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SCREEN(1)							     SCREEN(1)

       screen -	screen manager with VT100/ANSI terminal	emulation

       screen [	-options ] [ cmd [ args	] ]
       screen -r [[pid.]tty[.host]]
       screen -r sessionowner/[[pid.]tty[.host]]

       Screen is a full-screen window manager that multiplexes a physical ter-
       minal between several processes (typically interactive  shells).	  Each
       virtual terminal	provides the functions of a DEC	VT100 terminal and, in
       addition, several control functions from	the ISO	6429  (ECMA  48,  ANSI
       X3.64)  and ISO 2022 standards (e.g. insert/delete line and support for
       multiple	character sets).  There	is a  scrollback  history  buffer  for
       each virtual terminal and a copy-and-paste mechanism that allows	moving
       text regions between windows.

       When screen is called, it creates a single window with a	 shell	in  it
       (or  the	 specified  command) and then gets out of your way so that you
       can use the program as you normally would.  Then, at any	time, you  can
       create new (full-screen)	windows	with other programs in them (including
       more shells), kill existing windows, view a list	of windows, turn  out-
       put  logging  on	and off, copy-and-paste	text between windows, view the
       scrollback history, switch between windows in whatever manner you wish,
       etc.  All  windows  run	their  programs	completely independent of each
       other. Programs continue	to run when their window is currently not vis-
       ible and	even when the whole screen session is detached from the	user's
       terminal.  When a program terminates, screen (per  default)  kills  the
       window  that  contained	it.  If	this window was	in the foreground, the
       display switches	to the previous	 window;  if  none  are	 left,	screen

       Everything  you type is sent to the program running in the current win-
       dow.  The only exception	to this	is the one keystroke that is  used  to
       initiate	 a  command  to	 the window manager.  By default, each command
       begins with a control-a (abbreviated C-a	from now on), and is  followed
       by one other keystroke.	The command character and all the key bindings
       can be fully customized to be anything you like,	though they are	always
       two characters in length.

       Screen does not understand the prefix "C-" to mean control.  Please use
       the caret notation ("^A"	instead	of "C-a") as  arguments	 to  e.g.  the
       escape  command	or  the	-e option.  Screen will	also print out control
       characters in caret notation.

       The standard way	to create a new	window is to type "C-a c".  This  cre-
       ates  a	new window running a shell and switches	to that	window immedi-
       ately, regardless of the	state of the process running  in  the  current
       window.	 Similarly,  you can create a new window with a	custom command
       in it by	first binding the command to a keystroke  (in  your  .screenrc
       file  or	 at  the "C-a :" command line) and then	using it just like the
       "C-a c" command.	 In addition, new windows can be created by running  a
       command like:

	      screen emacs prog.c

       from  a shell prompt within a previously	created	window.	 This will not
       run another copy	of screen, but will instead supply  the	 command  name
       and its arguments to the	window manager (specified in the $STY environ-
       ment variable) who will use it to create	the  new  window.   The	 above
       example would start the emacs editor (editing prog.c) and switch	to its

       If "/etc/utmp" is writable by screen, an	 appropriate  record  will  be
       written	to  this  file for each	window,	and removed when the window is
       terminated.  This is useful for working with "talk",  "script",	"shut-
       down",  "rsend",	 "sccs"	 and  other similar programs that use the utmp
       file to determine who you are. As long as screen	is active on your ter-
       minal,  the  terminal's	own  record is removed from the	utmp file. See
       also "C-a L".

       Before you begin	to use screen you'll need to make sure you  have  cor-
       rectly  selected	 your  terminal	 type, just as you would for any other
       termcap/terminfo	program.  (You can do this by using tset for example.)

       If  you're  impatient  and want to get started without doing a lot more
       reading,	you should remember this one command:  "C-a ?".	 Typing	 these
       two characters will display a list of the available screen commands and
       their bindings. Each keystroke is discussed in the section "DEFAULT KEY
       BINDINGS".  The	manual section "CUSTOMIZATION" deals with the contents
       of your .screenrc.

       If your terminal	is a "true" auto-margin	terminal (it doesn't allow the
       last position on	the screen to be updated without scrolling the screen)
       consider	to use a version of your terminal's termcap that has automatic
       margins	turned off. This will ensure an	accurate and optimal update of
       the screen in all circumstances.	Most terminals nowadays	 have  "magic"
       margins	(automatic margins plus	usable last column). This is the VT100
       style type and perfectly	suited for screen.  If all  you've  got	 is  a
       "true"  auto-margin  terminal  screen  will  be	content	to use it, but
       updating	a character put	into the last position on the screen  may  not
       be  possible  until the screen scrolls or the character is moved	into a
       safe position in	some other way.	This delay can be shortened by using a
       terminal	with insert-character capability.

       Screen has the following	command-line options:

       -a   include all	capabilities (with some	minor exceptions) in each win-
	    dow's termcap, even	if screen must redraw parts of the display  in
	    order to implement a function.

       -A   Adapt  the	sizes of all windows to	the size of the	current	termi-
	    nal.  By default, screen tries to restore  its  old	 window	 sizes
	    when  attaching  to	 resizable  terminals  (those with "WS"	in its
	    description, e.g. suncmd or	some xterm).

       -c file
	    override the default configuration file from "$HOME/.screenrc"  to

       -d|-D []
	    does  not  start screen, but detaches the elsewhere	running	screen
	    session. It	has the	same effect as typing "C-a  d"	from  screen's
	    controlling	 terminal.  -D	is  the	equivalent to the power	detach
	    key.  If no	session	can be detached, this option  is  ignored.  In
	    combination	 with  the  -r/-R  option more powerful	effects	can be

       -d -r   Reattach	a session and if necessary detach it first.

       -d -R   Reattach	a session and if necessary detach or  even  create  it

       -d -RR  Reattach	 a  session  and if necessary detach or	create it. Use
	       the first session if more than one session is available.

       -D -r   Reattach	a session. If necessary	 detach	 and  logout  remotely

       -D -R   Attach here and now. In detail this means: If a session is run-
	       ning, then reattach. If necessary detach	 and  logout  remotely
	       first.	If  it	was not	running	create it and notify the user.
	       This is the author's favorite.

       -D -RR  Attach here and now. Whatever that means, just do it.

	    Note: It is	always a good idea to check the	status	of  your  ses-
	    sions by means of "screen -list".

       -e xy
	    specifies the command character to be x and	the character generat-
	    ing	a literal command character to y (when typed after the command
	    character).	  The default is "C-a" and `a',	which can be specified
	    as "-e^Aa".	 When creating a screen	session, this option sets  the
	    default  command character.	In a multiuser session all users added
	    will start off with	this command character.	But when attaching  to
	    an	already	 running session, this option changes only the command
	    character of the attaching user.  This  option  is	equivalent  to
	    either the commands	"defescape" or "escape"	respectively.

       -f, -fn,	and -fa
	    turns  flow-control	 on, off, or "automatic	switching mode".  This
	    can	also be	defined	through	the "defflow" .screenrc	command.

       -h num
	    Specifies the history scrollback buffer to be num lines high.

       -i   will cause the interrupt key (usually C-c) to interrupt  the  dis-
	    play  immediately  when  flow-control  is  on.   See the "defflow"
	    .screenrc command for details.  The	use of this option is discour-

       -l and -ln
	    turns  login  mode	on  or off (for	/etc/utmp updating).  This can
	    also be defined through the	"deflogin" .screenrc command.

       -ls and -list
	    does not start screen, but prints a	list of  strings
	    identifying	 your screen sessions.	Sessions marked	`detached' can
	    be resumed with "screen -r". Those marked `attached'  are  running
	    and	 have a	controlling terminal. If the session runs in multiuser
	    mode, it is	 marked	 `multi'.  Sessions  marked  as	 `unreachable'
	    either  live  on  a	 different host	or are `dead'.	An unreachable
	    session is considered dead,	when its name matches either the  name
	    of the local host, or the specified	parameter, if any.  See	the -r
	    flag for a description how to construct matches.  Sessions	marked
	    as `dead' should be	thoroughly checked and removed.	 Ask your sys-
	    tem	administrator if you are not sure. Remove  sessions  with  the
	    -wipe option.

       -L   tells  screen  your	auto-margin terminal has a writable last-posi-
	    tion on the	screen.	 This can also be set  in  your	 .screenrc  by
	    specifying `LP' in a "termcap" command.

       -m   causes  screen  to	ignore	the  $STY  environment	variable. With
	    "screen -m"	creation of a  new  session  is	 enforced,  regardless
	    whether  screen  is	 called	 from within another screen session or
	    not. This flag has a special meaning in connection with  the  `-d'

       -d -m   Start screen in "detached" mode.	This creates a new session but
	       doesn't attach  to  it.	This  is  useful  for  system  startup

       -D -m   This  also starts screen	in "detached" mode, but	doesn't	fork a
	       new process. The	command	exits if the session terminates.

       -O   selects a more optimal output mode for your	terminal  rather  than
	    true  VT100	 emulation (only affects auto-margin terminals without
	    `LP').  This can also be set in your .screenrc by specifying  `OP'
	    in a "termcap" command.

       -q   Suppress printing of error messages. In combination	with "-ls" the
	    exit value is as follows: 9	indicates  a  directory	 without  ses-
	    sions.  10	indicates  a directory with running but	not attachable
	    sessions. 11 (or more) indicates 1 (or more) usable	sessions.   In
	    combination	 with  "-r" the	exit value is as follows: 10 indicates
	    that there is no session to	resume.	12 (or	more)  indicates  that
	    there  are	2  (or more) sessions to resume	and you	should specify
	    which one to choose.  In all other cases "-q" has no effect.

       -r []
       -r sessionowner/[]
	    resumes a detached screen session.	No other options (except  com-
	    binations  with -d/-D) may be specified, though an optional	prefix
	    of [pid.] may be needed to	distinguish  between  multiple
	    detached  screen  sessions.	 The second form is used to connect to
	    another user's screen session which	runs in	multiuser  mode.  This
	    indicates  that  screen should look	for sessions in	another	user's
	    directory. This requires setuid-root.

       -R   attempts to	resume the first detached screen session it finds.  If
	    successful,	 all  other  command-line  options are ignored.	 If no
	    detached session exists, starts a new session using	the  specified
	    options,  just  as if -R had not been specified. The option	is set
	    by default if screen is run	as a login-shell (actually screen uses
	    "-xRR"  in that case).  For	combinations with the -d/-D option see

       -s   sets the default shell to the program specified,  instead  of  the
	    value  in  the  environment	 variable  $SHELL (or "/bin/sh"	if not
	    defined).  This can	also be	defined	through	the "shell"  .screenrc

       -S sessionname
	    When  creating a new session, this option can be used to specify a
	    meaningful name for	the session. This name identifies the  session
	    for	 "screen  -list"  and  "screen -r" actions. It substitutes the
	    default [] suffix.

       -t name
	    sets the title (a.k.a.) for	the default shell  or  specified  pro-
	    gram.  See also the	"shelltitle" .screenrc command.

       -U   Run	 screen	in UTF-8 mode. This option tells screen	that your ter-
	    minal sends	and understands	UTF-8 encoded characters. It also sets
	    the	default	encoding for new windows to `utf8'.

       -v   Print version number.

       -wipe [match]
	    does  the  same  as	 "screen  -ls",	but removes destroyed sessions
	    instead of marking them as `dead'.	An unreachable session is con-
	    sidered  dead,  when its name matches either the name of the local
	    host, or the explicitly given parameter, if	any.  See the -r  flag
	    for	a description how to construct matches.

       -x   Attach to a	not detached screen session. (Multi display mode).

       -X   Send  the  specified  command to a running screen session. You can
	    use	the -d or -r option to tell screen to look only	 for  attached
	    or	detached  screen sessions. Note	that this command doesn't work
	    if the session is password protected.

       As mentioned, each screen command consists of a "C-a" followed  by  one
       other  character.  For your convenience,	all commands that are bound to
       lower-case letters are also bound to their control  character  counter-
       parts (with the exception of "C-a a"; see below), thus, "C-a c" as well
       as "C-a C-c" can	be used	to create a window.  See  section  "CUSTOMIZA-
       TION" for a description of the command.

       The following table shows the default key bindings:

       C-a '	   (select)	 Prompt	 for a window name or number to	switch

       C-a "	   (windowlist -b)
				 Present a list	of all windows for  selection.

       C-a 0	   (select 0)
	...	      ...
       C-a 9	   (select 9)
       C-a -	   (select -)	 Switch	 to  window  number  0	- 9, or	to the
				 blank window.

       C-a tab	   (focus)	 Switch	the input focus	to the next region.

       C-a C-a	   (other)	 Toggle	to the	window	displayed  previously.
				 Note  that  this binding defaults to the com-
				 mand character	typed twice,  unless  overrid-
				 den.	For  instance,	if  you	use the	option
				 "-e]x", this command becomes "]]".

       C-a a	   (meta)	 Send the command character (C-a)  to  window.
				 See escape command.

       C-a A	   (title)	 Allow	the  user to enter a name for the cur-
				 rent window.

       C-a b
       C-a C-b	   (break)	 Send a	break to window.

       C-a B	   (pow_break)	 Reopen	the terminal line and send a break.

       C-a c
       C-a C-c	   (screen)	 Create	a new window with a shell  and	switch
				 to that window.

       C-a C	   (clear)	 Clear the screen.

       C-a d
       C-a C-d	   (detach)	 Detach	screen from this terminal.

       C-a D D	   (pow_detach)	 Detach	and logout.

       C-a f
       C-a C-f	   (flow)	 Toggle	flow on, off or	auto.

       C-a F	   (fit)	 Resize	the window to the current region size.

       C-a C-g	   (vbell)	 Toggles screen's visual bell mode.

       C-a h	   (hardcopy)	 Write a hardcopy of the current window	to the
				 file "hardcopy.n".

       C-a H	   (log)	 Begins/ends  logging of the current window to
				 the file "screenlog.n".

       C-a i
       C-a C-i	   (info)	 Show info about this window.

       C-a k
       C-a C-k	   (kill)	 Destroy current window.

       C-a l
       C-a C-l	   (redisplay)	 Fully refresh current window.

       C-a L	   (login)	 Toggle	this  windows  login  slot.  Available
				 only  if  screen  is configured to update the
				 utmp database.

       C-a m
       C-a C-m	   (lastmsg)	 Repeat	the last message displayed in the mes-
				 sage line.

       C-a M	   (monitor)	 Toggles monitoring of the current window.

       C-a space
       C-a n
       C-a C-n	   (next)	 Switch	to the next window.

       C-a N	   (number)	 Show  the  number  (and title)	of the current

       C-a backspace
       C-a h
       C-a p
       C-a C-p	   (prev)	 Switch	to the previous	window (opposite of C-
				 a n).

       C-a q
       C-a C-q	   (xon)	 Send a	control-q to the current window.

       C-a Q	   (only)	 Delete	all regions but	the current one.

       C-a r
       C-a C-r	   (wrap)	 Toggle	the current window's line-wrap setting
				 (turn the current window's automatic  margins
				 on and	off).

       C-a s
       C-a C-s	   (xoff)	 Send a	control-s to the current window.

       C-a S	   (split)	 Split the current region into two new ones.

       C-a t
       C-a C-t	   (time)	 Show system information.

       C-a v	   (version)	 Display the version and compilation date.

       C-a C-v	   (digraph)	 Enter digraph.

       C-a w
       C-a C-w	   (windows)	 Show a	list of	window.

       C-a W	   (width)	 Toggle	80/132 columns.

       C-a x
       C-a C-x	   (lockscreen)	 Lock this terminal.

       C-a X	   (remove)	 Kill the current region.

       C-a z
       C-a C-z	   (suspend)	 Suspend  screen.   Your  system  must support
				 BSD-style job-control.

       C-a Z	   (reset)	 Reset the virtual terminal to its  "power-on"

       C-a .	   (dumptermcap) Write out a ".termcap"	file.

       C-a ?	   (help)	 Show key bindings.

       C-a C-\	   (quit)	 Kill all windows and terminate	screen.

       C-a :	   (colon)	 Enter command line mode.

