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SAIL(6)			     FreeBSD Games Manual		       SAIL(6)

NAME
     sail -- multi-user	wooden ships and iron men

SYNOPSIS
     sail [-bx]	[-s [-l]] [number]

DESCRIPTION
     sail is a computer	version	of Avalon Hill's game of fighting sail origi-
     nally developed by	S. Craig Taylor.

     Players of	sail take command of an	old-fashioned Man of War and fight
     other players or the computer.  They may re-enact one of the many histor-
     ical sea battles recorded in the game, or they can	choose a fictional
     battle.

     As	a sea captain in the sail Navy,	the player has complete	control	over
     the workings of his ship.	He must	order every maneuver, change the set
     of	his sails, and judge the right moment to let loose the terrible	de-
     struction of his broadsides.  In addition to fighting the enemy, he must
     harness the powers	of the wind and	sea to make them work for him.	The
     outcome of	many battles during the	age of sail was	decided	by the ability
     of	one captain to hold the	`weather gage'.

     The flags are:

     -b	   No bells.

     -l	   Show	the login name.	 Only effective	with -s.

     -s	   Print the names and ships of	the top	ten sailors.

     -x	   Play	the first available ship instead of prompting for a choice.

IMPLEMENTATION
     sail is really two	programs in one.  Each player starts up	a process
     which runs	his own	ship.  In addition, a driver process is	forked (by the
     first player) to run the computer ships and take care of global bookkeep-
     ing.

     Because the driver	must calculate moves for each ship it controls,	the
     more ships	the computer is	playing, the slower the	game will appear.

     If	a player joins a game in progress, he will synchronize with the	other
     players (a	rather slow process for	everyone), and then he may play	along
     with the rest.

     To	implement a multi-user game in UNIX Version 7, which was the operating
     system sail was first written under, the communicating processes must use
     a common temporary	file as	a place	to read	and write messages.  In	addi-
     tion, a locking mechanism must be provided	to ensure exclusive access to
     the shared	file.  For example, sail uses a	temporary file named
     /tmp/#sailsink.21 for scenario 21,	and corresponding file names for the
     other scenarios.  To provide exclusive access to the temporary file, sail
     uses a technique stolen from an old game called pubcaves by Jeff Cohen.
     Processes do a busy wait in the loop

	   for (n = 0; link(sync_file, sync_lock) == -1	&& n < 30; n++)
		   sleep(2);

     until they	are able to create a link to a file named /tmp/#saillock.??.
     The "??" correspond to the	scenario number	of the game.  Since UNIX guar-
     antees that a link	will point to only one file, the process that succeeds
     in	linking	will have exclusive access to the temporary file.

   CONSEQUENCES	OF SEPARATE PLAYER AND DRIVER PROCESSES
     When players do something of global interest, such	as moving or firing,
     the driver	must coordinate	the action with	the other ships	in the game.
     For example, if a player wants to move in a certain direction, he writes
     a message into the	temporary file requesting that the driver move his
     ship.  Each "turn", the driver reads all the messages sent	from the play-
     ers and decides what happened.  It	then writes back into the temporary
     file new values of	variables, etc.

     The most noticeable effect	this communication has on the game is the de-
     lay in moving.  Suppose a player types a move for his ship	and hits re-
     turn.  What happens then?	The player process saves up messages to	be
     written to	the temporary file in a	buffer.	 Every 7 seconds or so,	the
     player process gets exclusive access to the temporary file	and writes out
     its buffer	to the file.  The driver, running asynchronously, must read in
     the movement command, process it, and write out the results.  This	takes
     two exclusive accesses to the temporary file.  Finally, when the player
     process gets around to doing another 7-second update, the results of the
     move are displayed	on the screen.	Hence, every movement requires four
     exclusive accesses	to the temporary file (anywhere	from 7 to 21 seconds
     depending upon asynchrony)	before the player sees the results of his
     moves.

     In	practice, the delays are not as	annoying as they would appear.	There
     is	room for "pipelining" in the movement.	After the player writes	out a
     first movement message, a second movement command can then	be issued.
     The first message will be in the temporary	file waiting for the driver,
     and the second will be in the file	buffer waiting to be written to	the
     file.  Thus, by always typing moves a turn	ahead of the time, the player
     can sail around quite quickly.

     If	the player types several movement commands between two 7-second	up-
     dates, only the last movement command typed will be seen by the driver.
     Movement commands within the same update "overwrite" each other, in a
     sense.

