sets a (second) mark.
	 > sets	the (second) mark and writes the contents of the paste	buffer
	   to the screen-exchange file (/tmp/screen-exchange per default) once
	   copy-mode is	finished.
	   This	example	demonstrates how to dump the whole  scrollback	buffer
	   to that file: "C-A [	g SPACE	G $ >".
	 C-g gives information about the current line and column.
	 x  or o exchanges the first mark and the current cursor position. You
	   can use this	to adjust an already placed mark.
	 C-l ('el') will redraw	the screen.
	 @ does	nothing. Does not even exit copy mode.
	 All keys not described	here exit copy mode.

       copy_reg	[key]

       No longer exists, use "readreg" instead.

       crlf [on|off]

       This affects the	copying	of text	regions	with the `C-a ['  command.  If
       it  is  set  to	`on', lines will be separated by the two character se-
       quence `CR' - `LF'.  Otherwise (default)	only `LF' is  used.   When  no
       parameter is given, the state is	toggled.

       debug on|off

       Turns runtime debugging on or off. If screen has	been compiled with op-
       tion -DDEBUG debugging available	and is turned  on  per	default.  Note
       that  this command only affects debugging output	from the main "SCREEN"
       process correctly. Debug	output from attacher  processes	 can  only  be
       turned off once and forever.

       defc1 on|off

       Same  as	the c1 command except that the default setting for new windows
       is changed. Initial setting is `on'.

       defautonuke on|off

       Same as the autonuke command except that	the default  setting  for  new
       displays	 is  changed. Initial setting is `off'.	 Note that you can use
       the special `AN'	terminal capability if you want	to have	 a  dependency
       on the terminal type.

       defbce on|off

       Same as the bce command except that the default setting for new windows
       is changed. Initial setting is `off'.

       defbreaktype [tcsendbreak|TIOCSBRK |TCSBRK]

       Choose one of the available methods of generating a  break  signal  for
       terminal	 devices.  The preferred methods are tcsendbreak and TIOCSBRK.
       The third, TCSBRK, blocks the complete screen session for the  duration
       of  the break, but it may be the	only way to generate long breaks.  Tc-
       sendbreak and TIOCSBRK may or may not produce long breaks  with	spikes
       (e.g.  4	per second). This is not only system-dependent,	this also dif-
       fers between serial board drivers.  Calling "defbreaktype" with no  pa-
       rameter displays	the current setting.

       defcharset [set]

       Like  the  charset command except that the default setting for new win-
       dows is changed.	Shows current default if called	without	argument.

       defdynamictitle on|off

       Set default behaviour for new windows regarding if screen should	change
       window title when seeing	proper escape sequence.	See also "TITLES (nam-
       ing windows)" section.

       defescape xy

       Set the default command characters. This	is equivalent to the  "escape"
       except  that  it	is useful multiuser sessions only. In a	multiuser ses-
       sion "escape" changes the command character of the calling user,	 where
       "defescape"  changes the	default	command	characters for users that will
       be added	later.

       defflow on|off|auto [interrupt]

       Same as the flow	command	except that the	default	setting	for  new  win-
       dows  is	 changed. Initial setting is `auto'.  Specifying "defflow auto
       interrupt" is the same as the command-line options -fa and -i.

       defgr on|off

       Same as the gr command except that the default setting for new  windows
       is changed. Initial setting is `off'.

       defhstatus [status]

       The  hardstatus	line  that  all	new windows will get is	set to status.
       This command is useful to make the hardstatus of	every  window  display
       the  window  number  or title or	the like.  Status may contain the same
       directives as in	the window messages, but the directive escape  charac-
       ter is '^E' (octal 005) instead of '%'.	This was done to make a	misin-
       terpretation of program generated hardstatus lines impossible.  If  the
       parameter  status  is omitted, the current default string is displayed.
       Per default the hardstatus line of new windows is empty.

       defencoding enc

       Same as the encoding command except that	the default  setting  for  new
       windows is changed. Initial setting is the encoding taken from the ter-

       deflog on|off

       Same as the log command except that the default setting for new windows
       is changed. Initial setting is `off'.

       deflogin	on|off

       Same  as	the login command except that the default setting for new win-
       dows is changed.	This is	initialized with `on' as distributed (see con-

       defmode mode

       The mode	of each	newly allocated	pseudo-tty is set to mode.  Mode is an
       octal number.  When no "defmode"	command	is given, mode 0622 is used.

       defmonitor on|off

       Same as the monitor command except that the  default  setting  for  new
       windows is changed. Initial setting is `off'.

       defmousetrack on|off

       Same  as	the mousetrack command except that the default setting for new
       windows is changed. Initial setting is `off'.

       defnonblock on|off|numsecs

       Same as the nonblock command except that	the default setting  for  dis-
       plays is	changed. Initial setting is `off'.

       defobuflimit limit

       Same  as	 the obuflimit command except that the default setting for new
       displays	is changed. Initial setting is 256 bytes.  Note	that  you  can
       use  the	 special 'OL' terminal capability if you want to have a	depen-
       dency on	the terminal type.

       defscrollback num

       Same as the scrollback command except that the default setting for  new
       windows is changed. Initial setting is 100.

       defshell	command

       Synonym to the shell .screenrc command. See there.

       defsilence on|off

       Same  as	 the  silence  command except that the default setting for new
       windows is changed. Initial setting is `off'.

       defslowpaste msec"

       Same as the slowpaste command except that the default setting  for  new
       windows is changed. Initial setting is 0	milliseconds, meaning `off'.

       defutf8 on|off

       Same  as	 the utf8 command except that the default setting for new win-
       dows is changed.	Initial	setting	is `on'	if  screen  was	 started  with
       "-U", otherwise `off'.

       defwrap on|off

       Same  as	 the wrap command except that the default setting for new win-
       dows is changed.	Initially line-wrap is on and can be toggled with  the
       "wrap" command ("C-a r")	or by means of "C-a : wrap on|off".

       defwritelock on|off|auto

       Same  as	 the writelock command except that the default setting for new
       windows is changed. Initially writelocks	will off.

       defzombie [keys]

       Synonym to the zombie command. Both currently change the	default.   See

       detach [-h]

       Detach  the  screen session (disconnect it from the terminal and	put it
       into the	background).  This returns you to the shell where you  invoked
       screen.	 A  detached screen can	be resumed by invoking screen with the
       -r option (see also section  "COMMAND-LINE  OPTIONS").  The  -h	option
       tells  screen  to  immediately  close  the  connection  to the terminal


       Show what screen	thinks about your terminal. Useful if you want to know
       why features like color or the alternate	charset	don't work.


       Shows  a	 tabular  listing  of  all currently connected user front-ends
       (displays).  This is most useful	for multiuser sessions.	 The following
       keys can	be used	in displays list:
	 k, C-p, or up Move up one line.
	 j, C-n, or down Move down one line.
	 C-a or	home Move to the first line.
	 C-e or	end Move to the	last line.
	 C-u or	C-d Move one half page up or down.
	 C-b or	C-f Move one full page up or down.
	 mouseclick  Move to the selected line.	Available when "mousetrack" is
	   set to on.
	 space Refresh the list
	 d Detach that display
	 D Power detach	that display
	 C-g, enter, or	escape Exit the	list

       The following is	an example of what "displays" could look like:

	      xterm 80x42 jnweiger@/dev/ttyp4	  0(m11)   &rWx
	      facit 80x24 mlschroe@/dev/ttyhf nb 11(tcsh)   rwx
	      xterm 80x42 jnhollma@/dev/ttyp5	  0(m11)   &R.x
	       (A)   (B)     (C)     (D)     (E) (F)(G)	  (H)(I)

       The legend is as	follows:
       (A) The terminal	type known by screen for this display.
       (B) Displays geometry as	width x	height.
       (C) Username who	is logged in at	the display.
       (D) Device name of the display or the attached device
       (E) Display is in blocking or nonblocking mode. The available modes are
       "nb", "NB", "Z<", "Z>", and "BL".
       (F) Number of the window
       (G) Name/title of window
       (H) Whether the window is shared
       (I) Window permissions. Made up of three	characters:
	     (1st character)
		a-a : no read
		ara : read
		aRa : read only	due to foreign wlock
	     (2nd character)
		a-a : no write
		a.a : write suppressed by foreign wlock
		awa : write
		aWa : own wlock
	     (3rd character)
		a-a : no execute
		axa : execute

       "Displays"  needs  a  region  size of at	least 10 characters wide and 5
       characters high in order	to display.

       digraph [preset[unicode-value]]

       This command prompts the	user for a  digraph  sequence.	The  next  two
       characters  typed  are  looked  up in a builtin table and the resulting
       character is inserted in	the input stream. For example, if the user en-
       ters 'a"', an a-umlaut will be inserted.	If the first character entered
       is a 0 (zero), screen will treat	the following characters (up to	three)
       as an octal number instead.  The	optional argument preset is treated as
       user input, thus	one can	create an "umlaut" key.	 For example the  com-
       mand  "bindkey ^K digraph '"'" enables the user to generate an a-umlaut
       by typing CTRL-K	a.  When a non-zero unicode-value is specified,	a  new
       digraph is created with the specified preset. The digraph is unset if a
       zero value is provided for the unicode-value.


       Write the termcap entry for the virtual terminal	optimized for the cur-
       rently	active	 window	  to   the   file  ".termcap"  in  the	user's
       "$HOME/.screen" directory (or wherever screen stores its	 sockets.  See
       the  "FILES"  section  below).	This termcap entry is identical	to the
       value of	the environment	variable $TERMCAP that is set up by screen for
       each  window.  For  terminfo  based systems you will need to run	a con-
       verter like captoinfo and then compile the entry	with tic.

       dynamictitle on|off

       Change behaviour	for windows regarding if screen	should	change	window
       title when seeing proper	escape sequence. See also "TITLES (naming win-
       dows)" section.

       echo [-n] message

       The echo	command	may be used to annoy screen users with a  'message  of
       the day'. Typically installed in	a global /local/etc/screenrc.  The op-
       tion "-n" may be	used to	suppress the line  feed.   See	also  "sleep".
       Echo is also useful for online checking of environment variables.

       encoding	enc [enc]

       Tell  screen how	to interpret the input/output. The first argument sets
       the encoding of the current window. Each	window can emulate a different
       encoding.  The optional second parameter	overwrites the encoding	of the
       connected terminal. It should never be needed as	screen uses the	locale
       setting to detect the encoding.	There is also a	way to select a	termi-
       nal encoding depending on the terminal type by using the	 "KJ"  termcap

       Supported  encodings  are eucJP,	SJIS, eucKR, eucCN, Big5, GBK, KOI8-R,
       CP1251, UTF-8, ISO8859-2, ISO8859-3, ISO8859-4,	ISO8859-5,  ISO8859-6,
       ISO8859-7, ISO8859-8, ISO8859-9,	ISO8859-10, ISO8859-15,	jis.

       See also	"defencoding", which changes the default setting of a new win-

       escape xy

       Set the command character to x and the character	generating  a  literal
       command	character  (by triggering the "meta" command) to y (similar to
       the -e option).	Each argument is either	a  single  character,  a  two-
       character  sequence  of the form	"^x" (meaning "C-x"), a	backslash fol-
       lowed by	an octal number	(specifying the	ASCII code of the  character),
       or  a  backslash	 followed by a second character, such as "\^" or "\\".
       The default is "^Aa".

       eval command1 [command2 _a|]

       Parses and executes each	argument as separate command.

       exec [[fdpat] newcommand	[args _a|]]

       Run a unix subprocess (specified	by an executable path  newcommand  and
       its optional arguments) in the current window. The flow of data between
       newcommands stdin/stdout/stderr,	the process originally started in  the
       window  (let  us	call it	"application-process") and screen itself (win-
       dow) is controlled by the file descriptor pattern fdpat.	 This  pattern
       is  basically a three character sequence	representing stdin, stdout and
       stderr of newcommand. A dot (.) connects	the file descriptor to screen.
       An  exclamation	mark (!) causes	the file descriptor to be connected to
       the application-process.	A colon	(:) combines both.  User input will go
       to  newcommand unless newcommand	receives the application-process' out-
       put (fdpats first character is `!' or `:') or  a	 pipe  symbol  (|)  is
       added (as a fourth character) to	the end	of fdpat.
       Invoking	 `exec'	without	arguments shows	name and arguments of the cur-
       rently running subprocess in this window. Only one  subprocess  a  time
       can be running in each window.
       When  a subprocess is running the `kill'	command	will affect it instead
       of the windows process.
       Refer to	the postscript file `doc/' for a  confusing  illustra-
       tion  of	 all  21  possible combinations. Each drawing shows the	digits
       2,1,0 representing the three file descriptors of	 newcommand.  The  box
       marked  `W'  is	the  usual pty that has	the application-process	on its
       slave side.  The	box marked `P' is  the	secondary  pty	that  now  has
       screen at its master side.

