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rsync(1)                                                              rsync(1)

       rsync - a fast, versatile, remote (and local) file-copying tool

       Local:  rsync [OPTION...] SRC... [DEST]

       Access via remote shell:
         Pull: rsync [OPTION...] [USER@]HOST:SRC... [DEST]
         Push: rsync [OPTION...] SRC... [USER@]HOST:DEST

       Access via rsync daemon:
         Pull: rsync [OPTION...] [USER@]HOST::SRC... [DEST]
               rsync [OPTION...] rsync://[USER@]HOST[:PORT]/SRC... [DEST]
         Push: rsync [OPTION...] SRC... [USER@]HOST::DEST
               rsync [OPTION...] SRC... rsync://[USER@]HOST[:PORT]/DEST

       Usages with just one SRC arg and no DEST arg will list the source files
       instead of copying.

       Rsync is a fast and extraordinarily versatile file copying tool.  It
       can copy locally, to/from another host over any remote shell, or
       to/from a remote rsync daemon.  It offers a large number of options
       that control every aspect of its behavior and permit very flexible
       specification of the set of files to be copied.  It is famous for its
       delta-transfer algorithm, which reduces the amount of data sent over
       the network by sending only the differences between the source files
       and the existing files in the destination.  Rsync is widely used for
       backups and mirroring and as an improved copy command for everyday use.

       Rsync finds files that need to be transferred using a "quick check"
       algorithm (by default) that looks for files that have changed in size
       or in last-modified time.  Any changes in the other preserved
       attributes (as requested by options) are made on the destination file
       directly when the quick check indicates that the file's data does not
       need to be updated.

       Some of the additional features of rsync are:

       o      support for copying links, devices, owners, groups, and

       o      exclude and exclude-from options similar to GNU tar

       o      a CVS exclude mode for ignoring the same files that CVS would

       o      can use any transparent remote shell, including ssh or rsh

       o      does not require super-user privileges

       o      pipelining of file transfers to minimize latency costs

       o      support for anonymous or authenticated rsync daemons (ideal for

       Rsync copies files either to or from a remote host, or locally on the
       current host (it does not support copying files between two remote

       There are two different ways for rsync to contact a remote system:
       using a remote-shell program as the transport (such as ssh or rsh) or
       contacting an rsync daemon directly via TCP.  The remote-shell
       transport is used whenever the source or destination path contains a
       single colon (:) separator after a host specification.  Contacting an
       rsync daemon directly happens when the source or destination path
       contains a double colon (::) separator after a host specification, OR
       when an rsync:// URL is specified (see also the "USING RSYNC-DAEMON
       FEATURES VIA A REMOTE-SHELL CONNECTION" section for an exception to
       this latter rule).

       As a special case, if a single source arg is specified without a
       destination, the files are listed in an output format similar to "ls

       As expected, if neither the source or destination path specify a remote
       host, the copy occurs locally (see also the --list-only option).

       Rsync refers to the local side as the "client" and the remote side as
       the "server".  Don't confuse "server" with an rsync daemon -- a daemon
       is always a server, but a server can be either a daemon or a
       remote-shell spawned process.

       See the file README for installation instructions.

       Once installed, you can use rsync to any machine that you can access
       via a remote shell (as well as some that you can access using the rsync
       daemon-mode protocol).  For remote transfers, a modern rsync uses ssh
       for its communications, but it may have been configured to use a
       different remote shell by default, such as rsh or remsh.

       You can also specify any remote shell you like, either by using the -e
       command line option, or by setting the RSYNC_RSH environment variable.

       Note that rsync must be installed on both the source and destination

       You use rsync in the same way you use rcp. You must specify a source
       and a destination, one of which may be remote.

       Perhaps the best way to explain the syntax is with some examples:

              rsync -t *.c foo:src/

       This would transfer all files matching the pattern *.c from the current
       directory to the directory src on the machine foo. If any of the files
       already exist on the remote system then the rsync remote-update
       protocol is used to update the file by sending only the differences in
       the data.  Note that the expansion of wildcards on the commandline
       (*.c) into a list of files is handled by the shell before it runs rsync
       and not by rsync itself (exactly the same as all other posix-style

              rsync -avz foo:src/bar /data/tmp

       This would recursively transfer all files from the directory src/bar on
       the machine foo into the /data/tmp/bar directory on the local machine.
       The files are transferred in "archive" mode, which ensures that
       symbolic links, devices, attributes, permissions, ownerships, etc. are
       preserved in the transfer.  Additionally, compression will be used to
       reduce the size of data portions of the transfer.

              rsync -avz foo:src/bar/ /data/tmp

       A trailing slash on the source changes this behavior to avoid creating
       an additional directory level at the destination.  You can think of a
       trailing / on a source as meaning "copy the contents of this directory"
       as opposed to "copy the directory by name", but in both cases the
       attributes of the containing directory are transferred to the
       containing directory on the destination.  In other words, each of the
       following commands copies the files in the same way, including their
       setting of the attributes of /dest/foo:

              rsync -av /src/foo /dest
              rsync -av /src/foo/ /dest/foo

       Note also that host and module references don't require a trailing
       slash to copy the contents of the default directory.  For example, both
       of these copy the remote directory's contents into "/dest":

              rsync -av host: /dest
              rsync -av host::module /dest

       You can also use rsync in local-only mode, where both the source and
       destination don't have a ':' in the name. In this case it behaves like
       an improved copy command.

       Finally, you can list all the (listable) modules available from a
       particular rsync daemon by leaving off the module name:


       See the following section for more details.

       The syntax for requesting multiple files from a remote host is done by
       specifying additional remote-host args in the same style as the first,
       or with the hostname omitted.  For instance, all these work:

              rsync -av host:file1 :file2 host:file{3,4} /dest/
              rsync -av host::modname/file{1,2} host::modname/file3 /dest/
              rsync -av host::modname/file1 ::modname/file{3,4}

       Older versions of rsync required using quoted spaces in the SRC, like
       these examples:

              rsync -av host:'dir1/file1 dir2/file2' /dest
              rsync host::'modname/dir1/file1 modname/dir2/file2' /dest

       This word-splitting still works (by default) in the latest rsync, but
       is not as easy to use as the first method.

       If you need to transfer a filename that contains whitespace, you can
       either specify the --protect-args (-s) option, or you'll need to escape
       the whitespace in a way that the remote shell will understand.  For

              rsync -av host:'file\ name\ with\ spaces' /dest

       It is also possible to use rsync without a remote shell as the
       transport.  In this case you will directly connect to a remote rsync
       daemon, typically using TCP port 873.  (This obviously requires the
       daemon to be running on the remote system, so refer to the STARTING AN
       RSYNC DAEMON TO ACCEPT CONNECTIONS section below for information on

       Using rsync in this way is the same as using it with a remote shell
       except that:

       o      you either use a double colon :: instead of a single colon to
              separate the hostname from the path, or you use an rsync:// URL.

       o      the first word of the "path" is actually a module name.

       o      the remote daemon may print a message of the day when you

       o      if you specify no path name on the remote daemon then the list
              of accessible paths on the daemon will be shown.

       o      if you specify no local destination then a listing of the
              specified files on the remote daemon is provided.

       o      you must not specify the --rsh (-e) option.

       An example that copies all the files in a remote module named "src":

           rsync -av host::src /dest

       Some modules on the remote daemon may require authentication. If so,
       you will receive a password prompt when you connect. You can avoid the
       password prompt by setting the environment variable RSYNC_PASSWORD to
       the password you want to use or using the --password-file option. This
       may be useful when scripting rsync.

       WARNING: On some systems environment variables are visible to all
       users. On those systems using --password-file is recommended.

       You may establish the connection via a web proxy by setting the
       environment variable RSYNC_PROXY to a hostname:port pair pointing to
       your web proxy.  Note that your web proxy's configuration must support
       proxy connections to port 873.

       You may also establish a daemon connection using a program as a proxy
       by setting the environment variable RSYNC_CONNECT_PROG to the commands
       you wish to run in place of making a direct socket connection.  The
       string may contain the escape "%H" to represent the hostname specified
       in the rsync command (so use "%%" if you need a single "%" in your
       string).  For example:

         export RSYNC_CONNECT_PROG='ssh proxyhost nc %H 873'
         rsync -av targethost1::module/src/ /dest/
         rsync -av rsync:://targethost2/module/src/ /dest/

       The command specified above uses ssh to run nc (netcat) on a proxyhost,
       which forwards all data to port 873 (the rsync daemon) on the
       targethost (%H).

       It is sometimes useful to use various features of an rsync daemon (such
       as named modules) without actually allowing any new socket connections
       into a system (other than what is already required to allow
       remote-shell access).  Rsync supports connecting to a host using a
       remote shell and then spawning a single-use "daemon" server that
       expects to read its config file in the home dir of the remote user.
       This can be useful if you want to encrypt a daemon-style transfer's
       data, but since the daemon is started up fresh by the remote user, you
       may not be able to use features such as chroot or change the uid used
       by the daemon.  (For another way to encrypt a daemon transfer, consider
       using ssh to tunnel a local port to a remote machine and configure a
       normal rsync daemon on that remote host to only allow connections from

       From the user's perspective, a daemon transfer via a remote-shell
       connection uses nearly the same command-line syntax as a normal
       rsync-daemon transfer, with the only exception being that you must
       explicitly set the remote shell program on the command-line with the
       --rsh=COMMAND option.  (Setting the RSYNC_RSH in the environment will
       not turn on this functionality.)  For example:

           rsync -av --rsh=ssh host::module /dest

       If you need to specify a different remote-shell user, keep in mind that
       the user@ prefix in front of the host is specifying the rsync-user
       value (for a module that requires user-based authentication).  This
       means that you must give the '-l user' option to ssh when specifying
       the remote-shell, as in this example that uses the short version of the
       --rsh option:

           rsync -av -e "ssh -l ssh-user" rsync-user@host::module /dest

       The "ssh-user" will be used at the ssh level; the "rsync-user" will be
       used to log-in to the "module".

       In order to connect to an rsync daemon, the remote system needs to have
       a daemon already running (or it needs to have configured something like
       inetd to spawn an rsync daemon for incoming connections on a particular
       port).  For full information on how to start a daemon that will
       handling incoming socket connections, see the rsyncd.conf(5) man page
       -- that is the config file for the daemon, and it contains the full
       details for how to run the daemon (including stand-alone and inetd

       If you're using one of the remote-shell transports for the transfer,
       there is no need to manually start an rsync daemon.

       Rsync always sorts the specified filenames into its internal transfer
       list.  This handles the merging together of the contents of identically
       named directories, makes it easy to remove duplicate filenames, and may
       confuse someone when the files are transferred in a different order
       than what was given on the command-line.

       If you need a particular file to be transferred prior to another,
       either separate the files into different rsync calls, or consider using
       --delay-updates (which doesn't affect the sorted transfer order, but
       does make the final file-updating phase happen much more rapidly).

       Here are some examples of how I use rsync.

       To backup my wife's home directory, which consists of large MS Word
       files and mail folders, I use a cron job that runs

              rsync -Cavz . arvidsjaur:backup

       each night over a PPP connection to a duplicate directory on my machine

       To synchronize my samba source trees I use the following Makefile

                   rsync -avuzb --exclude '*~' samba:samba/ .
                   rsync -Cavuzb . samba:samba/
           sync: get put

       this allows me to sync with a CVS directory at the other end of the
       connection. I then do CVS operations on the remote machine, which saves
       a lot of time as the remote CVS protocol isn't very efficient.

       I mirror a directory between my "old" and "new" ftp sites with the

       rsync -az -e ssh --delete ~ftp/pub/samba nimbus:"~ftp/pub/tridge"

       This is launched from cron every few hours.

       Here is a short summary of the options available in rsync. Please refer
       to the detailed description below for a complete description.

        -v, --verbose               increase verbosity
            --info=FLAGS            fine-grained informational verbosity
            --debug=FLAGS           fine-grained debug verbosity
            --msgs2stderr           special output handling for debugging
        -q, --quiet                 suppress non-error messages
            --no-motd               suppress daemon-mode MOTD (see caveat)
        -c, --checksum              skip based on checksum, not mod-time & size
        -a, --archive               archive mode; equals -rlptgoD (no -H,-A,-X)
            --no-OPTION             turn off an implied OPTION (e.g. --no-D)
        -r, --recursive             recurse into directories
        -R, --relative              use relative path names
            --no-implied-dirs       don't send implied dirs with --relative
        -b, --backup                make backups (see --suffix & --backup-dir)
            --backup-dir=DIR        make backups into hierarchy based in DIR
            --suffix=SUFFIX         backup suffix (default ~ w/o --backup-dir)
        -u, --update                skip files that are newer on the receiver
            --inplace               update destination files in-place
            --append                append data onto shorter files
            --append-verify         --append w/old data in file checksum
        -d, --dirs                  transfer directories without recursing
        -l, --links                 copy symlinks as symlinks
        -L, --copy-links            transform symlink into referent file/dir
            --copy-unsafe-links     only "unsafe" symlinks are transformed
            --safe-links            ignore symlinks that point outside the tree
            --munge-links           munge symlinks to make them safer
        -k, --copy-dirlinks         transform symlink to dir into referent dir
        -K, --keep-dirlinks         treat symlinked dir on receiver as dir
        -H, --hard-links            preserve hard links
        -p, --perms                 preserve permissions
            --fileflags             preserve file-flags (aka chflags)
        -E, --executability         preserve executability
            --chmod=CHMOD           affect file and/or directory permissions
        -A, --acls                  preserve ACLs (implies -p)
        -X, --xattrs                preserve extended attributes
        -o, --owner                 preserve owner (super-user only)
        -g, --group                 preserve group
            --devices               preserve device files (super-user only)
            --specials              preserve special files
        -D                          same as --devices --specials
        -t, --times                 preserve modification times
        -O, --omit-dir-times        omit directories from --times
        -J, --omit-link-times       omit symlinks from --times
            --super                 receiver attempts super-user activities
            --fake-super            store/recover privileged attrs using xattrs
        -S, --sparse                handle sparse files efficiently
            --preallocate           allocate dest files before writing
        -n, --dry-run               perform a trial run with no changes made
        -W, --whole-file            copy files whole (w/o delta-xfer algorithm)
        -x, --one-file-system       don't cross filesystem boundaries
        -B, --block-size=SIZE       force a fixed checksum block-size
        -e, --rsh=COMMAND           specify the remote shell to use
            --rsync-path=PROGRAM    specify the rsync to run on remote machine
            --existing              skip creating new files on receiver
            --ignore-existing       skip updating files that exist on receiver
            --remove-source-files   sender removes synchronized files (non-dir)
            --del                   an alias for --delete-during
            --delete                delete extraneous files from dest dirs
            --delete-before         receiver deletes before xfer, not during
            --delete-during         receiver deletes during the transfer
            --delete-delay          find deletions during, delete after
            --delete-after          receiver deletes after transfer, not during
            --delete-excluded       also delete excluded files from dest dirs
            --ignore-missing-args   ignore missing source args without error
            --delete-missing-args   delete missing source args from destination
            --ignore-errors         delete even if there are I/O errors
            --force-delete          force deletion of dirs even if not empty
            --force-change          affect user/system immutable files/dirs
            --force-uchange         affect user-immutable files/dirs
            --force-schange         affect system-immutable files/dirs
            --max-delete=NUM        don't delete more than NUM files
            --max-size=SIZE         don't transfer any file larger than SIZE
            --min-size=SIZE         don't transfer any file smaller than SIZE
            --partial               keep partially transferred files
            --partial-dir=DIR       put a partially transferred file into DIR
            --delay-updates         put all updated files into place at end
        -m, --prune-empty-dirs      prune empty directory chains from file-list
            --numeric-ids           don't map uid/gid values by user/group name
            --usermap=STRING        custom username mapping
            --groupmap=STRING       custom groupname mapping
            --chown=USER:GROUP      simple username/groupname mapping
            --timeout=SECONDS       set I/O timeout in seconds
            --contimeout=SECONDS    set daemon connection timeout in seconds
        -I, --ignore-times          don't skip files that match size and time
            --size-only             skip files that match in size
            --modify-window=NUM     compare mod-times with reduced accuracy
        -T, --temp-dir=DIR          create temporary files in directory DIR
        -y, --fuzzy                 find similar file for basis if no dest file
            --compare-dest=DIR      also compare received files relative to DIR
            --copy-dest=DIR         ... and include copies of unchanged files
            --link-dest=DIR         hardlink to files in DIR when unchanged
        -z, --compress              compress file data during the transfer
            --compress-level=NUM    explicitly set compression level
            --skip-compress=LIST    skip compressing files with suffix in LIST
        -C, --cvs-exclude           auto-ignore files in the same way CVS does
        -f, --filter=RULE           add a file-filtering RULE
        -F                          same as --filter='dir-merge /.rsync-filter'
                                    repeated: --filter='- .rsync-filter'
            --exclude=PATTERN       exclude files matching PATTERN
            --exclude-from=FILE     read exclude patterns from FILE
            --include=PATTERN       don't exclude files matching PATTERN
            --include-from=FILE     read include patterns from FILE
            --files-from=FILE       read list of source-file names from FILE
        -0, --from0                 all *from/filter files are delimited by 0s
        -s, --protect-args          no space-splitting; wildcard chars only
            --address=ADDRESS       bind address for outgoing socket to daemon
            --port=PORT             specify double-colon alternate port number
            --sockopts=OPTIONS      specify custom TCP options
            --blocking-io           use blocking I/O for the remote shell
            --outbuf=N|L|B          set out buffering to None, Line, or Block
            --stats                 give some file-transfer stats
        -8, --8-bit-output          leave high-bit chars unescaped in output
        -h, --human-readable        output numbers in a human-readable format
            --progress              show progress during transfer
        -P                          same as --partial --progress
        -i, --itemize-changes       output a change-summary for all updates
        -M, --remote-option=OPTION  send OPTION to the remote side only
            --out-format=FORMAT     output updates using the specified FORMAT
            --log-file=FILE         log what we're doing to the specified FILE
            --log-file-format=FMT   log updates using the specified FMT
            --password-file=FILE    read daemon-access password from FILE
            --list-only             list the files instead of copying them
            --bwlimit=RATE          limit socket I/O bandwidth
            --write-batch=FILE      write a batched update to FILE
            --only-write-batch=FILE like --write-batch but w/o updating dest
            --read-batch=FILE       read a batched update from FILE
            --protocol=NUM          force an older protocol version to be used
            --iconv=CONVERT_SPEC    request charset conversion of filenames
            --checksum-seed=NUM     set block/file checksum seed (advanced)
        -4, --ipv4                  prefer IPv4
        -6, --ipv6                  prefer IPv6
            --version               print version number
       (-h) --help                  show this help (see below for -h comment)