       C-a [
       C-a C-[
       C-a esc	   (copy)	 Enter copy/scrollback mode.

       C-a ]	   (paste .)	 Write the contents of the paste buffer	to the
				 stdin queue of	the current window.

       C-a {
       C-a }	   (history)	 Copy and paste	a previous (command) line.

       C-a >	   (writebuf)	 Write paste buffer to a file.

       C-a <	   (readbuf)	 Reads the screen-exchange file	into the paste

       C-a =	   (removebuf)	 Removes the file used by C-a <	and C-a	>.

       C-a ,	   (license)	 Shows	where screen comes from, where it went
				 to and	why you	can use	it.

       C-a _	   (silence)	 Start/stop monitoring the current window  for

       C-a *	   (displays)	 Show a	listing	of all currently attached dis-

       The "socket directory" defaults either to $HOME/.screen	or  simply  to
       /tmp/screens  or	 preferably  to	 /usr/local/screens chosen at compile-
       time. If	screen is installed setuid-root, then the administrator	should
       compile	screen with an adequate	(not NFS mounted) socket directory. If
       screen is not running setuid-root, the user can specify	any  mode  700
       directory in the	environment variable $SCREENDIR.

       When  screen  is	 invoked, it executes initialization commands from the
       files "/etc/screenrc" and ".screenrc" in	 the  user's  home  directory.
       These  are  the	"programmer's  defaults" that can be overridden	in the
       following ways: for the global screenrc file screen  searches  for  the
       environment  variable  $SYSSCREENRC  (this override feature may be dis-
       abled at	compile-time). The user	specific screenrc file is searched  in
       $SCREENRC,  then	 $HOME/.screenrc.   The	 command  line option -c takes
       precedence over the above user screenrc files.

       Commands	in these files are used	to  set	 options,  bind	 functions  to
       keys,  and to automatically establish one or more windows at the	begin-
       ning of your screen session.  Commands are listed one  per  line,  with
       empty lines being ignored.  A command's arguments are separated by tabs
       or spaces, and may be surrounded	by single or  double  quotes.	A  `#'
       turns  the rest of the line into	a comment, except in quotes.  Unintel-
       ligible lines are warned	about and ignored.  Commands may contain  ref-
       erences	to environment variables. The syntax is	the shell-like "$VAR "
       or "${VAR}". Note that this causes incompatibility with previous	screen
       versions,  as  now the '$'-character has	to be protected	with '\' if no
       variable	substitution shall be performed. A string in single-quotes  is
       also protected from variable substitution.

       Two  configuration  files are shipped as	examples with your screen dis-
       tribution: "etc/screenrc" and "etc/etcscreenrc".	They contain a	number
       of useful examples for various commands.

       Customization  can  also	 be  done 'on-line'. To	enter the command mode
       type `C-a :'. Note that commands	starting  with	"def"  change  default
       values, while others change current settings.

       The following commands are available:

       acladd usernames	[crypted-pw]
       addacl usernames

       Enable  users to	fully access this screen session. Usernames can	be one
       user or a comma separated list of users.	This command enables to	attach
       to  the screen session and performs the equivalent of `aclchg usernames
       +rwx "#?"'.  executed. To add a user with restricted  access,  use  the
       `aclchg'	 command  below.  If an	optional second	parameter is supplied,
       it should be a crypted password for the named user(s).  `Addacl'	 is  a
       synonym to `acladd'.  Multi user	mode only.

       aclchg usernames	permbits list
       chacl usernames permbits	list

       Change permissions for a	comma separated	list of	users. Permission bits
       are represented as `r', `w' and `x'. Prefixing `+' grants  the  permis-
       sion,  `-' removes it. The third	parameter is a comma separated list of
       commands	and/or windows (specified either by number or title). The spe-
       cial  list `#' refers to	all windows, `?' to all	commands. if usernames
       consists	of a single `*', all known users are affected.	A command  can
       be  executed  when  the user has	the `x'	bit for	it.  The user can type
       input to	a window when he has its `w' bit set and no other user obtains
       a  writelock  for  this	window.	 Other bits are	currently ignored.  To
       withdraw	the writelock from another user	in window 2: `aclchg  username
       -w+w 2'.	 To allow read-only access to the session: `aclchg username -w
       "#"'. As	soon as	a user's name is known to screen he can	attach to  the
       session and (per	default) has full permissions for all command and win-
       dows. Execution permission for the acl commands,	`at' and others	should
       also  be	 removed  or  the user may be able to regain write permission.
       Rights of the special username nobody cannot be changed (see  the  "su"
       command).  `Chacl' is a synonym to `aclchg'.  Multi user	mode only.

       acldel username

       Remove a	user from screen's access control list.	If currently attached,
       all the user's displays are detached from the session. He cannot	attach
       again.  Multi user mode only.

       aclgrp username [groupname]

       Creates	groups	of  users that share common access rights. The name of
       the group is the	username of the	group leader. Each member of the group
       inherits	 the  permissions  that	 are granted to	the group leader. That
       means, if a user	fails an access	check, another check is	made  for  the
       group  leader.	A  user	 is  removed from all groups the special value
       "none" is used for groupname.  If the second parameter is  omitted  all
       groups the user is in are listed.

       aclumask	[[users]+bits |[users]-bits .... ]
       umask [[users]+bits |[users]-bits .... ]

       This specifies the access other users have to windows that will be cre-
       ated by the caller of the command.  Users may be	no,  one  or  a	 comma
       separated list of known usernames. If no	users are specified, a list of
       all currently known users is  assumed.	Bits  is  any  combination  of
       access control bits allowed defined with	the "aclchg" command. The spe-
       cial username "?" predefines the	access that not	yet known  users  will
       be  granted  to any window initially.  The special username "??"	prede-
       fines the access	that not yet known users are granted to	 any  command.
       Rights  of  the special username	nobody cannot be changed (see the "su"
       command).  `Umask' is a synonym to `aclumask'.

       activity	message

       When any	activity occurs	in a background	window	that  is  being	 moni-
       tored, screen displays a	notification in	the message line.  The notifi-
       cation message can be re-defined	by means of  the  "activity"  command.
       Each occurrence of `%' in message is replaced by	the number of the win-
       dow in which activity has occurred, and	each  occurrence  of  `^G'  is
       replaced	by the definition for bell in your termcap (usually an audible
       bell).  The default message is

		   'Activity in	window %n'

       Note that monitoring is off for all windows  by	default,  but  can  be
       altered by use of the "monitor" command (C-a M).

       allpartial on|off

       If  set	to  on,	 only  the  current cursor line	is refreshed on	window
       change.	This affects all windows  and  is  useful  for	slow  terminal
       lines.  The previous setting of full/partial refresh for	each window is
       restored	with "allpartial off".	This is	a global flag that immediately
       takes  effect on	all windows overriding the "partial" settings. It does
       not change the default redraw behavior of newly created windows.

       altscreen on|off

       If set to on, "alternate	screen"	support	is enabled in  virtual	termi-
       nals, just like in xterm.  Initial setting is `off'.

       at [identifier][#|*|%] command [args ...	]

       Execute	a  command  at	other  displays	 or  windows as	if it had been
       entered there.  "At" changes the	context	(the `current window' or `cur-
       rent display' setting) of the command. If the first parameter describes
       a non-unique context, the command will be executed multiple  times.  If
       the  first  parameter  is  of the form `identifier*' then identifier is
       matched against user names.  The	command	is executed once for each dis-
       play  of	 the  selected	user(s). If the	first parameter	is of the form
       `identifier%' identifier	is  matched  against  displays.	 Displays  are
       named  after the	ttys they attach. The prefix `/dev/' or	`/dev/tty' may
       be omitted from the identifier.	If identifier has  a  `#'  or  nothing
       appended	 it  is	matched	against	window numbers and titles. Omitting an
       identifier in front of the `#', `*' or `%'-character selects all	users,
       displays	 or  windows because a prefix-match is performed. Note that on
       the affected display(s) a short message will  describe  what  happened.
       Permission  is  checked	for initiator of the "at" command, not for the
       owners of the affected display(s).  Note	that the '#'  character	 works
       as  a comment introducer	when it	is preceded by whitespace. This	can be
       escaped by prefixing a '\'.  Permission is checked for the initiator of
       the "at"	command, not for the owners of the affected display(s).
       Caveat: When matching against windows, the command is executed at least
       once per	window.	Commands that change the internal arrangement of  win-
       dows  (like "other") may	be called again. In shared windows the command
       will be repeated	for each attached display. Beware, when	issuing	toggle
       commands	 like  "login"!	 Some commands (e.g. "process")	require	that a
       display is associated with the target windows.  These commands may  not
       work correctly under "at" looping over windows.

       attrcolor attrib	[attribute/color-modifier]

       This  command can be used to highlight attributes by changing the color
       of the  text.  If  the  attribute  attrib  is  in  use,	the  specified
       attribute/color	modifier is also applied. If no	modifier is given, the
       current one is deleted. See the "STRING ESCAPES"	chapter	for the	syntax
       of  the	modifier. Screen understands two pseudo-attributes, "i"	stands
       for high-intensity foreground color and "I"  for	 high-intensity	 back-
       ground color.


	      attrcolor	b "R"

       Change the color	to bright red if bold text is to be printed.

	      attrcolor	u "-u b"

       Use blue	text instead of	underline.

	      attrcolor	b "I"

       Use  bright  colors  for	 bold  text.  Most  terminal emulators do this

	      attrcolor	i "+b"

       Make bright colored text	also bold.

       autodetach on|off

       Sets whether screen will	automatically detach upon hangup, which	 saves
       all  your running programs until	they are resumed with a	screen -r com-
       mand.  When turned off, a hangup	signal will terminate screen  and  all
       the processes it	contains. Autodetach is	on by default.

       autonuke	on|off

       Sets  whether  a	 clear screen sequence should nuke all the output that
       has not been written to the terminal. See also "obuflimit".

       bce [on|off]

       Change background-color-erase setting. If "bce" is set to on, all char-
       acters  cleared	by an erase/insert/scroll/clear	operation will be dis-
       played in the current background	color.	Otherwise  the	default	 back-
       ground color is used.

       bell_msg	[message]

       When a bell character is	sent to	a background window, screen displays a
       notification in the message line.  The notification message can be  re-
       defined by this command.	 Each occurrence of `%'	in message is replaced
       by the number of	the window to which a bell has	been  sent,  and  each
       occurrence of `^G' is replaced by the definition	for bell in your term-
       cap (usually an audible bell).  The default message is

		   'Bell in window %n'

       An empty	message	can be supplied	to the "bell_msg" command to  suppress
       output of a message line	(bell_msg "").	Without	parameter, the current
       message is shown.

       bind [-c	class] key [command [args]]

       Bind a command to a key.	 By default, most of the commands provided  by
       screen  are  bound to one or more keys as indicated in the "DEFAULT KEY
       BINDINGS" section, e.g. the command to create a new window is bound  to
       "C-c"  and  "c".	  The  "bind"  command can be used to redefine the key
       bindings	and to define new bindings.  The key argument is either	a sin-
       gle  character,	a two-character	sequence of the	form "^x" (meaning "C-
       x"), a backslash	followed by an octal number (specifying	the ASCII code
       of  the character), or a	backslash followed by a	second character, such
       as "\^" or "\\".	 The argument can also be quoted, if you like.	If  no
       further	argument is given, any previously established binding for this
       key is removed.	The command argument can be any	command	listed in this

       If  a  command class is specified via the "-c" option, the key is bound
       for the specified class.	Use the	"command" command to activate a	class.
       Command	classes	 can be	used to	create multiple	command	keys or	multi-
       character bindings.

       Some examples:

		   bind	' ' windows
		   bind	^k
		   bind	k
		   bind	K kill
		   bind	^f screen telnet foobar
		   bind	\033 screen -ln	-t root	-h 1000	9 su

       would bind the space key	to the command that displays a list of windows
       (so  that the command usually invoked by	"C-a C-w" would	also be	avail-
       able as "C-a space"). The next three  lines  remove  the	 default  kill
       binding	from "C-a C-k" and "C-a	k".  "C-a K" is	then bound to the kill
       command.	Then it	binds "C-f" to the command "create  a  window  with  a
       TELNET  connection  to  foobar",	 and bind "escape" to the command that
       creates an non-login window with	a.k.a. "root" in slot #9, with a supe-
       ruser shell and a scrollback buffer of 1000 lines.

		   bind	-c demo1 0 select 10
		   bind	-c demo1 1 select 11
		   bind	-c demo1 2 select 12
		   bindkey "^B"	command	-c demo1

       makes "C-b 0" select window 10, "C-b 1" window 11, etc.

		   bind	-c demo2 0 select 10
		   bind	-c demo2 1 select 11
		   bind	-c demo2 2 select 12
		   bind	- command -c demo2

       makes "C-a - 0" select window 10, "C-a -	1" window 11, etc.

       bindkey [-d] [-m] [-a] [[-k|-t] string [cmd args]]

       This  command manages screen's input translation	tables.	Every entry in
       one of the tables tells screen how to react if a	 certain  sequence  of
       characters is encountered. There	are three tables: one that should con-
       tain actions programmed by the user, one	for the	default	 actions  used
       for  terminal  emulation	 and  one  for screen's	copy mode to do	cursor
       movement. See section "INPUT TRANSLATION" for a	list  of  default  key
       If  the	-d  option  is	given,	bindkey	modifies the default table, -m
       changes the copy	mode table and with neither option the user  table  is
       selected.   The	argument string	is the sequence	of characters to which
       an action is bound. This	can either be a	fixed string or	a termcap key-
       board capability	name (selectable with the -k option).
       Some  keys  on a	VT100 terminal can send	a different string if applica-
       tion mode is turned on (e.g the	cursor	keys).	 Such  keys  have  two
       entries	in  the	translation table. You can select the application mode
       entry by	specifying the -a option.
       The -t option tells screen not to do inter-character timing. One	cannot
       turn off	the timing if a	termcap	capability is used.
       Cmd  can	 be any	of screen's commands with an arbitrary number of args.
       If cmd is omitted the key-binding is removed from the table.
       Here are	some examples of keyboard bindings:

	       bindkey -d
       Show all	of the default key bindings. The application mode entries  are
       marked with [A].

	       bindkey -k k1 select 1
       Make the	"F1" key switch	to window one.

	       bindkey -t foo stuff barfoo
       Make "foo" an abbreviation of the word "barfoo".	Timeout	is disabled so
       that users can type slowly.

	       bindkey "\024" mapdefault
       This key-binding	makes "^T" an escape character	for  key-bindings.  If
       you  did	the above "stuff barfoo" binding, you can enter	the word "foo"
       by typing "^Tfoo". If you want to insert	a "^T" you have	to  press  the
       key twice (i.e. escape the escape binding).

	       bindkey -k F1 command
       Make the	F11 (not F1!) key an alternative screen	escape (besides	^A).

       break [duration]

       Send a break signal for duration*0.25 seconds to	this window.  For non-
       Posix systems the time interval may be  rounded	up  to	full  seconds.
       Most useful if a	character device is attached to	the window rather than
       a shell process (See also chapter "WINDOW TYPES"). The maximum duration
       of a break signal is limited to 15 seconds.

       breaktype [tcsendbreak|TIOCSBRK |TCSBRK]

       Choose  one  of	the available methods of generating a break signal for
       terminal	devices. This command should affect the	current	 window	 only.
       But  it still behaves identical to "defbreaktype". This will be changed
       in the future.  Calling "breaktype"  with  no  parameter	 displays  the
       break method for	the current window.

       bufferfile [exchange-file]

       Change the filename used	for reading and	writing	with the paste buffer.
       If the optional argument	to the "bufferfile" command  is	 omitted,  the
       default setting ("/tmp/screen-exchange")	is reactivated.	 The following
       example will paste the system's password	file into  the	screen	window
       (using the paste	buffer,	where a	copy remains):

		   C-a : bufferfile /etc/passwd
		   C-a < C-a ]
		   C-a : bufferfile

       c1 [on|off]

       Change  c1  code	 processing.  "C1  on" tells screen to treat the input
       characters between 128 and 159 as control  functions.   Such  an	 8-bit
       code  is	 normally  the same as ESC followed by the corresponding 7-bit
       code. The default setting is to process c1 codes	 and  can  be  changed
       with the	"defc1"	command.  Users	with fonts that	have usable characters
       in the c1 positions may want to turn this off.

       caption always|splitonly	[string]
       caption string [string]

       This command controls the display of the	window	captions.  Normally  a
       caption	is  only  used if more than one	window is shown	on the display
       (split screen mode). But	if the type is set to always  screen  shows  a
       caption even if only one	window is displayed. The default is splitonly.