HISTORICAL INFO
     Old square-riggers	were very maneuverable ships capable of	intricate
     sailing.  Their only disadvantage was an inability	to sail	very close to
     the wind.	The design of a	wooden ship allowed only for the guns to bear
     to	the left and right sides.  A few guns of small aspect (usually 6 or 9
     pounders) could point forward, but	their effect was small compared	to a
     68-gun broadside of 24 or 32 pounders.  The guns bear approximately like
     so:

		  \
		   b----------------
	       ---0
		   \
		    \
		     \	   up to a range of ten	(for round shot)
		      \
		       \
			\

     An	interesting phenomenon occurred	when a broadside was fired down	the
     length of an enemy	ship.  The shot	tended to bounce along the deck	and
     did several times more damage.  This phenomenon was called	a rake.	 Be-
     cause the bows of a ship are very strong and present a smaller target
     than the stern, a stern rake (firing from the stern to the	bow) causes
     more damage than a	bow rake.

				   b
				  00   ----  Stern rake!
				    a

     Most ships	were equipped with carronades, which were very large, close-
     range cannons.  American ships from the revolution	until the War of 1812
     were almost entirely armed	with carronades.

     The period	of history covered in sail is approximately from the 1770s un-
     til the end of Napoleonic France in 1815.	There are many excellent books
     about the age of sail (see	REFERENCES).

     Fighting ships came in several sizes classed by armament.	The mainstays
     of	any fleet were its "Ships of the Line",	or "Line of Battle Ships".
     They were so named	because	these ships fought together in great lines.
     They were close enough for	mutual support,	yet every ship could fire both
     its broadsides.  The modern terms "ocean liner", and "battleship" are de-
     rived from	"ship of the line".

     The pride of the fleet were the "first-rates".  These were	huge three
     decked ships of the line mounting 80 to 136 guns.

     Lesser ships were known as	"second-rates",	"third-rates", and even
     "fourth-rates".  The most common size was the 74 gun two-decked ship of
     the line.	The two	gun decks usually mounted 18 and 24 pounder guns.  The
     guns in the three tiers were usually 18, 24, and 32 pounders in that or-
     der from top to bottom.

     Various other ships came next.  They were almost all "razees", or ships
     of	the line with one deck sawed off.  They	mounted	40-64 guns and were a
     poor cross	between	a frigate and a	line of	battle ship.  They neither had
     the speed of the former nor the firepower of the latter.

     Next came the "eyes of the	fleet".	 Frigates came in many sizes mounting
     anywhere from 32 to 44 guns.  They	were very handy	vessels.  They could
     outsail anything bigger and outshoot anything smaller.  Frigates didn't
     fight in lines of battle as the much bigger 74's did.  Instead, they ha-
     rassed the	enemy's	rear or	captured crippled ships.  They were much more
     useful in missions	away from the fleet, such as cutting out expeditions
     or	boat actions.  They could hit hard and get away	fast.

     Lastly, there were	the corvettes, sloops, and brigs.  These were smaller
     ships mounting typically fewer than 20 guns.  A corvette was only
     slightly smaller than a frigate, so one might have	up to 30 guns.	Sloops
     were used for carrying dispatches or passengers.  Brigs were something
     you built for land-locked lakes.

   SAIL	PARTICULARS
     Ships in sail are represented by two characters.  One character repre-
     sents the bow of the ship,	and the	other represents the stern.  Ships
     have nationalities	and numbers.  The first	ship of	a nationality is num-
     ber 0, the	second number 1, etc.  Therefore, the first British ship in a
     game would	be printed as `b0'.  The second	Brit would be `b1', and	the
     fifth Don would be	`s4'.

     Ships can set normal sails, called	Battle Sails, or bend on extra canvas
     called Full Sails.	 A ship	under full sail	is a beautiful sight indeed,
     and it can	move much faster than a	ship under Battle Sails.  The only
     trouble is, with full sails set, there is so much tension on sail and
     rigging that a well aimed round shot can burst a sail into	ribbons	where
     it	would only cause a little hole in a loose sail.	 For this reason, rig-
     ging damage is doubled on a ship with full	sails set.  Don't let that
     discourage	you from using full sails: I like to keep them up right	into
     the heat of battle.  A ship with full sails set has a capital letter for
     its nationality.  E.g., a Frog, `f0', with	full sails set would be
     printed as	`F0'.

     When a ship is battered into a listing hulk, the last man aboard "strikes
     the colors".  This	ceremony is the	ship's formal surrender.  The nation-
     ality character of	a surrendered ship is printed as `!'.  E.g., the Frog
     of	our last example would soon be `!0'.