       Rsync can also be run as a daemon, in which case the following options
       are accepted:

            --daemon                run as an rsync daemon
            --address=ADDRESS       bind to the specified address
            --bwlimit=RATE          limit socket I/O bandwidth
            --config=FILE           specify alternate rsyncd.conf file
        -M, --dparam=OVERRIDE       override global daemon config parameter
            --no-detach             do not detach from the parent
            --port=PORT             listen on alternate port number
            --log-file=FILE         override the "log file" setting
            --log-file-format=FMT   override the "log format" setting
            --sockopts=OPTIONS      specify custom TCP options
        -v, --verbose               increase verbosity
        -4, --ipv4                  prefer IPv4
        -6, --ipv6                  prefer IPv6
        -h, --help                  show this help (if used after --daemon)

       Rsync accepts both long (double-dash + word) and short (single-dash +
       letter) options.  The full list of the available options are described
       below.  If an option can be specified in more than one way, the choices
       are comma-separated.  Some options only have a long variant, not a
       short.  If the option takes a parameter, the parameter is only listed
       after the long variant, even though it must also be specified for the
       short.  When specifying a parameter, you can either use the form
       --option=param or replace the '=' with whitespace.  The parameter may
       need to be quoted in some manner for it to survive the shell's
       command-line parsing.  Keep in mind that a leading tilde (~) in a
       filename is substituted by your shell, so --option=~/foo will not
       change the tilde into your home directory (remove the '=' for that).

       --help Print a short help page describing the options available in
              rsync and exit.  For backward-compatibility with older versions
              of rsync, the help will also be output if you use the -h option
              without any other args.

              print the rsync version number and exit.

       -v, --verbose
              This option increases the amount of information you are given
              during the transfer.  By default, rsync works silently. A single
              -v will give you information about what files are being
              transferred and a brief summary at the end. Two -v options will
              give you information on what files are being skipped and
              slightly more information at the end. More than two -v options
              should only be used if you are debugging rsync.

              In a modern rsync, the -v option is equivalent to the setting of
              groups of --info and --debug options.  You can choose to use
              these newer options in addition to, or in place of using
              --verbose, as any fine-grained settings override the implied
              settings of -v.  Both --info and --debug have a way to ask for
              help that tells you exactly what flags are set for each increase
              in verbosity.

              However, do keep in mind that a daemon's "max verbosity" setting
              will limit how high of a level the various individual flags can
              be set on the daemon side.  For instance, if the max is 2, then
              any info and/or debug flag that is set to a higher value than
              what would be set by -vv will be downgraded to the -vv level in
              the daemon's logging.

              This option lets you have fine-grained control over the
              information output you want to see.  An individual flag name may
              be followed by a level number, with 0 meaning to silence that
              output, 1 being the default output level, and higher numbers
              increasing the output of that flag (for those that support
              higher levels).  Use --info=help to see all the available flag
              names, what they output, and what flag names are added for each
              increase in the verbose level.  Some examples:

                  rsync -a --info=progress2 src/ dest/
                  rsync -avv --info=stats2,misc1,flist0 src/ dest/

              Note that --info=name's output is affected by the --out-format
              and --itemize-changes (-i) options.  See those options for more
              information on what is output and when.

              This option was added to 3.1.0, so an older rsync on the server
              side might reject your attempts at fine-grained control (if one
              or more flags needed to be send to the server and the server was
              too old to understand them).  See also the "max verbosity"
              caveat above when dealing with a daemon.

              This option lets you have fine-grained control over the debug
              output you want to see.  An individual flag name may be followed
              by a level number, with 0 meaning to silence that output, 1
              being the default output level, and higher numbers increasing
              the output of that flag (for those that support higher levels).
              Use --debug=help to see all the available flag names, what they
              output, and what flag names are added for each increase in the
              verbose level.  Some examples:

                  rsync -avvv --debug=none src/ dest/
                  rsync -avA --del --debug=del2,acl src/ dest/

              Note that some debug messages will only be output when
              --msgs2stderr is specified, especially those pertaining to I/O
              and buffer debugging.

              This option was added to 3.1.0, so an older rsync on the server
              side might reject your attempts at fine-grained control (if one
              or more flags needed to be send to the server and the server was
              too old to understand them).  See also the "max verbosity"
              caveat above when dealing with a daemon.

              This option changes rsync to send all its output directly to
              stderr rather than to send messages to the client side via the
              protocol (which normally outputs info messages via stdout).
              This is mainly intended for debugging in order to avoid changing
              the data sent via the protocol, since the extra protocol data
              can change what is being tested.  Keep in mind that a daemon
              connection does not have a stderr channel to send messages back
              to the client side, so if you are doing any daemon-transfer
              debugging using this option, you should start up a daemon using
              --no-detach so that you can see the stderr output on the daemon

              This option has the side-effect of making stderr output get
              line-buffered so that the merging of the output of 3 programs
              happens in a more readable manner.

       -q, --quiet
              This option decreases the amount of information you are given
              during the transfer, notably suppressing information messages
              from the remote server. This option is useful when invoking
              rsync from cron.

              This option affects the information that is output by the client
              at the start of a daemon transfer.  This suppresses the
              message-of-the-day (MOTD) text, but it also affects the list of
              modules that the daemon sends in response to the "rsync host::"
              request (due to a limitation in the rsync protocol), so omit
              this option if you want to request the list of modules from the

       -I, --ignore-times
              Normally rsync will skip any files that are already the same
              size and have the same modification timestamp.  This option
              turns off this "quick check" behavior, causing all files to be

              This modifies rsync's "quick check" algorithm for finding files
              that need to be transferred, changing it from the default of
              transferring files with either a changed size or a changed
              last-modified time to just looking for files that have changed
              in size.  This is useful when starting to use rsync after using
              another mirroring system which may not preserve timestamps

              When comparing two timestamps, rsync treats the timestamps as
              being equal if they differ by no more than the modify-window
              value.  This is normally 0 (for an exact match), but you may
              find it useful to set this to a larger value in some situations.
              In particular, when transferring to or from an MS Windows FAT
              filesystem (which represents times with a 2-second resolution),
              --modify-window=1 is useful (allowing times to differ by up to 1

       -c, --checksum
              This changes the way rsync checks if the files have been changed
              and are in need of a transfer.  Without this option, rsync uses
              a "quick check" that (by default) checks if each file's size and
              time of last modification match between the sender and receiver.
              This option changes this to compare a 128-bit checksum for each
              file that has a matching size.  Generating the checksums means
              that both sides will expend a lot of disk I/O reading all the
              data in the files in the transfer (and this is prior to any
              reading that will be done to transfer changed files), so this
              can slow things down significantly.

              The sending side generates its checksums while it is doing the
              file-system scan that builds the list of the available files.
              The receiver generates its checksums when it is scanning for
              changed files, and will checksum any file that has the same size
              as the corresponding sender's file:  files with either a changed
              size or a changed checksum are selected for transfer.

              Note that rsync always verifies that each transferred file was
              correctly reconstructed on the receiving side by checking a
              whole-file checksum that is generated as the file is
              transferred, but that automatic after-the-transfer verification
              has nothing to do with this option's before-the-transfer "Does
              this file need to be updated?" check.

              For protocol 30 and beyond (first supported in 3.0.0), the
              checksum used is MD5.  For older protocols, the checksum used is

       -a, --archive
              This is equivalent to -rlptgoD. It is a quick way of saying you
              want recursion and want to preserve almost everything (with -H
              being a notable omission).  The only exception to the above
              equivalence is when --files-from is specified, in which case -r
              is not implied.

              Note that -a does not preserve hardlinks, because finding
              multiply-linked files is expensive.  You must separately specify
              -H.  Note also that for backward compatibility, -a currently
              does not imply the --fileflags option.

              You may turn off one or more implied options by prefixing the
              option name with "no-".  Not all options may be prefixed with a
              "no-": only options that are implied by other options (e.g.
              --no-D, --no-perms) or have different defaults in various
              circumstances (e.g. --no-whole-file, --no-blocking-io,
              --no-dirs).  You may specify either the short or the long option
              name after the "no-" prefix (e.g. --no-R is the same as

              For example: if you want to use -a (--archive) but don't want -o
              (--owner), instead of converting -a into -rlptgD, you could
              specify -a --no-o (or -a --no-owner).

              The order of the options is important:  if you specify --no-r
              -a, the -r option would end up being turned on, the opposite of
              -a --no-r.  Note also that the side-effects of the --files-from
              option are NOT positional, as it affects the default state of
              several options and slightly changes the meaning of -a (see the
              --files-from option for more details).

       -r, --recursive
              This tells rsync to copy directories recursively.  See also
              --dirs (-d).

              Beginning with rsync 3.0.0, the recursive algorithm used is now
              an incremental scan that uses much less memory than before and
              begins the transfer after the scanning of the first few
              directories have been completed.  This incremental scan only
              affects our recursion algorithm, and does not change a
              non-recursive transfer.  It is also only possible when both ends
              of the transfer are at least version 3.0.0.

              Some options require rsync to know the full file list, so these
              options disable the incremental recursion mode.  These include:
              --delete-before, --delete-after, --prune-empty-dirs, and
              --delay-updates.  Because of this, the default delete mode when
              you specify --delete is now --delete-during when both ends of
              the connection are at least 3.0.0 (use --del or --delete-during
              to request this improved deletion mode explicitly).  See also
              the --delete-delay option that is a better choice than using

              Incremental recursion can be disabled using the
              --no-inc-recursive option or its shorter --no-i-r alias.

       -R, --relative
              Use relative paths. This means that the full path names
              specified on the command line are sent to the server rather than
              just the last parts of the filenames. This is particularly
              useful when you want to send several different directories at
              the same time. For example, if you used this command:
                 rsync -av /foo/bar/baz.c remote:/tmp/

              ... this would create a file named baz.c in /tmp/ on the remote
              machine. If instead you used
                 rsync -avR /foo/bar/baz.c remote:/tmp/

              then a file named /tmp/foo/bar/baz.c would be created on the
              remote machine, preserving its full path.  These extra path
              elements are called "implied directories" (i.e. the "foo" and
              the "foo/bar" directories in the above example).

              Beginning with rsync 3.0.0, rsync always sends these implied
              directories as real directories in the file list, even if a path
              element is really a symlink on the sending side.  This prevents
              some really unexpected behaviors when copying the full path of a
              file that you didn't realize had a symlink in its path.  If you
              want to duplicate a server-side symlink, include both the
              symlink via its path, and referent directory via its real path.
              If you're dealing with an older rsync on the sending side, you
              may need to use the --no-implied-dirs option.

              It is also possible to limit the amount of path information that
              is sent as implied directories for each path you specify.  With
              a modern rsync on the sending side (beginning with 2.6.7), you
              can insert a dot and a slash into the source path, like this:
                 rsync -avR /foo/./bar/baz.c remote:/tmp/

              That would create /tmp/bar/baz.c on the remote machine.  (Note
              that the dot must be followed by a slash, so "/foo/." would not
              be abbreviated.)  For older rsync versions, you would need to
              use a chdir to limit the source path.  For example, when pushing
                 (cd /foo; rsync -avR bar/baz.c remote:/tmp/)

              (Note that the parens put the two commands into a sub-shell, so
              that the "cd" command doesn't remain in effect for future
              commands.)  If you're pulling files from an older rsync, use
              this idiom (but only for a non-daemon transfer):
                 rsync -avR --rsync-path="cd /foo; rsync" \
                     remote:bar/baz.c /tmp/

              This option affects the default behavior of the --relative
              option.  When it is specified, the attributes of the implied
              directories from the source names are not included in the
              transfer.  This means that the corresponding path elements on
              the destination system are left unchanged if they exist, and any
              missing implied directories are created with default attributes.
              This even allows these implied path elements to have big
              differences, such as being a symlink to a directory on the
              receiving side.

              For instance, if a command-line arg or a files-from entry told
              rsync to transfer the file "path/foo/file", the directories
              "path" and "path/foo" are implied when --relative is used.  If
              "path/foo" is a symlink to "bar" on the destination system, the
              receiving rsync would ordinarily delete "path/foo", recreate it
              as a directory, and receive the file into the new directory.
              With --no-implied-dirs, the receiving rsync updates
              "path/foo/file" using the existing path elements, which means
              that the file ends up being created in "path/bar".  Another way
              to accomplish this link preservation is to use the
              --keep-dirlinks option (which will also affect symlinks to
              directories in the rest of the transfer).

              When pulling files from an rsync older than 3.0.0, you may need
              to use this option if the sending side has a symlink in the path
              you request and you wish the implied directories to be
              transferred as normal directories.

       -b, --backup
              With this option, preexisting destination files are renamed as
              each file is transferred or deleted.  You can control where the
              backup file goes and what (if any) suffix gets appended using
              the --backup-dir and --suffix options.

              Note that if you don't specify --backup-dir, (1) the
              --omit-dir-times option will be implied, and (2) if --delete is
              also in effect (without --delete-excluded), rsync will add a
              "protect" filter-rule for the backup suffix to the end of all
              your existing excludes (e.g. -f "P *~").  This will prevent
              previously backed-up files from being deleted.  Note that if you
              are supplying your own filter rules, you may need to manually
              insert your own exclude/protect rule somewhere higher up in the
              list so that it has a high enough priority to be effective
              (e.g., if your rules specify a trailing inclusion/exclusion of
              '*', the auto-added rule would never be reached).

              In combination with the --backup option, this tells rsync to
              store all backups in the specified directory on the receiving
              side.  This can be used for incremental backups.  You can
              additionally specify a backup suffix using the --suffix option
              (otherwise the files backed up in the specified directory will
              keep their original filenames).

              Note that if you specify a relative path, the backup directory
              will be relative to the destination directory, so you probably
              want to specify either an absolute path or a path that starts
              with "../".  If an rsync daemon is the receiver, the backup dir
              cannot go outside the module's path hierarchy, so take extra
              care not to delete it or copy into it.

              This option allows you to override the default backup suffix
              used with the --backup (-b) option. The default suffix is a ~ if
              no --backup-dir was specified, otherwise it is an empty string.

       -u, --update
              This forces rsync to skip any files which exist on the
              destination and have a modified time that is newer than the
              source file.  (If an existing destination file has a
              modification time equal to the source file's, it will be updated
              if the sizes are different.)