       Whitespace  between  the	 word  `exec' and fdpat	and the	command	can be
       omitted.	Trailing dots and a fdpat consisting only of dots can be omit-
       ted.  A	simple `|' is synonymous for the pattern `!..|'; the word exec
       can be omitted here and can always be replaced by `!'.


	      exec a| /bin/sh
	      exec /bin/sh

       Creates another shell in	the same window, while the original  shell  is
       still  running.	Output	of  both shells	is displayed and user input is
       sent to the new /bin/sh.

	      exec !.. stty 19200
	      exec ! stty 19200
	      !!stty 19200

       Set the speed of	the window's tty. If your  stty	 command  operates  on
       stdout, then add	another	`!'.

	      exec !..|	less

       This  adds  a  pager to the window output. The special character	`|' is
       needed to give the user control over the	pager although it gets its in-
       put  from  the  window's	 process.  This	works, because less listens on
       stderr (a behavior that screen would not	expect without the  `|')  when
       its  stdin  is  not a tty.  Less	versions newer than 177	fail miserably
       here; good old pg still works.

	      !:sed -n s/.*Error.*/\007/p

       Sends window output to both, the	user and the sed command. The sed  in-
       serts an	additional bell	character (oct.	007) to	the window output seen
       by screen.  This	will cause "Bell in window x" messages,	 whenever  the
       string "Error" appears in the window.


       Change  the window size to the size of the current region. This command
       is needed because screen	doesn't	adapt the window size automatically if
       the window is displayed more than once.

       flow [on|off|auto]

       Sets  the flow-control mode for this window.  Without parameters	it cy-
       cles the	current	window's flow-control setting from "automatic" to "on"
       to  "off".  See the discussion on "FLOW-CONTROL"	later on in this docu-
       ment for	full details and note, that this is subject to change  in  fu-
       ture releases.  Default is set by `defflow'.

       focus [up|down|top|bottom]

       Move  the  input	focus to the next region. This is done in a cyclic way
       so that the top region is selected after	the bottom one.	If no  subcom-
       mand is given it	defaults to `down'. `up' cycles	in the opposite	order,
       `top' and `bottom' go to	the top	and bottom region respectively.	Useful
       bindings	are (j and k as	in vi)
	   bind	j focus	down
	   bind	k focus	up
	   bind	t focus	top
	   bind	b focus	bottom
       Note that k is traditionally bound to the kill command.

       focusminsize [ (	width|max|_ ) (	height|max|_ ) ]

       This  forces  any currently selected region to be automatically resized
       at least	a certain width	and height. All	other surrounding regions will
       be  resized in order to accommodate.  This constraint follows everytime
       the "focus" command is used. The	"resize" command can be	 used  to  in-
       crease  either  dimension of a region, but never	below what is set with
       "focusminsize". The underscore `_' is a	synonym	 for  max.  Setting  a
       width and height	of `0 0' (zero zero) will undo any constraints and al-
       low for manual resizing.	 Without any parameters, the minimum width and
       height is shown.

       gr [on|off]

       Turn GR charset switching on/off. Whenever screen sees an input charac-
       ter with	the 8th	bit set, it will use the charset stored	in the GR slot
       and  print  the	character  with	the 8th	bit stripped. The default (see
       also "defgr") is	not to process	GR  switching  because	otherwise  the
       ISO88591	charset	would not work.

       group [grouptitle]

       Change  or show the group the current window belongs to.	Windows	can be
       moved around between different groups by	specifying  the	 name  of  the
       destination group. Without specifying a group, the title	of the current
       group is	displayed.

       hardcopy	[-h] [file]

       Writes out the currently	displayed image	to the file file,  or,	if  no
       filename	 is specified, to hardcopy.n in	the default directory, where n
       is the number of	the current window.  This either appends or overwrites
       the  file if it exists. See below.  If the option -h is specified, dump
       also the	contents of the	scrollback buffer.

       hardcopy_append on|off

       If set to "on", screen will append to the "hardcopy.n" files created by
       the  command  "C-a h", otherwise	these files are	overwritten each time.
       Default is `off'.

       hardcopydir directory

       Defines a directory where hardcopy files	 will  be  placed.  If	unset,
       hardcopys are dumped in screen's	current	working	directory.

       hardstatus [on|off]
       hardstatus [always]firstline|lastline|message|ignore [string]
       hardstatus string [string]

       This  command  configures the use and emulation of the terminal's hard-
       status line. The	first form toggles whether screen will use  the	 hard-
       ware  status  line  to  display	messages. If the flag is set to	`off',
       these messages are overlaid in reverse video mode at the	display	 line.
       The default setting is `on'.

       The  second form	tells screen what to do	if the terminal	doesn't	have a
       hardstatus line (i.e. the  termcap/terminfo  capabilities  "hs",	 "ts",
       "fs"  and "ds" are not set).  When "firstline/lastline" is used,	screen
       will reserve the	first/last line	of the	display	 for  the  hardstatus.
       "message"  uses	screen's  message  mechanism and "ignore" tells	screen
       never to	display	the hardstatus.	 If you	prepend	the word  "always"  to
       the type	(e.g., "alwayslastline"), screen will use the type even	if the
       terminal	supports a hardstatus.

       The third form specifies	the contents of	the hardstatus line.  '%h'  is
       used as default string, i.e., the stored	hardstatus of the current win-
       dow (settable via "ESC]0;<string>^G"  or	 "ESC_<string>ESC\")  is  dis-
       played.	 You  can  customize this to any string	you like including the
       escapes from the	"STRING	ESCAPES" chapter. If you leave out  the	 argu-
       ment string, the	current	string is displayed.

       You  can	mix the	second and third form by providing the string as addi-
       tional argument.

       height [-w|-d] [lines [cols]]

       Set the display height to a specified number of lines. When no argument
       is given	it toggles between 24 and 42 lines display. You	can also spec-
       ify a width if you want to change both values.	The  -w	 option	 tells
       screen  to  leave  the  display	size unchanged and just	set the	window
       size, -d	vice versa.

       help [-c	class]

       Not really a online help, but displays a	help screen  showing  you  all
       the  key	bindings.  The first pages list	all the	internal commands fol-
       lowed by	their current bindings.	 Subsequent  pages  will  display  the
       custom  commands,  one  command	per key.  Press	space when you're done
       reading each page, or return to exit early.  All	other  characters  are
       ignored.	 If  the  "-c" option is given,	display	all bound commands for
       the specified command class.  See also "DEFAULT KEY BINDINGS" section.


       Usually users work with a shell that allows  easy  access  to  previous
       commands.  For example csh has the command "!!" to repeat the last com-
       mand executed.  Screen allows you to have a primitive way of re-calling
       "the  command  that started a|":	You just type the first	letter of that
       command,	then hit `C-a {' and screen tries to find a previous line that
       matches	with  the  `prompt  character' to the left of the cursor. This
       line is pasted into this	window's input queue.  Thus you	have  a	 crude
       command	history	(made up by the	visible	window and its scrollback buf-

       hstatus status

       Change the window's hardstatus line to the string status.

       idle [timeout [cmd args]]

       Sets a command that is run after	the specified number of	seconds	 inac-
       tivity  is reached. This	command	will normally be the "blanker" command
       to create a screen blanker, but it can be any screen  command.	If  no
       command	is  specified,	only the timeout is set. A timeout of zero (or
       the special timeout off)	disables  the  timer.	If  no	arguments  are
       given, the current settings are displayed.

       ignorecase [on|off]

       Tell  screen  to	 ignore	the case of characters in searches. Default is
       `off'. Without any options, the state of	ignorecase is toggled.


       Uses the	message	line to	display	some  information  about  the  current
       window:	the  cursor  position in the form "(column,row)" starting with
       "(1,1)",	the terminal width and height plus the size of the  scrollback
       buffer  in  lines,  like	 in  "(80,24)+50", the current state of	window
       XON/XOFF	flow control is	shown like this	(See also  section  FLOW  CON-

	 +flow	   automatic flow control, currently on.
	 -flow	   automatic flow control, currently off.
	 +(+)flow  flow	control	enabled. Agrees	with automatic control.
	 -(+)flow  flow	control	disabled. Disagrees with automatic control.
	 +(-)flow  flow	control	enabled. Disagrees with	automatic control.
	 -(-)flow  flow	control	disabled. Agrees with automatic	control.

       The  current line wrap setting (`+wrap' indicates enabled, `-wrap' not)
       is also shown. The flags	`ins', `org', `app', `log', `mon'  or  `nored'
       are  displayed when the window is in insert mode, origin	mode, applica-
       tion-keypad mode, has output logging, activity  monitoring  or  partial
       redraw enabled.

       The  currently  active  character set (G0, G1, G2, or G3) and in	square
       brackets	the terminal character sets that are currently	designated  as
       G0  through  G3	is  shown.  If the window is in	UTF-8 mode, the	string
       "UTF-8" is shown	instead.

       Additional modes	depending on the type of the window are	 displayed  at
       the end of the status line (See also chapter "WINDOW TYPES").
       If  the	state  machine	of  the	 terminal emulator is in a non-default
       state, the info line is started with a string identifying  the  current
       For system information use the "time" command.

       ins_reg [key]

       No longer exists, use "paste" instead.


       Kill current window.
       If  there is an `exec' command running then it is killed. Otherwise the
       process (shell) running in the window receives a	HANGUP condition,  the
       window  structure  is removed and screen	(your display) switches	to an-
       other window.  When the last window is destroyed, screen	exits.	 After
       a kill screen switches to the previously	displayed window.
       Note:  Emacs  users  should  keep  this command in mind,	when killing a
       line.  It is recommended	not to use "C-a" as the	screen escape  key  or
       to rebind kill to "C-a K".


       Redisplay  the  last  contents  of  the message/status line.  Useful if
       you're typing when a message appears, because  the  message  goes  away
       when you	press a	key (unless your terminal has a	hardware status	line).
       Refer to	the commands "msgwait" and "msgminwait"	for fine tuning.

       layout new [title]

       Create a	new layout. The	screen will change to one whole	region and  be
       switched	 to the	blank window. From here, you build the regions and the
       windows they show as you	desire.	The new	layout will be	numbered  with
       the  smallest available integer,	starting with zero. You	can optionally
       give a title to your new	layout.	 Otherwise, it will have a default ti-
       tle  of	"layout".  You	can always change the title later by using the
       command layout title.

       layout remove [n|title]

       Remove, or in other words, delete the specified layout. Either the num-
       ber or the title	can be specified. Without either specification,	screen
       will remove the current layout.

       Removing	a layout does not affect your set windows or regions.

       layout next

       Switch to the next layout available

       layout prev

       Switch to the previous layout available

       layout select [n|title]

       Select the desired layout. Either the number or the title can be	speci-
       fied.  Without  either  specification, screen will prompt and ask which
       screen is desired. To see which layouts are available, use  the	layout
       show command.

       layout show

       List  on	 the  message line the number(s) and title(s) of the available
       layout(s). The current layout is	flagged.

       layout title [title]

       Change or display the title of the current layout. A string given  will
       be  used	to name	the layout. Without any	options, the current title and
       number is displayed on the message line.

       layout number [n]

       Change or display the number of the current layout.  An	integer	 given
       will  be	 used  to  number the layout. Without any options, the current
       number and title	is displayed on	the message line.

       layout attach [title|:last]

       Change or display which layout to reattach  back	 to.  The  default  is
       :last, which tells screen to reattach back to the last used layout just
       before detachment. By supplying a title,	You  can  instruct  screen  to
       reattach	 to  a	particular layout regardless which one was used	at the
       time of detachment. Without any options,	the layout to reattach to will
       be shown	in the message line.

       layout save [n|title]

       Remember	the current arrangement	of regions. When used, screen will re-
       member the arrangement of vertically and	 horizontally  split  regions.
       This  arrangement  is  restored	when a screen session is reattached or
       switched	back from a different layout.  If  the	session	 ends  or  the
       screen  process dies, the layout	arrangements are lost. The layout dump
       command should help in this siutation. If a number  or  title  is  sup-
       plied,  screen will remember the	arrangement of that particular layout.
       Without any options, screen will	remember the current layout.

       Saving your regions can be done automatically by	using the  layout  au-
       tosave command.

       layout autosave [on|off]

       Change  or  display  the	status of automatcally saving layouts. The de-
       fault is	on, meaning when screen	is detached or changed to a  different
       layout,	the  arrangement  of regions and windows will be remembered at
       the time	of change and restored upon return.  If	 autosave  is  set  to
       off,  that arrangement will only	be restored to either to the last man-
       ual save, using layout save, or to when the layout was  first  created,
       to  a  single region with a single window. Without either an on or off,
       the current status is displayed on the message line.

       layout dump [filename]

       Write to	a file the order of splits made	in the current layout. This is
       useful  to recreate the order of	your regions used in your current lay-
       out. Only the current layout is recorded. While the order  of  the  re-
       gions are recorded, the sizes of	those regions and which	windows	corre-
       spond to	which regions are not. If no filename is  specified,  the  de-
       fault  is  layout-dump,	saved in the directory that the	screen process
       was started in. If the file already exists, layout dump will append  to
       that file. As an	example:

		   C-a : layout	dump /home/user/.screenrc

       will save or append the layout to the user's .screenrc file.