     A ship has	a random chance	of catching fire or sinking when it reaches
     the stage of listing hulk.	 A sinking ship	has a tilde `~'	printed	for
     its nationality, and a ship on fire and about to explode has a `#'
     printed.

     Captured ships become the nationality of the prize	crew.  Therefore, if
     an	American ship captures a British ship, the British ship	will have an
     `a' printed for its nationality.  In addition, the	ship number is changed
     to	`&', `'', `(', `)', `*', or `+'	depending upon the original number, be
     it	0, 1, 2, 3, 4, or 5.  E.g., the	`b0' captured by an American becomes
     the `a&'.	The `s4' captured by a Frog becomes the	`f*'.

     The ultimate example is, of course, an exploding Brit captured by an
     American: `#&'.

   MOVEMENT
     Movement is the most confusing part of sail to many.  Ships can head in 8
     directions:

				      0	     0	    0
	     b	     b	     b0	     b	     b	     b	     0b	     b
	     0	      0						    0

     The stern of a ship moves when it turns.  The bow remains stationary.
     Ships can always turn, regardless of the wind (unless they	are becalmed).
     All ships drift when they lose headway.  If a ship	doesn't	move forward
     at	all for	two turns, it will begin to drift.  If a ship has begun	to
     drift, then it must move forward before it	turns, if it plans to do more
     than make a right or left turn, which is always possible.

     Movement commands to sail are a string of forward moves and turns.	 An
     example is	`l3'.  It will turn a ship left	and then move it ahead 3 spa-
     ces.  In the drawing above, the `b0' made 7 successive left turns.	 When
     sail prompts you for a move, it prints three characters of	import.	 E.g.,

	   move	(7, 4):

     The first number is the maximum number of moves you can make, including
     turns.  The second	number is the maximum number of	turns you can make.
     Between the numbers is sometimes printed a	quote `''.  If the quote is
     present, it means that your ship has been drifting, and you must move
     ahead to regain headway before you	turn (see note above).	Some of	the
     possible moves for	the example above are as follows:

	   move	(7, 4):	7
	   move	(7, 4):	1
	   move	(7, 4):	d	   /* drift, or	do nothing */
	   move	(7, 4):	6r
	   move	(7, 4):	5r1
	   move	(7, 4):	4r1r
	   move	(7, 4):	l1r1r2
	   move	(7, 4):	1r1r1r1

     Because square riggers performed so poorly	sailing	into the wind, if at
     any point in a movement command you turn into the wind, the movement
     stops there.  E.g.,

	   move	(7, 4):	l1l4
	   Movement Error;
	   Helm: l1l

     Moreover, whenever	you make a turn, your movement allowance drops to the
     lesser of what's left or what you would have at the new attitude.	In
     short, if you turn	closer to the wind, you	most likely won't be able to
     sail the full allowance printed in	the "move" prompt.

     Old sailing captains had to keep an eye constantly	on the wind.  Captains
     in	sail are no different.	A ship's ability to move depends on its	atti-
     tude to the wind.	The best angle possible	is to have the wind off	your
     quarter, that is, just off	the stern.  The	direction rose on the side of
     the screen	gives the possible movements for your ship at all positions to
     the wind.	Battle sail speeds are given first, and	full sail speeds are
     given in parentheses.

				      0	1(2)
				     \|/
				     -^-3(6)
				     /|\
				      |	4(7)
				     3(6)

     Pretend the bow of	your ship (the `^') is pointing	upward and the wind is
     blowing from the bottom to	the top	of the page.  The numbers at the bot-
     tom `3(6)'	will be	your speed under battle	or full	sails in such a	situa-
     tion.  If the wind	is off your quarter, then you can move `4(7)'.	If the
     wind is off your beam, `3(6)'.  If	the wind is off	your bow, then you can
     only move `1(2)'.	If you are facing into the wind, you can't move	at
     all; ships	facing into the	wind were said to be "in irons".

   WINDSPEED AND DIRECTION
     The windspeed and direction is displayed as a little weather vane on the
     side of the screen.  The number in	the middle of the vane indicates the
     wind speed, and the + to -	indicates the wind direction.  The wind	blows
     from the +	sign (high pressure) to	the - sign (low	pressure).  E.g.,

		 |
		 3
		 +

     The wind speeds are 0 = becalmed, 1 = light breeze, 2 = moderate breeze,
     3 = fresh breeze, 4 = strong breeze, 5 = gale, 6 =	full gale, 7 = hurri-
     cane.  If a hurricane shows up, all ships are destroyed.