              Note that this does not affect the copying of dirs, symlinks, or
              other special files.  Also, a difference of file format between
              the sender and receiver is always considered to be important
              enough for an update, no matter what date is on the objects.  In
              other words, if the source has a directory where the destination
              has a file, the transfer would occur regardless of the

              This option is a transfer rule, not an exclude, so it doesn't
              affect the data that goes into the file-lists, and thus it
              doesn't affect deletions.  It just limits the files that the
              receiver requests to be transferred.

              This option changes how rsync transfers a file when its data
              needs to be updated: instead of the default method of creating a
              new copy of the file and moving it into place when it is
              complete, rsync instead writes the updated data directly to the
              destination file.

              This has several effects:

              o      Hard links are not broken.  This means the new data will
                     be visible through other hard links to the destination
                     file.  Moreover, attempts to copy differing source files
                     onto a multiply-linked destination file will result in a
                     "tug of war" with the destination data changing back and

              o      In-use binaries cannot be updated (either the OS will
                     prevent this from happening, or binaries that attempt to
                     swap-in their data will misbehave or crash).

              o      The file's data will be in an inconsistent state during
                     the transfer and will be left that way if the transfer is
                     interrupted or if an update fails.

              o      A file that rsync cannot write to cannot be updated.
                     While a super user can update any file, a normal user
                     needs to be granted write permission for the open of the
                     file for writing to be successful.

              o      The efficiency of rsync's delta-transfer algorithm may be
                     reduced if some data in the destination file is
                     overwritten before it can be copied to a position later
                     in the file.  This does not apply if you use --backup,
                     since rsync is smart enough to use the backup file as the
                     basis file for the transfer.

              WARNING: you should not use this option to update files that are
              being accessed by others, so be careful when choosing to use
              this for a copy.

              This option is useful for transferring large files with
              block-based changes or appended data, and also on systems that
              are disk bound, not network bound.  It can also help keep a
              copy-on-write filesystem snapshot from diverging the entire
              contents of a file that only has minor changes.

              The option implies --partial (since an interrupted transfer does
              not delete the file), but conflicts with --partial-dir and
              --delay-updates.  Prior to rsync 2.6.4 --inplace was also
              incompatible with --compare-dest and --link-dest.

              This causes rsync to update a file by appending data onto the
              end of the file, which presumes that the data that already
              exists on the receiving side is identical with the start of the
              file on the sending side.  If a file needs to be transferred and
              its size on the receiver is the same or longer than the size on
              the sender, the file is skipped.  This does not interfere with
              the updating of a file's non-content attributes (e.g.
              permissions, ownership, etc.) when the file does not need to be
              transferred, nor does it affect the updating of any non-regular
              files.  Implies --inplace, but does not conflict with --sparse
              (since it is always extending a file's length).

              This works just like the --append option, but the existing data
              on the receiving side is included in the full-file checksum
              verification step, which will cause a file to be resent if the
              final verification step fails (rsync uses a normal,
              non-appending --inplace transfer for the resend).

              Note: prior to rsync 3.0.0, the --append option worked like
              --append-verify, so if you are interacting with an older rsync
              (or the transfer is using a protocol prior to 30), specifying
              either append option will initiate an --append-verify transfer.

       -d, --dirs
              Tell the sending side to include any directories that are
              encountered.  Unlike --recursive, a directory's contents are not
              copied unless the directory name specified is "." or ends with a
              trailing slash (e.g. ".", "dir/.", "dir/", etc.).  Without this
              option or the --recursive option, rsync will skip all
              directories it encounters (and output a message to that effect
              for each one).  If you specify both --dirs and --recursive,
              --recursive takes precedence.

              The --dirs option is implied by the --files-from option or the
              --list-only option (including an implied --list-only usage) if
              --recursive wasn't specified (so that directories are seen in
              the listing).  Specify --no-dirs (or --no-d) if you want to turn
              this off.

              There is also a backward-compatibility helper option, --old-dirs
              (or --old-d) that tells rsync to use a hack of "-r
              --exclude='/*/*'" to get an older rsync to list a single
              directory without recursing.

       -l, --links
              When symlinks are encountered, recreate the symlink on the

       -L, --copy-links
              When symlinks are encountered, the item that they point to (the
              referent) is copied, rather than the symlink.  In older versions
              of rsync, this option also had the side-effect of telling the
              receiving side to follow symlinks, such as symlinks to
              directories.  In a modern rsync such as this one, you'll need to
              specify --keep-dirlinks (-K) to get this extra behavior.  The
              only exception is when sending files to an rsync that is too old
              to understand -K -- in that case, the -L option will still have
              the side-effect of -K on that older receiving rsync.

              This tells rsync to copy the referent of symbolic links that
              point outside the copied tree.  Absolute symlinks are also
              treated like ordinary files, and so are any symlinks in the
              source path itself when --relative is used.  This option has no
              additional effect if --copy-links was also specified.

              This tells rsync to ignore any symbolic links which point
              outside the copied tree. All absolute symlinks are also ignored.
              Using this option in conjunction with --relative may give
              unexpected results.

              This option tells rsync to (1) modify all symlinks on the
              receiving side in a way that makes them unusable but recoverable
              (see below), or (2) to unmunge symlinks on the sending side that
              had been stored in a munged state.  This is useful if you don't
              quite trust the source of the data to not try to slip in a
              symlink to a unexpected place.

              The way rsync disables the use of symlinks is to prefix each one
              with the string "/rsyncd-munged/".  This prevents the links from
              being used as long as that directory does not exist.  When this
              option is enabled, rsync will refuse to run if that path is a
              directory or a symlink to a directory.

              The option only affects the client side of the transfer, so if
              you need it to affect the server, specify it via
              --remote-option.  (Note that in a local transfer, the client
              side is the sender.)

              This option has no affect on a daemon, since the daemon
              configures whether it wants munged symlinks via its "munge
              symlinks" parameter.  See also the "munge-symlinks" perl script
              in the support directory of the source code.

       -k, --copy-dirlinks
              This option causes the sending side to treat a symlink to a
              directory as though it were a real directory.  This is useful if
              you don't want symlinks to non-directories to be affected, as
              they would be using --copy-links.

              Without this option, if the sending side has replaced a
              directory with a symlink to a directory, the receiving side will
              delete anything that is in the way of the new symlink, including
              a directory hierarchy (as long as --force-delete or --delete is
              in effect).

              See also --keep-dirlinks for an analogous option for the
              receiving side.

              --copy-dirlinks applies to all symlinks to directories in the
              source.  If you want to follow only a few specified symlinks, a
              trick you can use is to pass them as additional source args with
              a trailing slash, using --relative to make the paths match up
              right.  For example:
              rsync -r --relative src/./ src/./follow-me/ dest/

              This works because rsync calls lstat(2) on the source arg as
              given, and the trailing slash makes lstat(2) follow the symlink,
              giving rise to a directory in the file-list which overrides the
              symlink found during the scan of "src/./".

       -K, --keep-dirlinks
              This option causes the receiving side to treat a symlink to a
              directory as though it were a real directory, but only if it
              matches a real directory from the sender.  Without this option,
              the receiver's symlink would be deleted and replaced with a real

              For example, suppose you transfer a directory "foo" that
              contains a file "file", but "foo" is a symlink to directory
              "bar" on the receiver.  Without --keep-dirlinks, the receiver
              deletes symlink "foo", recreates it as a directory, and receives
              the file into the new directory.  With --keep-dirlinks, the
              receiver keeps the symlink and "file" ends up in "bar".

              One note of caution:  if you use --keep-dirlinks, you must trust
              all the symlinks in the copy!  If it is possible for an
              untrusted user to create their own symlink to any directory, the
              user could then (on a subsequent copy) replace the symlink with
              a real directory and affect the content of whatever directory
              the symlink references.  For backup copies, you are better off
              using something like a bind mount instead of a symlink to modify
              your receiving hierarchy.

              See also --copy-dirlinks for an analogous option for the sending

       -H, --hard-links
              This tells rsync to look for hard-linked files in the source and
              link together the corresponding files on the destination.
              Without this option, hard-linked files in the source are treated
              as though they were separate files.

              This option does NOT necessarily ensure that the pattern of hard
              links on the destination exactly matches that on the source.
              Cases in which the destination may end up with extra hard links
              include the following:

              o      If the destination contains extraneous hard-links (more
                     linking than what is present in the source file list),
                     the copying algorithm will not break them explicitly.
                     However, if one or more of the paths have content
                     differences, the normal file-update process will break
                     those extra links (unless you are using the --inplace

              o      If you specify a --link-dest directory that contains hard
                     links, the linking of the destination files against the
                     --link-dest files can cause some paths in the destination
                     to become linked together due to the --link-dest

              Note that rsync can only detect hard links between files that
              are inside the transfer set.  If rsync updates a file that has
              extra hard-link connections to files outside the transfer, that
              linkage will be broken.  If you are tempted to use the --inplace
              option to avoid this breakage, be very careful that you know how
              your files are being updated so that you are certain that no
              unintended changes happen due to lingering hard links (and see
              the --inplace option for more caveats).

              If incremental recursion is active (see --recursive), rsync may
              transfer a missing hard-linked file before it finds that another
              link for that contents exists elsewhere in the hierarchy.  This
              does not affect the accuracy of the transfer (i.e. which files
              are hard-linked together), just its efficiency (i.e. copying the
              data for a new, early copy of a hard-linked file that could have
              been found later in the transfer in another member of the
              hard-linked set of files).  One way to avoid this inefficiency
              is to disable incremental recursion using the --no-inc-recursive

       -p, --perms
              This option causes the receiving rsync to set the destination
              permissions to be the same as the source permissions.  (See also
              the --chmod option for a way to modify what rsync considers to
              be the source permissions.)

              When this option is off, permissions are set as follows:

              o      Existing files (including updated files) retain their
                     existing permissions, though the --executability option
                     might change just the execute permission for the file.

              o      New files get their "normal" permission bits set to the
                     source file's permissions masked with the receiving
                     directory's default permissions (either the receiving
                     process's umask, or the permissions specified via the
                     destination directory's default ACL), and their special
                     permission bits disabled except in the case where a new
                     directory inherits a setgid bit from its parent

              Thus, when --perms and --executability are both disabled,
              rsync's behavior is the same as that of other file-copy
              utilities, such as cp(1) and tar(1).

              In summary: to give destination files (both old and new) the
              source permissions, use --perms.  To give new files the
              destination-default permissions (while leaving existing files
              unchanged), make sure that the --perms option is off and use
              --chmod=ugo=rwX (which ensures that all non-masked bits get
              enabled).  If you'd care to make this latter behavior easier to
              type, you could define a popt alias for it, such as putting this
              line in the file ~/.popt (the following defines the -Z option,
              and includes --no-g to use the default group of the destination
                 rsync alias -Z --no-p --no-g --chmod=ugo=rwX

              You could then use this new option in a command such as this
                 rsync -avZ src/ dest/

              (Caveat: make sure that -a does not follow -Z, or it will
              re-enable the two "--no-*" options mentioned above.)

              The preservation of the destination's setgid bit on
              newly-created directories when --perms is off was added in rsync
              2.6.7.  Older rsync versions erroneously preserved the three
              special permission bits for newly-created files when --perms was
              off, while overriding the destination's setgid bit setting on a
              newly-created directory.  Default ACL observance was added to
              the ACL patch for rsync 2.6.7, so older (or non-ACL-enabled)
              rsyncs use the umask even if default ACLs are present.  (Keep in
              mind that it is the version of the receiving rsync that affects
              these behaviors.)

       -E, --executability
              This option causes rsync to preserve the executability (or
              non-executability) of regular files when --perms is not enabled.
              A regular file is considered to be executable if at least one
              'x' is turned on in its permissions.  When an existing
              destination file's executability differs from that of the
              corresponding source file, rsync modifies the destination file's
              permissions as follows:

              o      To make a file non-executable, rsync turns off all its
                     'x' permissions.

              o      To make a file executable, rsync turns on each 'x'
                     permission that has a corresponding 'r' permission

              If --perms is enabled, this option is ignored.

       -A, --acls
              This option causes rsync to update the destination ACLs to be
              the same as the source ACLs.  The option also implies --perms.

              The source and destination systems must have compatible ACL
              entries for this option to work properly.  See the --fake-super
              option for a way to backup and restore ACLs that are not

       -X, --xattrs
              This option causes rsync to update the destination extended
              attributes to be the same as the source ones.

              For systems that support extended-attribute namespaces, a copy
              being done by a super-user copies all namespaces except
              system.*.  A normal user only copies the user.* namespace.  To
              be able to backup and restore non-user namespaces as a normal
              user, see the --fake-super option.

              Note that this option does not copy rsyncs special xattr values
              (e.g. those used by --fake-super) unless you repeat the option
              (e.g. -XX).  This "copy all xattrs" mode cannot be used with

              This option causes rsync to update the file-flags to be the same
              as the source files and directories (if your OS supports the
              chflags(2) system call).   Some flags can only be altered by the
              super-user and some might only be unset below a certain
              secure-level (usually single-user mode). It will not make files
              alterable that are set to immutable on the receiver.  To do
              that, see --force-change, --force-uchange, and --force-schange.

              This option causes rsync to disable both user-immutable and
              system-immutable flags on files and directories that are being
              updated or deleted on the receiving side.  This option overrides
              --force-uchange and --force-schange.

              This option causes rsync to disable user-immutable flags on
              files and directories that are being updated or deleted on the
              receiving side.  It does not try to affect system flags.  This
              option overrides --force-change and --force-schange.

              This option causes rsync to disable system-immutable flags on
              files and directories that are being updated or deleted on the
              receiving side.  It does not try to affect user flags.  This
              option overrides --force-change and --force-uchange.

              This option tells rsync to apply one or more comma-separated
              "chmod" modes to the permission of the files in the transfer.
              The resulting value is treated as though it were the permissions
              that the sending side supplied for the file, which means that
              this option can seem to have no effect on existing files if
              --perms is not enabled.

              In addition to the normal parsing rules specified in the
              chmod(1) manpage, you can specify an item that should only apply
              to a directory by prefixing it with a 'D', or specify an item
              that should only apply to a file by prefixing it with a 'F'.
              For example, the following will ensure that all directories get
              marked set-gid, that no files are other-writable, that both are
              user-writable and group-writable, and that both have consistent
              executability across all bits:

              Using octal mode numbers is also allowed:

              It is also legal to specify multiple --chmod options, as each
              additional option is just appended to the list of changes to

              See the --perms and --executability options for how the
              resulting permission value can be applied to the files in the

       -o, --owner
              This option causes rsync to set the owner of the destination
              file to be the same as the source file, but only if the
              receiving rsync is being run as the super-user (see also the
              --super and --fake-super options).  Without this option, the
              owner of new and/or transferred files are set to the invoking
              user on the receiving side.

              The preservation of ownership will associate matching names by
              default, but may fall back to using the ID number in some
              circumstances (see also the --numeric-ids option for a full

       -g, --group
              This option causes rsync to set the group of the destination
              file to be the same as the source file.  If the receiving
              program is not running as the super-user (or if --no-super was
              specified), only groups that the invoking user on the receiving
              side is a member of will be preserved.  Without this option, the
              group is set to the default group of the invoking user on the
              receiving side.

              The preservation of group information will associate matching
              names by default, but may fall back to using the ID number in
              some circumstances (see also the --numeric-ids option for a full

              This option causes rsync to transfer character and block device
              files to the remote system to recreate these devices.  This
              option has no effect if the receiving rsync is not run as the
              super-user (see also the --super and --fake-super options).

              This option causes rsync to transfer special files such as named
              sockets and fifos.

       -D     The -D option is equivalent to --devices --specials.

       -t, --times
              This tells rsync to transfer modification times along with the
              files and update them on the remote system.  Note that if this
              option is not used, the optimization that excludes files that
              have not been modified cannot be effective; in other words, a
              missing -t or -a will cause the next transfer to behave as if it
              used -I, causing all files to be updated (though rsync's
              delta-transfer algorithm will make the update fairly efficient
              if the files haven't actually changed, you're much better off
              using -t).

       -O, --omit-dir-times
              This tells rsync to omit directories when it is preserving
              modification times (see --times).  If NFS is sharing the
              directories on the receiving side, it is a good idea to use -O.
              This option is inferred if you use --backup without

              This option also has the side-effect of avoiding early creation
              of directories in incremental recursion copies.  The default
              --inc-recursive copying normally does an early-create pass of
              all the sub-directories in a parent directory in order for it to
              be able to then set the modify time of the parent directory
              right away (without having to delay that until a bunch of
              recursive copying has finished).  This early-create idiom is not
              necessary if directory modify times are not being preserved, so
              it is skipped.  Since early-create directories don't have
              accurate mode, mtime, or ownership, the use of this option can
              help when someone wants to avoid these partially-finished

       -J, --omit-link-times
              This tells rsync to omit symlinks when it is preserving
              modification times (see --times).