       The second form changes the text	used for the caption. You can use  all
       escapes	from  the  "STRING  ESCAPES" chapter. Screen uses a default of
       `%3n %t'.

       You can mix both	forms by providing a string as an additional argument.

       charset set

       Change  the current character set slot designation and charset mapping.
       The first four character	of set	are  treated  as  charset  designators
       while the fifth and sixth character must	be in range '0'	to '3' and set
       the GL/GR charset mapping. On every position a '.' may be used to indi-
       cate  that the corresponding charset/mapping should not be changed (set
       is padded to six	characters internally by appending  '.'	  chars).  New
       windows	have  "BBBB02" as default charset, unless a "encoding" command
       is active.
       The current setting can be viewed with the "info" command.

       chdir [directory]

       Change the current directory of screen to the specified	directory  or,
       if called without an argument, to your home directory (the value	of the
       environment variable $HOME).  All windows that are created by means  of
       the  "screen"  command  from  within  ".screenrc" or by means of	"C-a :
       screen ..." or "C-a c" use this as their	default	directory.  Without  a
       chdir  command,	this  would  be	 the  directory	 from which screen was
       invoked.	 Hardcopy and log files	are always  written  to	 the  window's
       default	directory, not the current directory of	the process running in
       the window.  You	can use	this command multiple times in your  .screenrc
       to start	various	windows	in different default directories, but the last
       chdir value will	affect all the windows you create interactively.


       Clears the current window and saves its image to	the scrollback buffer.

       colon [prefix]

       Allows  you  to	enter ".screenrc" command lines. Useful	for on-the-fly
       modification of key bindings, specific  window  creation	 and  changing
       settings.  Note	that  the "set"	keyword	no longer exists! Usually com-
       mands affect the	current	window rather than default settings for	future
       windows.	Change defaults	with commands starting with 'def...'.

       If you consider this as the `Ex command mode' of	screen,	you may	regard
       "C-a esc" (copy mode) as	its `Vi	command	mode'.

       command [-c class]

       This command has	the same effect	as typing the screen escape  character
       (^A).  It is probably only useful for key bindings.  If the "-c"	option
       is given, select	the specified command  class.	See  also  "bind"  and

       compacthist [on|off]

       This  tells  screen  weather  to	 suppress  trailing  blank  lines when
       scrolling up text into the history buffer.

       console [on|off]

       Grabs or	un-grabs the machines console output to	a window.  Note:  Only
       the owner of /dev/console can grab the console output.  This command is
       only available if the machine supports the ioctl	TIOCCONS.


       Enter copy/scrollback mode. This	allows you to copy text	from the  cur-
       rent  window  and its history into the paste buffer. In this mode a vi-
       like `full screen editor' is active:
       Movement	keys:
	 h, j, k, l move the cursor line by line or column by column.
	 0, ^ and $ move to the	leftmost column, to the	 first	or  last  non-
	   whitespace character	on the line.
	 H,  M and L move the cursor to	the leftmost column of the top,	center
	   or bottom line of the window.
	 + and - positions one line up and down.
	 G moves to the	specified absolute line	(default: end of buffer).
	 | moves to the	specified absolute column.
	 w, b, e move the cursor word by word.
	 B, E move the cursor WORD by WORD (as in vi).
	 C-u and C-d scroll the	display	up/down	by  the	 specified  amount  of
	   lines  while	preserving the cursor position.	(Default: half screen-
	 C-b and C-f scroll the	display	up/down	a full screen.
	 g moves to the	beginning of the buffer.
	 % jumps to the	specified percentage of	the buffer.

	   Emacs style movement	keys can be customized by a .screenrc command.
	   (E.g.  markkeys  "h=^B:l=^F:$=^E")  There is	no simple method for a
	   full	emacs-style keymap, as this involves multi-character codes.

	   The copy range is specified by setting two marks. The text  between
	   these marks will be highlighted. Press
	 space to set the first	or second mark respectively.
	 Y and y used to mark one whole	line or	to mark	from start of line.
	 W marks exactly one word.
       Repeat count:
	   Any of these	commands can be	prefixed with a	repeat count number by
	   pressing digits
	 0..9 which is taken as	a repeat count.
	   Example: "C-a C-[ H 10 j 5 Y" will copy lines 11  to	 15  into  the
	   paste buffer.
	 / Vi-like search forward.
	 ? Vi-like search backward.
	 C-a s Emacs style incremental search forward.
	 C-r Emacs style reverse i-search.
	   There  are  however	some keys that act differently than in vi.  Vi
	   does	not allow one to yank rectangular blocks of text,  but	screen
	   does. Press
	 c  or	C  to  set the left or right margin respectively. If no	repeat
	   count is given, both	default	to the current cursor position.
	   Example: Try	this on	a rather full text screen: "C-a	[ M 20 l SPACE
	   c 10	l 5 j C	SPACE".

	   This	 moves	one to the middle line of the screen, moves in 20 col-
	   umns	left, marks the	beginning of the paste buffer, sets  the  left
	   column, moves 5 columns down, sets the right	column,	and then marks
	   the end of the paste	buffer.	Now try:
	   "C-a	[ M 20 l SPACE 10 l 5 j	SPACE"

	   and notice the difference in	the amount of text copied.
	 J joins lines.	It toggles between 4 modes: lines separated by a  new-
	   line	 character  (012),  lines glued	seamless, lines	separated by a
	   single whitespace and comma separated  lines.  Note	that  you  can
	   prepend  the	newline	character with a carriage return character, by
	   issuing a "crlf on".
	 v is for all the vi users with	":set numbers" - it toggles  the  left
	   margin between column 9 and 1. Press
	 a  before the final space key to toggle in append mode. Thus the con-
	   tents of the	paste buffer will not be overwritten, but is  appended
	 A toggles in append mode and sets a (second) mark.
	 >  sets the (second) mark and writes the contents of the paste	buffer
	   to the screen-exchange file (/tmp/screen-exchange per default) once
	   copy-mode is	finished.
	   This	 example  demonstrates how to dump the whole scrollback	buffer
	   to that file: "C-A [	g SPACE	G $ >".
	 C-g gives information about the current line and column.
	 x exchanges the first mark and	the current cursor position.  You  can
	   use this to adjust an already placed	mark.
	 @ does	nothing. Does not even exit copy mode.
	 All keys not described	here exit copy mode.

       copy_reg	[key]

       No longer exists, use "readreg" instead.

       crlf [on|off]

       This  affects  the copying of text regions with the `C-a	[' command. If
       it is set to `on',  lines  will	be  separated  by  the	two  character
       sequence	 `CR' -	`LF'.  Otherwise (default) only	`LF' is	used.  When no
       parameter is given, the state is	toggled.

       debug on|off

       Turns runtime debugging on or off. If screen  has  been	compiled  with
       option  -DDEBUG	debugging available and	is turned on per default. Note
       that this command only affects debugging	output from the	main  "SCREEN"
       process	correctly.  Debug  output  from	attacher processes can only be
       turned off once and forever.

       defc1 on|off

       Same as the c1 command except that the default setting for new  windows
       is changed. Initial setting is `on'.

       defautonuke on|off

       Same  as	 the  autonuke command except that the default setting for new
       displays	is changed. Initial setting is `off'.  Note that you  can  use
       the  special  `AN' terminal capability if you want to have a dependency
       on the terminal type.

       defbce on|off

       Same as the bce command except that the default setting for new windows
       is changed. Initial setting is `off'.

       defbreaktype [tcsendbreak|TIOCSBRK |TCSBRK]

       Choose  one  of	the available methods of generating a break signal for
       terminal	devices. The preferred methods are tcsendbreak	and  TIOCSBRK.
       The  third, TCSBRK, blocks the complete screen session for the duration
       of the break, but it may	be the	only  way  to  generate	 long  breaks.
       Tcsendbreak and TIOCSBRK	may or may not produce long breaks with	spikes
       (e.g. 4 per second). This is not	only system dependant, this also  dif-
       fers  between  serial  board  drivers.	Calling	"defbreaktype" with no
       parameter displays the current setting.

       defcharset [set]

       Like the	charset	command	except that the	default	setting	for  new  win-
       dows is changed.	Shows current default if called	without	argument.

       defescape xy

       Set  the	default	command	characters. This is equivalent to the "escape"
       except that it is useful	multiuser sessions only. In a  multiuser  ses-
       sion  "escape" changes the command character of the calling user, where
       "defescape" changes the default command characters for users that  will
       be added	later.

       defflow on|off|auto [interrupt]

       Same  as	 the flow command except that the default setting for new win-
       dows is changed.	Initial	setting	is `auto'.  Specifying	"defflow  auto
       interrupt" is the same as the command-line options -fa and -i.

       defgr on|off

       Same  as	the gr command except that the default setting for new windows
       is changed. Initial setting is `off'.

       defhstatus [status]

       The hardstatus line that	all new	windows	will get  is  set  to  status.
       This  command  is useful	to make	the hardstatus of every	window display
       the window number or title or the like.	Status may  contain  the  same
       directives  as in the window messages, but the directive	escape charac-
       ter is '^E' (octal 005) instead of '%'.	This was done to make a	misin-
       terpretation  of	program	generated hardstatus lines impossible.	If the
       parameter status	is omitted, the	current	default	string	is  displayed.
       Per default the hardstatus line of new windows is empty.

       defencoding enc

       Same  as	 the  encoding command except that the default setting for new
       windows is changed. Initial setting is the encoding taken from the ter-

       deflog on|off

       Same as the log command except that the default setting for new windows
       is changed. Initial setting is `off'.

       deflogin	on|off

       Same as the login command except	that the default setting for new  win-
       dows is changed.	This is	initialized with `on' as distributed (see con-

       defmode mode

       The mode	of each	newly allocated	pseudo-tty is set to mode.  Mode is an
       octal number.  When no "defmode"	command	is given, mode 0622 is used.

       defmonitor on|off

       Same  as	 the  monitor  command except that the default setting for new
       windows is changed. Initial setting is `off'.

       defobuflimit limit

       Same as the obuflimit command except that the default setting  for  new
       displays	 is  changed. Initial setting is 256 bytes.  Note that you can
       use the special 'OL' terminal capability	if you want to have  a	depen-
       dency on	the terminal type.

       defscrollback num

       Same  as	the scrollback command except that the default setting for new
       windows is changed. Initial setting is 100.

       defshell	command

       Synonym to the shell command. See there.

       defsilence on|off

       Same as the silence command except that the  default  setting  for  new
       windows is changed. Initial setting is `off'.

       defslowpaste msec"

       Same  as	 the slowpaste command except that the default setting for new
       windows is changed. Initial setting is 0	milliseconds, meaning `off'.

       defutf8 on|off

       Same as the utf8	command	except that the	default	setting	for  new  win-
       dows  is	 changed.  Initial  setting is `on' if screen was started with
       "-U", otherwise `off'.

       defwrap on|off

       Same as the wrap	command	except that the	default	setting	for  new  win-
       dows  is	changed. Initially line-wrap is	on and can be toggled with the
       "wrap" command ("C-a r")	or by means of "C-a : wrap on|off".

       defwritelock on|off|auto

       Same as the writelock command except that the default setting  for  new
       windows is changed. Initially writelocks	will off.

       defzombie [keys]

       Synonym	to the zombie command. Both currently change the default.  See

       detach [-h]

       Detach the screen session (disconnect it	from the terminal and  put  it
       into  the background).  This returns you	to the shell where you invoked
       screen.	A detached screen can be resumed by invoking screen  with  the
       -r  option  (see	 also  section	"COMMAND-LINE OPTIONS"). The -h	option
       tells screen to	immediately  close  the	 connection  to	 the  terminal


       Show what screen	thinks about your terminal. Useful if you want to know
       why features like color or the alternate	charset	don't work.


       Shows a tabular listing of  all	currently  connected  user  front-ends
       (displays).  This is most useful	for multiuser sessions.

       digraph [preset]

       This  command  prompts  the  user  for a	digraph	sequence. The next two
       characters typed	are looked up in a builtin  table  and	the  resulting
       character  is  inserted	in  the	input stream. For example, if the user
       enters 'a"', an a-umlaut	will  be  inserted.  If	 the  first  character
       entered	is  a 0	(zero),	screen will treat the following	characters (up
       to three) as an octal number instead.  The optional argument preset  is
       treated	as user	input, thus one	can create an "umlaut" key.  For exam-
       ple the command "bindkey	^K digraph '"'"	enables	the user  to  generate
       an a-umlaut by typing CTRL-K a.


       Write the termcap entry for the virtual terminal	optimized for the cur-
       rently  active  window  to  the	 file	".termcap"   in	  the	user's
       "$HOME/.screen"	directory  (or wherever	screen stores its sockets. See
       the "FILES" section below).  This termcap entry	is  identical  to  the
       value of	the environment	variable $TERMCAP that is set up by screen for
       each window. For	terminfo based systems you will	need  to  run  a  con-
       verter like captoinfo and then compile the entry	with tic.

       echo [-n] message

       The  echo  command may be used to annoy screen users with a 'message of
       the day'. Typically installed in	a global  /etc/screenrc.   The	option
       "-n" may	be used	to suppress the	line feed.  See	also "sleep".  Echo is
       also useful for online checking of environment variables.

       escape xy

       Set the command character to x and the character	generating  a  literal
       command	character  (by triggering the "meta" command) to y (similar to
       the -e option).	Each argument is either	a  single  character,  a  two-
       character  sequence  of the form	"^x" (meaning "C-x"), a	backslash fol-
       lowed by	an octal number	(specifying the	ASCII code of the  character),
       or  a  backslash	 followed by a second character, such as "\^" or "\\".
       The default is "^Aa".

       eval command1 [command2 ...]

       Parses and executes each	argument as seperate command.

       exec [[fdpat] newcommand	[args ...]]

       Run a unix subprocess (specified	by an executable path  newcommand  and
       its optional arguments) in the current window. The flow of data between
       newcommands stdin/stdout/stderr,	the process originally started in  the
       window  (let  us	call it	"application-process") and screen itself (win-
       dow) is controlled by the filedescriptor	pattern	fdpat.	 This  pattern
       is  basically a three character sequence	representing stdin, stdout and
       stderr of newcommand. A dot (.) connects	the file descriptor to screen.
       An  exclamation	mark (!) causes	the file descriptor to be connected to
       the application-process.	A colon	(:) combines both.  User input will go
       to  newcommand unless newcommand	receives the application-process' out-
       put (fdpats first character is `!' or `:') or  a	 pipe  symbol  (|)  is
       added (as a fourth character) to	the end	of fdpat.
       Invoking	 `exec'	without	arguments shows	name and arguments of the cur-
       rently running subprocess in this window. Only one  subprocess  a  time
       can be running in each window.
       When  a subprocess is running the `kill'	command	will affect it instead
       of the windows process.
       Refer to	the postscript file `doc/' for a  confusing  illustra-
       tion  of	 all  21  possible combinations. Each drawing shows the	digits
       2,1,0 representing the three file descriptors of	 newcommand.  The  box
       marked  `W'  is	the  usual pty that has	the application-process	on its
       slave side.  The	box marked `P' is  the	secondary  pty	that  now  has
       screen at its master side.