   GRAPPLING AND FOULING
     If	two ships collide, they	run the	risk of	becoming tangled together.
     This is called "fouling".	Fouled ships are stuck together, and neither
     can move.	They can unfoul	each other if they want	to.  Boarding parties
     can only be sent across to	ships when the antagonists are either fouled
     or	grappled.

     Ships can grapple each other by throwing grapnels into the	rigging	of the
     other.

     The number	of fouls and grapples you have are displayed on	the upper
     right of the screen.

   BOARDING
     Boarding was a very costly	venture	in terms of human life.	 Boarding par-
     ties may be formed	in sail	to either board	an enemy ship or to defend
     your own ship against attack.  Men	organized as Defensive Boarding	Par-
     ties fight	twice as hard to save their ship as men	left unorganized.

     The boarding strength of a	crew depends upon its quality and upon the
     number of men sent.

   CREW	QUALITY
     The British seaman	was world renowned for his sailing abilities.  Ameri-
     can sailors, however, were	actually the best seamen in the	world.	Be-
     cause the American	Navy offered twice the wages of	the Royal Navy,
     British seamen who	liked the sea defected to America by the thousands.

     In	sail, crew quality is quantized	into 5 energy levels.  Elite crews can
     outshoot and outfight all other sailors.  Crack crews are next.  Mundane
     crews are average,	and Green and Mutinous crews are below average.	 A
     good rule of thumb	is that	Crack or Elite crews get one extra hit per
     broadside compared	to Mundane crews.  Don't expect	too much from Green
     crews.

   BROADSIDES
     Your two broadsides may be	loaded with four kinds of shot:	grape, chain,
     round, and	double.	 You have guns and carronades in both the port and
     starboard batteries.  Carronades only have	a range	of two,	so you have to
     get in close to be	able to	fire them.  You	have the choice	of firing at
     the hull or rigging of another ship.  If the range	of the ship is greater
     than 6, then you may only shoot at	the rigging.

     The types of shot and their advantages are:

     ROUND    Range of 10.  Good for hull or rigging hits.

     DOUBLE   Range of 1.  Extra good for hull or rigging hits.	 Double	takes
	      two turns	to load.

     CHAIN    Range of 3.  Excellent for tearing down rigging.	Cannot damage
	      hull or guns, though.

     GRAPE    Range of 1.  Sometimes devastating against enemy crews.

     On	the side of the	screen is displayed some vital information about your
     ship:

	   Load	 D! R!
	   Hull	 9
	   Crew	 4  4  2
	   Guns	 4  4
	   Carr	 2  2
	   Rigg	 5 5 5 5

     "Load" shows what your port (left)	and starboard (right) broadsides are
     loaded with.  A `!' after the type	of shot	indicates that it is an	ini-
     tial broadside.  Initial broadside	were loaded with care before battle
     and before	the decks ran red with blood.  As a consequence, initial
     broadsides	are a little more effective than broadsides loaded later.  A
     `*' after the type	of shot	indicates that the gun crews are still loading
     it, and you cannot	fire yet.  "Hull" shows	how much hull you have left.
     "Crew" shows your three sections of crew.	As your	crew dies off, your
     ability to	fire decreases.	 "Guns"	and "Carr" show	your port and star-
     board guns.  As you lose guns, your ability to fire decreases.  "Rigg"
     shows how much rigging you	have on	your 3 or 4 masts.  As rigging is shot
     away, you lose mobility.

   EFFECTIVENESS OF FIRE
     It	is very	dramatic when a	ship fires its thunderous broadsides, but the
     mere opportunity to fire them does	not guarantee any hits.	 Many factors
     influence the destructive force of	a broadside.  First of all, and	the
     chief factor, is distance.	 It is harder to hit a ship at range ten than
     it	is to hit one sloshing alongside.  Next	is raking.  Raking fire, as
     mentioned before, can sometimes dismast a ship at range ten.  Next, crew
     size and quality affects the damage done by a broadside.  The number of
     guns firing also bears on the point, so to	speak.	Lastly,	weather	af-
     fects the accuracy	of a broadside.	 If the	seas are high (5 or 6),	then
     the lower gunports	of ships of the	line can't even	be opened to run out
     the guns.	This gives frigates and	other flush decked vessels an advan-
     tage in a storm.  The scenario Pellew vs. The Droits de L'Homme takes ad-
     vantage of	this peculiar circumstance.

   REPAIRS
     Repairs may be made to your Hull, Guns, and Rigging at the	slow rate of
     two points	per three turns.  The message "Repairs Completed" will be
     printed if	no more	repairs	can be made.