              This tells the receiving side to attempt super-user activities
              even if the receiving rsync wasn't run by the super-user.  These
              activities include: preserving users via the --owner option,
              preserving all groups (not just the current user's groups) via
              the --groups option, and copying devices via the --devices
              option.  This is useful for systems that allow such activities
              without being the super-user, and also for ensuring that you
              will get errors if the receiving side isn't being run as the
              super-user.  To turn off super-user activities, the super-user
              can use --no-super.

              When this option is enabled, rsync simulates super-user
              activities by saving/restoring the privileged attributes via
              special extended attributes that are attached to each file (as
              needed).  This includes the file's owner and group (if it is not
              the default), the file's device info (device & special files are
              created as empty text files), and any permission bits that we
              won't allow to be set on the real file (e.g.  the real file gets
              u-s,g-s,o-t for safety) or that would limit the owner's access
              (since the real super-user can always access/change a file, the
              files we create can always be accessed/changed by the creating
              user).  This option also handles ACLs (if --acls was specified)
              and non-user extended attributes (if --xattrs was specified).

              This is a good way to backup data without using a super-user,
              and to store ACLs from incompatible systems.

              The --fake-super option only affects the side where the option
              is used.  To affect the remote side of a remote-shell
              connection, use the --remote-option (-M) option:
                rsync -av -M--fake-super /src/ host:/dest/

              For a local copy, this option affects both the source and the
              destination.  If you wish a local copy to enable this option
              just for the destination files, specify -M--fake-super.  If you
              wish a local copy to enable this option just for the source
              files, combine --fake-super with -M--super.

              This option is overridden by both --super and --no-super.

              See also the "fake super" setting in the daemon's rsyncd.conf

       -S, --sparse
              Try to handle sparse files efficiently so they take up less
              space on the destination.  Conflicts with --inplace because it's
              not possible to overwrite data in a sparse fashion.

              This tells the receiver to allocate each destination file to its
              eventual size before writing data to the file.  Rsync will only
              use the real filesystem-level preallocation support provided by
              Linux's fallocate(2) system call or Cygwin's posix_fallocate(3),
              not the slow glibc implementation that writes a zero byte into
              each block.

              Without this option, larger files may not be entirely contiguous
              on the filesystem, but with this option rsync will probably copy
              more slowly.  If the destination is not an extent-supporting
              filesystem (such as ext4, xfs, NTFS, etc.), this option may have
              no positive effect at all.

       -n, --dry-run
              This makes rsync perform a trial run that doesn't make any
              changes (and produces mostly the same output as a real run).  It
              is most commonly used in combination with the -v, --verbose
              and/or -i, --itemize-changes options to see what an rsync
              command is going to do before one actually runs it.

              The output of --itemize-changes is supposed to be exactly the
              same on a dry run and a subsequent real run (barring intentional
              trickery and system call failures); if it isn't, that's a bug.
              Other output should be mostly unchanged, but may differ in some
              areas.  Notably, a dry run does not send the actual data for
              file transfers, so --progress has no effect, the "bytes sent",
              "bytes received", "literal data", and "matched data" statistics
              are too small, and the "speedup" value is equivalent to a run
              where no file transfers were needed.

       -W, --whole-file
              With this option rsync's delta-transfer algorithm is not used
              and the whole file is sent as-is instead.  The transfer may be
              faster if this option is used when the bandwidth between the
              source and destination machines is higher than the bandwidth to
              disk (especially when the "disk" is actually a networked
              filesystem).  This is the default when both the source and
              destination are specified as local paths, but only if no
              batch-writing option is in effect.

       -x, --one-file-system
              This tells rsync to avoid crossing a filesystem boundary when
              recursing.  This does not limit the user's ability to specify
              items to copy from multiple filesystems, just rsync's recursion
              through the hierarchy of each directory that the user specified,
              and also the analogous recursion on the receiving side during
              deletion.  Also keep in mind that rsync treats a "bind" mount to
              the same device as being on the same filesystem.

              If this option is repeated, rsync omits all mount-point
              directories from the copy.  Otherwise, it includes an empty
              directory at each mount-point it encounters (using the
              attributes of the mounted directory because those of the
              underlying mount-point directory are inaccessible).

              If rsync has been told to collapse symlinks (via --copy-links or
              --copy-unsafe-links), a symlink to a directory on another device
              is treated like a mount-point.  Symlinks to non-directories are
              unaffected by this option.

       --existing, --ignore-non-existing
              This tells rsync to skip creating files (including directories)
              that do not exist yet on the destination.  If this option is
              combined with the --ignore-existing option, no files will be
              updated (which can be useful if all you want to do is delete
              extraneous files).

              This option is a transfer rule, not an exclude, so it doesn't
              affect the data that goes into the file-lists, and thus it
              doesn't affect deletions.  It just limits the files that the
              receiver requests to be transferred.

              This tells rsync to skip updating files that already exist on
              the destination (this does not ignore existing directories, or
              nothing would get done).  See also --existing.

              This option is a transfer rule, not an exclude, so it doesn't
              affect the data that goes into the file-lists, and thus it
              doesn't affect deletions.  It just limits the files that the
              receiver requests to be transferred.

              This option can be useful for those doing backups using the
              --link-dest option when they need to continue a backup run that
              got interrupted.  Since a --link-dest run is copied into a new
              directory hierarchy (when it is used properly), using --ignore
              existing will ensure that the already-handled files don't get
              tweaked (which avoids a change in permissions on the hard-linked
              files).  This does mean that this option is only looking at the
              existing files in the destination hierarchy itself.

              This tells rsync to remove from the sending side the files
              (meaning non-directories) that are a part of the transfer and
              have been successfully duplicated on the receiving side.

              Note that you should only use this option on source files that
              are quiescent.  If you are using this to move files that show up
              in a particular directory over to another host, make sure that
              the finished files get renamed into the source directory, not
              directly written into it, so that rsync can't possibly transfer
              a file that is not yet fully written.  If you can't first write
              the files into a different directory, you should use a naming
              idiom that lets rsync avoid transferring files that are not yet
              finished (e.g. name the file "" when it is written,
              rename it to "foo" when it is done, and then use the option
              --exclude='*.new' for the rsync transfer).

              Starting with 3.1.0, rsync will skip the sender-side removal
              (and output an error) if the file's size or modify time has not
              stayed unchanged.

              This tells rsync to delete extraneous files from the receiving
              side (ones that aren't on the sending side), but only for the
              directories that are being synchronized.  You must have asked
              rsync to send the whole directory (e.g. "dir" or "dir/") without
              using a wildcard for the directory's contents (e.g. "dir/*")
              since the wildcard is expanded by the shell and rsync thus gets
              a request to transfer individual files, not the files' parent
              directory.  Files that are excluded from the transfer are also
              excluded from being deleted unless you use the --delete-excluded
              option or mark the rules as only matching on the sending side
              (see the include/exclude modifiers in the FILTER RULES section).

              Prior to rsync 2.6.7, this option would have no effect unless
              --recursive was enabled.  Beginning with 2.6.7, deletions will
              also occur when --dirs (-d) is enabled, but only for directories
              whose contents are being copied.

              This option can be dangerous if used incorrectly!  It is a very
              good idea to first try a run using the --dry-run option (-n) to
              see what files are going to be deleted.

              If the sending side detects any I/O errors, then the deletion of
              any files at the destination will be automatically disabled.
              This is to prevent temporary filesystem failures (such as NFS
              errors) on the sending side from causing a massive deletion of
              files on the destination.  You can override this with the
              --ignore-errors option.

              The --delete option may be combined with one of the
              --delete-WHEN options without conflict, as well as
              --delete-excluded.  However, if none of the --delete-WHEN
              options are specified, rsync will choose the --delete-during
              algorithm when talking to rsync 3.0.0 or newer, and the
              --delete-before algorithm when talking to an older rsync.  See
              also --delete-delay and --delete-after.

              Request that the file-deletions on the receiving side be done
              before the transfer starts.  See --delete (which is implied) for
              more details on file-deletion.

              Deleting before the transfer is helpful if the filesystem is
              tight for space and removing extraneous files would help to make
              the transfer possible.  However, it does introduce a delay
              before the start of the transfer, and this delay might cause the
              transfer to timeout (if --timeout was specified).  It also
              forces rsync to use the old, non-incremental recursion algorithm
              that requires rsync to scan all the files in the transfer into
              memory at once (see --recursive).

       --delete-during, --del
              Request that the file-deletions on the receiving side be done
              incrementally as the transfer happens.  The per-directory delete
              scan is done right before each directory is checked for updates,
              so it behaves like a more efficient --delete-before, including
              doing the deletions prior to any per-directory filter files
              being updated.  This option was first added in rsync version
              2.6.4.  See --delete (which is implied) for more details on

              Request that the file-deletions on the receiving side be
              computed during the transfer (like --delete-during), and then
              removed after the transfer completes.  This is useful when
              combined with --delay-updates and/or --fuzzy, and is more
              efficient than using --delete-after (but can behave differently,
              since --delete-after computes the deletions in a separate pass
              after all updates are done).  If the number of removed files
              overflows an internal buffer, a temporary file will be created
              on the receiving side to hold the names (it is removed while
              open, so you shouldn't see it during the transfer).  If the
              creation of the temporary file fails, rsync will try to fall
              back to using --delete-after (which it cannot do if --recursive
              is doing an incremental scan).  See --delete (which is implied)
              for more details on file-deletion.

              Request that the file-deletions on the receiving side be done
              after the transfer has completed.  This is useful if you are
              sending new per-directory merge files as a part of the transfer
              and you want their exclusions to take effect for the delete
              phase of the current transfer.  It also forces rsync to use the
              old, non-incremental recursion algorithm that requires rsync to
              scan all the files in the transfer into memory at once (see
              --recursive).  See --delete (which is implied) for more details
              on file-deletion.

              In addition to deleting the files on the receiving side that are
              not on the sending side, this tells rsync to also delete any
              files on the receiving side that are excluded (see --exclude).
              See the FILTER RULES section for a way to make individual
              exclusions behave this way on the receiver, and for a way to
              protect files from --delete-excluded.  See --delete (which is
              implied) for more details on file-deletion.

              When rsync is first processing the explicitly requested source
              files (e.g. command-line arguments or --files-from entries), it
              is normally an error if the file cannot be found.  This option
              suppresses that error, and does not try to transfer the file.
              This does not affect subsequent vanished-file errors if a file
              was initially found to be present and later is no longer there.

              This option takes the behavior of (the implied)
              --ignore-missing-args option a step farther:  each missing arg
              will become a deletion request of the corresponding destination
              file on the receiving side (should it exist).  If the
              destination file is a non-empty directory, it will only be
              successfully deleted if --force or --delete are in effect.
              Other than that, this option is independent of any other type of
              delete processing.

              The missing source files are represented by special file-list
              entries which display as a "*missing" entry in the --list-only

              Tells --delete to go ahead and delete files even when there are
              I/O errors.

              This option tells rsync to delete a non-empty directory when it
              is to be replaced by a non-directory.  This is only relevant if
              deletions are not active (see --delete for details).

              This option can be abbreviated --force for backward
              compatibility.  Note that some older rsync versions used to
              still require --force when using --delete-after, and it used to
              be non-functional unless the --recursive option was also

              This tells rsync not to delete more than NUM files or
              directories.  If that limit is exceeded, all further deletions
              are skipped through the end of the transfer.  At the end, rsync
              outputs a warning (including a count of the skipped deletions)
              and exits with an error code of 25 (unless some more important
              error condition also occurred).

              Beginning with version 3.0.0, you may specify --max-delete=0 to
              be warned about any extraneous files in the destination without
              removing any of them.  Older clients interpreted this as
              "unlimited", so if you don't know what version the client is,
              you can use the less obvious --max-delete=-1 as a
              backward-compatible way to specify that no deletions be allowed
              (though really old versions didn't warn when the limit was

              This tells rsync to avoid transferring any file that is larger
              than the specified SIZE. The SIZE value can be suffixed with a
              string to indicate a size multiplier, and may be a fractional
              value (e.g. "--max-size=1.5m").

              This option is a transfer rule, not an exclude, so it doesn't
              affect the data that goes into the file-lists, and thus it
              doesn't affect deletions.  It just limits the files that the
              receiver requests to be transferred.

              The suffixes are as follows: "K" (or "KiB") is a kibibyte
              (1024), "M" (or "MiB") is a mebibyte (1024*1024), and "G" (or
              "GiB") is a gibibyte (1024*1024*1024).  If you want the
              multiplier to be 1000 instead of 1024, use "KB", "MB", or "GB".
              (Note: lower-case is also accepted for all values.)  Finally, if
              the suffix ends in either "+1" or "-1", the value will be offset
              by one byte in the indicated direction.

              Examples: --max-size=1.5mb-1 is 1499999 bytes, and
              --max-size=2g+1 is 2147483649 bytes.

              Note that rsync versions prior to 3.1.0 did not allow

              This tells rsync to avoid transferring any file that is smaller
              than the specified SIZE, which can help in not transferring
              small, junk files.  See the --max-size option for a description
              of SIZE and other information.

              Note that rsync versions prior to 3.1.0 did not allow

       -B, --block-size=BLOCKSIZE
              This forces the block size used in rsync's delta-transfer
              algorithm to a fixed value.  It is normally selected based on
              the size of each file being updated.  See the technical report
              for details.

       -e, --rsh=COMMAND
              This option allows you to choose an alternative remote shell
              program to use for communication between the local and remote
              copies of rsync. Typically, rsync is configured to use ssh by
              default, but you may prefer to use rsh on a local network.

              If this option is used with [user@]host::module/path, then the
              remote shell COMMAND will be used to run an rsync daemon on the
              remote host, and all data will be transmitted through that
              remote shell connection, rather than through a direct socket
              connection to a running rsync daemon on the remote host.  See
              CONNECTION" above.

              Command-line arguments are permitted in COMMAND provided that
              COMMAND is presented to rsync as a single argument.  You must
              use spaces (not tabs or other whitespace) to separate the
              command and args from each other, and you can use single- and/or
              double-quotes to preserve spaces in an argument (but not
              backslashes).  Note that doubling a single-quote inside a
              single-quoted string gives you a single-quote; likewise for
              double-quotes (though you need to pay attention to which quotes
              your shell is parsing and which quotes rsync is parsing).  Some
                  -e 'ssh -p 2234'
                  -e 'ssh -o "ProxyCommand nohup ssh firewall nc -w1 %h %p"'

              (Note that ssh users can alternately customize site-specific
              connect options in their .ssh/config file.)

              You can also choose the remote shell program using the RSYNC_RSH
              environment variable, which accepts the same range of values as

              See also the --blocking-io option which is affected by this

              Use this to specify what program is to be run on the remote
              machine to start-up rsync.  Often used when rsync is not in the
              default remote-shell's path (e.g.
              --rsync-path=/usr/local/bin/rsync).  Note that PROGRAM is run
              with the help of a shell, so it can be any program, script, or
              command sequence you'd care to run, so long as it does not
              corrupt the standard-in & standard-out that rsync is using to

              One tricky example is to set a different default directory on
              the remote machine for use with the --relative option.  For
                  rsync -avR --rsync-path="cd /a/b && rsync" host:c/d /e/

       -M, --remote-option=OPTION
              This option is used for more advanced situations where you want
              certain effects to be limited to one side of the transfer only.
              For instance, if you want to pass --log-file=FILE and
              --fake-super to the remote system, specify it like this:
                  rsync -av -M --log-file=foo -M--fake-super src/ dest/

              If you want to have an option affect only the local side of a
              transfer when it normally affects both sides, send its negation
              to the remote side.  Like this:
                  rsync -av -x -M--no-x src/ dest/

              Be cautious using this, as it is possible to toggle an option
              that will cause rsync to have a different idea about what data
              to expect next over the socket, and that will make it fail in a
              cryptic fashion.

              Note that it is best to use a separate --remote-option for each
              option you want to pass.  This makes your useage compatible with
              the --protect-args option.  If that option is off, any spaces in
              your remote options will be split by the remote shell unless you
              take steps to protect them.

              When performing a local transfer, the "local" side is the sender
              and the "remote" side is the receiver.