       Whitespace  between  the	 word  `exec' and fdpat	and the	command	can be
       omitted.	Trailing dots and a fdpat consisting only of dots can be omit-
       ted.  A	simple `|' is synonymous for the pattern `!..|'; the word exec
       can be omitted here and can always be replaced by `!'.


	      exec ... /bin/sh
	      exec /bin/sh

       Creates another shell in	the same window, while the original  shell  is
       still  running.	Output	of  both shells	is displayed and user input is
       sent to the new /bin/sh.

	      exec !.. stty 19200
	      exec ! stty 19200
	      !!stty 19200

       Set the speed of	the window's tty. If your  stty	 command  operates  on
       stdout, then add	another	`!'.

	      exec !..|	less

       This  adds  a  pager to the window output. The special character	`|' is
       needed to give the user control over the	pager  although	 it  gets  its
       input  from  the	 window's process. This	works, because less listens on
       stderr (a behavior that screen would not	expect without the  `|')  when
       its  stdin  is  not a tty.  Less	versions newer than 177	fail miserably
       here; good old pg still works.

	      !:sed -n s/.*Error.*/\007/p

       Sends window output to both, the	user and  the  sed  command.  The  sed
       inserts	an  additional	bell character (oct. 007) to the window	output
       seen by screen.	This will cause	"Bell in window	x" messages,  whenever
       the string "Error" appears in the window.


       Change  the window size to the size of the current region. This command
       is needed because screen	doesn't	adapt the window size automatically if
       the window is displayed more than once.

       flow [on|off|auto]

       Sets  the  flow-control	mode  for  this	window.	 Without parameters it
       cycles the current window's flow-control	setting	 from  "automatic"  to
       "on"  to	 "off".	 See the discussion on "FLOW-CONTROL" later on in this
       document	for full details and note, that	this is	subject	to  change  in
       future releases.	 Default is set	by `defflow'.

       focus [up|down|top|bottom]

       Move  the  input	focus to the next region. This is done in a cyclic way
       so that the top region is selected after	the bottom one.	If no  subcom-
       mand is given it	defaults to `down'. `up' cycles	in the opposite	order,
       `top' and `bottom' go to	the top	and bottom region respectively.	Useful
       bindings	are (j and k as	in vi)
	   bind	j focus	down
	   bind	k focus	up
	   bind	t focus	top
	   bind	b focus	bottom

       gr [on|off]

       Turn GR charset switching on/off. Whenever screen sees an input charac-
       ter with	the 8th	bit set, it will use the charset stored	in the GR slot
       and  print  the	character  with	the 8th	bit stripped. The default (see
       also "defgr") is	not to process	GR  switching  because	otherwise  the
       ISO88591	charset	would not work.

       hardcopy	[-h] [file]

       Writes  out  the	 currently displayed image to the file file, or, if no
       filename	is specified, to hardcopy.n in the default directory, where  n
       is the number of	the current window.  This either appends or overwrites
       the file	if it exists. See below.  If the option	-h is specified,  dump
       also the	contents of the	scrollback buffer.

       hardcopy_append on|off

       If set to "on", screen will append to the "hardcopy.n" files created by
       the command "C-a	h", otherwise these files are overwritten  each	 time.
       Default is `off'.

       hardcopydir directory

       Defines	a  directory  where  hardcopy  files will be placed. If	unset,
       hardcopys are dumped in screen's	current	working	directory.

       hardstatus [on|off]
       hardstatus [always]lastline|message|ignore [string]
       hardstatus string [string]

       This command configures the use and emulation of	the  terminal's	 hard-
       status  line.  The first	form toggles whether screen will use the hard-
       ware status line	to display messages. If	the  flag  is  set  to	`off',
       these  messages are overlaid in reverse video mode at the display line.
       The default setting is `on'.

       The second form tells screen what to do if the terminal doesn't have  a
       hardstatus  line	 (i.e.	the  termcap/terminfo capabilities "hs", "ts",
       "fs" and	"ds" are not set). If the type "lastline" is used, screen will
       reserve the last	line of	the display for	the hardstatus.	"message" uses
       screen's	message	mechanism and "ignore" tells screen never  to  display
       the  hardstatus.	  If you prepend the word "always" to the type,	screen
       will use	the type even if the terminal supports a hardstatus.

       The third form specifies	the contents of	the hardstatus line.  '%h'  is
       used  as	default	string,	i.e. the stored	hardstatus of the current win-
       dow (settable via "ESC]0;<string>^G"  or	 "ESC_<string>ESC\")  is  dis-
       played.	 You  can  customize this to any string	you like including the
       escapes from the	"STRING	ESCAPES" chapter. If you leave out  the	 argu-
       ment string, the	current	string is displayed.

       You  can	mix the	second and third form by providing the string as addi-
       tional argument.

       height [-w|-d] [lines [cols]]

       Set the display height to a specified number of lines. When no argument
       is given	it toggles between 24 and 42 lines display. You	can also spec-
       ify a width if you want to change both values.	The  -w	 option	 tells
       screen  to  leave  the  display	size unchanged and just	set the	window
       size, -d	vice versa.

       help [-c	class]

       Not really a online help, but displays a	help screen  showing  you  all
       the  key	bindings.  The first pages list	all the	internal commands fol-
       lowed by	their current bindings.	 Subsequent  pages  will  display  the
       custom  commands,  one  command	per key.  Press	space when you're done
       reading each page, or return to exit early.  All	other  characters  are
       ignored.	 If  the  "-c" option is given,	display	all bound commands for
       the specified command class.  See also "DEFAULT KEY BINDINGS"  section.


       Usually	users  work  with  a shell that	allows easy access to previous
       commands.  For example csh has the command "!!" to repeat the last com-
       mand executed.  Screen allows you to have a primitive way of re-calling
       "the command that started ...": You just	type the first letter of  that
       command,	then hit `C-a {' and screen tries to find a previous line that
       matches with the	`prompt	character' to the left	of  the	 cursor.  This
       line  is	 pasted	into this window's input queue.	 Thus you have a crude
       command history (made up	by  the	 visible  window  and  its  scrollback

       hstatus status

       Change the window's hardstatus line to the string status.

       ignorecase [on|off]

       Tell  screen  to	 ignore	 the case of caracters in searches. Default is


       Uses the	message	line to	display	some  information  about  the  current
       window:	the  cursor  position in the form "(column,row)" starting with
       "(1,1)",	the terminal width and height plus the size of the  scrollback
       buffer  in  lines,  like	 in  "(80,24)+50", the current state of	window
       XON/XOFF	flow control is	shown like this	(See also  section  FLOW  CON-

	 +flow	   automatic flow control, currently on.
	 -flow	   automatic flow control, currently off.
	 +(+)flow  flow	control	enabled. Agrees	with automatic control.
	 -(+)flow  flow	control	disabled. Disagrees with automatic control.
	 +(-)flow  flow	control	enabled. Disagrees with	automatic control.
	 -(-)flow  flow	control	disabled. Agrees with automatic	control.

       The  current line wrap setting (`+wrap' indicates enabled, `-wrap' not)
       is also shown. The flags	`ins', `org', `app', `log', `mon'  or  `nored'
       are  displayed when the window is in insert mode, origin	mode, applica-
       tion-keypad mode, has output logging, insert mode, origin mode,	appli-
       cation-keypad  mode,  output  logging,  activity	 monitoring or partial
       redraw enabled.

       The currently active character set (G0, G1, G2, or G3)  and  in	square
       brackets	 the  terminal character sets that are currently designated as
       G0 through G3 is	shown. If the window is	 in  UTF-8  mode,  the	string
       "UTF-8" is shown	instead.

       Additional  modes  depending on the type	of the window are displayed at
       the end of the status line (See also chapter "WINDOW TYPES").
       If the state machine of the  terminal  emulator	is  in	a  non-default
       state,  the  info line is started with a	string identifying the current
       For system information use the "time" command.

       ins_reg [key]

       No longer exists, use "paste" instead.

       encoding	enc [enc]

       Tell screen how to interpret the	input/output. The first	argument  sets
       the encoding of the current window. Each	window can emulate a different
       encoding. The optional second parameter overwrites the encoding of  the
       connected terminal. It should never be needed as	screen uses the	locale
       setting to detect the encoding.	There is also a	way to select a	termi-
       nal  encoding  depending	on the terminal	type by	using the "KJ" termcap

       Supported encodings  are	 eucJP,	 SJIS,	eucKR,	eucCN,	Big5,  KOI8-R,
       CP1251,	UTF-8,	ISO8859-2, ISO8859-3, ISO8859-4, ISO8859-5, ISO8859-6,
       ISO8859-7, ISO8859-8, ISO8859-9,	ISO8859-10, ISO8859-15,	jis.

       See also	"defencoding", which changes the default setting of a new win-


       Kill current window.
       If  there is an `exec' command running then it is killed. Otherwise the
       process (shell) running in the window receives a	HANGUP condition,  the
       window  structure  is  removed  and  screen  (your display) switches to
       another window.	When the  last	window	is  destroyed,	screen	exits.
       After a kill screen switches to the previously displayed	window.
       Note:  Emacs  users  should  keep  this command in mind,	when killing a
       line.  It is recommended	not to use "C-a" as the	screen escape  key  or
       to rebind kill to "C-a K".


       Redisplay  the  last  contents  of  the message/status line.  Useful if
       you're typing when a message appears, because  the  message  goes  away
       when you	press a	key (unless your terminal has a	hardware status	line).
       Refer to	the commands "msgwait" and "msgminwait"	for fine tuning.


       Display the disclaimer page. This is done whenever  screen  is  started
       without	 options,   which   should  be	often  enough.	See  also  the
       "startup_message" command.


       Lock this  display.   Call  a  screenlock  program  (/local/bin/lck  or
       /usr/bin/lock  or  a builtin if no other	is available). Screen does not
       accept any command keys until this program terminates.  Meanwhile  pro-
       cesses  in  the	windows	 may  continue,	 as  the  windows  are	in the
       `detached' state. The screenlock	program	may  be	 changed  through  the
       environment  variable  $LOCKPRG	(which	must  be set in	the shell from
       which screen is started)	and is executed	with the user's	uid and	gid.
       Warning:	When you leave other shells unlocked and you have no  password
       set  on	screen,	 the  lock is void: One	could easily re-attach from an
       unlocked	shell. This feature should rather be called `lockterminal'.

       log [on|off]

       Start/stop writing output of the	current	window to a file "screenlog.n"
       in the window's default directory, where	n is the number	of the current
       window. This filename can be changed with the `logfile' command.	If  no
       parameter is given, the state of	logging	is toggled. The	session	log is
       appended	to the previous	contents of the	file if	it already exists. The
       current	contents  and  the  contents of	the scrollback history are not
       included	in the session log.  Default is	`off'.

       logfile filename
       logfile flush secs

       Defines the name	the logfiles will get. The default is  "screenlog.%n".
       The  second  form changes the number of seconds screen will wait	before
       flushing	the logfile buffer to the file-system. The default value is 10

       login [on|off]

       Adds  or	 removes  the  entry in	the utmp database file for the current
       window.	This controls if the window is `logged in'.  When no parameter
       is  given,  the	login state of the window is toggled.  Additionally to
       that toggle, it is convenient having a `log in' and a  `log  out'  key.
       E.g. `bind I login on' and `bind	O login	off' will map these keys to be
       C-a I and C-a O.	 The default setting (in should  be  "on"
       for  a screen that runs under suid-root.	 Use the "deflogin" command to
       change the default login	state for new windows. Both commands are  only
       present when screen has been compiled with utmp support.

       logtstamp [on|off]
       logtstamp after [secs]
       logtstamp string	[string]

       This command controls logfile time-stamp	mechanism of screen.  If time-
       stamps are turned "on", screen adds a  string  containing  the  current
       time  to	the logfile after two minutes of inactivity.  When output con-
       tinues and more than another two	minutes	have passed,  a	 second	 time-
       stamp  is  added	 to document the restart of the	output.	You can	change
       this timeout with the second form of the	command.  The  third  form  is
       used  for customizing the time-stamp string (`--	%n:%t -- time-stamp --
       %M/%d/%y	%c:%s --\n' by default).


       Tell screen that	the next input character should	only be	looked	up  in
       the default bindkey table. See also "bindkey".


       Like mapdefault,	but don't even look in the default bindkey table.

       maptimeout [timo]

       Set the inter-character timer for input sequence	detection to a timeout
       of timo ms. The default timeout is 300ms. Maptimeout with no  arguments
       shows the current setting.  See also "bindkey".

       markkeys	string

       This  is	 a  method  of changing	the keymap used	for copy/history mode.
       The string is made up of	oldchar=newchar	pairs which are	 separated  by
       `:'. Example: The string	"B=^B:F=^F" will change	the keys `C-b' and `C-
       f' to the vi style binding (scroll up/down fill page).  This happens to
       be  the	default	 binding  for  `B'  and	 `F'.	The  command "markkeys
       h=^B:l=^F:$=^E" would set the mode for an emacs-style binding.  If your
       terminal	sends characters, that cause you to abort copy mode, then this
       command may help	by binding these characters to do nothing.  The	 no-op
       character  is `@' and is	used like this:	"markkeys @=L=H" if you	do not
       want to use the `H' or `L' commands any longer.	As shown in this exam-
       ple,  multiple  keys can	be assigned to one function in a single	state-

       maxwin num

       Set the maximum	window	number	screen	will  create.  Doesn't	affect
       already existing	windows. The number may	only be	decreased.


       Insert  the  command  character	(C-a)  in  the	current	window's input

       monitor [on|off]

       Toggles activity	monitoring of windows.	When monitoring	is  turned  on
       and  an	affected  window  is  switched	into  the background, you will
       receive the activity notification message in the	 status	 line  at  the
       first  sign of output and the window will also be marked	with an	`@' in
       the window-status display.  Monitoring is initially off	for  all  win-

       msgminwait sec

       Defines	the  time screen delays	a new message when one message is cur-
       rently displayed.  The default is 1 second.

       msgwait sec

       Defines the time	a message is displayed if screen is not	 disturbed  by
       other activity. The default is 5	seconds.

       multiuser on|off

       Switch between singleuser and multiuser mode. Standard screen operation
       is singleuser. In  multiuser  mode  the	commands  `acladd',  `aclchg',
       `aclgrp'	 and  `acldel' can be used to enable (and disable) other users
       accessing this screen session.

       nethack on|off

       Changes the kind	of error messages used by screen.  When	you are	famil-
       iar  with  the game "nethack", you may enjoy the	nethack-style messages
       which will often	blur the facts a little, but are much funnier to read.
       Anyway, standard	messages often tend to be unclear as well.
       This  option  is	only available if screen was compiled with the NETHACK
       flag defined. The default setting is then determined by the presence of
       the environment variable	$NETHACKOPTIONS.


       Switch  to  the	next  window.	This command can be used repeatedly to
       cycle through the list of windows.

       nonblock	[on|off]

       Enable or disable flow control for the  current	user  interface	 (dis-
       play).  It is used to prevent a slow display from slowing down the pro-
       cessing of data output by a window. This	command	may  be	 helpful  when
       multiple	 displays  show	the same window. Nonblock is initially off for
       all displays.

       number [n]

       Change the current windows number. If the given	number	n  is  already
       used  by	 another  window,  both	 windows exchange their	numbers. If no
       argument	is specified, the current window number	(and title) is	shown.

       obuflimit [limit]

       If  the	output buffer contains more bytes than the specified limit, no
       more data will be read from the windows.	The default value is  256.  If
       you  have  a  fast  display (like xterm), you can set it	to some	higher
       value. If no argument is	specified, the current setting is displayed.


       Kill all	regions	but the	current	one.