   PECULIARITIES OF COMPUTER SHIPS
     Computer ships in sail follow all the rules above with a few exceptions.
     Computer ships never repair damage.  If they did, the players could never
     beat them.	 They play well	enough as it is.  As a consolation, the	com-
     puter ships can fire double shot every turn.  That	fluke is a good	reason
     to	keep your distance.  The driver	figures	out the	moves of the computer
     ships.  It	computes them with a typical A.I. distance function and	a
     depth-first search	to find	the maximum "score".  It seems to work fairly
     well, although it isn't perfect.

HOW TO PLAY
     Commands are given	to sail	by typing a single character.  You will	then
     be	prompted for further input.  A brief summary of	the commands follows.

   COMMAND SUMMARY
     f	  Fire broadsides if they bear

     l	  Reload

     L	  Unload broadsides (to	change ammo)

     m	  Move

     i	  Print	the closest ship

     I	  Print	all ships

     F	  Find a particular ship or ships (e.g.	`a?' for all Americans)

     s	  Send a message around	the fleet

     b	  Attempt to board an enemy ship

     B	  Recall boarding parties

     c	  Change set of	sail

     r	  Repair

     u	  Attempt to unfoul

     g	  Grapple/ungrapple

     v	  Print	version	number of game

     ^L	  Redraw screen

     Q	  Quit

     C	  Center your ship in the window

     U	  Move window up

     D,N  Move window down

     H	  Move window left

     J	  Move window right

     S	  Toggle window	to follow your ship or stay where it is

SCENARIOS
     Here is a summary of the scenarios	in sail:

   Ranger vs. Drake:
     Wind from the N, blowing a	fresh breeze.

     (a) Ranger		   19 gun Sloop	(crack crew) (7	pts)
     (b) Drake		   17 gun Sloop	(crack crew) (6	pts)

   The Battle of Flamborough Head:
     Wind from the S, blowing a	fresh breeze.

     This is John Paul Jones' first famous battle.  Aboard the Bonhomme
     Richard, he was able to overcome the Serapis's greater firepower by
     quickly boarding her.

     (a) Bonhomme Rich	   42 gun Corvette (crack crew)	(11 pts)
     (b) Serapis	   44 gun Frigate (crack crew) (12 pts)

   Arbuthnot and Des Touches:
     Wind from the N, blowing a	gale.

     (b) America	   64 gun Ship of the Line (crack crew)	(20 pts)
     (b) Befford	   74 gun Ship of the Line (crack crew)	(26 pts)
     (b) Adamant	   50 gun Ship of the Line (crack crew)	(17 pts)
     (b) London		   98 gun 3 Decker SOL (crack crew) (28	pts)
     (b) Royal Oak	   74 gun Ship of the Line (crack crew)	(26 pts)
     (f) Neptune	   74 gun Ship of the Line (average crew) (24 pts)
     (f) Duc de	Bourgogne  80 gun 3 Decker SOL (average	crew) (27 pts)
     (f) Conquerant	   74 gun Ship of the Line (average crew) (24 pts)
     (f) Provence	   64 gun Ship of the Line (average crew) (18 pts)
     (f) Romulus	   44 gun Ship of the Line (average crew) (10 pts)

   Suffren and Hughes:
     Wind from the S, blowing a	fresh breeze.

     (b) Monmouth	   74 gun Ship of the Line (average crew) (24 pts)
     (b) Hero		   74 gun Ship of the Line (crack crew)	(26 pts)
     (b) Isis		   50 gun Ship of the Line (crack crew)	(17 pts)
     (b) Superb		   74 gun Ship of the Line (crack crew)	(27 pts)
     (b) Burford	   74 gun Ship of the Line (average crew) (24 pts)
     (f) Flamband	   50 gun Ship of the Line (average crew) (14 pts)
     (f) Annibal	   74 gun Ship of the Line (average crew) (24 pts)
     (f) Severe		   64 gun Ship of the Line (average crew) (18 pts)
     (f) Brilliant	   80 gun Ship of the Line (crack crew)	(31 pts)
     (f) Sphinx		   80 gun Ship of the Line (average crew) (27 pts)

   Nymphe vs. Cleopatre:
     Wind from the S, blowing a	fresh breeze.

     (b) Nymphe		   36 gun Frigate (crack crew) (11 pts)
     (f) Cleopatre	   36 gun Frigate (average crew) (10 pts)

   Mars	vs. Hercule:
     Wind from the S, blowing a	fresh breeze.

     (b) Mars		   74 gun Ship of the Line (crack crew)	(26 pts)
     (f) Hercule	   74 gun Ship of the Line (average crew) (23 pts)

   Ambuscade vs. Baionnaise:
     Wind from the N, blowing a	fresh breeze.