              Note some versions of the popt option-parsing library have a bug
              in them that prevents you from using an adjacent arg with an
              equal in it next to a short option letter (e.g.
              -M--log-file=/tmp/foo.  If this bug affects your version of
              popt, you can use the version of popt that is included with

       -C, --cvs-exclude
              This is a useful shorthand for excluding a broad range of files
              that you often don't want to transfer between systems. It uses a
              similar algorithm to CVS to determine if a file should be

              The exclude list is initialized to exclude the following items
              (these initial items are marked as perishable -- see the FILTER
              RULES section):
                     RCS SCCS CVS CVS.adm RCSLOG cvslog.* tags TAGS
                     .make.state .nse_depinfo *~ #* .#* ,* _$* *$ *.old *.bak
                     *.BAK *.orig *.rej .del-* *.a *.olb *.o *.obj *.so *.exe
                     *.Z *.elc *.ln core .svn/ .git/ .hg/ .bzr/

              then, files listed in a $HOME/.cvsignore are added to the list
              and any files listed in the CVSIGNORE environment variable (all
              cvsignore names are delimited by whitespace).

              Finally, any file is ignored if it is in the same directory as a
              .cvsignore file and matches one of the patterns listed therein.
              Unlike rsync's filter/exclude files, these patterns are split on
              whitespace.  See the cvs(1) manual for more information.

              If you're combining -C with your own --filter rules, you should
              note that these CVS excludes are appended at the end of your own
              rules, regardless of where the -C was placed on the
              command-line.  This makes them a lower priority than any rules
              you specified explicitly.  If you want to control where these
              CVS excludes get inserted into your filter rules, you should
              omit the -C as a command-line option and use a combination of
              --filter=:C and --filter=-C (either on your command-line or by
              putting the ":C" and "-C" rules into a filter file with your
              other rules).  The first option turns on the per-directory
              scanning for the .cvsignore file.  The second option does a
              one-time import of the CVS excludes mentioned above.

       -f, --filter=RULE
              This option allows you to add rules to selectively exclude
              certain files from the list of files to be transferred. This is
              most useful in combination with a recursive transfer.

              You may use as many --filter options on the command line as you
              like to build up the list of files to exclude.  If the filter
              contains whitespace, be sure to quote it so that the shell gives
              the rule to rsync as a single argument.  The text below also
              mentions that you can use an underscore to replace the space
              that separates a rule from its arg.

              See the FILTER RULES section for detailed information on this

       -F     The -F option is a shorthand for adding two --filter rules to
              your command.  The first time it is used is a shorthand for this
                 --filter='dir-merge /.rsync-filter'

              This tells rsync to look for per-directory .rsync-filter files
              that have been sprinkled through the hierarchy and use their
              rules to filter the files in the transfer.  If -F is repeated,
              it is a shorthand for this rule:
                 --filter='exclude .rsync-filter'

              This filters out the .rsync-filter files themselves from the

              See the FILTER RULES section for detailed information on how
              these options work.

              This option is a simplified form of the --filter option that
              defaults to an exclude rule and does not allow the full
              rule-parsing syntax of normal filter rules.

              See the FILTER RULES section for detailed information on this

              This option is related to the --exclude option, but it specifies
              a FILE that contains exclude patterns (one per line).  Blank
              lines in the file and lines starting with ';' or '#' are
              ignored.  If FILE is -, the list will be read from standard

              This option is a simplified form of the --filter option that
              defaults to an include rule and does not allow the full
              rule-parsing syntax of normal filter rules.

              See the FILTER RULES section for detailed information on this

              This option is related to the --include option, but it specifies
              a FILE that contains include patterns (one per line).  Blank
              lines in the file and lines starting with ';' or '#' are
              ignored.  If FILE is -, the list will be read from standard

              Using this option allows you to specify the exact list of files
              to transfer (as read from the specified FILE or - for standard
              input).  It also tweaks the default behavior of rsync to make
              transferring just the specified files and directories easier:

              o      The --relative (-R) option is implied, which preserves
                     the path information that is specified for each item in
                     the file (use --no-relative or --no-R if you want to turn
                     that off).

              o      The --dirs (-d) option is implied, which will create
                     directories specified in the list on the destination
                     rather than noisily skipping them (use --no-dirs or
                     --no-d if you want to turn that off).

              o      The --archive (-a) option's behavior does not imply
                     --recursive (-r), so specify it explicitly, if you want

              o      These side-effects change the default state of rsync, so
                     the position of the --files-from option on the
                     command-line has no bearing on how other options are
                     parsed (e.g. -a works the same before or after
                     --files-from, as does --no-R and all other options).

              The filenames that are read from the FILE are all relative to
              the source dir -- any leading slashes are removed and no ".."
              references are allowed to go higher than the source dir.  For
              example, take this command:
                 rsync -a --files-from=/tmp/foo /usr remote:/backup

              If /tmp/foo contains the string "bin" (or even "/bin"), the
              /usr/bin directory will be created as /backup/bin on the remote
              host.  If it contains "bin/" (note the trailing slash), the
              immediate contents of the directory would also be sent (without
              needing to be explicitly mentioned in the file -- this began in
              version 2.6.4).  In both cases, if the -r option was enabled,
              that dir's entire hierarchy would also be transferred (keep in
              mind that -r needs to be specified explicitly with --files-from,
              since it is not implied by -a).  Also note that the effect of
              the (enabled by default) --relative option is to duplicate only
              the path info that is read from the file -- it does not force
              the duplication of the source-spec path (/usr in this case).

              In addition, the --files-from file can be read from the remote
              host instead of the local host if you specify a "host:" in front
              of the file (the host must match one end of the transfer).  As a
              short-cut, you can specify just a prefix of ":" to mean "use the
              remote end of the transfer".  For example:
                 rsync -a --files-from=:/path/file-list src:/ /tmp/copy

              This would copy all the files specified in the /path/file-list
              file that was located on the remote "src" host.

              If the --iconv and --protect-args options are specified and the
              --files-from filenames are being sent from one host to another,
              the filenames will be translated from the sending host's charset
              to the receiving host's charset.

              NOTE: sorting the list of files in the --files-from input helps
              rsync to be more efficient, as it will avoid re-visiting the
              path elements that are shared between adjacent entries.  If the
              input is not sorted, some path elements (implied directories)
              may end up being scanned multiple times, and rsync will
              eventually unduplicate them after they get turned into file-list

       -0, --from0
              This tells rsync that the rules/filenames it reads from a file
              are terminated by a null ('\0') character, not a NL, CR, or
              CR+LF.  This affects --exclude-from, --include-from,
              --files-from, and any merged files specified in a --filter rule.
              It does not affect --cvs-exclude (since all names read from a
              .cvsignore file are split on whitespace).

       -s, --protect-args
              This option sends all filenames and most options to the remote
              rsync without allowing the remote shell to interpret them.  This
              means that spaces are not split in names, and any non-wildcard
              special characters are not translated (such as ~, $, ;, &,
              etc.).  Wildcards are expanded on the remote host by rsync
              (instead of the shell doing it).

              If you use this option with --iconv, the args related to the
              remote side will also be translated from the local to the remote
              character-set.  The translation happens before wild-cards are
              expanded.  See also the --files-from option.

              You may also control this option via the RSYNC_PROTECT_ARGS
              environment variable.  If this variable has a non-zero value,
              this option will be enabled by default, otherwise it will be
              disabled by default.  Either state is overridden by a manually
              specified positive or negative version of this option (note that
              --no-s and --no-protect-args are the negative versions).  Since
              this option was first introduced in 3.0.0, you'll need to make
              sure it's disabled if you ever need to interact with a remote
              rsync that is older than that.

              Rsync can also be configured (at build time) to have this option
              enabled by default (with is overridden by both the environment
              and the command-line).  This option will eventually become a new
              default setting at some as-yet-undetermined point in the future.

       -T, --temp-dir=DIR
              This option instructs rsync to use DIR as a scratch directory
              when creating temporary copies of the files transferred on the
              receiving side.  The default behavior is to create each
              temporary file in the same directory as the associated
              destination file.  Beginning with rsync 3.1.1, the temp-file
              names inside the specified DIR will not be prefixed with an
              extra dot (though they will still have a random suffix added).

              This option is most often used when the receiving disk partition
              does not have enough free space to hold a copy of the largest
              file in the transfer.  In this case (i.e. when the scratch
              directory is on a different disk partition), rsync will not be
              able to rename each received temporary file over the top of the
              associated destination file, but instead must copy it into
              place.  Rsync does this by copying the file over the top of the
              destination file, which means that the destination file will
              contain truncated data during this copy.  If this were not done
              this way (even if the destination file were first removed, the
              data locally copied to a temporary file in the destination
              directory, and then renamed into place) it would be possible for
              the old file to continue taking up disk space (if someone had it
              open), and thus there might not be enough room to fit the new
              version on the disk at the same time.

              If you are using this option for reasons other than a shortage
              of disk space, you may wish to combine it with the
              --delay-updates option, which will ensure that all copied files
              get put into subdirectories in the destination hierarchy,
              awaiting the end of the transfer.  If you don't have enough room
              to duplicate all the arriving files on the destination
              partition, another way to tell rsync that you aren't overly
              concerned about disk space is to use the --partial-dir option
              with a relative path; because this tells rsync that it is OK to
              stash off a copy of a single file in a subdir in the destination
              hierarchy, rsync will use the partial-dir as a staging area to
              bring over the copied file, and then rename it into place from
              there. (Specifying a --partial-dir with an absolute path does
              not have this side-effect.)

       -y, --fuzzy
              This option tells rsync that it should look for a basis file for
              any destination file that is missing.  The current algorithm
              looks in the same directory as the destination file for either a
              file that has an identical size and modified-time, or a
              similarly-named file.  If found, rsync uses the fuzzy basis file
              to try to speed up the transfer.

              If the option is repeated, the fuzzy scan will also be done in
              any matching alternate destination directories that are
              specified via --compare-dest, --copy-dest, or --link-dest.

              Note that the use of the --delete option might get rid of any
              potential fuzzy-match files, so either use --delete-after or
              specify some filename exclusions if you need to prevent this.

              This option instructs rsync to use DIR on the destination
              machine as an additional hierarchy to compare destination files
              against doing transfers (if the files are missing in the
              destination directory).  If a file is found in DIR that is
              identical to the sender's file, the file will NOT be transferred
              to the destination directory.  This is useful for creating a
              sparse backup of just files that have changed from an earlier
              backup.  This option is typically used to copy into an empty (or
              newly created) directory.

              Beginning in version 2.6.4, multiple --compare-dest directories
              may be provided, which will cause rsync to search the list in
              the order specified for an exact match.  If a match is found
              that differs only in attributes, a local copy is made and the
              attributes updated.  If a match is not found, a basis file from
              one of the DIRs will be selected to try to speed up the

              If DIR is a relative path, it is relative to the destination
              directory.  See also --copy-dest and --link-dest.

              NOTE: beginning with version 3.1.0, rsync will remove a file
              from a non-empty destination hierarchy if an exact match is
              found in one of the compare-dest hierarchies (making the end
              result more closely match a fresh copy).

              This option behaves like --compare-dest, but rsync will also
              copy unchanged files found in DIR to the destination directory
              using a local copy.  This is useful for doing transfers to a new
              destination while leaving existing files intact, and then doing
              a flash-cutover when all files have been successfully

              Multiple --copy-dest directories may be provided, which will
              cause rsync to search the list in the order specified for an
              unchanged file.  If a match is not found, a basis file from one
              of the DIRs will be selected to try to speed up the transfer.

              If DIR is a relative path, it is relative to the destination
              directory.  See also --compare-dest and --link-dest.

              This option behaves like --copy-dest, but unchanged files are
              hard linked from DIR to the destination directory.  The files
              must be identical in all preserved attributes (e.g. permissions,
              possibly ownership) in order for the files to be linked
              together.  An example:
                rsync -av --link-dest=$PWD/prior_dir host:src_dir/ new_dir/

              If file's aren't linking, double-check their attributes.  Also
              check if some attributes are getting forced outside of rsync's
              control, such a mount option that squishes root to a single
              user, or mounts a removable drive with generic ownership (such
              as OS X's "Ignore ownership on this volume" option).

              Beginning in version 2.6.4, multiple --link-dest directories may
              be provided, which will cause rsync to search the list in the
              order specified for an exact match.  If a match is found that
              differs only in attributes, a local copy is made and the
              attributes updated.  If a match is not found, a basis file from
              one of the DIRs will be selected to try to speed up the

              This option works best when copying into an empty destination
              hierarchy, as existing files may get their attributes tweaked,
              and that can affect alternate destination files via hard-links.
              Also, itemizing of changes can get a bit muddled.  Note that
              prior to version 3.1.0, an alternate-directory exact match would
              never be found (nor linked into the destination) when a
              destination file already exists.

              Note that if you combine this option with --ignore-times, rsync
              will not link any files together because it only links identical
              files together as a substitute for transferring the file, never
              as an additional check after the file is updated.

              If DIR is a relative path, it is relative to the destination
              directory.  See also --compare-dest and --copy-dest.

              Note that rsync versions prior to 2.6.1 had a bug that could
              prevent --link-dest from working properly for a non-super-user
              when -o was specified (or implied by -a).  You can work-around
              this bug by avoiding the -o option when sending to an old rsync.

       -z, --compress
              With this option, rsync compresses the file data as it is sent
              to the destination machine, which reduces the amount of data
              being transmitted -- something that is useful over a slow

              Note that this option typically achieves better compression
              ratios than can be achieved by using a compressing remote shell
              or a compressing transport because it takes advantage of the
              implicit information in the matching data blocks that are not
              explicitly sent over the connection.  This matching-data
              compression comes at a cost of CPU, though, and can be disabled
              by repeating the -z option, but only if both sides are at least
              version 3.1.1.

              Note that if your version of rsync was compiled with an external
              zlib (instead of the zlib that comes packaged with rsync) then
              it will not support the old-style compression, only the
              new-style (repeated-option) compression.  In the future this
              new-style compression will likely become the default.

              The client rsync requests new-style compression on the server
              via the --new-compress option, so if you see that option
              rejected it means that the server is not new enough to support
              -zz.  Rsync also accepts the --old-compress option for a future
              time when new-style compression becomes the default.

              See the --skip-compress option for the default list of file
              suffixes that will not be compressed.

              Explicitly set the compression level to use (see --compress)
              instead of letting it default.  If NUM is non-zero, the
              --compress option is implied.

              Override the list of file suffixes that will not be compressed.
              The LIST should be one or more file suffixes (without the dot)
              separated by slashes (/).

              You may specify an empty string to indicate that no file should
              be skipped.

              Simple character-class matching is supported: each must consist
              of a list of letters inside the square brackets (e.g. no special
              classes, such as "[:alpha:]", are supported, and '-' has no
              special meaning).

              The characters asterisk (*) and question-mark (?) have no
              special meaning.

              Here's an example that specifies 6 suffixes to skip (since 1 of
              the 5 rules matches 2 suffixes):


              The default list of suffixes that will not be compressed is this
              (in this version of rsync):

              7z ace avi bz2 deb gpg gz iso jpeg jpg lz lzma lzo mov mp3 mp4
              ogg png rar rpm rzip tbz tgz tlz txz xz z zip

              This list will be replaced by your --skip-compress list in all
              but one situation: a copy from a daemon rsync will add your
              skipped suffixes to its list of non-compressing files (and its
              list may be configured to a different default).

              With this option rsync will transfer numeric group and user IDs
              rather than using user and group names and mapping them at both

              By default rsync will use the username and groupname to
              determine what ownership to give files. The special uid 0 and
              the special group 0 are never mapped via user/group names even
              if the --numeric-ids option is not specified.

              If a user or group has no name on the source system or it has no
              match on the destination system, then the numeric ID from the
              source system is used instead.  See also the comments on the
              "use chroot" setting in the rsyncd.conf manpage for information
              on how the chroot setting affects rsync's ability to look up the
              names of the users and groups and what you can do about it.

       --usermap=STRING, --groupmap=STRING
              These options allow you to specify users and groups that should
              be mapped to other values by the receiving side.  The STRING is
              one or more FROM:TO pairs of values separated by commas.  Any
              matching FROM value from the sender is replaced with a TO value
              from the receiver.  You may specify usernames or user IDs for
              the FROM and TO values, and the FROM value may also be a
              wild-card string, which will be matched against the sender's
              names (wild-cards do NOT match against ID numbers, though see
              below for why a '*' matches everything).  You may instead
              specify a range of ID numbers via an inclusive range: LOW-HIGH.
              For example:

                --usermap=0-99:nobody,wayne:admin,*:normal --groupmap=usr:1,1:usr

              The first match in the list is the one that is used.  You should
              specify all your user mappings using a single --usermap option,
              and/or all your group mappings using a single --groupmap option.