       Switch to the window displayed  previously.  If	this  window  does  no
       longer exist, other has the same	effect as next.

       partial on|off

       Defines	whether	 the  display  should be refreshed (as with redisplay)
       after switching to the current window. This command  only  affects  the
       current	window.	  To immediately affect	all windows use	the allpartial
       command.	 Default is `off', of course.  This default is fixed, as there
       is currently no defpartial command.

       password	[crypted_pw]

       Present a crypted password in your ".screenrc" file and screen will ask
       for it, whenever	someone	attempts to resume a detached. This is	useful
       if  you	have  privileged programs running under	screen and you want to
       protect your session from reattach attempts by another user  masquerad-
       ing as your uid (i.e. any superuser.)  If no crypted password is	speci-
       fied, screen prompts twice for typing a password	and places its encryp-
       tion  in	 the  paste buffer.  Default is	`none',	this disables password

       paste [registers	[dest_reg]]

       Write the (concatenated)	contents of the	 specified  registers  to  the
       stdin  queue  of	the current window. The	register '.' is	treated	as the
       paste buffer. If	no parameter is	given the user is prompted for a  sin-
       gle  register  to paste.	 The paste buffer can be filled	with the copy,
       history and readbuf commands.  Other registers can be filled  with  the
       register, readreg and paste commands.  If paste is called with a	second
       argument, the contents of the specified registers is  pasted  into  the
       named  destination  register  rather than the window. If	'.' is used as
       the second argument, the	displays  paste	 buffer	 is  the  destination.
       Note,  that "paste" uses	a wide variety of resources: Whenever a	second
       argument	is specified no	current	window	is  needed.  When  the	source
       specification only contains registers (not the paste buffer) then there
       need not	be a current display (terminal attached), as the registers are
       a global	resource. The paste buffer exists once for every user.

       pastefont [on|off]

       Tell  screen  to	 include  font	information  in	 the paste buffer. The
       default is not to do so.	This command is	especially  useful  for	 multi
       character fonts like kanji.


       Reopen  the  window's  terminal	line  and  send	a break	condition. See


       Power detach.  Mainly the same as detach, but also sends	a HANGUP  sig-
       nal  to	the  parent process of screen.	CAUTION: This will result in a
       logout, when screen was started from your login shell.

       pow_detach_msg [message]

       The message specified here is output whenever a `Power detach' was per-
       formed.	It  may	 be  used  as a	replacement for	a logout message or to
       reset baud rate,	etc.  Without parameter, the current message is	shown.


       Switch  to  the window with the next lower number.  This	command	can be
       used repeatedly to cycle	through	the list of windows.

       printcmd	[cmd]

       If cmd is not an	empty string, screen will not use the  terminal	 capa-
       bilities	 "po/pf"  if  it detects an ansi print sequence	ESC [ 5	i, but
       pipe the	output into cmd.  This should normally be a command like "lpr"
       or  "'cat  >  /tmp/scrprint'".  printcmd	without	a command displays the
       current setting.	 The ansi sequence ESC \ ends printing and closes  the
       Warning:	 Be careful with this command! If other	user have write	access
       to your terminal, they will be able to fire off print commands.

       process [key]

       Stuff the contents of the specified register into screen's input	queue.
       If  no argument is given	you are	prompted for a register	name. The text
       is parsed as if it had been typed in from  the  user's  keyboard.  This
       command can be used to bind multiple actions to a single	key.


       Kill all	windows	and terminate screen.  Note that on VT100-style	termi-
       nals the	keys C-4 and C-\ are identical.	 This makes the	default	 bind-
       ings  dangerous:	 Be  careful not to type C-a C-4 when selecting	window
       no. 4.  Use the empty bind command (as in "bind '^\'") to remove	a  key

       readbuf [-e encoding] [filename]

       Reads  the  contents  of	the specified file into	the paste buffer.  You
       can tell	screen the encoding of the file	via the	-e option.  If no file
       is  specified, the screen-exchange filename is used.  See also "buffer-
       file" command.

       readreg [-e encoding] [register [filename]]

       Does one	of two things, dependent on number of arguments: with zero  or
       one  arguments it it duplicates the paste buffer	contents into the reg-
       ister specified or entered at the prompt. With two arguments  it	 reads
       the contents of the named file into the register, just as readbuf reads
       the screen-exchange file	into the paste buffer.	You  can  tell	screen
       the encoding of the file	via the	-e option.  The	following example will
       paste the system's password file	into the screen	window (using register
       p, where	a copy remains):

		   C-a : readreg p /etc/passwd
		   C-a : paste p


       Redisplay  the  current	window.	Needed to get a	full redisplay when in
       partial redraw mode.

       register	[-e encoding] key string

       Save the	specified string to the	register key.	The  encoding  of  the
       string  can  be specified via the -e option.  See also the "paste" com-


       Kill the	current	region.	This is	a no-op	if there is only one region.


       Unlinks the screen-exchange file	used by	the  commands  "writebuf"  and


       Reset  the  virtual  terminal  to  its  "power-on"  values. Useful when
       strange settings	(like scroll regions or	graphics  character  set)  are
       left over from an application.


       Resize  the  current region. The	space will be removed from or added to
       the region below	or if there's not enough space from the	region	above.

	      resize +N	  increase current region height by N

	      resize -N	  decrease current region height by N

	      resize  N	  set current region height to N

	      resize  =	  make all windows equally high

	      resize  max maximize current region height

	      resize  min minimize current region height

       screen [-opts] [n] [cmd [args]]

       Establish  a  new  window.  The flow-control options (-f, -fn and -fa),
       title (a.k.a.) option (-t), login options (-l and -ln) ,	terminal  type
       option  (-T <term>), the	all-capability-flag (-a) and scrollback	option
       (-h <num>) may be specified with	each command.  The option  (-M)	 turns
       monitoring on for this window.  The option (-L) turns output logging on
       for this	window.	 If an optional	number n in the	range 0..9  is	given,
       the  window  number  n  is assigned to the newly	created	window (or, if
       this number is already in-use, the next available number).  If  a  com-
       mand  is	 specified  after "screen", this command (with the given argu-
       ments) is started in the	window;	otherwise, a shell is created.	 Thus,
       if your ".screenrc" contains the	lines

		   # example for .screenrc:
		   screen 1
		   screen -fn -t foobar	-L 2 telnet foobar

       screen creates a	shell window (in window	#1) and	a window with a	TELNET
       connection to the machine foobar	(with no flow-control using the	 title
       "foobar"	 in window #2) and will	write a	logfile	("screenlog.2")	of the
       telnet session.	Note, that unlike previous versions of screen no addi-
       tional default window is	created	when "screen" commands are included in
       your ".screenrc"	file. When the	initialization	is  completed,	screen
       switches	 to  the  last	window specified in your .screenrc file	or, if
       none, opens a default window #0.
       Screen has built	in some	functionality of "cu" and "telnet".  See  also
       chapter "WINDOW TYPES".

       scrollback num

       Set  the	 size  of the scrollback buffer	for the	current	windows	to num
       lines. The default scrollback is	100 lines.  See	also  the  "defscroll-
       back" command and use "C-a i" to	view the current setting.

       select [WindowID]

       Switch to the window identified by WindowID.  This can be a prefix of a
       window title (alphanumeric window name) or a window number.  The	param-
       eter  is	 optional  and if omitted, you get prompted for	an identifier.
       When a new  window  is  established,  the  first	 available  number  is
       assigned	 to  this  window.  Thus, the first window can be activated by
       "select 0".  The	number of windows is limited at	 compile-time  by  the
       MAXWIN configuration parameter.

       sessionname [name]

       Rename  the  current  session.  Note,  that for "screen -list" the name
       shows up	with the process-id prepended. If the argument "name" is omit-
       ted,  the name of this session is displayed. Caution: The $STY environ-
       ment variables still reflects the old name. This	may result  in	confu-
       sion.  The default is constructed from the tty and host names.

       setenv [var [string]]

       Set the environment variable var	to value string.  If only var is spec-
       ified, the user will be prompted	to enter a value.   If	no  parameters
       are  specified,	the user will be prompted for both variable and	value.
       The environment is inherited by all subsequently	forked shells.

       setsid [on|off]

       Normally	screen uses different sessions and process groups for the win-
       dows. If	setsid is turned off, this is not done anymore and all windows
       will be in the same process group as the	screen backend	process.  This
       also  breaks job-control, so be careful.	 The default is	on, of course.
       This command is probably	useful only in rare circumstances.

       shell command

       Set the command to be used to create a new shell.  This	overrides  the
       value of	the environment	variable $SHELL.  This is useful if you'd like
       to run a	tty-enhancer which is expecting	to execute the program	speci-
       fied  in	 $SHELL. If the	command	begins with a '-' character, the shell
       will be started as a login-shell.

       shelltitle title

       Set the title for all shells created during startup or by the  C-A  C-c
       command.	  For  details about what a title is, see the discussion enti-
       tled "TITLES (naming windows)".

       silence [on|off|sec]

       Toggles silence monitoring of windows.  When silence is turned  on  and
       an  affected  window  is	switched into the background, you will receive
       the silence notification	message	in the status line after  a  specified
       period of inactivity (silence). The default timeout can be changed with
       the `silencewait' command or by specifying a number of seconds  instead
       of `on' or `off'.  Silence is initially off for all windows.

       silencewait sec

       Define  the  time  that	all  windows monitored for silence should wait
       before displaying a message. Default 30 seconds.

       sleep num

       This command will pause the execution of	a .screenrc file for num  sec-
       onds.   Keyboard	 activity  will	end the	sleep.	It may be used to give
       users a chance to read the messages output by "echo".

       slowpaste msec

       Define the speed	at which text is inserted into the current  window  by
       the paste ("C-a ]") command.  If	the slowpaste value is nonzero text is
       written character by character.	screen will make a pause of msec  mil-
       liseconds after each single character write to allow the	application to
       process its input. Only use slowpaste if	your underlying	system exposes
       flow control problems while pasting large amounts of text.

       source file

       Read and	execute	commands from file file. Source	commands may be	nested
       to a maximum recursion level of ten. If file is not  an	absolute  path
       and  screen already processes a source command, the parent directory of
       the running source command file is used to search for the  new  command
       file before screen's current directory.

       Note  that  termcap/terminfo/termcapinfo	 commands only work at startup
       and reattach time, so they must be reached  via	the  default  screenrc
       files to	have an	effect.

       sorendition [attr [color]]

       Change  the  way	screen does highlighting for text marking and printing
       messages.  See the "STRING ESCAPES" chapter for the syntax of the modi-
       fiers.  The default is currently	"=s dd"	(standout, default colors).


       Split  the current region into two new ones. All	regions	on the display
       are resized to make room	for the	new region. The	blank window  is  dis-
       played on the new region.

       startup_message on|off

       Select  whether	you  want  to see the copyright	notice during startup.
       Default is `on',	as you probably	noticed.

       stuff string

       Stuff the string	string in the input  buffer  of	 the  current  window.
       This is like the	"paste"	command	but with much less overhead.  You can-
       not paste large buffers with the	"stuff"	command. It is most useful for
       key bindings. See also "bindkey".

       su [username [password [password2]]

       Substitute  the	user of	a display. The command prompts for all parame-
       ters that are omitted. If passwords are specified as  parameters,  they
       have  to	be specified un-crypted. The first password is matched against
       the systems passwd database, the	second password	is matched against the
       screen  password	as set with the	commands "acladd" or "password".  "Su"
       may be useful for the screen administrator to  test  multiuser  setups.
       When  the  identification  fails,  the  user has	access to the commands
       available for user nobody.  These are "detach",	"license",  "version",
       "help" and "displays".


       Suspend	screen.	 The windows are in the	`detached' state, while	screen
       is suspended. This feature relies on the	shell being  able  to  do  job

       term term

       In each window's	environment screen opens, the $TERM variable is	set to
       "screen"	by default.  But when no description for "screen" is installed
       in  the	local  termcap or terminfo data	base, you set $TERM to - say -
       "vt100".	This won't do much harm, as screen is  VT100/ANSI  compatible.
       The  use	 of the	"term" command is discouraged for non-default purpose.
       That is,	one may	want to	specify	special	$TERM  settings	 (e.g.	vt100)
       for  the	 next  "screen	rlogin	othermachine" command. Use the command
       "screen -T vt100	rlogin othermachine" rather than setting and resetting
       the default.

       termcap term terminal-tweaks [window-tweaks]
       terminfo	term terminal-tweaks [window-tweaks]
       termcapinfo term	terminal-tweaks	[window-tweaks]

       Use  this command to modify your	terminal's termcap entry without going
       through all the hassles involved	in creating a  custom  termcap	entry.
       Plus,  you  can optionally customize the	termcap	generated for the win-
       dows.  You have to place	these commands in one of the screenrc  startup
       files, as they are meaningless once the terminal	emulator is booted.
       If  your	 system	 works uses the	terminfo database rather than termcap,
       screen will understand the  `terminfo'  command,	 which	has  the  same
       effects	as the `termcap' command.  Two separate	commands are provided,
       as there	are subtle syntactic differences, e.g. when parameter interpo-
       lation (using `%') is required. Note that termcap names of the capabil-
       ities have to be	used with the `terminfo' command.
       In many cases, where the	arguments are valid in both terminfo and term-
       cap  syntax,  you  can  use  the	command	`termcapinfo', which is	just a
       shorthand for a pair of `termcap' and `terminfo'	commands with  identi-
       cal arguments.

       The  first  argument  specifies which terminal(s) should	be affected by
       this definition.	 You can specify multiple terminal names by separating
       them  with `|'s.	 Use `*' to match all terminals	and `vt*' to match all
       terminals that begin with "vt".

       Each tweak argument contains one	or more	termcap	defines	(separated  by
       `:'s)  to  be  inserted	at the start of	the appropriate	termcap	entry,
       enhancing it or overriding existing values.  The	first  tweak  modifies
       your  terminal's	 termcap,  and contains	definitions that your terminal
       uses to perform certain functions.  Specify a null string to leave this
       unchanged (e.g. '').  The second	(optional) tweak modifies all the win-
       dow termcaps, and should	contain	definitions  that  screen  understands
       (see the	"VIRTUAL TERMINAL" section).

       Some examples:

	      termcap xterm*  LP:hs@

       Informs	screen	that  all  terminals that begin	with `xterm' have firm
       auto-margins that allow the last	position on the	screen to  be  updated
       (LP), but they don't really have	a status line (no 'hs' - append	`@' to
       turn entries off).  Note	that we	assume `LP'  for  all  terminal	 names
       that  start  with "vt", but only	if you don't specify a termcap command
       for that	terminal.

	      termcap vt*  LP
	      termcap vt102|vt220  Z0=\E[?3h:Z1=\E[?3l

       Specifies the firm-margined `LP'	 capability  for  all  terminals  that
       begin with `vt',	and the	second line will also add the escape-sequences
       to switch into (Z0) and back out	of (Z1)	132-character-per-line mode if
       this  is	a VT102	or VT220.  (You	must specify Z0	and Z1 in your termcap
       to use the width-changing commands.)

	      termcap vt100  ""	 l0=PF1:l1=PF2:l2=PF3:l3=PF4

       This leaves your	vt100 termcap alone and	adds the function  key	labels
       to each window's	termcap	entry.

	      termcap h19|z19  am@:im=\E@:ei=\EO  dc=\E[P

       Takes a h19 or z19 termcap and turns off	auto-margins (am@) and enables
       the insert mode (im) and	end-insert (ei)	capabilities (the `@'  in  the
       `im' string is after the	`=', so	it is part of the string).  Having the
       `im' and	`ei' definitions put into your terminal's termcap  will	 cause
       screen  to  automatically  advertise the	character-insert capability in
       each window's termcap.  Each window will	also get the  delete-character
       capability  (dc)	added to its termcap, which screen will	translate into
       a line-update for the terminal (we're  pretending  it  doesn't  support
       character deletion).

       If  you	would  like  to	fully specify each window's termcap entry, you
       should instead set the $SCREENCAP variable  prior  to  running  screen.
       See  the	 discussion  on	the "VIRTUAL TERMINAL" in this manual, and the
       termcap(5) man page for more information	on termcap definitions.

       time [string]

       Uses the	message	line to	display	the time of day, the  host  name,  and
       the  load  averages  over 1, 5, and 15 minutes (if this is available on
       your system).  For window specific information use "info".