       Display	the  disclaimer	 page. This is done whenever screen is started
       without	options,  which	 should	 be  often  enough.   See   also   the
       "startup_message" command.


       Lock  this  display.   Call  a  screenlock  program  (/local/bin/lck or
       /usr/bin/lock or	a builtin if no	other is available). Screen  does  not
       accept  any  command keys until this program terminates.	Meanwhile pro-
       cesses in the windows may continue, as the  windows  are	 in  the  `de-
       tached'	state. The screenlock program may be changed through the envi-
       ronment variable	$LOCKPRG (which	must be	set in the  shell  from	 which
       screen is started) and is executed with the user's uid and gid.
       Warning:	 When you leave	other shells unlocked and you have no password
       set on screen, the lock is void:	One could easily re-attach from	an un-
       locked shell. This feature should rather	be called `lockterminal'.

       log [on|off]

       Start/stop writing output of the	current	window to a file "screenlog.n"
       in the window's default directory, where	n is the number	of the current
       window.	This filename can be changed with the `logfile'	command. If no
       parameter is given, the state of	logging	is toggled. The	session	log is
       appended	to the previous	contents of the	file if	it already exists. The
       current contents	and the	contents of the	scrollback history are not in-
       cluded in the session log.  Default is `off'.

       logfile filename
       logfile flush secs

       Defines the name	the log	files will get.	The default is "screenlog.%n".
       The second form changes the number of seconds screen will  wait	before
       flushing	the logfile buffer to the file-system. The default value is 10

       login [on|off]

       Adds or removes the entry in the	utmp database  file  for  the  current
       window.	This controls if the window is `logged in'.  When no parameter
       is given, the login state of the	window is  toggled.   Additionally  to
       that  toggle,  it  is convenient	having a `log in' and a	`log out' key.
       E.g. `bind I login on' and `bind	O login	off' will map these keys to be
       C-a  I  and C-a O.  The default setting (in	should be "on"
       for a screen that runs under suid-root.	Use the	"deflogin" command  to
       change  the default login state for new windows.	Both commands are only
       present when screen has been compiled with utmp support.

       logtstamp [on|off]
       logtstamp after [secs]
       logtstamp string	[string]

       This command controls logfile time-stamp	mechanism of screen.  If time-
       stamps  are  turned  "on",  screen adds a string	containing the current
       time to the logfile after two minutes of	inactivity.  When output  con-
       tinues  and  more  than another two minutes have	passed,	a second time-
       stamp is	added to document the restart of the output.  You  can	change
       this  timeout  with  the	 second	form of	the command. The third form is
       used for	customizing the	time-stamp string (`-- %n:%t --	time-stamp  --
       %M/%d/%y	%c:%s --\n' by default).


       Tell  screen  that the next input character should only be looked up in
       the default bindkey table. See also "bindkey".


       Like mapdefault,	but don't even look in the default bindkey table.

       maptimeout [timeout]

       Set the inter-character timer for input sequence	detection to a timeout
       of  timeout  ms.	The default timeout is 300ms. Maptimeout with no argu-
       ments shows the current setting.	 See also "bindkey".

       markkeys	string

       This is a method	of changing the	keymap	used  for  copy/history	 mode.
       The  string  is made up of oldchar=newchar pairs	which are separated by
       `:'. Example: The string	"B=^B:F=^F" will change	the keys `C-b' and `C-
       f' to the vi style binding (scroll up/down fill page).  This happens to
       be the  default	binding	 for  `B'  and	`F'.   The  command  "markkeys
       h=^B:l=^F:$=^E" would set the mode for an emacs-style binding.  If your
       terminal	sends characters, that cause you to abort copy mode, then this
       command	may help by binding these characters to	do nothing.  The no-op
       character is `@'	and is used like this: "markkeys @=L=H"	if you do  not
       want to use the `H' or `L' commands any longer.	As shown in this exam-
       ple, multiple keys can be assigned to one function in a	single	state-

       maxwin num

       Set  the	 maximum  window number	screen will create. Doesn't affect al-
       ready existing windows. The number can be increased only	when there are
       no existing windows.


       Insert  the  command  character	(C-a)  in  the	current	window's input

       monitor [on|off]

       Toggles activity	monitoring of windows.	When monitoring	is  turned  on
       and  an	affected  window is switched into the background, you will re-
       ceive the activity notification message in the status line at the first
       sign  of	 output	 and the window	will also be marked with an `@'	in the
       window-status display.  Monitoring is initially off for all windows.

       mousetrack [on|off]

       This command determines whether screen will  watch  for	mouse  clicks.
       When  this  command is enabled, regions that have been split in various
       ways can	be selected by pointing	to them	with a mouse and left-clicking
       them. Without specifying	on or off, the current state is	displayed. The
       default state is	determined by the "defmousetrack" command.

       msgminwait sec

       Defines the time	screen delays a	new message when one message  is  cur-
       rently displayed.  The default is 1 second.

       msgwait sec

       Defines	the  time a message is displayed if screen is not disturbed by
       other activity. The default is 5	seconds.

       multiuser on|off

       Switch between singleuser and multiuser mode. Standard screen operation
       is  singleuser.	In  multiuser  mode  the  commands `acladd', `aclchg',
       `aclgrp'	and `acldel' can be used to enable (and	disable)  other	 users
       accessing this screen session.

       nethack on|off

       Changes the kind	of error messages used by screen.  When	you are	famil-
       iar with	the game "nethack", you	may enjoy the  nethack-style  messages
       which will often	blur the facts a little, but are much funnier to read.
       Anyway, standard	messages often tend to be unclear as well.
       This option is only available if	screen was compiled with  the  NETHACK
       flag defined. The default setting is then determined by the presence of
       the environment variable	$NETHACKOPTIONS	and the	file ~/.nethackrc - if
       either one is present, the default is on.


       Switch  to the next window.  This command can be	used repeatedly	to cy-
       cle through the list of windows.

       nonblock	[on|off|numsecs]

       Tell screen how to deal with user interfaces (displays) that  cease  to
       accept output. This can happen if a user	presses	^S or a	TCP/modem con-
       nection gets cut	but no hangup is received. If nonblock is off (this is
       the default) screen waits until the display restarts to accept the out-
       put. If nonblock	is on, screen waits until the timeout is  reached  (on
       is  treated  as	1s).  If the display still doesn't receive characters,
       screen will consider it "blocked" and stop sending characters to	it. If
       at  some	time it	restarts to accept characters, screen will unblock the
       display and redisplay the updated window	contents.

       number [[+|-]n]

       Change the current window's number. If the given	number	n  is  already
       used  by	another	window,	both windows exchange their numbers. If	no ar-
       gument is specified, the	current	window number (and  title)  is	shown.
       Using `+' or `-'	will change the	window's number	by the relative	amount

       obuflimit [limit]

       If the output buffer contains more bytes	than the specified  limit,  no
       more  data  will	be read	from the windows. The default value is 256. If
       you have	a fast display (like xterm), you can set  it  to  some	higher
       value. If no argument is	specified, the current setting is displayed.


       Kill all	regions	but the	current	one.


       Switch  to  the	window	displayed  previously.	If this	window does no
       longer exist, other has the same	effect as next.

       partial on|off

       Defines whether the display should be refreshed (as with	redisplay) af-
       ter switching to	the current window. This command only affects the cur-
       rent window.  To	immediately affect all windows use the allpartial com-
       mand.  Default is `off',	of course.  This default is fixed, as there is
       currently no defpartial command.

       password	[crypted_pw]

       Present a crypted password in your ".screenrc" file and screen will ask
       for  it,	whenever someone attempts to resume a detached.	This is	useful
       if you have privileged programs running under screen and	 you  want  to
       protect	your session from reattach attempts by another user masquerad-
       ing as your uid (i.e. any superuser.)  If no crypted password is	speci-
       fied, screen prompts twice for typing a password	and places its encryp-
       tion in the paste buffer.  Default is `none',  this  disables  password

       paste [registers	[dest_reg]]

       Write  the  (concatenated)  contents  of	the specified registers	to the
       stdin queue of the current window. The register '.' is treated  as  the
       paste  buffer. If no parameter is given the user	is prompted for	a sin-
       gle register to paste.  The paste buffer	can be filled with  the	 copy,
       history	and  readbuf commands.	Other registers	can be filled with the
       register, readreg and paste commands.  If paste is called with a	second
       argument,  the  contents	 of the	specified registers is pasted into the
       named destination register rather than the window. If '.'  is  used  as
       the  second  argument,  the  displays  paste buffer is the destination.
       Note, that "paste" uses a wide variety of resources: Whenever a	second
       argument	 is  specified	no  current  window is needed. When the	source
       specification only contains registers (not the paste buffer) then there
       need not	be a current display (terminal attached), as the registers are
       a global	resource. The paste buffer exists once for every user.

       pastefont [on|off]

       Tell screen to include font information in the paste  buffer.  The  de-
       fault  is  not  to  do  so. This	command	is especially useful for multi
       character fonts like kanji.


       Reopen the window's terminal line  and  send  a	break  condition.  See


       Power  detach.  Mainly the same as detach, but also sends a HANGUP sig-
       nal to the parent process of screen.  CAUTION: This will	 result	 in  a
       logout, when screen was started from your login-shell.

       pow_detach_msg [message]

       The message specified here is output whenever a `Power detach' was per-
       formed. It may be used as a replacement for a logout message or to  re-
       set baud	rate, etc.  Without parameter, the current message is shown.


       Switch  to  the window with the next lower number.  This	command	can be
       used repeatedly to cycle	through	the list of windows.

       printcmd	[cmd]

       If cmd is not an	empty string, screen will not use the  terminal	 capa-
       bilities	 "po/pf"  if  it detects an ansi print sequence	ESC [ 5	i, but
       pipe the	output into cmd.  This should normally be a command like "lpr"
       or  "'cat  >  /tmp/scrprint'".  printcmd	without	a command displays the
       current setting.	 The ansi sequence ESC \ ends printing and closes  the
       Warning:	 Be careful with this command! If other	user have write	access
       to your terminal, they will be able to fire off print commands.

       process [key]

       Stuff the contents of the specified register into screen's input	queue.
       If  no argument is given	you are	prompted for a register	name. The text
       is parsed as if it had been typed in from  the  user's  keyboard.  This
       command can be used to bind multiple actions to a single	key.


       Kill all	windows	and terminate screen.  Note that on VT100-style	termi-
       nals the	keys C-4 and C-\ are identical.	 This makes the	default	 bind-
       ings  dangerous:	 Be  careful not to type C-a C-4 when selecting	window
       no. 4.  Use the empty bind command (as in "bind '^\'") to remove	a  key

       readbuf [-e encoding] [filename]

       Reads  the  contents  of	the specified file into	the paste buffer.  You
       can tell	screen the encoding of the file	via the	-e option.  If no file
       is  specified, the screen-exchange filename is used.  See also "buffer-
       file" command.

       readreg [-e encoding] [register [filename]]

       Does one	of two things, dependent on number of arguments: with zero  or
       one  arguments it it duplicates the paste buffer	contents into the reg-
       ister specified or entered at the prompt. With two arguments  it	 reads
       the contents of the named file into the register, just as readbuf reads
       the screen-exchange file	into the paste buffer.	You  can  tell	screen
       the encoding of the file	via the	-e option.  The	following example will
       paste the system's password file	into the screen	window (using register
       p, where	a copy remains):

		   C-a : readreg p /etc/passwd
		   C-a : paste p


       Redisplay  the  current	window.	Needed to get a	full redisplay when in
       partial redraw mode.

       register	[-e encoding] key string

       Save the	specified string to the	register key.	The  encoding  of  the
       string  can  be specified via the -e option.  See also the "paste" com-


       Kill the	current	region.	This is	a no-op	if there is only one region.


       Unlinks the screen-exchange file	used by	the  commands  "writebuf"  and

       rendition bell |	monitor	| silence | so attr [color]

       Change  the  way	screen renders the titles of windows that have monitor
       or bell flags set in caption  or	 hardstatus  or	 windowlist.  See  the
       "STRING	ESCAPES" chapter for the syntax	of the modifiers.  The default
       for monitor is currently	"=b " (bold, active colors), for bell  "=ub  "
       (underline, bold	and active colors), and	"=u " for silence.


       Reset  the  virtual  terminal  to  its  "power-on"  values. Useful when
       strange settings	(like scroll regions or	graphics  character  set)  are
       left over from an application.