              Note that the sender's name for the 0 user and group are not
              transmitted to the receiver, so you should either match these
              values using a 0, or use the names in effect on the receiving
              side (typically "root").  All other FROM names match those in
              use on the sending side.  All TO names match those in use on the
              receiving side.

              Any IDs that do not have a name on the sending side are treated
              as having an empty name for the purpose of matching.  This
              allows them to be matched via a "*" or using an empty name.  For

                --usermap=:nobody --groupmap=*:nobody

              When the --numeric-ids option is used, the sender does not send
              any names, so all the IDs are treated as having an empty name.
              This means that you will need to specify numeric FROM values if
              you want to map these nameless IDs to different values.

              For the --usermap option to have any effect, the -o (--owner)
              option must be used (or implied), and the receiver will need to
              be running as a super-user (see also the --fake-super option).
              For the --groupmap option to have any effect, the -g (--groups)
              option must be used (or implied), and the receiver will need to
              have permissions to set that group.

              This option forces all files to be owned by USER with group
              GROUP.  This is a simpler interface than using --usermap and
              --groupmap directly, but it is implemented using those options
              internally, so you cannot mix them.  If either the USER or GROUP
              is empty, no mapping for the omitted user/group will occur.  If
              GROUP is empty, the trailing colon may be omitted, but if USER
              is empty, a leading colon must be supplied.

              If you specify "--chown=foo:bar, this is exactly the same as
              specifying "--usermap=*:foo --groupmap=*:bar", only easier.

              This option allows you to set a maximum I/O timeout in seconds.
              If no data is transferred for the specified time then rsync will
              exit. The default is 0, which means no timeout.

              This option allows you to set the amount of time that rsync will
              wait for its connection to an rsync daemon to succeed.  If the
              timeout is reached, rsync exits with an error.

              By default rsync will bind to the wildcard address when
              connecting to an rsync daemon.  The --address option allows you
              to specify a specific IP address (or hostname) to bind to.  See
              also this option in the --daemon mode section.

              This specifies an alternate TCP port number to use rather than
              the default of 873.  This is only needed if you are using the
              double-colon (::) syntax to connect with an rsync daemon (since
              the URL syntax has a way to specify the port as a part of the
              URL).  See also this option in the --daemon mode section.

              This option can provide endless fun for people who like to tune
              their systems to the utmost degree. You can set all sorts of
              socket options which may make transfers faster (or slower!).
              Read the man page for the setsockopt() system call for details
              on some of the options you may be able to set. By default no
              special socket options are set. This only affects direct socket
              connections to a remote rsync daemon.  This option also exists
              in the --daemon mode section.

              This tells rsync to use blocking I/O when launching a remote
              shell transport.  If the remote shell is either rsh or remsh,
              rsync defaults to using blocking I/O, otherwise it defaults to
              using non-blocking I/O.  (Note that ssh prefers non-blocking

              This sets the output buffering mode.  The mode can be None (aka
              Unbuffered), Line, or Block (aka Full).  You may specify as
              little as a single letter for the mode, and use upper or lower

              The main use of this option is to change Full buffering to Line
              buffering when rsync's output is going to a file or pipe.

       -i, --itemize-changes
              Requests a simple itemized list of the changes that are being
              made to each file, including attribute changes.  This is exactly
              the same as specifying --out-format='%i %n%L'.  If you repeat
              the option, unchanged files will also be output, but only if the
              receiving rsync is at least version 2.6.7 (you can use -vv with
              older versions of rsync, but that also turns on the output of
              other verbose messages).

              The "%i" escape has a cryptic output that is 11 letters long.
              The general format is like the string YXcstpogfax, where Y is
              replaced by the type of update being done, X is replaced by the
              file-type, and the other letters represent attributes that may
              be output if they are being modified.

              The update types that replace the Y are as follows:

              o      A < means that a file is being transferred to the remote
                     host (sent).

              o      A > means that a file is being transferred to the local
                     host (received).

              o      A c means that a local change/creation is occurring for
                     the item (such as the creation of a directory or the
                     changing of a symlink, etc.).

              o      A h means that the item is a hard link to another item
                     (requires --hard-links).

              o      A . means that the item is not being updated (though it
                     might have attributes that are being modified).

              o      A * means that the rest of the itemized-output area
                     contains a message (e.g. "deleting").

              The file-types that replace the X are: f for a file, a d for a
              directory, an L for a symlink, a D for a device, and a S for a
              special file (e.g. named sockets and fifos).

              The other letters in the string above are the actual letters
              that will be output if the associated attribute for the item is
              being updated or a "." for no change.  Three exceptions to this
              are: (1) a newly created item replaces each letter with a "+",
              (2) an identical item replaces the dots with spaces, and (3) an
              unknown attribute replaces each letter with a "?" (this can
              happen when talking to an older rsync).

              The attribute that is associated with each letter is as follows:

              o      A c means either that a regular file has a different
                     checksum (requires --checksum) or that a symlink, device,
                     or special file has a changed value.  Note that if you
                     are sending files to an rsync prior to 3.0.1, this change
                     flag will be present only for checksum-differing regular

              o      A s means the size of a regular file is different and
                     will be updated by the file transfer.

              o      A t means the modification time is different and is being
                     updated to the sender's value (requires --times).  An
                     alternate value of T means that the modification time
                     will be set to the transfer time, which happens when a
                     file/symlink/device is updated without --times and when a
                     symlink is changed and the receiver can't set its time.
                     (Note: when using an rsync 3.0.0 client, you might see
                     the s flag combined with t instead of the proper T flag
                     for this time-setting failure.)

              o      A p means the permissions are different and are being
                     updated to the sender's value (requires --perms).

              o      An o means the owner is different and is being updated to
                     the sender's value (requires --owner and super-user

              o      A g means the group is different and is being updated to
                     the sender's value (requires --group and the authority to
                     set the group).

              o      The f means that the fileflags information changed.

              o      The a means that the ACL information changed.

              o      The x means that the extended attribute information

              One other output is possible:  when deleting files, the "%i"
              will output the string "*deleting" for each item that is being
              removed (assuming that you are talking to a recent enough rsync
              that it logs deletions instead of outputting them as a verbose

              This allows you to specify exactly what the rsync client outputs
              to the user on a per-update basis.  The format is a text string
              containing embedded single-character escape sequences prefixed
              with a percent (%) character.   A default format of "%n%L" is
              assumed if either --info=name or -v is specified (this tells you
              just the name of the file and, if the item is a link, where it
              points).  For a full list of the possible escape characters, see
              the "log format" setting in the rsyncd.conf manpage.

              Specifying the --out-format option implies the --info=name
              option, which will mention each file, dir, etc. that gets
              updated in a significant way (a transferred file, a recreated
              symlink/device, or a touched directory).  In addition, if the
              itemize-changes escape (%i) is included in the string (e.g. if
              the --itemize-changes option was used), the logging of names
              increases to mention any item that is changed in any way (as
              long as the receiving side is at least 2.6.4).  See the
              --itemize-changes option for a description of the output of

              Rsync will output the out-format string prior to a file's
              transfer unless one of the transfer-statistic escapes is
              requested, in which case the logging is done at the end of the
              file's transfer.  When this late logging is in effect and
              --progress is also specified, rsync will also output the name of
              the file being transferred prior to its progress information
              (followed, of course, by the out-format output).

              This option causes rsync to log what it is doing to a file.
              This is similar to the logging that a daemon does, but can be
              requested for the client side and/or the server side of a
              non-daemon transfer.  If specified as a client option, transfer
              logging will be enabled with a default format of "%i %n%L".  See
              the --log-file-format option if you wish to override this.

              Here's a example command that requests the remote side to log
              what is happening:

                rsync -av --remote-option=--log-file=/tmp/rlog src/ dest/

              This is very useful if you need to debug why a connection is
              closing unexpectedly.

              This allows you to specify exactly what per-update logging is
              put into the file specified by the --log-file option (which must
              also be specified for this option to have any effect).  If you
              specify an empty string, updated files will not be mentioned in
              the log file.  For a list of the possible escape characters, see
              the "log format" setting in the rsyncd.conf manpage.

              The default FORMAT used if --log-file is specified and this
              option is not is '%i %n%L'.

              This tells rsync to print a verbose set of statistics on the
              file transfer, allowing you to tell how effective rsync's
              delta-transfer algorithm is for your data.  This option is
              equivalent to --info=stats2 if combined with 0 or 1 -v options,
              or --info=stats3 if combined with 2 or more -v options.

              The current statistics are as follows:

              o      Number of files is the count of all "files" (in the
                     generic sense), which includes directories, symlinks,
                     etc.  The total count will be followed by a list of
                     counts by filetype (if the total is non-zero).  For
                     example: "(reg: 5, dir: 3, link: 2, dev: 1, special: 1)"
                     lists the totals for regular files, directories,
                     symlinks, devices, and special files.  If any of value is
                     0, it is completely omitted from the list.

              o      Number of created files is the count of how many "files"
                     (generic sense) were created (as opposed to updated).
                     The total count will be followed by a list of counts by
                     filetype (if the total is non-zero).

              o      Number of deleted files is the count of how many "files"
                     (generic sense) were created (as opposed to updated).
                     The total count will be followed by a list of counts by
                     filetype (if the total is non-zero).  Note that this line
                     is only output if deletions are in effect, and only if
                     protocol 31 is being used (the default for rsync 3.1.x).

              o      Number of regular files transferred is the count of
                     normal files that were updated via rsync's delta-transfer
                     algorithm, which does not include dirs, symlinks, etc.
                     Note that rsync 3.1.0 added the word "regular" into this

              o      Total file size is the total sum of all file sizes in the
                     transfer.  This does not count any size for directories
                     or special files, but does include the size of symlinks.

              o      Total transferred file size is the total sum of all files
                     sizes for just the transferred files.

              o      Literal data is how much unmatched file-update data we
                     had to send to the receiver for it to recreate the
                     updated files.

              o      Matched data is how much data the receiver got locally
                     when recreating the updated files.

              o      File list size is how big the file-list data was when the
                     sender sent it to the receiver.  This is smaller than the
                     in-memory size for the file list due to some compressing
                     of duplicated data when rsync sends the list.

              o      File list generation time is the number of seconds that
                     the sender spent creating the file list.  This requires a
                     modern rsync on the sending side for this to be present.

              o      File list transfer time is the number of seconds that the
                     sender spent sending the file list to the receiver.

              o      Total bytes sent is the count of all the bytes that rsync
                     sent from the client side to the server side.

              o      Total bytes received is the count of all non-message
                     bytes that rsync received by the client side from the
                     server side.  "Non-message" bytes means that we don't
                     count the bytes for a verbose message that the server
                     sent to us, which makes the stats more consistent.

       -8, --8-bit-output
              This tells rsync to leave all high-bit characters unescaped in
              the output instead of trying to test them to see if they're
              valid in the current locale and escaping the invalid ones.  All
              control characters (but never tabs) are always escaped,
              regardless of this option's setting.

              The escape idiom that started in 2.6.7 is to output a literal
              backslash (\) and a hash (#), followed by exactly 3 octal
              digits.  For example, a newline would output as "\#012".  A
              literal backslash that is in a filename is not escaped unless it
              is followed by a hash and 3 digits (0-9).

       -h, --human-readable
              Output numbers in a more human-readable format.  There are 3
              possible levels:  (1) output numbers with a separator between
              each set of 3 digits (either a comma or a period, depending on
              if the decimal point is represented by a period or a comma); (2)
              output numbers in units of 1000 (with a character suffix for
              larger units -- see below); (3) output numbers in units of 1024.

              The default is human-readable level 1.  Each -h option increases
              the level by one.  You can take the level down to 0 (to output
              numbers as pure digits) by specifing the --no-human-readable
              (--no-h) option.

              The unit letters that are appended in levels 2 and 3 are: K
              (kilo), M (mega), G (giga), or T (tera).  For example, a
              1234567-byte file would output as 1.23M in level-2 (assuming
              that a period is your local decimal point).

              Backward compatibility note:  versions of rsync prior to 3.1.0
              do not support human-readable level 1, and they default to level
              0.  Thus, specifying one or two -h options will behave in a
              comparable manner in old and new versions as long as you didn't
              specify a --no-h option prior to one or more -h options.  See
              the --list-only option for one difference.

              By default, rsync will delete any partially transferred file if
              the transfer is interrupted. In some circumstances it is more
              desirable to keep partially transferred files. Using the
              --partial option tells rsync to keep the partial file which
              should make a subsequent transfer of the rest of the file much

              A better way to keep partial files than the --partial option is
              to specify a DIR that will be used to hold the partial data
              (instead of writing it out to the destination file).  On the
              next transfer, rsync will use a file found in this dir as data
              to speed up the resumption of the transfer and then delete it
              after it has served its purpose.

              Note that if --whole-file is specified (or implied), any
              partial-dir file that is found for a file that is being updated
              will simply be removed (since rsync is sending files without
              using rsync's delta-transfer algorithm).

              Rsync will create the DIR if it is missing (just the last dir --
              not the whole path).  This makes it easy to use a relative path
              (such as "--partial-dir=.rsync-partial") to have rsync create
              the partial-directory in the destination file's directory when
              needed, and then remove it again when the partial file is

              If the partial-dir value is not an absolute path, rsync will add
              an exclude rule at the end of all your existing excludes.  This
              will prevent the sending of any partial-dir files that may exist
              on the sending side, and will also prevent the untimely deletion
              of partial-dir items on the receiving side.  An example: the
              above --partial-dir option would add the equivalent of "-f '-p
              .rsync-partial/'" at the end of any other filter rules.

              If you are supplying your own exclude rules, you may need to add
              your own exclude/hide/protect rule for the partial-dir because
              (1) the auto-added rule may be ineffective at the end of your
              other rules, or (2) you may wish to override rsync's exclude
              choice.  For instance, if you want to make rsync clean-up any
              left-over partial-dirs that may be lying around, you should
              specify --delete-after and add a "risk" filter rule, e.g.  -f 'R
              .rsync-partial/'.  (Avoid using --delete-before or
              --delete-during unless you don't need rsync to use any of the
              left-over partial-dir data during the current run.)

              IMPORTANT: the --partial-dir should not be writable by other
              users or it is a security risk.  E.g. AVOID "/tmp".

              You can also set the partial-dir value the RSYNC_PARTIAL_DIR
              environment variable.  Setting this in the environment does not
              force --partial to be enabled, but rather it affects where
              partial files go when --partial is specified.  For instance,
              instead of using --partial-dir=.rsync-tmp along with --progress,
              you could set RSYNC_PARTIAL_DIR=.rsync-tmp in your environment
              and then just use the -P option to turn on the use of the
              .rsync-tmp dir for partial transfers.  The only times that the
              --partial option does not look for this environment value are
              (1) when --inplace was specified (since --inplace conflicts with
              --partial-dir), and (2) when --delay-updates was specified (see

              For the purposes of the daemon-config's "refuse options"
              setting, --partial-dir does not imply --partial.  This is so
              that a refusal of the --partial option can be used to disallow
              the overwriting of destination files with a partial transfer,
              while still allowing the safer idiom provided by --partial-dir.

              This option puts the temporary file from each updated file into
              a holding directory until the end of the transfer, at which time
              all the files are renamed into place in rapid succession.  This
              attempts to make the updating of the files a little more atomic.
              By default the files are placed into a directory named ".~tmp~"
              in each file's destination directory, but if you've specified
              the --partial-dir option, that directory will be used instead.
              See the comments in the --partial-dir section for a discussion
              of how this ".~tmp~" dir will be excluded from the transfer, and
              what you can do if you want rsync to cleanup old ".~tmp~" dirs
              that might be lying around.  Conflicts with --inplace and

              This option uses more memory on the receiving side (one bit per
              file transferred) and also requires enough free disk space on
              the receiving side to hold an additional copy of all the updated
              files.  Note also that you should not use an absolute path to
              --partial-dir unless (1) there is no chance of any of the files
              in the transfer having the same name (since all the updated
              files will be put into a single directory if the path is
              absolute) and (2) there are no mount points in the hierarchy
              (since the delayed updates will fail if they can't be renamed
              into place).

              See also the "atomic-rsync" perl script in the "support" subdir
              for an update algorithm that is even more atomic (it uses
              --link-dest and a parallel hierarchy of files).

