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SA(8)                   FreeBSD System Manager's Manual                  SA(8)

     sa -- print system accounting statistics

     sa [-abcdDfijkKlmnqrstu] [-v cutoff] [file ...]

     The sa utility reports on, cleans up, and generally maintains system
     accounting files.

     The sa utility is able to condense the information in /var/account/acct
     into the summary files /var/account/savacct and /var/account/usracct,
     which contain system statistics according to command name and login id,
     respectively.  This condensation is desirable because on a large system,
     /var/account/acct can grow by hundreds of blocks per day.  The summary
     files are normally read before the accounting file, so that reports
     include all available information.

     If file names are supplied, they are read instead of /var/account/acct.
     After each file is read, if the summary files are being updated, an
     updated summary will be saved to disk.  Only one report is printed, after
     the last file is processed.

     The labels used in the output indicate the following, except where other-
     wise specified by individual options:

     avio   Average number of I/O operations per execution

     cp     Sum of user and system time, in minutes

     cpu    Same as cp

     k      CPU-time averaged core usage, in 1k units

     k*sec  CPU storage integral, in 1k-core seconds

     re     Real time, in minutes

     s      System time, in minutes

     tio    Total number of I/O operations

     u      User time, in minutes

     The options to sa are:

     -a      List all command names, including those containing unprintable
             characters and those used only once.  By default, sa places all
             names containing unprintable characters and those used only once
             under the name ``***other''.

     -b      If printing command statistics, sort output by the sum of user
             and system time divided by number of calls.

     -c      In addition to the number of calls and the user, system and real
             times for each command, print their percentage of the total over
             all commands.

     -d      If printing command statistics, sort by the average number of
             disk I/O operations.  If printing user statistics, print the
             average number of disk I/O operations per user.

     -D      If printing command statistics, sort and print by the total num-
             ber of disk I/O operations.

     -f      Force no interactive threshold comparison with the -v option.

     -i      Do not read in the summary files.

     -j      Instead of the total minutes per category, give seconds per call.

     -k      If printing command statistics, sort by the cpu-time average mem-
             ory usage.  If printing user statistics, print the cpu-time aver-
             age memory usage.

     -K      If printing command statistics, print and sort by the cpu-storage

     -l      Separate system and user time; normally they are combined.

     -m      Print per-user statistics rather than per-command statistics.

     -n      Sort by number of calls.

     -q      Create no output other than error messages.

     -r      Reverse order of sort.

     -s      Truncate the accounting files when done and merge their data into
             the summary files.

     -t      For each command, report the ratio of real time to the sum of
             user and system cpu times.  If the cpu time is too small to
             report, ``*ignore*'' appears in this field.

     -u      Superseding all other flags, for each entry in the accounting
             file, print the user ID, total seconds of cpu usage, total memory
             usage, number of I/O operations performed, and command name.

     -v cutoff
             For each command used cutoff times or fewer, print the command
             name and await a reply from the terminal.  If the reply begins
             with ``y'', add the command to the category ``**junk**''.  This
             flag is used to strip garbage from the report.

     By default, per-command statistics will be printed.  The number of calls,
     the total elapsed time in minutes, total cpu and user time in minutes,
     average number of I/O operations, and CPU-time averaged core usage will
     be printed.  If the -m option is specified, per-user statistics will be
     printed, including the user name, the number of commands invoked, total
     cpu time used (in minutes), total number of I/O operations, and CPU stor-
     age integral for each user.  If the -u option is specified, the uid, user
     and system time (in seconds), CPU storage integral, I/O usage, and com-
     mand name will be printed for each entry in the accounting data file.

     If the -u flag is specified, all flags other than -q are ignored.  If the
     -m flag is specified, only the -b, -d, -i, -k, -q, and -s flags are hon-

     /var/account/acct     raw accounting data file
     /var/account/savacct  per-command accounting summary database
     /var/account/usracct  per-user accounting summary database

     The sa utility exits 0 on success, and >0 if an error occurs.

     lastcomm(1), acct(5), ac(8), accton(8)

     While the behavior of the options in this version of sa was modeled after
     the original version, there are some intentional differences and undoubt-
     edly some unintentional ones as well.  In particular, the -q option has
     been added, and the -m option now understands more options than it used

     The formats of the summary files created by this version of sa are very
     different from the those used by the original version.  This is not con-
     sidered a problem, however, because the accounting record format has
     changed as well (since user ids are now 32 bits).

     Chris G. Demetriou <>

     The number of options to this program is absurd, especially considering
     that there is not much logic behind their lettering.

     The field labels should be more consistent.

     The VM system does not record the CPU storage integral.

FreeBSD 6.2                    February 25, 1994                   FreeBSD 6.2


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