       Resize  the  current region. The	space will be removed from or added to
       the region below	or if there's not enough space from the	region above.

	      resize +N	  increase current region height by N

	      resize -N	  decrease current region height by N

	      resize  N	  set current region height to N

	      resize  =	  make all windows equally high

	      resize  max maximize current region height

	      resize  min minimize current region height

       screen [-opts] [n] [cmd [args]|//group]

       Establish a new window.	The flow-control options (-f,  -fn  and	 -fa),
       title  (a.k.a.) option (-t), login options (-l and -ln) , terminal type
       option (-T <term>), the all-capability-flag (-a)	and scrollback	option
       (-h  <num>)  may	be specified with each command.	 The option (-M) turns
       monitoring on for this window.  The option (-L) turns output logging on
       for  this  window.  If an optional number n in the range	0..MAXWIN-1 is
       given, the window number	n is assigned to the newly created window (or,
       if  this	 number	 is  already in-use, the next available	number).  If a
       command is specified after "screen", this command (with the given argu-
       ments)  is  started  in	the window; otherwise, a shell is created.  If
       //group is supplied, a container-type window is created in which	 other
       windows may be created inside it.

       Thus, if	your ".screenrc" contains the lines

		   # example for .screenrc:
		   screen 1
		   screen -fn -t foobar	-L 2 telnet foobar

       screen creates a	shell window (in window	#1) and	a window with a	TELNET
       connection to the machine foobar	(with no flow-control using the	 title
       "foobar"	 in window #2) and will	write a	logfile	("screenlog.2")	of the
       telnet session.	Note, that unlike previous versions of screen no addi-
       tional default window is	created	when "screen" commands are included in
       your ".screenrc"	file. When the	initialization	is  completed,	screen
       switches	 to  the  last	window specified in your .screenrc file	or, if
       none, opens a default window #0.
       Screen has built	in some	functionality of "cu" and "telnet".  See  also
       chapter "WINDOW TYPES".

       scrollback num

       Set  the	 size  of the scrollback buffer	for the	current	windows	to num
       lines. The default scrollback is	100 lines.  See	also  the  "defscroll-
       back" command and use "info" to view the	current	setting. To access and
       use the contents	in the scrollback buffer, use the "copy" command.

       select [WindowID]

       Switch to the window identified by WindowID.  This can be a prefix of a
       window title (alphanumeric window name) or a window number.  The	param-
       eter is optional	and if omitted,	you get	prompted  for  an  identifier.
       When  a	new  window  is	established, the first available number	is as-
       signed to this window.  Thus, the first window can be activated by "se-
       lect  0".   The	number	of  windows  is	limited	at compile-time	by the
       MAXWIN configuration parameter (which defaults to 40).  There  are  two
       special	WindowIDs,  "-"	 selects the internal blank window and "." se-
       lects the current window. The latter is useful if  used	with  screen's
       "-X" option.

       sessionname [name]

       Rename  the  current  session.  Note,  that for "screen -list" the name
       shows up	with the process-id prepended. If the argument "name" is omit-
       ted,  the name of this session is displayed. Caution: The $STY environ-
       ment variables will still reflect the old name in pre-existing  shells.
       This may	result in confusion. Use of this command is generally discour-
       aged. Use the "-S" command-line option if you want to name a  new  ses-
       sion.  The default is constructed from the tty and host names.

       setenv [var [string]]

       Set the environment variable var	to value string.  If only var is spec-
       ified, the user will be prompted	to enter a value.   If	no  parameters
       are  specified,	the user will be prompted for both variable and	value.
       The environment is inherited by all subsequently	forked shells.

       setsid [on|off]

       Normally	screen uses different sessions and process groups for the win-
       dows. If	setsid is turned off, this is not done anymore and all windows
       will be in the same process group as the	screen backend	process.  This
       also  breaks job-control, so be careful.	 The default is	on, of course.
       This command is probably	useful only in rare circumstances.

       shell command

       Set the command to be used to create a new shell.  This	overrides  the
       value of	the environment	variable $SHELL.  This is useful if you'd like
       to run a	tty-enhancer which is expecting	to execute the program	speci-
       fied  in	$SHELL.	 If the	command	begins with a '-' character, the shell
       will be started as a login-shell. Typical shells	do only	 minimal  ini-
       tialization when	not started as a login-shell.  E.g. Bash will not read
       your "~/.bashrc"	unless it is a login-shell.

       shelltitle title

       Set the title for all shells created during startup or by the  C-A  C-c
       command.	  For  details about what a title is, see the discussion enti-
       tled "TITLES (naming windows)".

       silence [on|off|sec]

       Toggles silence monitoring of windows.  When silence is turned  on  and
       an  affected  window  is	switched into the background, you will receive
       the silence notification	message	in the status line after  a  specified
       period of inactivity (silence). The default timeout can be changed with
       the `silencewait' command or by specifying a number of seconds  instead
       of `on' or `off'.  Silence is initially off for all windows.

       silencewait sec

       Define  the time	that all windows monitored for silence should wait be-
       fore displaying a message. Default 30 seconds.

       sleep num

       This command will pause the execution of	a .screenrc file for num  sec-
       onds.   Keyboard	 activity  will	end the	sleep.	It may be used to give
       users a chance to read the messages output by "echo".

       slowpaste msec

       Define the speed	at which text is inserted into the current  window  by
       the paste ("C-a ]") command.  If	the slowpaste value is nonzero text is
       written character by character.	screen will make a pause of msec  mil-
       liseconds after each single character write to allow the	application to
       process its input. Only use slowpaste if	your underlying	system exposes
       flow control problems while pasting large amounts of text.


       Sort the	windows	in alphabetical	order of the window tiles.

       source file

       Read and	execute	commands from file file. Source	commands may be	nested
       to a maximum recursion level of ten. If file is not  an	absolute  path
       and screen is already processing	a source command, the parent directory
       of the running source command file is used to search for	the  new  com-
       mand file before	screen's current directory.

       Note  that  termcap/terminfo/termcapinfo	 commands only work at startup
       and reattach time, so they must be reached  via	the  default  screenrc
       files to	have an	effect.

       sorendition [attr [color]]

       This command is deprecated. See "rendition so" instead.

       split [-v]

       Split  the current region into two new ones. All	regions	on the display
       are resized to make room	for the	new region. The	blank window  is  dis-
       played  on  the	new  region. Splits are	made horizontally unless -v is
       used. Use the "remove" or the "only" command  to	 delete	 regions.  Use
       "focus" to toggle between regions.

       startup_message on|off

       Select  whether	you  want  to see the copyright	notice during startup.
       Default is `on',	as you probably	noticed.

       stuff [string]

       Stuff the string	string in the input  buffer  of	 the  current  window.
       This  is	like the "paste" command but with much less overhead.  Without
       a parameter, screen will	prompt for a  string  to  stuff.   You	cannot
       paste large buffers with	the "stuff" command. It	is most	useful for key
       bindings. See also "bindkey".

       su [username [password [password2]]]

       Substitute the user of a	display. The command prompts for  all  parame-
       ters  that  are omitted.	If passwords are specified as parameters, they
       have to be specified un-crypted.	The first password is matched  against
       the systems passwd database, the	second password	is matched against the
       screen password as set with the commands	"acladd" or "password".	  "Su"
       may  be	useful	for the	screen administrator to	test multiuser setups.
       When the	identification fails, the user	has  access  to	 the  commands
       available  for  user nobody.  These are "detach", "license", "version",
       "help" and "displays".


       Suspend screen.	The windows are	in the `detached' state, while	screen
       is  suspended.  This  feature  relies on	the shell being	able to	do job

       term term

       In each window's	environment screen opens, the $TERM variable is	set to
       "screen"	by default.  But when no description for "screen" is installed
       in the local termcap or terminfo	data base, you set $TERM to  -	say  -
       "vt100".	 This  won't do	much harm, as screen is	VT100/ANSI compatible.
       The use of the "term" command is	discouraged for	 non-default  purpose.
       That  is,  one  may want	to specify special $TERM settings (e.g.	vt100)
       for the next "screen rlogin  othermachine"  command.  Use  the  command
       "screen -T vt100	rlogin othermachine" rather than setting and resetting
       the default.

       termcap term terminal-tweaks [window-tweaks]
       terminfo	term terminal-tweaks [window-tweaks]
       termcapinfo term	terminal-tweaks	[window-tweaks]

       Use this	command	to modify your terminal's termcap entry	without	 going
       through	all  the  hassles involved in creating a custom	termcap	entry.
       Plus, you can optionally	customize the termcap generated	for  the  win-
       dows.   You have	to place these commands	in one of the screenrc startup
       files, as they are meaningless once the terminal	emulator is booted.
       If your system works uses the terminfo database	rather	than  termcap,
       screen  will  understand	the `terminfo' command,	which has the same ef-
       fects as	the `termcap' command.	Two separate commands are provided, as
       there  are subtle syntactic differences,	e.g. when parameter interpola-
       tion (using `%')	is required. Note that termcap names of	the  capabili-
       ties have to be used with the `terminfo'	command.
       In many cases, where the	arguments are valid in both terminfo and term-
       cap syntax, you can use the command  `termcapinfo',  which  is  just  a
       shorthand  for a	pair of	`termcap' and `terminfo' commands with identi-
       cal arguments.

       The first argument specifies which terminal(s) should  be  affected  by
       this definition.	 You can specify multiple terminal names by separating
       them with `|'s.	Use `*'	to match all terminals and `vt*' to match  all
       terminals that begin with "vt".

       Each  tweak argument contains one or more termcap defines (separated by
       `:'s) to	be inserted at the start of the	appropriate termcap entry, en-
       hancing	it  or	overriding  existing values.  The first	tweak modifies
       your terminal's termcap,	and contains definitions  that	your  terminal
       uses to perform certain functions.  Specify a null string to leave this
       unchanged (e.g. '').  The second	(optional) tweak modifies all the win-
       dow  termcaps,  and  should contain definitions that screen understands
       (see the	"VIRTUAL TERMINAL" section).

       Some examples:

	      termcap xterm*  LP:hs@

       Informs screen that all terminals that begin  with  `xterm'  have  firm
       auto-margins  that  allow the last position on the screen to be updated
       (LP), but they don't really have	a status line (no 'hs' - append	`@' to
       turn  entries  off).   Note  that we assume `LP'	for all	terminal names
       that start with "vt", but only if you don't specify a  termcap  command
       for that	terminal.

	      termcap vt*  LP
	      termcap vt102|vt220  Z0=\E[?3h:Z1=\E[?3l

       Specifies  the firm-margined `LP' capability for	all terminals that be-
       gin with	`vt', and the second line will also add	 the  escape-sequences
       to switch into (Z0) and back out	of (Z1)	132-character-per-line mode if
       this is a VT102 or VT220.  (You must specify Z0 and Z1 in your  termcap
       to use the width-changing commands.)

	      termcap vt100  ""	 l0=PF1:l1=PF2:l2=PF3:l3=PF4

       This  leaves  your vt100	termcap	alone and adds the function key	labels
       to each window's	termcap	entry.

	      termcap h19|z19  am@:im=\E@:ei=\EO  dc=\E[P

       Takes a h19 or z19 termcap and turns off	auto-margins (am@) and enables
       the  insert  mode (im) and end-insert (ei) capabilities (the `@'	in the
       `im' string is after the	`=', so	it is part of the string).  Having the
       `im'  and  `ei' definitions put into your terminal's termcap will cause
       screen to automatically advertise the  character-insert	capability  in
       each  window's termcap.	Each window will also get the delete-character
       capability (dc) added to	its termcap, which screen will translate  into
       a  line-update  for  the	 terminal (we're pretending it doesn't support
       character deletion).

       If you would like to fully specify each	window's  termcap  entry,  you
       should  instead	set  the  $SCREENCAP variable prior to running screen.
       See the discussion on the "VIRTUAL TERMINAL" in this  manual,  and  the
       termcap(5) man page for more information	on termcap definitions.

       time [string]

       Uses  the  message  line	to display the time of day, the	host name, and
       the load	averages over 1, 5, and	15 minutes (if this  is	 available  on
       your system).  For window specific information, use "info".

       If a string is specified, it changes the	format of the time report like
       it is described in the "STRING ESCAPES" chapter.	Screen uses a  default
       of "%c:%s %M %d %H%? %l%?".

       title [windowtitle]

       Set the name of the current window to windowtitle. If no	name is	speci-
       fied, screen prompts for	one. This command was known as `aka' in	previ-
       ous releases.