     (b) Ambuscade	   32 gun Frigate (average crew) (9 pts)
     (f) Baionnaise	   24 gun Corvette (average crew) (9 pts)

   Constellation vs. Insurgent:
     Wind from the S, blowing a	gale.

     (a) Constellation	   38 gun Corvette (elite crew)	(17 pts)
     (f) Insurgent	   36 gun Corvette (average crew) (11 pts)

   Constellation vs. Vengeance:
     Wind from the S, blowing a	fresh breeze.

     (a) Constellation	   38 gun Corvette (elite crew)	(17 pts)
     (f) Vengeance	   40 gun Frigate (average crew) (15 pts)

   The Battle of Lissa:
     Wind from the S, blowing a	fresh breeze.

     (b) Amphion	   32 gun Frigate (elite crew) (13 pts)
     (b) Active		   38 gun Frigate (elite crew) (18 pts)
     (b) Volage		   22 gun Frigate (elite crew) (11 pts)
     (b) Cerberus	   32 gun Frigate (elite crew) (13 pts)
     (f) Favorite	   40 gun Frigate (average crew) (15 pts)
     (f) Flore		   40 gun Frigate (average crew) (15 pts)
     (f) Danae		   40 gun Frigate (crack crew) (17 pts)
     (f) Bellona	   32 gun Frigate (green crew) (9 pts)
     (f) Corona		   40 gun Frigate (green crew) (12 pts)
     (f) Carolina	   32 gun Frigate (green crew) (7 pts)

   Constitution	vs. Guerriere:
     Wind from the SW, blowing a gale.

     (a) Constitution	   44 gun Corvette (elite crew)	(24 pts)
     (b) Guerriere	   38 gun Frigate (crack crew) (15 pts)

   United States vs. Macedonian:
     Wind from the S, blowing a	fresh breeze.

     (a) United	States	   44 gun Frigate (elite crew) (24 pts)
     (b) Macedonian	   38 gun Frigate (crack crew) (16 pts)

   Constitution	vs. Java:
     Wind from the S, blowing a	fresh breeze.

     (a) Constitution	   44 gun Corvette (elite crew)	(24 pts)
     (b) Java		   38 gun Corvette (crack crew)	(19 pts)

   Chesapeake vs. Shannon:
     Wind from the S, blowing a	fresh breeze.

     (a) Chesapeake	   38 gun Frigate (average crew) (14 pts)
     (b) Shannon	   38 gun Frigate (elite crew) (17 pts)

   The Battle of Lake Erie:
     Wind from the S, blowing a	light breeze.

     (a) Lawrence	   20 gun Sloop	(crack crew) (9	pts)
     (a) Niagara	   20 gun Sloop	(elite crew) (12 pts)
     (b) Lady Prevost	   13 gun Brig (crack crew) (5 pts)
     (b) Detroit	   19 gun Sloop	(crack crew) (7	pts)
     (b) Q. Charlotte	   17 gun Sloop	(crack crew) (6	pts)

   Wasp	vs. Reindeer:
     Wind from the S, blowing a	light breeze.

     (a) Wasp		   20 gun Sloop	(elite crew) (12 pts)
     (b) Reindeer	   18 gun Sloop	(elite crew) (9	pts)

   Constitution	vs. Cyane and Levant:
     Wind from the S, blowing a	moderate breeze.

     (a) Constitution	   44 gun Corvette (elite crew)	(24 pts)
     (b) Cyane		   24 gun Sloop	(crack crew) (11 pts)
     (b) Levant		   20 gun Sloop	(crack crew) (10 pts)

   Pellew vs. Droits de	L'Homme:
     Wind from the N, blowing a	gale.

     (b) Indefatigable	   44 gun Frigate (elite crew) (14 pts)
     (b) Amazon		   36 gun Frigate (crack crew) (14 pts)
     (f) Droits	L'Hom	   74 gun Ship of the Line (average crew) (24 pts)

   Algeciras:
     Wind from the SW, blowing a moderate breeze.