       If a string is specified, it changes the	format of the time report like
       it  is described	in the "STRING ESCAPES"	chapter. Screen	uses a default
       of "%c:%s %M %d %H%? %l%?".

       title [windowalias]

       Set the name of the current window to windowalias. If no	name is	speci-
       fied, screen prompts for	one. This command was known as `aka' in	previ-
       ous releases.

       unsetenv	var

       Unset an	environment variable.

       utf8 [on|off [on|off]]

       Change the encoding used	in the current window. If utf8 is enabled, the
       strings	sent to	the window will	be UTF-8 encoded and vice versa. Omit-
       ting the	parameter toggles the setting. If a second parameter is	given,
       the display's encoding is also changed (this should rather be done with
       screen's	"-U" option).  See also	"defutf8", which changes  the  default
       setting of a new	window.

       vbell [on|off]

       Sets  the  visual  bell setting for this	window.	Omitting the parameter
       toggles the setting. If vbell is	switched on, but  your	terminal  does
       not support a visual bell, a `vbell-message' is displayed in the	status
       line when the bell character (^G) is received.  Visual bell support  of
       a terminal is defined by	the termcap variable `vb' (terminfo: 'flash').
       Per default, vbell is off, thus the audible bell	 is  used.   See  also

       vbell_msg [message]

       Sets  the visual	bell message. message is printed to the	status line if
       the window receives a bell character (^G), vbell	is set	to  "on",  but
       the  terminal  does  not	support	a visual bell.	The default message is
       "Wuff, Wuff!!".	Without	parameter, the current message is shown.

       vbellwait sec

       Define a	delay in seconds after each display of	screen's  visual  bell
       message.	The default is 1 second.

       verbose [on|off]

       If  verbose is switched on, the command name is echoed, whenever	a win-
       dow is created (or resurrected from  zombie  state).  Default  is  off.
       Without parameter, the current setting is shown.


       Print the current version and the compile date in the status line.

       wall message

       Write  a	message	to all displays. The message will appear in the	termi-
       nal's status line.

       width [-w|-d] [cols [lines]]

       Toggle the window width between 80 and 132 columns or set  it  to  cols
       columns	if an argument is specified.  This requires a capable terminal
       and the termcap entries "Z0" and	"Z1".  See the "termcap"  command  for
       more  information.  You	can  also  specify a new height	if you want to
       change both values.  The	-w option tells	screen to  leave  the  display
       size unchanged and just set the window size, -d vice versa.

       windowlist [-b] | string	[string] | title [title]

       Display all windows in a	table for visual window	selection. The desired
       window can be selected via the standard movement	keys (see  the	"copy"
       command)	 and activated via the return key.  If the -b option is	given,
       screen will switch to the blank window before presenting	the  list,  so
       that the	current	window is also selectable.

       The  table  format can be changed with the string and title option, the
       title is	displayed as table heading, while the lines are	made by	 using
       the  string  setting.  The default setting is "Num Name%=Flags" for the
       title and "%3n %t%=%f" for the lines.  See the "STRING ESCAPES" chapter
       for more	codes (e.g. color settings).


       Uses  the message line to display a list	of all the windows.  Each win-
       dow is listed by	number with the	name of	process	that has been  started
       in  the window (or its title); the current window is marked with	a `*';
       the previous window is marked with a `-';  all  the  windows  that  are
       "logged	in"  are  marked  with	a  `$';	 a  background window that has
       received	a bell is marked with a	`!'; a background window that is being
       monitored  and  has  had	activity occur is marked with an `@'; a	window
       which has output	logging	turned on is marked with `(L)';	windows	 occu-
       pied  by	 other	users are marked with `&'; windows in the zombie state
       are marked with `Z'.  If	this list is too long to fit on	the terminal's
       status line only	the portion around the current window is displayed.

       wrap [on|off]

       Sets  the  line-wrap setting for	the current window.  When line-wrap is
       on, the second consecutive printable character output at	the last  col-
       umn  of	a  line	 will  wrap to the start of the	following line.	 As an
       added feature, backspace	(^H) will also wrap through the	left margin to
       the previous line.  Default is `on'.

       writebuf	[-e encoding] [filename]

       Writes  the  contents of	the paste buffer to the	specified file,	or the
       public accessible screen-exchange file if no filename is	given. This is
       thought	of  as a primitive means of communication between screen users
       on the same host. If an encoding	 is  specified	the  paste  buffer  is
       recoded on the fly to match the encoding.  The filename can be set with
       the bufferfile command and defaults to "/tmp/screen-exchange".

       writelock [on|off|auto]

       In addition to access control lists, not	all users may be able to write
       to  the	same  window at	once. Per default, writelock is	in `auto' mode
       and grants exclusive input permission to	the user who is	the  first  to
       switch to the particular	window.	When he	leaves the window, other users
       may obtain the writelock	(automatically). The writelock of the  current
       window  is  disabled by the command "writelock off". If the user	issues
       the command "writelock on" he  keeps  the  exclusive  write  permission
       while switching to other	windows.


       Insert  a  CTRL-s  / CTRL-q character to	the stdin queue	of the current

       zombie [keys]
       defzombie [keys]

       Per default screen windows are removed from the window list as soon  as
       the  windows  process  (e.g. shell) exits. When a string	of two keys is
       specified to the	zombie command,	`dead'	windows	 will  remain  in  the
       list.   The  kill command may be	used to	remove such a window. Pressing
       the first key in	the dead window	has the	same effect. When pressing the
       second  key,  screen  will attempt to resurrect the window. The process
       that was	initially running in the window	will be	launched again.	 Call-
       ing  zombie without parameters will clear the zombie setting, thus mak-
       ing windows disappear when their	process	exits.

       As the zombie-setting is	manipulated globally  for  all	windows,  this
       command	should	only  be called	defzombie. Until we need this as a per
       window setting, the commands zombie and defzombie are synonymous.

       Screen displays informational messages and other	diagnostics in a  mes-
       sage  line.   While this	line is	distributed to appear at the bottom of
       the screen, it can be defined to	appear at the top of the screen	during
       compilation.   If  your terminal	has a status line defined in its term-
       cap, screen will	use this for displaying	its messages, otherwise	a line
       of  the	current	screen will be temporarily overwritten and output will
       be momentarily interrupted. The message line is	automatically  removed
       after  a	few seconds delay, but it can also be removed early (on	termi-
       nals without a status line) by beginning	to type.

       The message line	facility can be	used by	an application running in  the
       current	window	by means of the	ANSI Privacy message control sequence.
       For instance, from within the shell, try	something like:

	      echo '<esc>^Hello	world from window '$WINDOW'<esc>\\'

       where '<esc>' is	an escape, '^' is a literal up-arrow, and  '\\'	 turns
       into a single backslash.

       Screen  provides	 three different window	types. New windows are created
       with screen's screen command (see also the entry	in chapter "CUSTOMIZA-
       TION"). The first parameter to the screen command defines which type of
       window is created. The different	window types are all special cases  of
       the  normal  type.  They	have been added	in order to allow screen to be
       used efficiently	as a console multiplexer with 100 or more windows.

       o  The normal window contains a shell  (default,	 if  no	 parameter  is
	  given)  or  any  other  system command that could be executed	from a
	  shell	(e.g.  slogin, etc...)

       o  If a tty (character special device) name (e.g. "/dev/ttya") is spec-
	  ified	 as the	first parameter, then the window is directly connected
	  to this device.  This	window	type  is  similar  to  "screen	cu  -l
	  /dev/ttya".	Read  and write	access is required on the device node,
	  an exclusive open is attempted on the	node to	 mark  the  connection
	  line	as  busy.   An	optional  parameter is allowed consisting of a
	  comma	separated list of flags	in the notation	used by	stty(1):

		 Usually 300, 1200, 9600 or 19200. This	 affects  transmission
		 as well as receive speed.

	  cs8 or cs7
		 Specify the transmission of eight (or seven) bits per byte.

	  ixon or -ixon
		 Enables  (or  disables) software flow-control (CTRL-S/CTRL-Q)
		 for sending data.

	  ixoff	or -ixon
		 Enables (or disables)	software  flow-control	for  receiving

	  istrip or -istrip
		 Clear (or keep) the eight bit in each received	byte.

	  You  may  want  to  specify  as many of these	options	as applicable.
	  Unspecified options cause the	terminal driver	to make	up the parame-
	  ter values of	the connection.	 These values are system dependant and
	  may be in defaults or	values saved from a previous connection.

	  For tty windows, the info command shows some of  the	modem  control
	  lines	 in  the  status  line.	These may include `RTS', `CTS',	'DTR',
	  `DSR', `CD' and more.	 This depends on the available	ioctl()'s  and
	  system  header  files	as well	as the on the physical capabilities of
	  the serial board.  Signals that  are	logical	 low  (inactive)  have
	  their	name preceded by an exclamation	mark (!), otherwise the	signal
	  is logical high (active).  Signals not supported by the hardware but
	  available to the ioctl() interface are usually shown low.
	  When	the  CLOCAL status bit is true,	the whole set of modem signals
	  is placed inside curly braces	({ and }).  When the CRTSCTS or	 TIOC-
	  SOFTCAR bit is set, the signals `CTS'	or `CD'	are shown in parenthe-
	  sis, respectively.

	  For tty windows, the command break causes the	Data transmission line
	  (TxD)	 to go low for a specified period of time. This	is expected to
	  be interpreted as break signal on the	other side.  No	data  is  sent
	  and no modem control line is changed when a break is issued.

       o  If  the  first  parameter  is	 "//telnet",  the  second parameter is
	  expected to be a host	name, and  an  optional	 third	parameter  may
	  specify a TCP	port number (default decimal 23).  Screen will connect
	  to a server listening	on the remote host and use the telnet protocol
	  to communicate with that server.
	  For telnet windows, the command info shows details about the connec-
	  tion in square brackets ([ and ]) at the end of the status line.

	  b	 BINARY. The connection	is in binary mode.

	  e	 ECHO. Local echo is disabled.

	  c	 SGA. The connection is	in `character  mode'  (default:	 `line

	  t	 TTYPE.	 The  terminal	type  has been requested by the	remote
		 host.	Screen sends the name "screen" unless instructed  oth-
		 erwise	(see also the command `term').

	  w	 NAWS.	The remote site	is notified about window size changes.

	  f	 LFLOW.	The remote host	will send  flow	 control  information.
		 (Ignored at the moment.)

	  Additional  flags for	debugging are x, t and n (XDISPLOC, TSPEED and

	  For telnet windows, the command break	 sends	the  telnet  code  IAC
	  BREAK	(decimal 243) to the remote host.

	  This	window	type is	only available if screen was compiled with the
	  BUILTIN_TELNET option	defined.

       Screen provides an escape mechanism to insert information like the cur-
       rent time into messages or file names. The escape character is '%' with
       one exception: inside of	a window's  hardstatus	'^%'  ('^E')  is  used

       Here is the full	list of	supported escapes:

       %      the escape character itself

       a      either 'am' or 'pm'

       A      either 'AM' or 'PM'

       c      current time HH:MM in 24h	format

       C      current time HH:MM in 12h	format

       d      day number

       D      weekday name

       f      flags of the window

       F      sets %? to true if the window has	the focus

       h      hardstatus of the	window

       H      hostname of the system

       l      current load of the system

       m      month number

       M      month name

       n      window number

       s      seconds

       t      window title

       u      all other	users on this window

       w      all  window  numbers  and	 names.	With '-' quailifier: up	to the
	      current window; with '+' qualifier:  starting  with  the	window
	      after the	current	one.

       W      all window numbers and names except the current one

       y      last two digits of the year number

       Y      full year	number

       ?      the part to the next '%?'	is displayed only if an	escape expands
	      to an nonempty string

       :      else part	of '%?'

       =      pad the string to	the display's width (like TeX's	hfill).	 If  a
	      number  is  specified,  pad  to  the  percentage of the window's
	      width.  A	'0' qualifier tells screen  to	treat  the  number  as
	      absolute	position.  You can specify to pad relative to the last
	      absolute pad position by adding a	'+' qualifier or to pad	 rela-
	      tive to the right	margin by using	'-'. The padding truncates the
	      string if	the specified position lies before the	current	 posi-
	      tion. Add	the 'L'	qualifier to change this.

       <      same as '%=' but just do truncation, do not fill with spaces

       >      mark  the	 current  text	position for the next truncation. When
	      screen needs to do truncation, it	tries to do it in a  way  that
	      the  marked  position  gets moved	to the specified percentage of
	      the output area. (The area starts	from  the  last	 absolute  pad
	      position	and ends with the position specified by	the truncation
	      operator.) The 'L' qualifier tells screen	to mark	the  truncated
	      parts with '...'.

       {      attribute/color modifier string terminated by the	next "}"

       The  'c'	 and 'C' escape	may be qualified with a	'0' to make screen use
       zero instead of space as	fill character.	The '0'	qualifier  also	 makes
       the  '='	 escape	use absolute positions.	The 'n'	and '='	escapes	under-
       stand a length qualifier	(e.g. '%3n'), 'D' and 'M' can be prefixed with
       'L'  to	generate long names, 'w' and 'W' also show the window flags if
       'L' is given.

       An attribute/color modifier is is used to change	the attributes or  the
       color  settings.	 Its  format  is "[attribute modifier] [color descrip-
       tion]". The attribute modifier must be prefixed by a change type	 indi-
       cator  if  it  can  be  confused	with a color desciption. The following
       change types are	known:

       +      add the specified	set to the current attributes

       -      remove the set from the current attributes

       !      invert the set in	the current attributes

       =      change the current attributes to the specified set

       The attribute set can either be specified as a hexadecimal number or  a
       combination of the following letters:

       u      underline
       b      bold
       r      reverse
       s      standout
       B      blinking

       Colors are coded	either as a hexadecimal	number or two letters specify-
       ing the desired background and foreground color (in  that  order).  The
       following colors	are known:

       k      black
       r      red
       g      green
       y      yellow
       b      blue
       m      magenta
       c      cyan
       w      white
       d      default color
       .      leave color unchanged

       The  capitalized	 versions of the letter	specify	bright colors. You can
       also use	the pseudo-color 'i' to	set just the brightness	and leave  the
       color unchanged.
       A  one digit/letter color description is	treated	as foreground or back-
       ground color dependant on the current attributes: if  reverse  mode  is
       set,  the  background color is changed instead of the foreground	color.
       If you don't like this, prefix the color	with a ".". If	you  want  the
       same behaviour for two-letter color descriptions, also prefix them with
       a ".".
       As a special case, "%{-}" restores the attributes and colors that  were
       set  before the last change was made (i.e. pops one level of the	color-
       change stack).


       "G"    set color	to bright green

       "+b r" use bold red

       "= yd" clear all	attributes, write in default  color  on	 yellow	 back-

       %-Lw%{= BW}%50>%n%f* %t%{-}%+Lw%<
	      The  available  windows centered at the current window and trun-
	      cated to the available width. The	current	 window	 is  displayed
	      white  on	 blue.	 This can be used with "hardstatus alwayslast-

       %?%F%{.R.}%?%3n %t%? [%h]%?
	      The window number	and title and the window's hardstatus, if  one
	      is  set.	Also use a red background if this is the active	focus.
	      Useful for "caption string".

       Each window has a flow-control setting that determines how screen deals
       with the	XON and	XOFF characters	(and perhaps the interrupt character).
       When flow-control is turned off,	screen ignores the XON and XOFF	 char-
       acters,	which  allows  the user	to send	them to	the current program by
       simply typing them (useful for the emacs	editor,	 for  instance).   The
       trade-off  is  that it will take	longer for output from a "normal" pro-
       gram to pause in	response to an XOFF.  With flow-control	turned on, XON
       and  XOFF  characters  are  used	to immediately pause the output	of the
       current window.	You can	still send these  characters  to  the  current
       program,	but you	must use the appropriate two-character screen commands
       (typically "C-a q" (xon)	and "C-a s" (xoff)).   The  xon/xoff  commands
       are  also useful	for typing C-s and C-q past a terminal that intercepts
       these characters.

       Each window has an initial flow-control value set with  either  the  -f
       option  or the "defflow"	.screenrc command. Per default the windows are
       set to automatic	flow-switching.	 It can	then be	 toggled  between  the
       three states 'fixed on',	'fixed off' and	'automatic' interactively with
       the "flow" command bound	to "C-a	f".

       The automatic flow-switching mode deals with  flow  control  using  the
       TIOCPKT	mode  (like "rlogin" does). If the tty driver does not support
       TIOCPKT,	screen tries to	find out the right mode	based on  the  current
       setting of the application keypad - when	it is enabled, flow-control is
       turned off and visa versa.  Of course, you can still  manipulate	 flow-
       control manually	when needed.