       -m, --prune-empty-dirs
              This option tells the receiving rsync to get rid of empty
              directories from the file-list, including nested directories
              that have no non-directory children.  This is useful for
              avoiding the creation of a bunch of useless directories when the
              sending rsync is recursively scanning a hierarchy of files using
              include/exclude/filter rules.

              Note that the use of transfer rules, such as the --min-size
              option, does not affect what goes into the file list, and thus
              does not leave directories empty, even if none of the files in a
              directory match the transfer rule.

              Because the file-list is actually being pruned, this option also
              affects what directories get deleted when a delete is active.
              However, keep in mind that excluded files and directories can
              prevent existing items from being deleted due to an exclude both
              hiding source files and protecting destination files.  See the
              perishable filter-rule option for how to avoid this.

              You can prevent the pruning of certain empty directories from
              the file-list by using a global "protect" filter.  For instance,
              this option would ensure that the directory "emptydir" was kept
              in the file-list:
              --filter 'protect emptydir/'

              Here's an example that copies all .pdf files in a hierarchy,
              only creating the necessary destination directories to hold the
              .pdf files, and ensures that any superfluous files and
              directories in the destination are removed (note the hide filter
              of non-directories being used instead of an exclude):
              rsync -avm --del --include='*.pdf' -f 'hide,! */' src/ dest

              If you didn't want to remove superfluous destination files, the
              more time-honored options of "--include='*/' --exclude='*'"
              would work fine in place of the hide-filter (if that is more
              natural to you).

              This option tells rsync to print information showing the
              progress of the transfer. This gives a bored user something to
              watch.  With a modern rsync this is the same as specifying
              --info=flist2,name,progress, but any user-supplied settings for
              those info flags takes precedence (e.g. "--info=flist0

              While rsync is transferring a regular file, it updates a
              progress line that looks like this:

                    782448  63%  110.64kB/s    0:00:04

              In this example, the receiver has reconstructed 782448 bytes or
              63% of the sender's file, which is being reconstructed at a rate
              of 110.64 kilobytes per second, and the transfer will finish in
              4 seconds if the current rate is maintained until the end.

              These statistics can be misleading if rsync's delta-transfer
              algorithm is in use.  For example, if the sender's file consists
              of the basis file followed by additional data, the reported rate
              will probably drop dramatically when the receiver gets to the
              literal data, and the transfer will probably take much longer to
              finish than the receiver estimated as it was finishing the
              matched part of the file.

              When the file transfer finishes, rsync replaces the progress
              line with a summary line that looks like this:

                    1,238,099 100%  146.38kB/s    0:00:08  (xfr#5, to-chk=169/396)

              In this example, the file was 1,238,099 bytes long in total, the
              average rate of transfer for the whole file was 146.38 kilobytes
              per second over the 8 seconds that it took to complete, it was
              the 5th transfer of a regular file during the current rsync
              session, and there are 169 more files for the receiver to check
              (to see if they are up-to-date or not) remaining out of the 396
              total files in the file-list.

              In an incremental recursion scan, rsync won't know the total
              number of files in the file-list until it reaches the ends of
              the scan, but since it starts to transfer files during the scan,
              it will display a line with the text "ir-chk" (for incremental
              recursion check) instead of "to-chk" until the point that it
              knows the full size of the list, at which point it will switch
              to using "to-chk".  Thus, seeing "ir-chk" lets you know that the
              total count of files in the file list is still going to increase
              (and each time it does, the count of files left to check  will
              increase by the number of the files added to the list).

       -P     The -P option is equivalent to --partial --progress.  Its
              purpose is to make it much easier to specify these two options
              for a long transfer that may be interrupted.

              There is also a --info=progress2 option that outputs statistics
              based on the whole transfer, rather than individual files.  Use
              this flag without outputting a filename (e.g. avoid -v or
              specify --info=name0 if you want to see how the transfer is
              doing without scrolling the screen with a lot of names.  (You
              don't need to specify the --progress option in order to use

              This option allows you to provide a password for accessing an
              rsync daemon via a file or via standard input if FILE is -.  The
              file should contain just the password on the first line (all
              other lines are ignored).  Rsync will exit with an error if FILE
              is world readable or if a root-run rsync command finds a
              non-root-owned file.

              This option does not supply a password to a remote shell
              transport such as ssh; to learn how to do that, consult the
              remote shell's documentation.  When accessing an rsync daemon
              using a remote shell as the transport, this option only comes
              into effect after the remote shell finishes its authentication
              (i.e. if you have also specified a password in the daemon's
              config file).

              This option will cause the source files to be listed instead of
              transferred.  This option is inferred if there is a single
              source arg and no destination specified, so its main uses are:
              (1) to turn a copy command that includes a destination arg into
              a file-listing command, or (2) to be able to specify more than
              one source arg (note: be sure to include the destination).
              Caution: keep in mind that a source arg with a wild-card is
              expanded by the shell into multiple args, so it is never safe to
              try to list such an arg without using this option.  For example:

                  rsync -av --list-only foo* dest/

              Starting with rsync 3.1.0, the sizes output by --list-only are
              affected by the --human-readable option.  By default they will
              contain digit separators, but higher levels of readability will
              output the sizes with unit suffixes.  Note also that the column
              width for the size output has increased from 11 to 14 characters
              for all human-readable levels.  Use --no-h if you want just
              digits in the sizes, and the old column width of 11 characters.

              Compatibility note:  when requesting a remote listing of files
              from an rsync that is version 2.6.3 or older, you may encounter
              an error if you ask for a non-recursive listing.  This is
              because a file listing implies the --dirs option w/o
              --recursive, and older rsyncs don't have that option.  To avoid
              this problem, either specify the --no-dirs option (if you don't
              need to expand a directory's content), or turn on recursion and
              exclude the content of subdirectories: -r --exclude='/*/*'.

              This option allows you to specify the maximum transfer rate for
              the data sent over the socket, specified in units per second.
              The RATE value can be suffixed with a string to indicate a size
              multiplier, and may be a fractional value (e.g.
              "--bwlimit=1.5m").  If no suffix is specified, the value will be
              assumed to be in units of 1024 bytes (as if "K" or "KiB" had
              been appended).  See the --max-size option for a description of
              all the available suffixes. A value of zero specifies no limit.

              For backward-compatibility reasons, the rate limit will be
              rounded to the nearest KiB unit, so no rate smaller than 1024
              bytes per second is possible.

              Rsync writes data over the socket in blocks, and this option
              both limits the size of the blocks that rsync writes, and tries
              to keep the average transfer rate at the requested limit.  Some
              "burstiness" may be seen where rsync writes out a block of data
              and then sleeps to bring the average rate into compliance.

              Due to the internal buffering of data, the --progress option may
              not be an accurate reflection on how fast the data is being
              sent.  This is because some files can show up as being rapidly
              sent when the data is quickly buffered, while other can show up
              as very slow when the flushing of the output buffer occurs.
              This may be fixed in a future version.

              Record a file that can later be applied to another identical
              destination with --read-batch. See the "BATCH MODE" section for
              details, and also the --only-write-batch option.

              Works like --write-batch, except that no updates are made on the
              destination system when creating the batch.  This lets you
              transport the changes to the destination system via some other
              means and then apply the changes via --read-batch.

              Note that you can feel free to write the batch directly to some
              portable media: if this media fills to capacity before the end
              of the transfer, you can just apply that partial transfer to the
              destination and repeat the whole process to get the rest of the
              changes (as long as you don't mind a partially updated
              destination system while the multi-update cycle is happening).

              Also note that you only save bandwidth when pushing changes to a
              remote system because this allows the batched data to be
              diverted from the sender into the batch file without having to
              flow over the wire to the receiver (when pulling, the sender is
              remote, and thus can't write the batch).

              Apply all of the changes stored in FILE, a file previously
              generated by --write-batch.  If FILE is -, the batch data will
              be read from standard input.  See the "BATCH MODE" section for

              Force an older protocol version to be used.  This is useful for
              creating a batch file that is compatible with an older version
              of rsync.  For instance, if rsync 2.6.4 is being used with the
              --write-batch option, but rsync 2.6.3 is what will be used to
              run the --read-batch option, you should use "--protocol=28" when
              creating the batch file to force the older protocol version to
              be used in the batch file (assuming you can't upgrade the rsync
              on the reading system).

              Rsync can convert filenames between character sets using this
              option.  Using a CONVERT_SPEC of "." tells rsync to look up the
              default character-set via the locale setting.  Alternately, you
              can fully specify what conversion to do by giving a local and a
              remote charset separated by a comma in the order
              --iconv=LOCAL,REMOTE, e.g.  --iconv=utf8,iso88591.  This order
              ensures that the option will stay the same whether you're
              pushing or pulling files.  Finally, you can specify either
              --no-iconv or a CONVERT_SPEC of "-" to turn off any conversion.
              The default setting of this option is site-specific, and can
              also be affected via the RSYNC_ICONV environment variable.

              For a list of what charset names your local iconv library
              supports, you can run "iconv --list".

              If you specify the --protect-args option (-s), rsync will
              translate the filenames you specify on the command-line that are
              being sent to the remote host.  See also the --files-from

              Note that rsync does not do any conversion of names in filter
              files (including include/exclude files).  It is up to you to
              ensure that you're specifying matching rules that can match on
              both sides of the transfer.  For instance, you can specify extra
              include/exclude rules if there are filename differences on the
              two sides that need to be accounted for.

              When you pass an --iconv option to an rsync daemon that allows
              it, the daemon uses the charset specified in its "charset"
              configuration parameter regardless of the remote charset you
              actually pass.  Thus, you may feel free to specify just the
              local charset for a daemon transfer (e.g. --iconv=utf8).

       -4, --ipv4 or -6, --ipv6
              Tells rsync to prefer IPv4/IPv6 when creating sockets.  This
              only affects sockets that rsync has direct control over, such as
              the outgoing socket when directly contacting an rsync daemon.
              See also these options in the --daemon mode section.

              If rsync was complied without support for IPv6, the --ipv6
              option will have no effect.  The --version output will tell you
              if this is the case.

              Set the checksum seed to the integer NUM.  This 4 byte checksum
              seed is included in each block and MD4 file checksum calculation
              (the more modern MD5 file checksums don't use a seed).  By
              default the checksum seed is generated by the server and
              defaults to the current time() .  This option is used to set a
              specific checksum seed, which is useful for applications that
              want repeatable block checksums, or in the case where the user
              wants a more random checksum seed.  Setting NUM to 0 causes
              rsync to use the default of time() for checksum seed.

       The options allowed when starting an rsync daemon are as follows:

              This tells rsync that it is to run as a daemon.  The daemon you
              start running may be accessed using an rsync client using the
              host::module or rsync://host/module/ syntax.

              If standard input is a socket then rsync will assume that it is
              being run via inetd, otherwise it will detach from the current
              terminal and become a background daemon.  The daemon will read
              the config file (rsyncd.conf) on each connect made by a client
              and respond to requests accordingly.  See the rsyncd.conf(5) man
              page for more details.

              By default rsync will bind to the wildcard address when run as a
              daemon with the --daemon option.  The --address option allows
              you to specify a specific IP address (or hostname) to bind to.
              This makes virtual hosting possible in conjunction with the
              --config option.  See also the "address" global option in the
              rsyncd.conf manpage.

              This option allows you to specify the maximum transfer rate for
              the data the daemon sends over the socket.  The client can still
              specify a smaller --bwlimit value, but no larger value will be
              allowed.  See the client version of this option (above) for some
              extra details.

              This specifies an alternate config file than the default.  This
              is only relevant when --daemon is specified.  The default is
              /usr/local/etc/rsync/rsyncd.conf unless the daemon is running
              over a remote shell program and the remote user is not the
              super-user; in that case the default is rsyncd.conf in the
              current directory (typically $HOME).

       -M, --dparam=OVERRIDE
              This option can be used to set a daemon-config parameter when
              starting up rsync in daemon mode.  It is equivalent to adding
              the parameter at the end of the global settings prior to the
              first module's definition.  The parameter names can be specified
              without spaces, if you so desire.  For instance:

                  rsync --daemon -M pidfile=/path/

              When running as a daemon, this option instructs rsync to not
              detach itself and become a background process.  This option is
              required when running as a service on Cygwin, and may also be
              useful when rsync is supervised by a program such as daemontools
              or AIX's System Resource Controller.  --no-detach is also
              recommended when rsync is run under a debugger.  This option has
              no effect if rsync is run from inetd or sshd.

              This specifies an alternate TCP port number for the daemon to
              listen on rather than the default of 873.  See also the "port"
              global option in the rsyncd.conf manpage.

              This option tells the rsync daemon to use the given log-file
              name instead of using the "log file" setting in the config file.

              This option tells the rsync daemon to use the given FORMAT
              string instead of using the "log format" setting in the config
              file.  It also enables "transfer logging" unless the string is
              empty, in which case transfer logging is turned off.

              This overrides the socket options setting in the rsyncd.conf
              file and has the same syntax.

       -v, --verbose
              This option increases the amount of information the daemon logs
              during its startup phase.  After the client connects, the
              daemon's verbosity level will be controlled by the options that
              the client used and the "max verbosity" setting in the module's
              config section.

       -4, --ipv4 or -6, --ipv6
              Tells rsync to prefer IPv4/IPv6 when creating the incoming
              sockets that the rsync daemon will use to listen for
              connections.  One of these options may be required in older
              versions of Linux to work around an IPv6 bug in the kernel (if
              you see an "address already in use" error when nothing else is
              using the port, try specifying --ipv6 or --ipv4 when starting
              the daemon).

              If rsync was complied without support for IPv6, the --ipv6
              option will have no effect.  The --version output will tell you
              if this is the case.

       -h, --help
              When specified after --daemon, print a short help page
              describing the options available for starting an rsync daemon.

       The filter rules allow for flexible selection of which files to
       transfer (include) and which files to skip (exclude).  The rules either
       directly specify include/exclude patterns or they specify a way to
       acquire more include/exclude patterns (e.g. to read them from a file).

       As the list of files/directories to transfer is built, rsync checks
       each name to be transferred against the list of include/exclude
       patterns in turn, and the first matching pattern is acted on:  if it is
       an exclude pattern, then that file is skipped; if it is an include
       pattern then that filename is not skipped; if no matching pattern is
       found, then the filename is not skipped.

       Rsync builds an ordered list of filter rules as specified on the
       command-line.  Filter rules have the following syntax:


       You have your choice of using either short or long RULE names, as
       described below.  If you use a short-named rule, the ',' separating the
       RULE from the MODIFIERS is optional.  The PATTERN or FILENAME that
       follows (when present) must come after either a single space or an
       underscore (_).  Here are the available rule prefixes:

              exclude, - specifies an exclude pattern.
              include, + specifies an include pattern.
              merge, . specifies a merge-file to read for more rules.
              dir-merge, : specifies a per-directory merge-file.
              hide, H specifies a pattern for hiding files from the transfer.
              show, S files that match the pattern are not hidden.
              protect, P specifies a pattern for protecting files from
              risk, R files that match the pattern are not protected.
              clear, ! clears the current include/exclude list (takes no arg)

       When rules are being read from a file, empty lines are ignored, as are
       comment lines that start with a "#".

       Note that the --include/--exclude command-line options do not allow the
       full range of rule parsing as described above -- they only allow the
       specification of include/exclude patterns plus a "!" token to clear the
       list (and the normal comment parsing when rules are read from a file).
       If a pattern does not begin with "- " (dash, space) or "+ " (plus,
       space), then the rule will be interpreted as if "+ " (for an include
       option) or "- " (for an exclude option) were prefixed to the string.  A
       --filter option, on the other hand, must always contain either a short
       or long rule name at the start of the rule.

       Note also that the --filter, --include, and --exclude options take one
       rule/pattern each. To add multiple ones, you can repeat the options on
       the command-line, use the merge-file syntax of the --filter option, or
       the --include-from/--exclude-from options.