     (b) Caesar		   80 gun Ship of the Line (crack crew)	(31 pts)
     (b) Pompee		   74 gun Ship of the Line (crack crew)	(27 pts)
     (b) Spencer	   74 gun Ship of the Line (crack crew)	(26 pts)
     (b) Hannibal	   98 gun 3 Decker SOL (crack crew) (28	pts)
     (s) Real-Carlos	   112 gun 3 Decker SOL	(green crew) (27 pts)
     (s) San Fernando	   96 gun 3 Decker SOL (green crew) (24	pts)
     (s) Argonauta	   80 gun Ship of the Line (green crew)	(23 pts)
     (s) San Augustine	   74 gun Ship of the Line (green crew)	(20 pts)
     (f) Indomptable	   80 gun Ship of the Line (average crew) (27 pts)
     (f) Desaix		   74 gun Ship of the Line (average crew) (24 pts)

   Lake	Champlain:
     Wind from the N, blowing a	fresh breeze.

     (a) Saratoga	   26 gun Sloop	(crack crew) (12 pts)
     (a) Eagle		   20 gun Sloop	(crack crew) (11 pts)
     (a) Ticonderoga	   17 gun Sloop	(crack crew) (9	pts)
     (a) Preble		   7 gun Brig (crack crew) (4 pts)
     (b) Confiance	   37 gun Frigate (crack crew) (14 pts)
     (b) Linnet		   16 gun Sloop	(elite crew) (10 pts)
     (b) Chubb		   11 gun Brig (crack crew) (5 pts)

   Last	Voyage of the USS President:
     Wind from the N, blowing a	fresh breeze.

     (a) President	   44 gun Frigate (elite crew) (24 pts)
     (b) Endymion	   40 gun Frigate (crack crew) (17 pts)
     (b) Pomone		   44 gun Frigate (crack crew) (20 pts)
     (b) Tenedos	   38 gun Frigate (crack crew) (15 pts)

   Hornblower and the Natividad:
     Wind from the E, blowing a	gale.

     A scenario	for you	Horny fans.  Remember, he sank the Natividad against
     heavy odds	and winds.  Hint: don't	try to board the Natividad; her	crew
     is	much bigger, albeit green.

     (b) Lydia		   36 gun Frigate (elite crew) (13 pts)
     (s) Natividad	   50 gun Ship of the Line (green crew)	(14 pts)

   Curse of the	Flying Dutchman:
     Wind from the S, blowing a	fresh breeze.

     Just for fun, take	the Piece of cake.

     (s) Piece of Cake	   24 gun Corvette (average crew) (9 pts)
     (f) Flying	Dutchy	   120 gun 3 Decker SOL	(elite crew) (43 pts)

   The South Pacific:
     Wind from the S, blowing a	strong breeze.

     (a) USS Scurvy	   136 gun 3 Decker SOL	(mutinous crew)	(27 pts)
     (b) HMS Tahiti	   120 gun 3 Decker SOL	(elite crew) (43 pts)
     (s) Australian	   32 gun Frigate (average crew) (9 pts)
     (f) Bikini	Atoll	   7 gun Brig (crack crew) (4 pts)

   Hornblower and the battle of	Rosas bay:
     Wind from the E, blowing a	fresh breeze.

     The only battle Hornblower	ever lost.  He was able	to dismast one ship
     and stern rake the	others though.	See if you can do as well.

     (b) Sutherland	   74 gun Ship of the Line (crack crew)	(26 pts)
     (f) Turenne	   80 gun 3 Decker SOL (average	crew) (27 pts)
     (f) Nightmare	   74 gun Ship of the Line (average crew) (24 pts)
     (f) Paris		   112 gun 3 Decker SOL	(green crew) (27 pts)
     (f) Napoleon	   74 gun Ship of the Line (green crew)	(20 pts)

   Cape	Horn:
     Wind from the NE, blowing a strong	breeze.

     (a) Concord	   80 gun Ship of the Line (average crew) (27 pts)
     (a) Berkeley	   98 gun 3 Decker SOL (crack crew) (28	pts)
     (b) Thames		   120 gun 3 Decker SOL	(elite crew) (43 pts)
     (s) Madrid		   112 gun 3 Decker SOL	(green crew) (27 pts)
     (f) Musket		   80 gun 3 Decker SOL (average	crew) (27 pts)

   New Orleans:
     Wind from the SE, blowing a fresh breeze.

     Watch that	little Cypress go!

     (a) Alligator	   120 gun 3 Decker SOL	(elite crew) (43 pts)
     (b) Firefly	   74 gun Ship of the Line (crack crew)	(27 pts)
     (b) Cypress	   44 gun Frigate (elite crew) (14 pts)

   Botany Bay:
     Wind from the N, blowing a	fresh breeze.

     (b) Shark		   64 gun Ship of the Line (average crew) (18 pts)
     (f) Coral Snake	   44 gun Corvette (elite crew)	(24 pts)
     (f) Sea Lion	   44 gun Frigate (elite crew) (24 pts)

   Voyage to the Bottom	of the Sea:
     Wind from the NW, blowing a fresh breeze.