       Unbind  all the bindings. This can be useful when screen	is used	solely
       for its detaching abilities, such as when letting a console application
       run  as a daemon. If, for some reason, it is necessary to bind commands
       after this, use 'screen -X'.

       unsetenv	var

       Unset an	environment variable.

       utf8 [on|off [on|off]]

       Change the encoding used	in the current window. If utf8 is enabled, the
       strings	sent to	the window will	be UTF-8 encoded and vice versa. Omit-
       ting the	parameter toggles the setting. If a second parameter is	given,
       the display's encoding is also changed (this should rather be done with
       screen's	"-U" option).  See also	"defutf8", which changes  the  default
       setting of a new	window.

       vbell [on|off]

       Sets  the  visual  bell setting for this	window.	Omitting the parameter
       toggles the setting. If vbell is	switched on, but  your	terminal  does
       not support a visual bell, a `vbell-message' is displayed in the	status
       line when the bell character (^G) is received.  Visual bell support  of
       a terminal is defined by	the termcap variable `vb' (terminfo: 'flash').
       Per  default,  vbell  is	 off, thus the audible bell is used.  See also

       vbell_msg [message]

       Sets the	visual bell message. message is	printed	to the status line  if
       the  window  receives  a	bell character (^G), vbell is set to "on", but
       the terminal does not support a visual bell.  The  default  message  is
       "Wuff, Wuff!!".	Without	a parameter, the current message is shown.

       vbellwait sec

       Define  a  delay	 in seconds after each display of screen's visual bell
       message.	The default is 1 second.

       verbose [on|off]

       If verbose is switched on, the command name is echoed, whenever a  win-
       dow  is	created	 (or  resurrected  from	zombie state). Default is off.
       Without a parameter, the	current	setting	is shown.


       Print the current version and the compile date in the status line.

       wall message

       Write a message to all displays.	The message will appear	in the	termi-
       nal's status line.

       width [-w|-d] [cols [lines]]

       Toggle  the  window  width between 80 and 132 columns or	set it to cols
       columns if an argument is specified.  This requires a capable  terminal
       and  the	 termcap entries "Z0" and "Z1".	 See the "termcap" command for
       more information. You can also specify a	new  height  if	 you  want  to
       change  both  values.   The -w option tells screen to leave the display
       size unchanged and just set the window size, -d vice versa.

       windowlist [-b] [-m] [-g]
       windowlist string [string]
       windowlist title	[title]

       Display all windows in a	table for visual window	selection.  If	screen
       was  in a window	group, screen will back	out of the group and then dis-
       play the	windows	in that	group.	If the -b option is given, screen will
       switch to the blank window before presenting the	list, so that the cur-
       rent window is also selectable.	The -m option changes the order	of the
       windows,	 instead of sorting by window numbers screen uses its internal
       most-recently-used list.	 The -g	option will show  the  windows	inside
       any groups in that level	and downwards.

       The following keys are used to navigate in "windowlist":
	 k, C-p, or up Move up one line.
	 j, C-n, or down Move down one line.
	 C-g or	escape Exit windowlist.
	 C-a or	home Move to the first line.
	 C-e or	end Move to the	last line.
	 C-u or	C-d Move one half page up or down.
	 C-b or	C-f Move one full page up or down.
	 0..9 Using the	number keys, move to the selected line.
	 mouseclick  Move to the selected line.	Available when "mousetrack" is
	   set to "on"
	 / Search.
	 n Repeat search in the	forward	direction.
	 N Repeat search in the	backward direction.
	 m Toggle MRU.
	 g Toggle group	nesting.
	 a All window view.
	 C-h or	backspace Back out the group.
	 , Switch numbers with the previous window.
	 . Switch numbers with the next	window.
	 K Kill	that window.
	 space or enter	Select that window.

       The table format	can be changed with the	string and title  option,  the
       title  is displayed as table heading, while the lines are made by using
       the string setting. The default setting is "Num	Name%=Flags"  for  the
       title and "%3n %t%=%f" for the lines.  See the "STRING ESCAPES" chapter
       for more	codes (e.g. color settings).

       "Windowlist" needs a region size	of at least 10 characters wide	and  6
       characters high in order	to display.

       windows [ string	]

       Uses  the message line to display a list	of all the windows.  Each win-
       dow is listed by	number with the	name of	process	that has been  started
       in  the window (or its title); the current window is marked with	a `*';
       the previous window is marked with a `-';  all  the  windows  that  are
       "logged	in"  are  marked  with a `$'; a	background window that has re-
       ceived a	bell is	marked with a `!'; a background	window that  is	 being
       monitored  and  has  had	activity occur is marked with an `@'; a	window
       which has output	logging	turned on is marked with `(L)';	windows	 occu-
       pied  by	 other	users are marked with `&'; windows in the zombie state
       are marked with `Z'.  If	this list is too long to fit on	the terminal's
       status  line  only  the portion around the current window is displayed.
       The optional string parameter follows the "STRING ESCAPES" format.   If
       string  parameter is passed, the	output size is unlimited.  The default
       command without any parameter is	limited	to a size of 1024 bytes.

       wrap [on|off]

       Sets the	line-wrap setting for the current window.  When	 line-wrap  is
       on,  the	second consecutive printable character output at the last col-
       umn of a	line will wrap to the start of	the  following	line.	As  an
       added feature, backspace	(^H) will also wrap through the	left margin to
       the previous line.  Default is `on'. Without any	options, the state  of
       wrap is toggled.

       writebuf	[-e encoding] [filename]

       Writes  the  contents of	the paste buffer to the	specified file,	or the
       public accessible screen-exchange file if no filename is	given. This is
       thought	of  as a primitive means of communication between screen users
       on the same host. If an encoding	is specified the paste buffer  is  re-
       coded  on  the fly to match the encoding.  The filename can be set with
       the bufferfile command and defaults to "/tmp/screen-exchange".

       writelock [on|off|auto]

       In addition to access control lists, not	all users may be able to write
       to  the	same  window at	once. Per default, writelock is	in `auto' mode
       and grants exclusive input permission to	the user who is	the  first  to
       switch to the particular	window.	When he	leaves the window, other users
       may obtain the writelock	(automatically). The writelock of the  current
       window  is  disabled by the command "writelock off". If the user	issues
       the command "writelock on" he  keeps  the  exclusive  write  permission
       while switching to other	windows.


       Insert  a  CTRL-s  / CTRL-q character to	the stdin queue	of the current

       zmodem [off|auto|catch|pass]
       zmodem sendcmd [string]
       zmodem recvcmd [string]

       Define zmodem support for  screen.  Screen  understands	two  different
       modes  when  it	detects	 a zmodem request: "pass" and "catch".	If the
       mode is set to "pass", screen will relay	all data to the	attacher until
       the end of the transmission is reached.	In "catch" mode	screen acts as
       a zmodem	endpoint and starts the	corresponding rz/sz commands.  If  the
       mode  is	 set to	"auto",	screen will use	"catch"	if the window is a tty
       (e.g. a serial line), otherwise it will use "pass".
       You can define the templates screen uses	in "catch" mode	via the	second
       and the third form.
       Note also that this is an experimental feature.

       zombie [keys[onerror]]
       defzombie [keys]

       Per  default screen windows are removed from the	window list as soon as
       the windows process (e.g. shell)	exits. When a string of	 two  keys  is
       specified  to  the  zombie  command,  `dead' windows will remain	in the
       list.  The kill command may be used to remove such a  window.  Pressing
       the first key in	the dead window	has the	same effect. When pressing the
       second key, screen will attempt to resurrect the	 window.  The  process
       that  was initially running in the window will be launched again. Call-
       ing zombie without parameters will clear	the zombie setting, thus  mak-
       ing windows disappear when their	process	exits.

       As  the	zombie-setting	is  manipulated	globally for all windows, this
       command should only be called defzombie.	Until we need this  as	a  per
       window setting, the commands zombie and defzombie are synonymous.

       Optionally  you	can  put  the word "onerror" after the keys. This will
       cause screen to monitor exit status of the process running in the  win-
       dow.  If	it exits normally ('0'), the window disappears.	Any other exit
       value causes the	window to become a zombie.


       Per default screen windows are removed from the window list as soon  as
       the  windows  process  (e.g.  shell)  exits. If zombie keys are defined
       (compare	with above zombie command), it is possible to also set a time-
       out when	screen tries to	automatically reconnect	a dead screen window.

       Screen  displays	informational messages and other diagnostics in	a mes-
       sage line.  While this line is distributed to appear at the  bottom  of
       the screen, it can be defined to	appear at the top of the screen	during
       compilation.  If	your terminal has a status line	defined	in  its	 term-
       cap, screen will	use this for displaying	its messages, otherwise	a line
       of the current screen will be temporarily overwritten and  output  will
       be  momentarily	interrupted. The message line is automatically removed
       after a few seconds delay, but it can also be removed early (on	termi-
       nals without a status line) by beginning	to type.

       The  message line facility can be used by an application	running	in the
       current window by means of the ANSI Privacy message  control  sequence.
       For instance, from within the shell, try	something like:

	      echo '<esc>^Hello	world from window '$WINDOW'<esc>\\'

       where  '<esc>'  is an escape, '^' is a literal up-arrow,	and '\\' turns
       into a single backslash.

       Screen provides three different window types. New windows  are  created
       with screen's screen command (see also the entry	in chapter "CUSTOMIZA-
       TION"). The first parameter to the screen command defines which type of
       window  is created. The different window	types are all special cases of
       the normal type.	They have been added in	order to allow	screen	to  be
       used efficiently	as a console multiplexer with 100 or more windows.

       o  The  normal  window  contains	 a  shell (default, if no parameter is
	  given) or any	other system command that could	 be  executed  from  a
	  shell	(e.g.  slogin, etca|)

       o  If a tty (character special device) name (e.g. "/dev/ttya") is spec-
	  ified	as the first parameter,	then the window	is directly  connected
	  to  this  device.   This  window  type  is  similar to "screen cu -l
	  /dev/ttya".  Read and	write access is	required on the	 device	 node,
	  an  exclusive	 open  is attempted on the node	to mark	the connection
	  line as busy.	 An optional parameter	is  allowed  consisting	 of  a
	  comma	separated list of flags	in the notation	used by	stty(1):

		 Usually  300,	1200, 9600 or 19200. This affects transmission
		 as well as receive speed.

	  cs8 or cs7
		 Specify the transmission of eight (or seven) bits per byte.

	  ixon or -ixon
		 Enables (or disables) software	 flow-control  (CTRL-S/CTRL-Q)
		 for sending data.

	  ixoff	or -ixoff
		 Enables  (or  disables)  software  flow-control for receiving

	  istrip or -istrip
		 Clear (or keep) the eight bit in each received	byte.

	  You may want to specify as many of these options as applicable.  Un-
	  specified options cause the terminal driver to make up the parameter
	  values of the	connection.  These values are system dependent and may
	  be in	defaults or values saved from a	previous connection.

	  For  tty  windows,  the info command shows some of the modem control
	  lines	in the status line. These may  include	`RTS',	`CTS',	'DTR',
	  `DSR',  `CD'	and more.  This	depends	on the available ioctl()'s and
	  system header	files as well as the on	the physical  capabilities  of
	  the  serial  board.	Signals	 that  are logical low (inactive) have
	  their	name preceded by an exclamation	mark (!), otherwise the	signal
	  is logical high (active).  Signals not supported by the hardware but
	  available to the ioctl() interface are usually shown low.

	  When the CLOCAL status bit is	true, the whole	set of	modem  signals
	  is  placed inside curly braces ({ and	}).  When the CRTSCTS or TIOC-
	  SOFTCAR bit is set, the signals `CTS'	or `CD'	are shown in parenthe-
	  sis, respectively.

	  For tty windows, the command break causes the	Data transmission line
	  (TxD)	to go low for a	specified period of time. This is expected  to
	  be  interpreted  as break signal on the other	side.  No data is sent
	  and no modem control line is changed when a break is issued.

       o  If the first parameter is "//telnet",	the second  parameter  is  ex-
	  pected  to be	a host name, and an optional third parameter may spec-
	  ify a	TCP port number	(default decimal 23).  Screen will connect  to
	  a server listening on	the remote host	and use	the telnet protocol to
	  communicate with that	server.
	  For telnet windows, the command info shows details about the connec-
	  tion in square brackets ([ and ]) at the end of the status line.

	  b	 BINARY. The connection	is in binary mode.

	  e	 ECHO. Local echo is disabled.

	  c	 SGA.  The  connection	is in `character mode' (default: `line

	  t	 TTYPE.	The terminal type has been  requested  by  the	remote
		 host.	 Screen	sends the name "screen"	unless instructed oth-
		 erwise	(see also the command `term').

	  w	 NAWS. The remote site is notified about window	size changes.

	  f	 LFLOW.	The remote host	will send  flow	 control  information.
		 (Ignored at the moment.)

	  Additional  flags for	debugging are x, t and n (XDISPLOC, TSPEED and

	  For telnet windows, the command break	 sends	the  telnet  code  IAC
	  BREAK	(decimal 243) to the remote host.

	  This	window	type is	only available if screen was compiled with the
	  BUILTIN_TELNET option	defined.