       If  you're running with flow-control enabled and	find that pressing the
       interrupt key (usually  C-c)  does  not	interrupt  the	display	 until
       another 6-8 lines have scrolled by, try running screen with the "inter-
       rupt" option (add the "interrupt" flag to the "flow"  command  in  your
       .screenrc,  or use the -i command-line option).	This causes the	output
       that screen has accumulated from	the interrupted	program	to be flushed.
       One  disadvantage  is  that  the	virtual	terminal's memory contains the
       non-flushed version of the output, which	in rare	cases can cause	 minor
       inaccuracies  in	 the  output.	For example, if	you switch screens and
       return, or update the screen with "C-a l" you would see the version  of
       the  output  you	would have gotten without "interrupt" being on.	 Also,
       you might need to turn off flow-control (or use auto-flow mode to  turn
       it  off	automatically) when running a program that expects you to type
       the interrupt character as input, as it is possible  to	interrupt  the
       output of the virtual terminal to your physical terminal	when flow-con-
       trol is enabled.	 If this happens, a simple refresh of the screen  with
       "C-a  l"	will restore it.  Give each mode a try,	and use	whichever mode
       you find	more comfortable.

TITLES (naming windows)
       You can customize each window's name in the window display (viewed with
       the "windows" command (C-a w)) by setting it with one of	the title com-
       mands.  Normally	the name displayed is the actual command name  of  the
       program created in the window.  However,	it is sometimes	useful to dis-
       tinguish	various	programs of the	same name or to	change	the  name  on-
       the-fly to reflect the current state of the window.

       The default name	for all	shell windows can be set with the "shelltitle"
       command in the .screenrc	file, while all	other windows are created with
       a "screen" command and thus can have their name set with	the -t option.
       Interactively,	 there	  is	the    title-string    escape-sequence
       (<esc>kname<esc>\)  and the "title" command (C-a	A).  The former	can be
       output from an application to control the window's name under  software
       control,	 and  the  latter  will	prompt for a name when typed.  You can
       also bind pre-defined names to keys with	the  "title"  command  to  set
       things quickly without prompting.

       Finally,	 screen	has a shell-specific heuristic that is enabled by set-
       ting the	window's name to "search|name" and arranging to	 have  a  null
       title escape-sequence output as a part of your prompt.  The search por-
       tion specifies an end-of-prompt search string, while the	 name  portion
       specifies the default shell name	for the	window.	 If the	name ends in a
       `:' screen will add what	it believes to be the current command  running
       in  the window to the end of the	window's shell name (e.g. "name:cmd").
       Otherwise the current command name supersedes the shell name  while  it
       is running.

       Here's  how  it	works:	 you must modify your shell prompt to output a
       null title-escape-sequence (<esc>k<esc>\) as a  part  of	 your  prompt.
       The  last part of your prompt must be the same as the string you	speci-
       fied for	the search portion of the title.  Once this is set up,	screen
       will  use  the title-escape-sequence to clear the previous command name
       and get ready for the next command.  Then, when a newline  is  received
       from  the shell,	a search is made for the end of	the prompt.  If	found,
       it will grab the	first word after the matched string and	use it as  the
       command	name.  If the command name begins with either '!', '%',	or '^'
       screen will use the first word on the  following	 line  (if  found)  in
       preference  to  the  just-found	name.  This helps csh users get	better
       command names when using	job control or history recall commands.

       Here's some .screenrc examples:

	      screen -t	top 2 nice top

       Adding this line	to your	.screenrc would	start a	nice-d version of  the
       "top" command in	window 2 named "top" rather than "nice".

		   shelltitle '> |csh'
		   screen 1

       These  commands	would  start  a	 shell with the	given shelltitle.  The
       title specified is an auto-title	that would expect the prompt  and  the
       typed command to	look something like the	following:

	      /usr/joe/src/dir>	trn

       (it  looks  after  the  '>  ' for the command name).  The window	status
       would show the name "trn" while the command was running,	and revert  to
       "csh" upon completion.

	      bind R screen -t '% |root:' su

       Having  this command in your .screenrc would bind the key sequence "C-a
       R" to the "su" command and give it an auto-title	name of	"root:".   For
       this auto-title to work,	the screen could look something	like this:

		   % !em
		   emacs file.c

       Here  the user typed the	csh history command "!em" which	ran the	previ-
       ously  entered  "emacs"	command.   The	window	 status	  would	  show
       "root:emacs"  during the	execution of the command, and revert to	simply
       "root:" at its completion.

		   bind	o title
		   bind	E title	""
		   bind	u title	(unknown)

       The first binding doesn't have any arguments, so	it  would  prompt  you
       for  a title. when you type "C-a	o".  The second	binding	would clear an
       auto-title's current setting (C-a E).  The third	binding	would set  the
       current window's	title to "(unknown)" (C-a u).

       One  thing  to keep in mind when	adding a null title-escape-sequence to
       your prompt is that some	shells (like the csh) count all	 the  non-con-
       trol  characters	 as  part  of the prompt's length.  If these invisible
       characters aren't a multiple of 8 then  backspacing  over  a  tab  will
       result in an incorrect display.	One way	to get around this is to use a
       prompt like this:

	      set prompt='^[[0000m^[k^[\% '

       The escape-sequence "<esc>[0000m" not  only  normalizes	the  character
       attributes, but all the zeros round the length of the invisible charac-
       ters up to 8.  Bash  users  will	 probably  want	 to  echo  the	escape
       sequence	in the PROMPT_COMMAND:

	      PROMPT_COMMAND='echo -n -e "\033k\033\134"'

       (I used "134" to	output a `\' because of	a bug in bash v1.04).

       Each  window  in	 a screen session emulates a VT100 terminal, with some
       extra functions added. The VT100	emulator is hard-coded,	no other  ter-
       minal types can be emulated.
       Usually	screen	tries to emulate as much of the	VT100/ANSI standard as
       possible. But if	your terminal lacks certain capabilities,  the	emula-
       tion  may not be	complete. In these cases screen	has to tell the	appli-
       cations that some of the	features are missing. This is  no  problem  on
       machines	using termcap, because screen can use the $TERMCAP variable to
       customize the standard screen termcap.

       But if you do a rlogin on another machine or your machine supports only
       terminfo	 this  method  fails.  Because of this,	screen offers a	way to
       deal with these cases.  Here is how it works:

       When screen tries to figure out a terminal name for  itself,  it	 first
       looks  for an entry named "screen.<term>", where	<term> is the contents
       of your $TERM variable.	If no such entry exists, screen	tries "screen"
       (or  "screen-w"	if  the	terminal is wide (132 cols or more)).  If even
       this entry cannot be found, "vt100" is used as a	substitute.

       The idea	is that	if you have a terminal which doesn't support an	impor-
       tant  feature  (e.g.  delete  char or clear to EOS) you can build a new
       termcap/terminfo	entry for screen (named	"screen.<dumbterm>") in	 which
       this  capability	 has been disabled. If this entry is installed on your
       machines	you are	able to	do a rlogin and	still keep the	correct	 term-
       cap/terminfo  entry.  The terminal name is put in the $TERM variable of
       all new windows.	 Screen	also sets the $TERMCAP variable	reflecting the
       capabilities of the virtual terminal emulated. Notice that, however, on
       machines	using the terminfo database this variable has no effect.  Fur-
       thermore, the variable $WINDOW is set to	the window number of each win-

       The actual set  of  capabilities	 supported  by	the  virtual  terminal
       depends	on  the	 capabilities supported	by the physical	terminal.  If,
       for instance, the physical terminal does	not support  underscore	 mode,
       screen  does  not  put the `us' and `ue'	capabilities into the window's
       $TERMCAP	variable, accordingly.	However, a minimum number of capabili-
       ties  must  be  supported  by a terminal	in order to run	screen;	namely
       scrolling, clear	screen,	and direct  cursor  addressing	(in  addition,
       screen  does  not  run on hardcopy terminals or on terminals that over-

       Also, you can customize the $TERMCAP value used by screen by using  the
       "termcap"  .screenrc  command,  or  by defining the variable $SCREENCAP
       prior to	startup.  When the is latter defined, its value	will be	copied
       verbatim	 into each window's $TERMCAP variable.	This can either	be the
       full terminal definition, or a filename	where  the  terminal  "screen"
       (and/or "screen-w") is defined.

       Note  that screen honors	the "terminfo" .screenrc command if the	system
       uses the	terminfo database rather than termcap.

       When the	boolean	`G0' capability	is present in the  termcap  entry  for
       the terminal on which screen has	been called, the terminal emulation of
       screen supports multiple	character sets.	 This allows an	application to
       make use	of, for	instance, the VT100 graphics character set or national
       character sets.	The following control functions	from ISO 2022 are sup-
       ported:	lock  shift  G0	 (SI), lock shift G1 (SO), lock	shift G2, lock
       shift G3, single	shift G2, and single shift G3.	When a virtual	termi-
       nal  is	created	 or reset, the ASCII character set is designated as G0
       through G3.  When the `G0' capability is	present, screen	evaluates  the
       capabilities  `S0', `E0', and `C0' if present. `S0' is the sequence the
       terminal	uses to	enable and start the  graphics	character  set	rather
       than  SI.   `E0'	 is the	corresponding replacement for SO. `C0' gives a
       character by character translation string that  is  used	 during	 semi-
       graphics	 mode.	This string is built like the `acsc' terminfo capabil-

       When the	`po' and `pf' capabilities are present in the terminal's term-
       cap  entry,  applications running in a screen window can	send output to
       the printer port	of the terminal.  This allows a	user to	have an	appli-
       cation  in one window sending output to a printer connected to the ter-
       minal, while all	other windows are still	active (the  printer  port  is
       enabled	and  disabled  again  for  each	 chunk of output).  As a side-
       effect, programs	running	in different windows can send  output  to  the
       printer	simultaneously.	  Data sent to the printer is not displayed in
       the window.  The	info command displays a	line starting `PRIN' while the
       printer is active.

       Screen  maintains  a hardstatus line for	every window. If a window gets
       selected, the display's hardstatus will be updated to  match  the  win-
       dow's  hardstatus  line.	If the display has no hardstatus the line will
       be displayed as a standard screen message.  The hardstatus line can  be
       changed	  with	 the   ANSI   Application   Program   Command	(APC):
       "ESC_<string>ESC\". As a	 convenience  for  xterm  users	 the  sequence
       "ESC]0..2;<string>^G" is	also accepted.

       Some  capabilities  are only put	into the $TERMCAP variable of the vir-
       tual terminal if	they can be efficiently	implemented  by	 the  physical
       terminal.  For instance,	`dl' (delete line) is only put into the	$TERM-
       CAP variable if the terminal supports  either  delete  line  itself  or
       scrolling  regions. Note	that this may provoke confusion, when the ses-
       sion is reattached on a different terminal, as the  value  of  $TERMCAP
       cannot be modified by parent processes.

       The  "alternate	screen"	capability is not enabled by default.  Set the
       altscreen .screenrc command to enable it.

       The following is	a list of  control  sequences  recognized  by  screen.
       "(V)" and "(A)" indicate	VT100-specific and ANSI- or ISO-specific func-
       tions, respectively.

       ESC E			  Next Line

       ESC D			  Index

       ESC M			  Reverse Index

       ESC H			  Horizontal Tab Set

       ESC Z			  Send VT100 Identification String

       ESC 7		     (V)  Save Cursor and Attributes

       ESC 8		     (V)  Restore Cursor and Attributes

       ESC [s		     (A)  Save Cursor and Attributes

       ESC [u		     (A)  Restore Cursor and Attributes

       ESC c			  Reset	to Initial State

       ESC g			  Visual Bell

       ESC Pn p			  Cursor Visibility (97801)

	   Pn =	6		  Invisible

		7		  Visible

       ESC =		     (V)  Application Keypad Mode

       ESC >		     (V)  Numeric Keypad Mode

       ESC # 8		     (V)  Fill Screen with E's

       ESC \		     (A)  String Terminator

       ESC ^		     (A)  Privacy Message String (Message Line)

       ESC !			  Global Message String	(Message Line)

       ESC k			  A.k.a. Definition String

       ESC P		     (A)  Device Control  String.   Outputs  a	string
				  directly to the host terminal	without	inter-

       ESC _		     (A)  Application Program Command (Hardstatus)

       ESC ] 0 ; string	^G   (A)  Operating System Command (Hardstatus,	 xterm
				  title	hack)

       ESC ] 83	; cmd ^G     (A)  Execute  screen  command. This only works if
				  multi-user support is	compiled into  screen.
				  The  pseudo-user ":window:" is used to check
				  the access control list. Use	"addacl	 :win-
				  dow:	-rwx  #?"  to  create  a  user with no
				  rights and allow only	the needed commands.

       Control-N	     (A)  Lock Shift G1	(SO)

       Control-O	     (A)  Lock Shift G0	(SI)

       ESC n		     (A)  Lock Shift G2

       ESC o		     (A)  Lock Shift G3

       ESC N		     (A)  Single Shift G2

       ESC O		     (A)  Single Shift G3

       ESC ( Pcs	     (A)  Designate character set as G0

       ESC ) Pcs	     (A)  Designate character set as G1

       ESC * Pcs	     (A)  Designate character set as G2

       ESC + Pcs	     (A)  Designate character set as G3

       ESC [ Pn	; Pn H		  Direct Cursor	Addressing

       ESC [ Pn	; Pn f		  same as above

       ESC [ Pn	J		  Erase	in Display

	     Pn	= None or 0	  From Cursor to End of	Screen

		  1		  From Beginning of Screen to Cursor

		  2		  Entire Screen

       ESC [ Pn	K		  Erase	in Line

	     Pn	= None or 0	  From Cursor to End of	Line

		  1		  From Beginning of Line to Cursor

		  2		  Entire Line

       ESC [ Pn	X		  Erase	character

       ESC [ Pn	A		  Cursor Up

       ESC [ Pn	B		  Cursor Down

       ESC [ Pn	C		  Cursor Right

       ESC [ Pn	D		  Cursor Left

       ESC [ Pn	E		  Cursor next line

       ESC [ Pn	F		  Cursor previous line

       ESC [ Pn	G		  Cursor horizontal position

       ESC [ Pn	`		  same as above

       ESC [ Pn	d		  Cursor vertical position

       ESC [ Ps	;...; Ps m	  Select Graphic Rendition

	     Ps	= None or 0	  Default Rendition

		  1		  Bold

		  2	     (A)  Faint

		  3	     (A)  Standout Mode	(ANSI: Italicized)

		  4		  Underlined

		  5		  Blinking

		  7		  Negative Image

		  22	     (A)  Normal Intensity

		  23	     (A)  Standout Mode	off (ANSI: Italicized off)

		  24	     (A)  Not Underlined

		  25	     (A)  Not Blinking

		  27	     (A)  Positive Image

		  30	     (A)  Foreground Black

		  31	     (A)  Foreground Red

		  32	     (A)  Foreground Green

		  33	     (A)  Foreground Yellow

		  34	     (A)  Foreground Blue

		  35	     (A)  Foreground Magenta

		  36	     (A)  Foreground Cyan

		  37	     (A)  Foreground White

		  39	     (A)  Foreground Default

		  40	     (A)  Background Black


		  49	     (A)  Background Default

       ESC [ Pn	g		  Tab Clear

	     Pn	= None or 0	  Clear	Tab at Current Position

		  3		  Clear	All Tabs

       ESC [ Pn	; Pn r	     (V)  Set Scrolling	Region

       ESC [ Pn	I	     (A)  Horizontal Tab

       ESC [ Pn	Z	     (A)  Backward Tab

       ESC [ Pn	L	     (A)  Insert Line

       ESC [ Pn	M	     (A)  Delete Line

       ESC [ Pn	@	     (A)  Insert Character

       ESC [ Pn	P	     (A)  Delete Character

       ESC [ Pn	S		  Scroll Scrolling Region Up

       ESC [ Pn	T		  Scroll Scrolling Region Down

       ESC [ Pn	^		  same as above

       ESC [ Ps	;...; Ps h	  Set Mode

       ESC [ Ps	;...; Ps l	  Reset	Mode

	     Ps	= 4	     (A)  Insert Mode

		  20	     (A)  Automatic Linefeed Mode

		  34		  Normal Cursor	Visibility

		  ?1	     (V)  Application Cursor Keys

		  ?3	     (V)  Change Terminal Width	to 132 columns

		  ?5	     (V)  Reverse Video

		  ?6	     (V)  Origin Mode

		  ?7	     (V)  Wrap Mode

		  ?9		  X10 mouse tracking

		  ?25	     (V)  Visible Cursor

		  ?47		  Alternate Screen (old	xterm code)

		  ?1000	     (V)  VT200	mouse tracking

		  ?1047		  Alternate Screen (new	xterm code)

		  ?1049		  Alternate Screen (new	xterm code)

       ESC [ 5 i	     (A)  Start	relay to printer (ANSI Media Copy)

       ESC [ 4 i	     (A)  Stop relay to	printer	(ANSI Media Copy)

       ESC [ 8 ; Ph ; Pw t	  Resize the window to	`Ph'  lines  and  `Pw'
				  columns (SunView special)

       ESC [ c			  Send VT100 Identification String

       ESC [ x			  Send Terminal	Parameter Report

       ESC [ > c		  Send	 VT220	 Secondary  Device  Attributes

       ESC [ 6 n		  Send Cursor Position Report

       In order	to do a	full VT100 emulation  screen  has  to  detect  that  a
       sequence	 of characters in the input stream was generated by a keypress
       on the user's keyboard and insert  the  VT100  style  escape  sequence.
       Screen  has  a very flexible way	of doing this by making	it possible to
       map arbitrary commands on arbitrary sequences of	characters. For	 stan-
       dard  VT100  emulation  the  command will always	insert a string	in the
       input buffer of the window (see also command stuff in the  command  ta-
       ble).  Because the sequences generated by a keypress can	change after a
       reattach	from a different terminal type,	it is possible	to  bind  com-
       mands  to the termcap name of the keys.	Screen will insert the correct
       binding after each  reattach.  See  the	bindkey	 command  for  further
       details on the syntax and examples.