     This one is dedicated to Richard Basehart and David Hedison.

     (a) Seaview	   120 gun 3 Decker SOL	(elite crew) (43 pts)
     (a) Flying	Sub	   40 gun Frigate (crack crew) (17 pts)
     (b) Mermaid	   136 gun 3 Decker SOL	(mutinous crew)	(27 pts)
     (s) Giant Squid	   112 gun 3 Decker SOL	(green crew) (27 pts)

   Frigate Action:
     Wind from the E, blowing a	fresh breeze.

     (a) Killdeer	   40 gun Frigate (average crew) (15 pts)
     (b) Sandpiper	   40 gun Frigate (average crew) (15 pts)
     (s) Curlew		   38 gun Frigate (crack crew) (16 pts)

   The Battle of Midway:
     Wind from the E, blowing a	moderate breeze.

     (a) Enterprise	   80 gun Ship of the Line (crack crew)	(31 pts)
     (a) Yorktown	   80 gun Ship of the Line (average crew) (27 pts)
     (a) Hornet		   74 gun Ship of the Line (average crew) (24 pts)
     (j) Akagi		   112 gun 3 Decker SOL	(green crew) (27 pts)
     (j) Kaga		   96 gun 3 Decker SOL (green crew) (24	pts)
     (j) Soryu		   80 gun Ship of the Line (green crew)	(23 pts)

   Star	Trek:
     Wind from the S, blowing a	fresh breeze.

     (a) Enterprise	   450 gun Ship	of the Line (elite crew) (75 pts)
     (a) Yorktown	   450 gun Ship	of the Line (elite crew) (75 pts)
     (a) Reliant	   450 gun Ship	of the Line (elite crew) (75 pts)
     (a) Galileo	   450 gun Ship	of the Line (elite crew) (75 pts)
     (k) Kobayashi Maru	   450 gun Ship	of the Line (elite crew) (75 pts)
     (k) Klingon II	   450 gun Ship	of the Line (elite crew) (75 pts)
     (o) Red Orion	   450 gun Ship	of the Line (elite crew) (75 pts)
     (o) Blue Orion	   450 gun Ship	of the Line (elite crew) (75 pts)

HISTORY
     Dave Riggle wrote the first version of sail on a PDP 11/70	in the fall of
     1980.  Needless to	say, says Dave,	the code was horrendous, not portable
     in	any sense of the word, and didn't work.	 The program was not very mod-
     ular and had fseek()s and fwrite()s every few lines.  After a tremendous
     rewrite from the top down,	he got the first working version up by 1981.
     There were	several	annoying bugs concerning firing	broadsides and finding
     angles.  sail uses	no floating point, by the way, so the direction	rou-
     tines are rather tricky.  Ed Wang rewrote the angle() routine in 1981 to
     be	less incorrect,	and he added code to let a player select which ship he
     wanted at the start of the	game.

     Captain Happy (Craig Leres) is responsible	for making sail	portable for
     the first time.  This was no easy task, by	the way.

     sail received its fourth and most thorough	rewrite	in the summer and fall
     of	1983: Ed Wang rewrote and modularized the code (a monumental feat) al-
     most from scratch.	 Although he introduced	many new bugs, the final re-
     sult was very much	cleaner	and (?)	faster.	 He added window movement com-
     mands and find ship commands.

AUTHORS
     sail has been a group effort.

     Dave Riggle

     Ed	Wang, co-author

     Craig Leres, refitting

   CONSULTANTS
     Chris Guthrie, Captain Happy, Horatio Nelson and many valiant others...

REFERENCES
     Avalon Hill, Wooden Ships _ Iron Men.

     Patrick O'Brian, Master and Commander, and	20 more	volumes.

     C.S. Forester, Captain Horatio Hornblower Novels, (13 of them).

     Alexander Kent, Captain Richard Bolitho Novels, (12 of them).

     The Complete Works	of Captain Frederick Marryat.  Of these, especially
	   Mr. Midshipman Easy
	   Peter Simple
	   Jacob Faithful
	   Japhet in Search of a Father
	   Snarleyyow, or The Dog Fiend
	   Frank Mildmay, or The Naval Officer

BUGS
     Probably a	few.

FreeBSD	13.0			 July 25, 2013			  FreeBSD 13.0

NAME | SYNOPSIS | DESCRIPTION | IMPLEMENTATION | HISTORICAL INFO | HOW TO PLAY | SCENARIOS | HISTORY | AUTHORS | REFERENCES | BUGS

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