       Screen provides an escape mechanism to insert information like the cur-
       rent time into messages or file names. The escape character is '%' with
       one exception: inside of	a window's hardstatus '^%' ('^E') is used  in-

       Here is the full	list of	supported escapes:

       %      the escape character itself

       a      either 'am' or 'pm'

       A      either 'AM' or 'PM'

       c      current time HH:MM in 24h	format

       C      current time HH:MM in 12h	format

       d      day number

       D      weekday name

       E      sets %? to true if the escape character has been pressed.

       f      flags  of	 the window, see "windows" for meanings	of the various

       F      sets %? to true if the window has	the focus

       h      hardstatus of the	window

       H      hostname of the system

       l      current load of the system

       m      month number

       M      month name

       n      window number

       P      sets %? to true if the current region is in copy/paste mode

       S      session name

       s      seconds

       t      window title

       u      all other	users on this window

       w      all window numbers and names. With '-' qualifier:	up to the cur-
	      rent  window; with '+' qualifier:	starting with the window after
	      the current one.

       W      all window numbers and names except the current one

       x      the executed command including arguments running in this windows

       X      the executed command without arguments running in	this windows

       y      last two digits of the year number

       Y      full year	number

       ?      the part to the next '%?'	is displayed only if a '%' escape  in-
	      side the part expands to a non-empty string

       :      else part	of '%?'

       =      pad  the	string to the display's	width (like TeX's hfill). If a
	      number is	specified, pad	to  the	 percentage  of	 the  window's
	      width.   A '0' qualifier tells screen to treat the number	as ab-
	      solute position.	You can	specify	to pad relative	 to  the  last
	      absolute	pad position by	adding a '+' qualifier or to pad rela-
	      tive to the right	margin by using	'-'. The padding truncates the
	      string  if  the specified	position lies before the current posi-
	      tion. Add	the 'L'	qualifier to change this.

       <      same as '%=' but just do truncation, do not fill with spaces

       >      mark the current text position for  the  next  truncation.  When
	      screen  needs  to	do truncation, it tries	to do it in a way that
	      the marked position gets moved to	the  specified	percentage  of
	      the output area. (The area starts	from the last absolute pad po-
	      sition and ends with the position	specified  by  the  truncation
	      operator.)  The 'L' qualifier tells screen to mark the truncated
	      parts with 'a|'.

       {      attribute/color modifier string terminated by the	next "}"

       `      Substitute with the output of a 'backtick' command.  The	length
	      qualifier	is misused to identify one of the commands.

       The  'c'	 and 'C' escape	may be qualified with a	'0' to make screen use
       zero instead of space as	fill character.	The '0'	qualifier  also	 makes
       the  '='	 escape	use absolute positions.	The 'n'	and '='	escapes	under-
       stand a length qualifier	(e.g. '%3n'), 'D' and 'M' can be prefixed with
       'L'  to	generate long names, 'w' and 'W' also show the window flags if
       'L' is given.

       An attribute/color modifier is is used to change	the attributes or  the
       color  settings.	 Its  format  is "[attribute modifier] [color descrip-
       tion]". The attribute modifier must be prefixed by a change type	 indi-
       cator  if  it  can  be confused with a color description. The following
       change types are	known:

       +      add the specified	set to the current attributes

       -      remove the set from the current attributes

       !      invert the set in	the current attributes

       =      change the current attributes to the specified set

       The attribute set can either be specified as a hexadecimal number or  a
       combination of the following letters:

       d      dim
       u      underline
       b      bold
       r      reverse
       s      standout
       B      blinking

       Colors are coded	either as a hexadecimal	number or two letters specify-
       ing the desired background and foreground color (in  that  order).  The
       following colors	are known:

       k      black
       r      red
       g      green
       y      yellow
       b      blue
       m      magenta
       c      cyan
       w      white
       d      default color
       .      leave color unchanged

       The  capitalized	 versions of the letter	specify	bright colors. You can
       also use	the pseudo-color 'i' to	set just the brightness	and leave  the
       color unchanged.
       A  one digit/letter color description is	treated	as foreground or back-
       ground color dependent on the current attributes: if  reverse  mode  is
       set,  the  background color is changed instead of the foreground	color.
       If you don't like this, prefix the color	with a ".". If	you  want  the
       same  behavior for two-letter color descriptions, also prefix them with
       a ".".
       As a special case, "%{-}" restores the attributes and colors that  were
       set before the last change was made (i.e., pops one level of the	color-
       change stack).


       "G"    set color	to bright green

       "+b r" use bold red

       "= yd" clear all	attributes, write in default  color  on	 yellow	 back-

       %-Lw%{= BW}%50>%n%f* %t%{-}%+Lw%<
	      The  available  windows centered at the current window and trun-
	      cated to the available width. The	current	 window	 is  displayed
	      white  on	 blue.	 This can be used with "hardstatus alwayslast-

       %?%F%{.R.}%?%3n %t%? [%h]%?
	      The window number	and title and the window's hardstatus, if  one
	      is  set.	Also use a red background if this is the active	focus.
	      Useful for "caption string".

       Each window has a flow-control setting that determines how screen deals
       with the	XON and	XOFF characters	(and perhaps the interrupt character).
       When flow-control is turned off,	screen ignores the XON and XOFF	 char-
       acters,	which  allows  the user	to send	them to	the current program by
       simply typing them (useful for the emacs	editor,	 for  instance).   The
       trade-off  is  that it will take	longer for output from a "normal" pro-
       gram to pause in	response to an XOFF.  With flow-control	turned on, XON
       and  XOFF  characters  are  used	to immediately pause the output	of the
       current window.	You can	still send these  characters  to  the  current
       program,	but you	must use the appropriate two-character screen commands
       (typically "C-a q" (xon)	and "C-a s" (xoff)).   The  xon/xoff  commands
       are  also useful	for typing C-s and C-q past a terminal that intercepts
       these characters.

       Each window has an initial flow-control value set with  either  the  -f
       option  or the "defflow"	.screenrc command. Per default the windows are
       set to automatic	flow-switching.	 It can	then be	 toggled  between  the
       three states 'fixed on',	'fixed off' and	'automatic' interactively with
       the "flow" command bound	to "C-a	f".

       The automatic flow-switching mode deals with flow control using the TI-
       OCPKT mode (like	"rlogin" does).	If the tty driver does not support TI-
       OCPKT, screen tries to find out the right mode  based  on  the  current
       setting of the application keypad - when	it is enabled, flow-control is
       turned off and visa versa.  Of course, you can still  manipulate	 flow-
       control manually	when needed.

       If  you're running with flow-control enabled and	find that pressing the
       interrupt key (usually C-c) does	not interrupt the  display  until  an-
       other  6-8  lines have scrolled by, try running screen with the "inter-
       rupt" option (add the "interrupt" flag to the "flow"  command  in  your
       .screenrc,  or use the -i command-line option).	This causes the	output
       that screen has accumulated from	the interrupted	program	to be flushed.
       One  disadvantage  is  that  the	virtual	terminal's memory contains the
       non-flushed version of the output, which	in rare	cases can cause	 minor
       inaccuracies in the output.  For	example, if you	switch screens and re-
       turn, or	update the screen with "C-a l" you would see  the  version  of
       the  output  you	would have gotten without "interrupt" being on.	 Also,
       you might need to turn off flow-control (or use auto-flow mode to  turn
       it  off	automatically) when running a program that expects you to type
       the interrupt character as input, as it is possible  to	interrupt  the
       output of the virtual terminal to your physical terminal	when flow-con-
       trol is enabled.	 If this happens, a simple refresh of the screen  with
       "C-a  l"	will restore it.  Give each mode a try,	and use	whichever mode
       you find	more comfortable.

TITLES (naming windows)
       You can customize each window's name in the window display (viewed with
       the "windows" command (C-a w)) by setting it with one of	the title com-
       mands.  Normally	the name displayed is the actual command name  of  the
       program created in the window.  However,	it is sometimes	useful to dis-
       tinguish	various	programs of the	same name or to	change	the  name  on-
       the-fly to reflect the current state of the window.

       The default name	for all	shell windows can be set with the "shelltitle"
       command in the .screenrc	file, while all	other windows are created with
       a "screen" command and thus can have their name set with	the -t option.
       Interactively,	 there	  is	the    title-string    escape-sequence
       (<esc>kname<esc>\)  and the "title" command (C-a	A).  The former	can be
       output from an application to control the window's name under  software
       control,	 and  the  latter  will	prompt for a name when typed.  You can
       also bind pre-defined names to keys with	the  "title"  command  to  set
       things quickly without prompting. Changing title	bythis escape sequence
       can be controlled by defdynamictitle and	dynamictitle commands.

       Finally,	screen has a shell-specific heuristic that is enabled by  set-
       ting  the  window's  name to "search|name" and arranging	to have	a null
       title escape-sequence output as a part of your prompt.  The search por-
       tion  specifies	an end-of-prompt search	string,	while the name portion
       specifies the default shell name	for the	window.	 If the	name ends in a
       `:'  screen will	add what it believes to	be the current command running
       in the window to	the end	of the window's	shell name (e.g.  "name:cmd").
       Otherwise  the  current command name supersedes the shell name while it
       is running.

       Here's how it works:  you must modify your shell	 prompt	 to  output  a
       null  title-escape-sequence  (<esc>k<esc>\)  as	a part of your prompt.
       The last	part of	your prompt must be the	same as	the string you	speci-
       fied  for the search portion of the title.  Once	this is	set up,	screen
       will use	the title-escape-sequence to clear the previous	 command  name
       and  get	 ready for the next command.  Then, when a newline is received
       from the	shell, a search	is made	for the	end of the prompt.  If	found,
       it  will	grab the first word after the matched string and use it	as the
       command name.  If the command name begins with either '!', '%', or  '^'
       screen  will  use  the  first  word on the following line (if found) in
       preference to the just-found name.  This	helps  csh  users  get	better
       command names when using	job control or history recall commands.

       Here's some .screenrc examples:

	      screen -t	top 2 nice top

       Adding  this line to your .screenrc would start a nice-d	version	of the
       "top" command in	window 2 named "top" rather than "nice".

		   shelltitle '> |csh'
		   screen 1

       These commands would start a shell with the given shelltitle.  The  ti-
       tle  specified  is  an  auto-title that would expect the	prompt and the
       typed command to	look something like the	following:

	      /usr/joe/src/dir>	trn

       (it looks after the '> '	for the	 command  name).   The	window	status
       would  show the name "trn" while	the command was	running, and revert to
       "csh" upon completion.

	      bind R screen -t '% |root:' su

       Having this command in your .screenrc would bind	the key	sequence  "C-a
       R"  to the "su" command and give	it an auto-title name of "root:".  For
       this auto-title to work,	the screen could look something	like this:

		   % !em
		   emacs file.c

       Here the	user typed the csh history command "!em" which ran the	previ-
       ously   entered	 "emacs"   command.   The  window  status  would  show
       "root:emacs" during the execution of the	command, and revert to	simply
       "root:" at its completion.

		   bind	o title
		   bind	E title	""
		   bind	u title	(unknown)

       The  first  binding  doesn't have any arguments,	so it would prompt you
       for a title. when you type "C-a o".  The	second binding would clear  an
       auto-title's  current setting (C-a E).  The third binding would set the
       current window's	title to "(unknown)" (C-a u).

       One thing to keep in mind when adding a null  title-escape-sequence  to
       your  prompt  is	that some shells (like the csh)	count all the non-con-
       trol characters as part of the prompt's	length.	  If  these  invisible
       characters  aren't a multiple of	8 then backspacing over	a tab will re-
       sult in an incorrect display.  One way to get around this is to	use  a
       prompt like this:

	      set prompt='^[[0000m^[k^[\% '

       The escape-sequence "<esc>[0000m" not only normalizes the character at-
       tributes, but all the zeros round the length of the  invisible  charac-
       ters  up	 to  8.	  Bash users will probably want	to echo	the escape se-
       quence in the PROMPT_COMMAND:

	      PROMPT_COMMAND='printf "\033k\033\134"'

       (I used "134" to	output a `\' because of	a bug in bash v1.04).

       Each window in a	screen session emulates	a VT100	 terminal,  with  some
       extra  functions	added. The VT100 emulator is hard-coded, no other ter-
       minal types can be emulated.
       Usually screen tries to emulate as much of the VT100/ANSI  standard  as
       possible.  But  if your terminal	lacks certain capabilities, the	emula-
       tion may	not be complete. In these cases	screen has to tell the	appli-
       cations	that  some  of the features are	missing. This is no problem on
       machines	using termcap, because screen can use the $TERMCAP variable to
       customize the standard screen termcap.

       But if you do a rlogin on another machine or your machine supports only
       terminfo	this method fails. Because of this, screen  offers  a  way  to
       deal with these cases.  Here is how it works:

       When  screen  tries  to figure out a terminal name for itself, it first
       looks for an entry named	"screen.<term>", where <term> is the  contents
       of your $TERM variable.	If no such entry exists, screen	tries "screen"
       (or "screen-w" if the terminal is wide (132 cols	or  more)).   If  even
       this entry cannot be found, "vt100" is used as a	substitute.