       Here  is	the table of the default key bindings. (A) means that the com-
       mand is executed	if the keyboard	is switched into application mode.

       Key name		 Termcap name	 Command
       Cursor up	     ku		 stuff \033[A
					 stuff \033OA	 (A)
       Cursor down	     kd		 stuff \033[B
					 stuff \033OB	 (A)
       Cursor right	     kr		 stuff \033[C
					 stuff \033OC	 (A)
       Cursor left	     kl		 stuff \033[D
					 stuff \033OD	 (A)
       Function	key 0	     k0		 stuff \033[10~
       Function	key 1	     k1		 stuff \033OP
       Function	key 2	     k2		 stuff \033OQ
       Function	key 3	     k3		 stuff \033OR
       Function	key 4	     k4		 stuff \033OS
       Function	key 5	     k5		 stuff \033[15~
       Function	key 6	     k6		 stuff \033[17~
       Function	key 7	     k7		 stuff \033[18~
       Function	key 8	     k8		 stuff \033[19~
       Function	key 9	     k9		 stuff \033[20~
       Function	key 10	     k;		 stuff \033[21~
       Function	key 11	     F1		 stuff \033[23~
       Function	key 12	     F2		 stuff \033[24~
       Home		     kh		 stuff \033[1~
       End		     kH		 stuff \033[4~
       Insert		     kI		 stuff \033[2~
       Delete		     kD		 stuff \033[3~
       Page up		     kP		 stuff \033[5~
       Page down	     kN		 stuff \033[6~
       Keypad 0		     f0		 stuff 0
					 stuff \033Op	 (A)
       Keypad 1		     f1		 stuff 1
					 stuff \033Oq	 (A)
       Keypad 2		     f2		 stuff 2
					 stuff \033Or	 (A)
       Keypad 3		     f3		 stuff 3
					 stuff \033Os	 (A)
       Keypad 4		     f4		 stuff 4
					 stuff \033Ot	 (A)
       Keypad 5		     f5		 stuff 5
					 stuff \033Ou	 (A)
       Keypad 6		     f6		 stuff 6
					 stuff \033Ov	 (A)
       Keypad 7		     f7		 stuff 7
					 stuff \033Ow	 (A)
       Keypad 8		     f8		 stuff 8
					 stuff \033Ox	 (A)
       Keypad 9		     f9		 stuff 9
					 stuff \033Oy	 (A)
       Keypad +		     f+		 stuff +
					 stuff \033Ok	 (A)
       Keypad -		     f-		 stuff -
					 stuff \033Om	 (A)
       Keypad *		     f*		 stuff *
					 stuff \033Oj	 (A)
       Keypad /		     f/		 stuff /
					 stuff \033Oo	 (A)
       Keypad =		     fq		 stuff =
					 stuff \033OX	 (A)
       Keypad .		     f.		 stuff .
					 stuff \033On	 (A)
       Keypad ,		     f,		 stuff ,
					 stuff \033Ol	 (A)
       Keypad enter	     fe		 stuff \015
					 stuff \033OM	 (A)

       The following table describes all terminal capabilities that are	recog-
       nized  by  screen  and are not in the termcap(5)	manual.	 You can place
       these capabilities in your termcap entries (in `/etc/termcap')  or  use
       them  with the commands `termcap', `terminfo' and `termcapinfo' in your
       screenrc	files. It is often not possible	to place these capabilities in
       the terminfo database.

       LP   (bool)  Terminal  has  VT100 style margins (`magic margins'). Note
		    that this capability is obsolete because screen  uses  the
		    standard 'xn' instead.

       Z0   (str)   Change width to 132	columns.

       Z1   (str)   Change width to 80 columns.

       WS   (str)   Resize  display. This capability has the desired width and
		    height as arguments. SunView(tm) example: '\E[8;%d;%dt'.

       NF   (bool)  Terminal doesn't need flow control.	Send ^S	and ^Q	direct
		    to	the  application.  Same	as 'flow off'. The opposite of
		    this capability is 'nx'.

       G0   (bool)  Terminal can deal with ISO 2022 font selection  sequences.

       S0   (str)   Switch  charset  'G0' to the specified charset. Default is

       E0   (str)   Switch charset 'G0'	back to	standard charset.  Default  is

       C0   (str)   Use	the string as a	conversion table for font '0'. See the
		    'ac' capability for	more details.

       CS   (str)   Switch cursor-keys to application mode.

       CE   (str)   Switch cursor-keys back to normal mode.

       AN   (bool)  Turn on autonuke. See  the	'autonuke'  command  for  more

       OL   (num)   Set	 the  output buffer limit. See the 'obuflimit' command
		    for	more details.

       KJ   (str)   Set	the encoding of	the terminal. See the 'encoding'  com-
		    mand for valid encodings.

       AF   (str)   Change  character foreground color in an ANSI conform way.
		    This capability will almost	always	be  set	 to  '\E[3%dm'
		    ('\E[3%p1%dm' on terminfo machines).

       AB   (str)   Same as 'AF', but change background	color.

       AX   (bool)  Does  understand  ANSI  set	 default fg/bg color (\E[39m /

       XC   (str)   Describe a translation of characters to strings  depending
		    on	the current font. More details follow in the next sec-

       XT   (bool)  Terminal understands special xterm sequences  (OSC,	 mouse

       C8   (bool)  Terminal needs bold	to display high-intensity colors (e.g.

       TF   (bool)  Add	missing	capabilities to	the termcap/info  entry.  (Set
		    by default).

       Screen  has  a  powerful	mechanism to translate characters to arbitrary
       strings depending on the	current	font and terminal type.	 Use this fea-
       ture  if	 you  want  to	work with a common standard character set (say
       ISO8851-latin1) even on terminals that scatter the more unusual charac-
       ters over several national language font	pages.

	   _charset-mapping_ :=	_designator__template_{,_mapping_}
	   _mapping_ :=	_char-to-be-mapped__template-arg_

       The things in braces may	be repeated any	number of times.

       A  _charset-mapping_ tells screen how to	map characters in font _desig-
       nator_ ('B': Ascii, 'A':	UK, 'K':  german,  etc.)   to  strings.	 Every
       _mapping_  describes  to	 what string a single character	will be	trans-
       lated. A	template mechanism is used, as most of the time	the codes have
       a  lot  in  common  (for	 example strings to switch to and from another
       charset). Each occurrence of '%'	in _template_  gets  substituted  with
       the  _template-arg_  specified  together	 with  the  character. If your
       strings are not similar at all, then use	'%' as a  template  and	 place
       the  full  string  in  _template-arg_. A	quoting	mechanism was added to
       make it possible	to use a real '%'. The '\' character quotes  the  spe-
       cial characters '\', '%', and ','.

       Here is an example:

	   termcap hp700 'XC=B\E(K%\E(B,\304[,\326\\\\,\334]'

       This  tells  screen how to translate ISOlatin1 (charset 'B') upper case
       umlaut characters on a hp700 terminal that has a	german charset.	'\304'
       gets  translated	 to  '\E(K[\E(B'  and so on.  Note that	this line gets
       parsed *three* times before the internal	lookup table is	built,	there-
       fore a lot of quoting is	needed to create a single '\'.

       Another	extension  was	added  to  allow  more emulation: If a mapping
       translates the unquoted '%' char, it will be sent to the	terminal when-
       ever screen switches to the corresponding _designator_. In this special
       case the	template is assumed to be just '%' because the charset	switch
       sequence	and the	character mappings normally haven't much in common.

       This example shows one use of the extension:

	   termcap xterm 'XC=K%,%\E(B,[\304,\\\\\326,]\334'

       Here,  a	 part of the german ('K') charset is emulated on an xterm.  If
       screen has to change to the 'K' charset,	'\E(B' will  be	 sent  to  the
       terminal,  i.e. the ASCII charset is used instead. The template is just
       '%', so the mapping is straightforward: '[' to '\304', '\'  to  '\326',
       and ']' to '\334'.

       COLUMNS	      Number  of  columns  on  the terminal (overrides termcap
       HOME	      Directory	in which to look for .screenrc.
       LINES	      Number of	 lines	on  the	 terminal  (overrides  termcap
       LOCKPRG	      Screen lock program.
       NETHACKOPTIONS Turns on nethack option.
       PATH	      Used for locating	programs to run.
       SCREENCAP      For customizing a	terminal's TERMCAP value.
       SCREENDIR      Alternate	socket directory.
       SCREENRC	      Alternate	user screenrc file.
       SHELL	      Default  shell  program  for  opening  windows  (default
       STY	      Alternate	socket name.
       SYSSCREENRC    Alternate	system screenrc	file.
       TERM	      Terminal name.
       TERMCAP	      Terminal description.
       WINDOW	      Window number of a window	(at creation time).

       .../screen-3.?.??/etc/etcscreenrc Examples in the  screen  distribution
					 package  for  private and global ini-
					 tialization files.
       /etc/screenrc			 screen	initialization commands
       $HOME/.screenrc			 Read in after /etc/screenrc
       /local/screens/S-<login>		 Socket	directories (default)
       /usr/tmp/screens/S-<login>	 Alternate socket directories.
       <socket directory>/.termcap	 Written by the	"termcap" output func-
       /usr/tmp/screens/screen-exchange	 or
       /tmp/screen-exchange		 screen	  `interprocess	 communication
       hardcopy.[0-9]			 Screen	images created by the hardcopy
       screenlog.[0-9]			 Output	 log  files created by the log
       /usr/lib/terminfo/?/*		 or
       /etc/termcap			 Terminal capability databases
       /etc/utmp			 Login records
       $LOCKPRG				 Program that locks a terminal.

       termcap(5), utmp(5), vi(1), captoinfo(1), tic(1)

       Originally created by Oliver Laumann, this latest version was  produced
       by Wayne	Davison, Juergen Weigert and Michael Schroeder.

       Copyright (C) 1993-2002
	    Juergen Weigert (
	    Michael Schroeder (
       Copyright (C) 1987 Oliver Laumann
       This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
       under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published  by  the
       Free  Software  Foundation;  either  version 2, or (at your option) any
       later version.
       This program is distributed in the hope that it	will  be  useful,  but
       WITHOUT	ANY  WARRANTY;	without	 even  the  implied  warranty  of MER-
       Public License for more details.
       You should have received	a copy of the GNU General Public License along
       with this program (see the file COPYING); if not,  write	 to  the  Free
       Software	 Foundation,  Inc.,  59	 Temple	 Place - Suite 330, Boston, MA
       02111-1307, USA

       Ken Beal	(,
       Rudolf Koenig (,
       Toerless	Eckert (,
       Wayne Davison (,
       Patrick Wolfe (, kailand!pat),
       Bart Schaefer (,
       Nathan Glasser (,
       Larry W.	Virden (,
       Howard Chu (,
       Tim MacKenzie (,
       Markku Jarvinen (mta@{cc,cs,ee},
       Marc Boucher (marc@CAM.ORG),
       Doug Siebert (,
       Ken Stillson (,
       Ian Frechett (frechett@spot.Colorado.EDU),
       Brian Koehmstedt	(,
       Don Smith (,
       Frank van der Linden (,
       Martin Schweikert (,
       David Vrona (,
       E. Tye McQueen (,
       Matthew Green (,
       Christopher Williams (,
       Matt Mosley (,
       Gregory Neil Shapiro (gshapiro@wpi.WPI.EDU),
       Johannes	Zellner	(,
       Pablo Averbuj (

       This is version 3.9.13. Its roots are  a	 merge	of  a  custom  version
       2.3PR7  by  Wayne  Davison and several enhancements to Oliver Laumann's
       version 2.0. Note that all  versions  numbered  2.x  are	 copyright  by
       Oliver Laumann.

       The  latest official release of screen available	via anonymous ftp from, or	any other GNU distribution  site.  The
       home site of screen is, in the directory pub/utili-
       ties/screen. The	subdirectory `private' contains	the latest beta	 test-
       ing  release.  If  you  want  to	help, send a note to screen@uni-erlan-

       o  `dm' (delete mode) and `xs' are  not	handled	 correctly  (they  are
	  ignored). `xn' is treated as a magic-margin indicator.

       o  Screen has no	clue about double-high or double-wide characters.  But
	  this is the only area	where vttest is	allowed	to fail.

       o  It is	not possible to	change the environment variable	$TERMCAP  when
	  reattaching under a different	terminal type.

       o  The  support of terminfo based systems is very limited. Adding extra
	  capabilities to $TERMCAP may not have	any effects.

       o  Screen does not make use of hardware tabs.

       o  Screen must be installed as set-uid with owner root on most  systems
	  in  order to be able to correctly change the owner of	the tty	device
	  file for each	window.	 Special permission may	also  be  required  to
	  write	the file "/etc/utmp".

       o  Entries  in  "/etc/utmp"  are	not removed when screen	is killed with
	  SIGKILL.  This will cause some programs  (like  "w"  or  "rwho")  to
	  advertise that a user	is logged on who really	isn't.

       o  Screen may give a strange warning when your tty has no utmp entry.

       o  When the modem line was hung up, screen may not automatically	detach
	  (or quit) unless the device driver is	configured to  send  a	HANGUP
	  signal.   To	detach	a screen session use the -D or -d command line

       o  If a password	is set,	the command  line  options  -d	and  -D	 still
	  detach a session without asking.

       o  Both	"breaktype"  and  "defbreaktype"  change  the break generating
	  method used by all terminal devices. The first should	change a  win-
	  dow  specific	 setting,  where  the  latter  should  change only the
	  default for new windows.

       o  When attaching to a multiuser	session, the user's .screenrc file  is
	  not  sourced.	 Each  user's personal settings	have to	be included in
	  the .screenrc	file from which	the session is booted, or have	to  be
	  changed manually.

       o  A weird imagination is most useful to	gain full advantage of all the

       o  Send bug-reports, fixes, enhancements, t-shirts, money, beer & pizza

4th Berkeley Distribution	   Aug 2002			     SCREEN(1)


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