       The idea	is that	if you have a terminal which doesn't support an	impor-
       tant feature (e.g. delete char or clear to EOS) you  can	 build	a  new
       termcap/terminfo	 entry for screen (named "screen.<dumbterm>") in which
       this capability has been	disabled. If this entry	is installed  on  your
       machines	 you  are able to do a rlogin and still	keep the correct term-
       cap/terminfo entry.  The	terminal name is put in	the $TERM variable  of
       all new windows.	 Screen	also sets the $TERMCAP variable	reflecting the
       capabilities of the virtual terminal emulated. Notice that, however, on
       machines	using the terminfo database this variable has no effect.  Fur-
       thermore, the variable $WINDOW is set to	the window number of each win-

       The  actual  set	 of capabilities supported by the virtual terminal de-
       pends on	the capabilities supported by the physical terminal.  If,  for
       instance,  the  physical	 terminal  does	 not  support underscore mode,
       screen does not put the `us' and	`ue' capabilities  into	 the  window's
       $TERMCAP	variable, accordingly.	However, a minimum number of capabili-
       ties must be supported by a terminal in order  to  run  screen;	namely
       scrolling,  clear  screen,  and	direct cursor addressing (in addition,
       screen does not run on hardcopy terminals or on	terminals  that	 over-

       Also,  you can customize	the $TERMCAP value used	by screen by using the
       "termcap" .screenrc command, or by  defining  the  variable  $SCREENCAP
       prior to	startup.  When the is latter defined, its value	will be	copied
       verbatim	into each window's $TERMCAP variable.  This can	either be  the
       full  terminal  definition,  or	a filename where the terminal "screen"
       (and/or "screen-w") is defined.

       Note that screen	honors the "terminfo" .screenrc	command	if the	system
       uses the	terminfo database rather than termcap.

       When  the  boolean  `G0'	capability is present in the termcap entry for
       the terminal on which screen has	been called, the terminal emulation of
       screen supports multiple	character sets.	 This allows an	application to
       make use	of, for	instance, the VT100 graphics character set or national
       character sets.	The following control functions	from ISO 2022 are sup-
       ported: lock shift G0 (SI), lock	shift G1 (SO),	lock  shift  G2,  lock
       shift  G3, single shift G2, and single shift G3.	 When a	virtual	termi-
       nal is created or reset,	the ASCII character set	is  designated	as  G0
       through	G3.  When the `G0' capability is present, screen evaluates the
       capabilities `S0', `E0',	and `C0' if present. `S0' is the sequence  the
       terminal	 uses  to  enable  and start the graphics character set	rather
       than SI.	 `E0' is the corresponding replacement for SO.	`C0'  gives  a
       character  by  character	 translation  string that is used during semi-
       graphics	mode. This string is built like	the `acsc'  terminfo  capabil-

       When the	`po' and `pf' capabilities are present in the terminal's term-
       cap entry, applications running in a screen window can send  output  to
       the printer port	of the terminal.  This allows a	user to	have an	appli-
       cation in one window sending output to a	printer	connected to the  ter-
       minal,  while  all  other windows are still active (the printer port is
       enabled and disabled again for each chunk of output).   As  a  side-ef-
       fect,  programs	running	 in  different	windows	can send output	to the
       printer simultaneously.	Data sent to the printer is not	 displayed  in
       the window.  The	info command displays a	line starting `PRIN' while the
       printer is active.

       Screen maintains	a hardstatus line for every window. If a  window  gets
       selected,  the  display's  hardstatus will be updated to	match the win-
       dow's hardstatus	line. If the display has no hardstatus the  line  will
       be  displayed as	a standard screen message.  The	hardstatus line	can be
       changed	 with	the   ANSI   Application   Program   Command	(APC):
       "ESC_<string>ESC\".  As	a  convenience	for  xterm  users the sequence
       "ESC]0..2;<string>^G" is	also accepted.

       Some capabilities are only put into the $TERMCAP	variable of  the  vir-
       tual  terminal  if  they	can be efficiently implemented by the physical
       terminal.  For instance,	`dl' (delete line) is only put into the	$TERM-
       CAP  variable  if  the  terminal	 supports either delete	line itself or
       scrolling regions. Note that this may provoke confusion,	when the  ses-
       sion  is	 reattached  on	a different terminal, as the value of $TERMCAP
       cannot be modified by parent processes.

       The "alternate screen" capability is not	enabled	by default.   Set  the
       altscreen .screenrc command to enable it.

       The  following  is  a  list  of control sequences recognized by screen.
       "(V)" and "(A)" indicate	VT100-specific and ANSI- or ISO-specific func-
       tions, respectively.

       ESC E			  Next Line

       ESC D			  Index

       ESC M			  Reverse Index

       ESC H			  Horizontal Tab Set

       ESC Z			  Send VT100 Identification String

       ESC 7		     (V)  Save Cursor and Attributes

       ESC 8		     (V)  Restore Cursor and Attributes

       ESC [s		     (A)  Save Cursor and Attributes

       ESC [u		     (A)  Restore Cursor and Attributes

       ESC c			  Reset	to Initial State

       ESC g			  Visual Bell

       ESC Pn p			  Cursor Visibility (97801)

	   Pn =	6		  Invisible

		7		  Visible

       ESC =		     (V)  Application Keypad Mode

       ESC >		     (V)  Numeric Keypad Mode

       ESC # 8		     (V)  Fill Screen with E's

       ESC \		     (A)  String Terminator

       ESC ^		     (A)  Privacy Message String (Message Line)

       ESC !			  Global Message String	(Message Line)

       ESC k			  A.k.a. Definition String

       ESC P		     (A)  Device Control String.  Outputs a string di-
				  rectly to the	host terminal  without	inter-

       ESC _		     (A)  Application Program Command (Hardstatus)

       ESC ] 0 ; string	^G   (A)  Operating  System Command (Hardstatus, xterm
				  title	hack)

       ESC ] 83	; cmd ^G     (A)  Execute screen command. This only  works  if
				  multi-user  support is compiled into screen.
				  The pseudo-user ":window:" is	used to	 check
				  the  access  control list. Use "addacl :win-
				  dow: -rwx #?"	 to  create  a	user  with  no
				  rights and allow only	the needed commands.

       Control-N	     (A)  Lock Shift G1	(SO)

       Control-O	     (A)  Lock Shift G0	(SI)

       ESC n		     (A)  Lock Shift G2

       ESC o		     (A)  Lock Shift G3

       ESC N		     (A)  Single Shift G2

       ESC O		     (A)  Single Shift G3

       ESC ( Pcs	     (A)  Designate character set as G0

       ESC ) Pcs	     (A)  Designate character set as G1

       ESC * Pcs	     (A)  Designate character set as G2

       ESC + Pcs	     (A)  Designate character set as G3

       ESC [ Pn	; Pn H		  Direct Cursor	Addressing

       ESC [ Pn	; Pn f		  same as above

       ESC [ Pn	J		  Erase	in Display

	     Pn	= None or 0	  From Cursor to End of	Screen

		  1		  From Beginning of Screen to Cursor

		  2		  Entire Screen

       ESC [ Pn	K		  Erase	in Line

	     Pn	= None or 0	  From Cursor to End of	Line

		  1		  From Beginning of Line to Cursor

		  2		  Entire Line

       ESC [ Pn	X		  Erase	character

       ESC [ Pn	A		  Cursor Up

       ESC [ Pn	B		  Cursor Down

       ESC [ Pn	C		  Cursor Right

       ESC [ Pn	D		  Cursor Left

       ESC [ Pn	E		  Cursor next line

       ESC [ Pn	F		  Cursor previous line

       ESC [ Pn	G		  Cursor horizontal position

       ESC [ Pn	`		  same as above

       ESC [ Pn	d		  Cursor vertical position

       ESC [ Ps	;a|; Ps	m	  Select Graphic Rendition

	     Ps	= None or 0	  Default Rendition

		  1		  Bold

		  2	     (A)  Faint

		  3	     (A)  Standout Mode	(ANSI: Italicized)

		  4		  Underlined

		  5		  Blinking

		  7		  Negative Image

		  22	     (A)  Normal Intensity

		  23	     (A)  Standout Mode	off (ANSI: Italicized off)

		  24	     (A)  Not Underlined

		  25	     (A)  Not Blinking

		  27	     (A)  Positive Image

		  30	     (A)  Foreground Black

		  31	     (A)  Foreground Red

		  32	     (A)  Foreground Green

		  33	     (A)  Foreground Yellow

		  34	     (A)  Foreground Blue

		  35	     (A)  Foreground Magenta

		  36	     (A)  Foreground Cyan

		  37	     (A)  Foreground White

		  39	     (A)  Foreground Default

		  40	     (A)  Background Black

		  ^a|		  a|

		  49	     (A)  Background Default

       ESC [ Pn	g		  Tab Clear

	     Pn	= None or 0	  Clear	Tab at Current Position

		  3		  Clear	All Tabs

       ESC [ Pn	; Pn r	     (V)  Set Scrolling	Region

       ESC [ Pn	I	     (A)  Horizontal Tab

       ESC [ Pn	Z	     (A)  Backward Tab

       ESC [ Pn	L	     (A)  Insert Line

       ESC [ Pn	M	     (A)  Delete Line

       ESC [ Pn	@	     (A)  Insert Character

       ESC [ Pn	P	     (A)  Delete Character

       ESC [ Pn	S		  Scroll Scrolling Region Up

       ESC [ Pn	T		  Scroll Scrolling Region Down

       ESC [ Pn	^		  same as above

       ESC [ Ps	;a|; Ps	h	  Set Mode

       ESC [ Ps	;a|; Ps	l	  Reset	Mode

	     Ps	= 4	     (A)  Insert Mode

		  20	     (A)  Automatic Linefeed Mode

		  34		  Normal Cursor	Visibility

		  ?1	     (V)  Application Cursor Keys

		  ?3	     (V)  Change Terminal Width	to 132 columns

		  ?5	     (V)  Reverse Video

		  ?6	     (V)  Origin Mode

		  ?7	     (V)  Wrap Mode

		  ?9		  X10 mouse tracking

		  ?25	     (V)  Visible Cursor

		  ?47		  Alternate Screen (old	xterm code)

		  ?1000	     (V)  VT200	mouse tracking

		  ?1047		  Alternate Screen (new	xterm code)

		  ?1049		  Alternate Screen (new	xterm code)

       ESC [ 5 i	     (A)  Start	relay to printer (ANSI Media Copy)

       ESC [ 4 i	     (A)  Stop relay to	printer	(ANSI Media Copy)

       ESC [ 8 ; Ph ; Pw t	  Resize  the  window  to  `Ph'	lines and `Pw'
				  columns (SunView special)

       ESC [ c			  Send VT100 Identification String

       ESC [ x			  Send Terminal	Parameter Report

       ESC [ > c		  Send	VT220  Secondary   Device   Attributes

       ESC [ 6 n		  Send Cursor Position Report

       In  order  to do	a full VT100 emulation screen has to detect that a se-
       quence of characters in the input stream	was generated by a keypress on
       the  user's keyboard and	insert the VT100 style escape sequence.	Screen
       has a very flexible way of doing	this by	making it possible to map  ar-
       bitrary	commands  on  arbitrary	 sequences of characters. For standard
       VT100 emulation the command will	always insert a	string	in  the	 input
       buffer  of  the	window	(see also command stuff	in the command table).
       Because the sequences generated by a keypress can change	after a	 reat-
       tach from a different terminal type, it is possible to bind commands to
       the termcap name	of the keys.  Screen will insert the  correct  binding
       after each reattach. See	the bindkey command for	further	details	on the
       syntax and examples.

       Here is the table of the	default	key bindings. (A) means	that the  com-
       mand is executed	if the keyboard	is switched into application mode.

       Key name		 Termcap name	 Command
       Cursor up	     ku		 stuff \033[A
					 stuff \033OA	 (A)
       Cursor down	     kd		 stuff \033[B
					 stuff \033OB	 (A)
       Cursor right	     kr		 stuff \033[C
					 stuff \033OC	 (A)
       Cursor left	     kl		 stuff \033[D
					 stuff \033OD	 (A)
       Function	key 0	     k0		 stuff \033[10~
       Function	key 1	     k1		 stuff \033OP
       Function	key 2	     k2		 stuff \033OQ
       Function	key 3	     k3		 stuff \033OR
       Function	key 4	     k4		 stuff \033OS
       Function	key 5	     k5		 stuff \033[15~
       Function	key 6	     k6		 stuff \033[17~
       Function	key 7	     k7		 stuff \033[18~
       Function	key 8	     k8		 stuff \033[19~
       Function	key 9	     k9		 stuff \033[20~
       Function	key 10	     k;		 stuff \033[21~
       Function	key 11	     F1		 stuff \033[23~
       Function	key 12	     F2		 stuff \033[24~
       Home		     kh		 stuff \033[1~
       End		     kH		 stuff \033[4~
       Insert		     kI		 stuff \033[2~
       Delete		     kD		 stuff \033[3~
       Page up		     kP		 stuff \033[5~
       Page down	     kN		 stuff \033[6~
       Keypad 0		     f0		 stuff 0
					 stuff \033Op	 (A)
       Keypad 1		     f1		 stuff 1
					 stuff \033Oq	 (A)
       Keypad 2		     f2		 stuff 2
					 stuff \033Or	 (A)
       Keypad 3		     f3		 stuff 3
					 stuff \033Os	 (A)
       Keypad 4		     f4		 stuff 4
					 stuff \033Ot	 (A)
       Keypad 5		     f5		 stuff 5
					 stuff \033Ou	 (A)
       Keypad 6		     f6		 stuff 6
					 stuff \033Ov	 (A)
       Keypad 7		     f7		 stuff 7
					 stuff \033Ow	 (A)
       Keypad 8		     f8		 stuff 8
					 stuff \033Ox	 (A)
       Keypad 9		     f9		 stuff 9
					 stuff \033Oy	 (A)
       Keypad +		     f+		 stuff +
					 stuff \033Ok	 (A)
       Keypad -		     f-		 stuff -
					 stuff \033Om	 (A)
       Keypad *		     f*		 stuff *
					 stuff \033Oj	 (A)
       Keypad /		     f/		 stuff /
					 stuff \033Oo	 (A)
       Keypad =		     fq		 stuff =
					 stuff \033OX	 (A)
       Keypad .		     f.		 stuff .
					 stuff \033On	 (A)
       Keypad ,		     f,		 stuff ,
					 stuff \033Ol	 (A)
       Keypad enter	     fe		 stuff \015
					 stuff \033OM	 (A)

       The following table describes all terminal capabilities that are	recog-
       nized by	screen and are not in the termcap(5) manual.   You  can	 place
       these  capabilities  in your termcap entries (in	`/etc/termcap')	or use
       them with the commands `termcap', `terminfo' and	`termcapinfo' in  your
       screenrc	files. It is often not possible	to place these capabilities in
       the terminfo database.

       LP   (bool)  Terminal has VT100 style margins (`magic  margins').  Note
		    that  this	capability is obsolete because screen uses the
		    standard 'xn' instead.

       Z0   (str)   Change width to 132	columns.

       Z1   (str)   Change width to 80 columns.

       WS   (str)   Resize display. This capability has	the desired width  and
		    height as arguments. SunView(tm) example: '\E[8;%d;%dt'.

       NF   (bool)  Terminal  doesn't need flow	control. Send ^S and ^Q	direct
		    to the application.	Same as	'flow off'.  The  opposite  of
		    this capability is 'nx'.

       G0   (bool)  Terminal can deal with ISO 2022 font selection sequences.

       S0   (str)   Switch  charset  'G0' to the specified charset. Default is

       E0   (str)   Switch charset 'G0'	back to	standard charset.  Default  is

       C0   (str)   Use	the string as a	conversion table for font '0'. See the
		    'ac' capability for	more details.

       CS   (str)   Switch cursor-keys to application mode.

       CE   (str)   Switch cursor-keys back to normal mode.

       AN   (bool)  Turn on autonuke. See the 'autonuke' command for more  de-

       OL   (num)   Set	 the  output buffer limit. See the 'obuflimit' command
		    for	more details.

       KJ   (str)   Set	the encoding of	the terminal. See the 'encoding'  com-
		    mand for valid encodings.

       AF   (str)   Change  character foreground color in an ANSI conform way.
		    This capability will almost	always	be  set	 to  '\E[3%dm'
		    ('\E[3%p1%dm' on terminfo machines).

       AB   (str)   Same as 'AF', but change background	color.

       AX   (bool)  Does  understand  ANSI  set	 default fg/bg color (\E[39m /

       XC   (str)   Describe a translation of characters to strings  depending
		    on	the current font. More details follow in the next sec-

       XT   (bool)  Terminal understands special xterm sequences  (OSC,	 mouse

       C8   (bool)  Terminal needs bold	to display high-intensity colors (e.g.

       TF   (bool)  Add	missing	capabilities to	the termcap/info  entry.  (Set
		    by default).

       Screen  has  a  powerful	mechanism to translate characters to arbitrary
       strings depending on the	current	font and terminal type.	 Use this fea-
       ture  if	 you  want  to	work with a common standard character set (say
       ISO8851-latin1) even on terminals that scatter the more unusual charac-
       ters over several national language font	pages.

	   _charset-mapping_ :=	_designator__template_{,_mapping_}
	   _mapping_ :=	_char-to-be-mapped__template-arg_

       The things in braces may	be repeated any	number of times.

       A  _charset-mapping_ tells screen how to	map characters in font _desig-
       nator_ ('B': Ascii, 'A':	UK, 'K':  German,  etc.)   to  strings.	 Every
       _mapping_  describes  to	 what string a single character	will be	trans-
       lated. A	template mechanism is used, as most of the time	the codes have
       a  lot  in  common  (for	 example strings to switch to and from another
       charset). Each occurrence of '%'	in _template_  gets  substituted  with
       the  _template-arg_  specified  together	 with  the  character. If your
       strings are not similar at all, then use	'%' as a  template  and	 place
       the  full  string  in  _template-arg_. A	quoting	mechanism was added to
       make it possible	to use a real '%'. The '\' character quotes  the  spe-
       cial characters '\', '%', and ','.

       Here is an example:

	   termcap hp700 'XC=B\E(K%\E(B,\304[,\326\\\\,\334]'

       This  tells  screen how to translate ISOlatin1 (charset 'B') upper case
       umlaut characters on a hp700 terminal that has a	German charset.	'\304'
       gets  translated	 to  '\E(K[\E(B'  and so on.  Note that	this line gets
       parsed *three* times before the internal	lookup table is	built,	there-
       fore a lot of quoting is	needed to create a single '\'.

       Another	extension  was	added  to  allow  more emulation: If a mapping
       translates the unquoted '%' char, it will be sent to the	terminal when-
       ever screen switches to the corresponding _designator_. In this special
       case the	template is assumed to be just '%' because the charset	switch
       sequence	and the	character mappings normally haven't much in common.

       This example shows one use of the extension:

	   termcap xterm 'XC=K%,%\E(B,[\304,\\\\\326,]\334'

       Here,  a	 part of the German ('K') charset is emulated on an xterm.  If
       screen has to change to the 'K' charset,	'\E(B' will  be	 sent  to  the
       terminal,  i.e. the ASCII charset is used instead. The template is just
       '%', so the mapping is straightforward: '[' to '\304', '\'  to  '\326',
       and ']' to '\334'.

       COLUMNS	      Number of	columns	on the terminal	(overrides termcap en-
       HOME	      Directory	in which to look for .screenrc.
       LINES	      Number of	lines on the terminal (overrides  termcap  en-
       LOCKPRG	      Screen lock program.
       NETHACKOPTIONS Turns on nethack option.
       PATH	      Used for locating	programs to run.
       SCREENCAP      For customizing a	terminal's TERMCAP value.
       SCREENDIR      Alternate	socket directory.
       SCREENRC	      Alternate	user screenrc file.
       SHELL	      Default  shell  program  for  opening  windows  (default
		      "/bin/sh").  See also "shell" .screenrc command.
       STY	      Alternate	socket name.
       SYSSCREENRC    Alternate	system screenrc	file.
       TERM	      Terminal name.
       TERMCAP	      Terminal description.
       WINDOW	      Window number of a window	(at creation time).

       a|/screen-4.?.??/etc/etcscreenrc	 Examples in the  screen  distribution
					 package  for  private and global ini-
					 tialization files.
       /usr/local/etc/screenrc		 screen	initialization commands
       $HOME/.screenrc			 Read in after /usr/local/etc/screenrc
       /local/screens/S-<login>		 Socket	directories (default)
       /usr/tmp/screens/S-<login>	 Alternate socket directories.
       <socket directory>/.termcap	 Written by the	"termcap" output func-
       /usr/tmp/screens/screen-exchange	 or
       /tmp/screen-exchange		 screen	  `interprocess	 communication
       hardcopy.[0-9]			 Screen	images created by the hardcopy
       screenlog.[0-9]			 Output	 log  files created by the log
       /usr/lib/terminfo/?/*		 or
       /etc/termcap			 Terminal capability databases
       /etc/utmp			 Login records
       $LOCKPRG				 Program that locks a terminal.

       termcap(5), utmp(5), vi(1), captoinfo(1), tic(1)

       Originally created by Oliver Laumann. For a long	 time  maintained  and
       developed by Juergen Weigert, Michael Schroeder,	Micah Cowan and	Sadrul
       Habib Chowdhury.	This latest version was	produced by Amadeusz SAawiAski
       <>   and	  Alexander   Naumov   <alexander_naumov@open->.

       Copyright (c) 2010-2015
	    Juergen Weigert (
	    Sadrul Habib Chowdhury (
       Copyright (c) 2008, 2009
	    Juergen Weigert (
	    Michael Schroeder (
	    Micah Cowan	(
	    Sadrul Habib Chowdhury (
       Copyright (C) 1993-2003
	    Juergen Weigert (
	    Michael Schroeder (
       Copyright (C) 1987 Oliver Laumann
       This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
       under  the  terms of the	GNU General Public License as published	by the
       Free Software Foundation; either	version	3, or  (at  your  option)  any
       later version.
       This  program  is  distributed  in the hope that	it will	be useful, but
       WITHOUT ANY  WARRANTY;  without	even  the  implied  warranty  of  MER-
       Public License for more details.
       You should have received	a copy of the GNU General Public License along
       with  this  program  (see  the file COPYING); if	not, write to the Free
       Software	Foundation, Inc., 59 Temple Place  -  Suite  330,  Boston,  MA
       02111-1307, USA

       Ken Beal	(,
       Rudolf Koenig (,
       Toerless	Eckert (,
       Wayne Davison (,
       Patrick Wolfe (, kailand!pat),
       Bart Schaefer (,
       Nathan Glasser (,
       Larry W.	Virden (,
       Howard Chu (,
       Tim MacKenzie (,
       Markku Jarvinen (mta@{cc,cs,ee},
       Marc Boucher (marc@CAM.ORG),
       Doug Siebert (,
       Ken Stillson (,
       Ian Frechett (frechett@spot.Colorado.EDU),
       Brian Koehmstedt	(,
       Don Smith (,
       Frank van der Linden (,
       Martin Schweikert (,
       David Vrona (,
       E. Tye McQueen (,
       Matthew Green (,
       Christopher Williams (,
       Matt Mosley (,
       Gregory Neil Shapiro (gshapiro@wpi.WPI.EDU),
       Johannes	Zellner	(,
       Pablo Averbuj (

       The  latest official release of screen available	via anonymous ftp from or any other GNU	distribution  site.  The  home
       site  of	 screen	 is	If you want to
       help, send a note to

       o  `dm' (delete mode) and `xs' are not handled correctly	(they are  ig-
	  nored). `xn' is treated as a magic-margin indicator.

       o  Screen has no	clue about double-high or double-wide characters.  But
	  this is the only area	where vttest is	allowed	to fail.

       o  It is	not possible to	change the environment variable	$TERMCAP  when
	  reattaching under a different	terminal type.

       o  The  support of terminfo based systems is very limited. Adding extra
	  capabilities to $TERMCAP may not have	any effects.

       o  Screen does not make use of hardware tabs.

       o  Screen must be installed as set-uid with owner root on most  systems
	  in  order to be able to correctly change the owner of	the tty	device
	  file for each	window.	 Special permission may	also  be  required  to
	  write	the file "/etc/utmp".

       o  Entries  in  "/etc/utmp"  are	not removed when screen	is killed with
	  SIGKILL.  This will cause some programs (like	"w" or "rwho") to  ad-
	  vertise that a user is logged	on who really isn't.

       o  Screen may give a strange warning when your tty has no utmp entry.

       o  When the modem line was hung up, screen may not automatically	detach
	  (or quit) unless the device driver is	configured to  send  a	HANGUP
	  signal.   To	detach	a screen session use the -D or -d command line

       o  If a password	is set,	the command line options -d and	-D  still  de-
	  tach a session without asking.

       o  Both	"breaktype"  and  "defbreaktype"  change  the break generating
	  method used by all terminal devices. The first should	change a  win-
	  dow  specific	 setting,  where the latter should change only the de-
	  fault	for new	windows.

       o  When attaching to a multiuser	session, the user's .screenrc file  is
	  not  sourced.	 Each  user's personal settings	have to	be included in
	  the .screenrc	file from which	the session is booted, or have	to  be
	  changed manually.

       o  A weird imagination is most useful to	gain full advantage of all the

       o  Send bug-reports, fixes, enhancements, t-shirts, money, beer & pizza

4th Berkeley Distribution	   Dec 2016			     SCREEN(1)


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