       You can include and exclude files by specifying patterns using the "+",
       "-", etc. filter rules (as introduced in the FILTER RULES section
       above).  The include/exclude rules each specify a pattern that is
       matched against the names of the files that are going to be
       transferred.  These patterns can take several forms:

       o      if the pattern starts with a / then it is anchored to a
              particular spot in the hierarchy of files, otherwise it is
              matched against the end of the pathname.  This is similar to a
              leading ^ in regular expressions.  Thus "/foo" would match a
              name of "foo" at either the "root of the transfer" (for a global
              rule) or in the merge-file's directory (for a per-directory
              rule).  An unqualified "foo" would match a name of "foo"
              anywhere in the tree because the algorithm is applied
              recursively from the top down; it behaves as if each path
              component gets a turn at being the end of the filename.  Even
              the unanchored "sub/foo" would match at any point in the
              hierarchy where a "foo" was found within a directory named
              "sub".  See the section on ANCHORING INCLUDE/EXCLUDE PATTERNS
              for a full discussion of how to specify a pattern that matches
              at the root of the transfer.

       o      if the pattern ends with a / then it will only match a
              directory, not a regular file, symlink, or device.

       o      rsync chooses between doing a simple string match and wildcard
              matching by checking if the pattern contains one of these three
              wildcard characters: '*', '?', and '[' .

       o      a '*' matches any path component, but it stops at slashes.

       o      use '**' to match anything, including slashes.

       o      a '?' matches any character except a slash (/).

       o      a '[' introduces a character class, such as [a-z] or

       o      in a wildcard pattern, a backslash can be used to escape a
              wildcard character, but it is matched literally when no
              wildcards are present.  This means that there is an extra level
              of backslash removal when a pattern contains wildcard characters
              compared to a pattern that has none.  e.g. if you add a wildcard
              to "foo\bar" (which matches the backslash) you would need to use
              "foo\\bar*" to avoid the "\b" becoming just "b".

       o      if the pattern contains a / (not counting a trailing /) or a
              "**", then it is matched against the full pathname, including
              any leading directories. If the pattern doesn't contain a / or a
              "**", then it is matched only against the final component of the
              filename.  (Remember that the algorithm is applied recursively
              so "full filename" can actually be any portion of a path from
              the starting directory on down.)

       o      a trailing "dir_name/***" will match both the directory (as if
              "dir_name/" had been specified) and everything in the directory
              (as if "dir_name/**" had been specified).  This behavior was
              added in version 2.6.7.

       Note that, when using the --recursive (-r) option (which is implied by
       -a), every subcomponent of every path is visited from the top down, so
       include/exclude patterns get applied recursively to each subcomponent's
       full name (e.g. to include "/foo/bar/baz" the subcomponents "/foo" and
       "/foo/bar" must not be excluded).  The exclude patterns actually
       short-circuit the directory traversal stage when rsync finds the files
       to send.  If a pattern excludes a particular parent directory, it can
       render a deeper include pattern ineffectual because rsync did not
       descend through that excluded section of the hierarchy.  This is
       particularly important when using a trailing '*' rule.  For instance,
       this won't work:

              + /some/path/this-file-will-not-be-found
              + /file-is-included
              - *

       This fails because the parent directory "some" is excluded by the '*'
       rule, so rsync never visits any of the files in the "some" or
       "some/path" directories.  One solution is to ask for all directories in
       the hierarchy to be included by using a single rule: "+ */" (put it
       somewhere before the "- *" rule), and perhaps use the
       --prune-empty-dirs option.  Another solution is to add specific include
       rules for all the parent dirs that need to be visited.  For instance,
       this set of rules works fine:

              + /some/
              + /some/path/
              + /some/path/this-file-is-found
              + /file-also-included
              - *

       Here are some examples of exclude/include matching:

       o      "- *.o" would exclude all names matching *.o

       o      "- /foo" would exclude a file (or directory) named foo in the
              transfer-root directory

       o      "- foo/" would exclude any directory named foo

       o      "- /foo/*/bar" would exclude any file named bar which is at two
              levels below a directory named foo in the transfer-root

       o      "- /foo/**/bar" would exclude any file named bar two or more
              levels below a directory named foo in the transfer-root

       o      The combination of "+ */", "+ *.c", and "- *" would include all
              directories and C source files but nothing else (see also the
              --prune-empty-dirs option)

       o      The combination of "+ foo/", "+ foo/bar.c", and "- *" would
              include only the foo directory and foo/bar.c (the foo directory
              must be explicitly included or it would be excluded by the "*")

       The following modifiers are accepted after a "+" or "-":

       o      A / specifies that the include/exclude rule should be matched
              against the absolute pathname of the current item.  For example,
              "-/ /usr/local/etc/rsync/passwd" would exclude the passwd file
              any time the transfer was sending files from the "/etc"
              directory, and "-/ subdir/foo" would always exclude "foo" when
              it is in a dir named "subdir", even if "foo" is at the root of
              the current transfer.

       o      A ! specifies that the include/exclude should take effect if the
              pattern fails to match.  For instance, "-! */" would exclude all

       o      A C is used to indicate that all the global CVS-exclude rules
              should be inserted as excludes in place of the "-C".  No arg
              should follow.

       o      An s is used to indicate that the rule applies to the sending
              side.  When a rule affects the sending side, it prevents files
              from being transferred.  The default is for a rule to affect
              both sides unless --delete-excluded was specified, in which case
              default rules become sender-side only.  See also the hide (H)
              and show (S) rules, which are an alternate way to specify
              sending-side includes/excludes.

       o      An r is used to indicate that the rule applies to the receiving
              side.  When a rule affects the receiving side, it prevents files
              from being deleted.  See the s modifier for more info.  See also
              the protect (P) and risk (R) rules, which are an alternate way
              to specify receiver-side includes/excludes.

       o      A p indicates that a rule is perishable, meaning that it is
              ignored in directories that are being deleted.  For instance,
              the -C option's default rules that exclude things like "CVS" and
              "*.o" are marked as perishable, and will not prevent a directory
              that was removed on the source from being deleted on the

       You can merge whole files into your filter rules by specifying either a
       merge (.) or a dir-merge (:) filter rule (as introduced in the FILTER
       RULES section above).

       There are two kinds of merged files -- single-instance ('.') and
       per-directory (':').  A single-instance merge file is read one time,
       and its rules are incorporated into the filter list in the place of the
       "." rule.  For per-directory merge files, rsync will scan every
       directory that it traverses for the named file, merging its contents
       when the file exists into the current list of inherited rules.  These
       per-directory rule files must be created on the sending side because it
       is the sending side that is being scanned for the available files to
       transfer.  These rule files may also need to be transferred to the
       receiving side if you want them to affect what files don't get deleted

       Some examples:

              merge /usr/local/etc/rsync/rsync/default.rules
              . /usr/local/etc/rsync/rsync/default.rules
              dir-merge .per-dir-filter
              dir-merge,n- .non-inherited-per-dir-excludes
              :n- .non-inherited-per-dir-excludes

       The following modifiers are accepted after a merge or dir-merge rule:

       o      A - specifies that the file should consist of only exclude
              patterns, with no other rule-parsing except for in-file

       o      A + specifies that the file should consist of only include
              patterns, with no other rule-parsing except for in-file

       o      A C is a way to specify that the file should be read in a
              CVS-compatible manner.  This turns on 'n', 'w', and '-', but
              also allows the list-clearing token (!) to be specified.  If no
              filename is provided, ".cvsignore" is assumed.

       o      A e will exclude the merge-file name from the transfer; e.g.
              "dir-merge,e .rules" is like "dir-merge .rules" and "- .rules".

       o      An n specifies that the rules are not inherited by

       o      A w specifies that the rules are word-split on whitespace
              instead of the normal line-splitting.  This also turns off
              comments.  Note: the space that separates the prefix from the
              rule is treated specially, so "- foo + bar" is parsed as two
              rules (assuming that prefix-parsing wasn't also disabled).

       o      You may also specify any of the modifiers for the "+" or "-"
              rules (above) in order to have the rules that are read in from
              the file default to having that modifier set (except for the !
              modifier, which would not be useful).  For instance, "merge,-/
              .excl" would treat the contents of .excl as absolute-path
              excludes, while "dir-merge,s .filt" and ":sC" would each make
              all their per-directory rules apply only on the sending side.
              If the merge rule specifies sides to affect (via the s or r
              modifier or both), then the rules in the file must not specify
              sides (via a modifier or a rule prefix such as hide).

       Per-directory rules are inherited in all subdirectories of the
       directory where the merge-file was found unless the 'n' modifier was
       used.  Each subdirectory's rules are prefixed to the inherited
       per-directory rules from its parents, which gives the newest rules a
       higher priority than the inherited rules.  The entire set of dir-merge
       rules are grouped together in the spot where the merge-file was
       specified, so it is possible to override dir-merge rules via a rule
       that got specified earlier in the list of global rules.  When the
       list-clearing rule ("!") is read from a per-directory file, it only
       clears the inherited rules for the current merge file.

       Another way to prevent a single rule from a dir-merge file from being
       inherited is to anchor it with a leading slash.  Anchored rules in a
       per-directory merge-file are relative to the merge-file's directory, so
       a pattern "/foo" would only match the file "foo" in the directory where
       the dir-merge filter file was found.

       Here's an example filter file which you'd specify via --filter=".

              merge /home/user/.global-filter
              - *.gz
              dir-merge .rules
              + *.[ch]
              - *.o

       This will merge the contents of the /home/user/.global-filter file at
       the start of the list and also turns the ".rules" filename into a
       per-directory filter file.  All rules read in prior to the start of the
       directory scan follow the global anchoring rules (i.e. a leading slash
       matches at the root of the transfer).

       If a per-directory merge-file is specified with a path that is a parent
       directory of the first transfer directory, rsync will scan all the
       parent dirs from that starting point to the transfer directory for the
       indicated per-directory file.  For instance, here is a common filter
       (see -F):

              --filter=': /.rsync-filter'

       That rule tells rsync to scan for the file .rsync-filter in all
       directories from the root down through the parent directory of the
       transfer prior to the start of the normal directory scan of the file in
       the directories that are sent as a part of the transfer.  (Note: for an
       rsync daemon, the root is always the same as the module's "path".)

       Some examples of this pre-scanning for per-directory files:

              rsync -avF /src/path/ /dest/dir
              rsync -av --filter=': ../../.rsync-filter' /src/path/ /dest/dir
              rsync -av --filter=': .rsync-filter' /src/path/ /dest/dir

       The first two commands above will look for ".rsync-filter" in "/" and
       "/src" before the normal scan begins looking for the file in
       "/src/path" and its subdirectories.  The last command avoids the
       parent-dir scan and only looks for the ".rsync-filter" files in each
       directory that is a part of the transfer.

       If you want to include the contents of a ".cvsignore" in your patterns,
       you should use the rule ":C", which creates a dir-merge of the
       .cvsignore file, but parsed in a CVS-compatible manner.  You can use
       this to affect where the --cvs-exclude (-C) option's inclusion of the
       per-directory .cvsignore file gets placed into your rules by putting
       the ":C" wherever you like in your filter rules.  Without this, rsync
       would add the dir-merge rule for the .cvsignore file at the end of all
       your other rules (giving it a lower priority than your command-line
       rules).  For example:

              cat <<EOT | rsync -avC --filter='. -' a/ b
              + foo.o
              - *.old
              rsync -avC --include=foo.o -f :C --exclude='*.old' a/ b

       Both of the above rsync commands are identical.  Each one will merge
       all the per-directory .cvsignore rules in the middle of the list rather
       than at the end.  This allows their dir-specific rules to supersede the
       rules that follow the :C instead of being subservient to all your
       rules.  To affect the other CVS exclude rules (i.e. the default list of
       exclusions, the contents of $HOME/.cvsignore, and the value of
       $CVSIGNORE) you should omit the -C command-line option and instead
       insert a "-C" rule into your filter rules; e.g. "--filter=-C".

       You can clear the current include/exclude list by using the "!" filter
       rule (as introduced in the FILTER RULES section above).  The "current"
       list is either the global list of rules (if the rule is encountered
       while parsing the filter options) or a set of per-directory rules
       (which are inherited in their own sub-list, so a subdirectory can use
       this to clear out the parent's rules).

       As mentioned earlier, global include/exclude patterns are anchored at
       the "root of the transfer" (as opposed to per-directory patterns, which
       are anchored at the merge-file's directory).  If you think of the
       transfer as a subtree of names that are being sent from sender to
       receiver, the transfer-root is where the tree starts to be duplicated
       in the destination directory.  This root governs where patterns that
       start with a / match.

       Because the matching is relative to the transfer-root, changing the
       trailing slash on a source path or changing your use of the --relative
       option affects the path you need to use in your matching (in addition
       to changing how much of the file tree is duplicated on the destination
       host).  The following examples demonstrate this.

       Let's say that we want to match two source files, one with an absolute
       path of "/home/me/foo/bar", and one with a path of "/home/you/bar/baz".
       Here is how the various command choices differ for a 2-source transfer:

              Example cmd: rsync -a /home/me /home/you /dest
              +/- pattern: /me/foo/bar
              +/- pattern: /you/bar/baz
              Target file: /dest/me/foo/bar
              Target file: /dest/you/bar/baz

              Example cmd: rsync -a /home/me/ /home/you/ /dest
              +/- pattern: /foo/bar               (note missing "me")
              +/- pattern: /bar/baz               (note missing "you")
              Target file: /dest/foo/bar
              Target file: /dest/bar/baz

              Example cmd: rsync -a --relative /home/me/ /home/you /dest
              +/- pattern: /home/me/foo/bar       (note full path)
              +/- pattern: /home/you/bar/baz      (ditto)
              Target file: /dest/home/me/foo/bar
              Target file: /dest/home/you/bar/baz

              Example cmd: cd /home; rsync -a --relative me/foo you/ /dest
              +/- pattern: /me/foo/bar      (starts at specified path)
              +/- pattern: /you/bar/baz     (ditto)
              Target file: /dest/me/foo/bar
              Target file: /dest/you/bar/baz

       The easiest way to see what name you should filter is to just look at
       the output when using --verbose and put a / in front of the name (use
       the --dry-run option if you're not yet ready to copy any files).

       Without a delete option, per-directory rules are only relevant on the
       sending side, so you can feel free to exclude the merge files
       themselves without affecting the transfer.  To make this easy, the 'e'
       modifier adds this exclude for you, as seen in these two equivalent

              rsync -av --filter=': .excl' --exclude=.excl host:src/dir /dest
              rsync -av --filter=':e .excl' host:src/dir /dest

       However, if you want to do a delete on the receiving side AND you want
       some files to be excluded from being deleted, you'll need to be sure
       that the receiving side knows what files to exclude.  The easiest way
       is to include the per-directory merge files in the transfer and use
       --delete-after, because this ensures that the receiving side gets all
       the same exclude rules as the sending side before it tries to delete

              rsync -avF --delete-after host:src/dir /dest

       However, if the merge files are not a part of the transfer, you'll need
       to either specify some global exclude rules (i.e. specified on the
       command line), or you'll need to maintain your own per-directory merge
       files on the receiving side.  An example of the first is this (assume
       that the remote .rules files exclude themselves):

       rsync -av --filter=': .rules' --filter='. /my/extra.rules'
          --delete host:src/dir /dest

       In the above example the extra.rules file can affect both sides of the
       transfer, but (on the sending side) the rules are subservient to the
       rules merged from the .rules files because they were specified after
       the per-directory merge rule.

       In one final example, the remote side is excluding the .rsync-filter
       files from the transfer, but we want to use our own .rsync-filter files
       to control what gets deleted on the receiving side.  To do this we must
       specifically exclude the per-directory merge files (so that they don't
       get deleted) and then put rules into the local files to control what
       else should not get deleted.  Like one of these commands:

           rsync -av --filter=':e /.rsync-filter' --delete \
               host:src/dir /dest
           rsync -avFF --delete host:src/dir /dest

       Batch mode can be used to apply the same set of updates to many
       identical systems. Suppose one has a tree which is replicated on a
       number of hosts.  Now suppose some changes have been made to this
       source tree and those changes need to be propagated to the other hosts.
       In order to do this using batch mode, rsync is run with the write-batch
       option to apply the changes made to the source tree to one of the
       destination trees.  The write-batch option causes the rsync client to
       store in a "batch file" all the information needed to repeat this
       operation against other, identical destination trees.

       Generating the batch file once saves having to perform the file status,
       checksum, and data block generation more than once when updating
       multiple destination trees. Multicast transport protocols can be used
       to transfer the batch update files in parallel to many hosts at once,
       instead of sending the same data to every host individually.

       To apply the recorded changes to another destination tree, run rsync
       with the read-batch option, specifying the name of the same batch file,
       and the destination tree.  Rsync updates the destination tree using the
       information stored in the batch file.

       For your convenience, a script file is also created when the
       write-batch option is used:  it will be named the same as the batch
       file with ".sh" appended.  This script file contains a command-line
       suitable for updating a destination tree using the associated batch
       file. It can be executed using a Bourne (or Bourne-like) shell,
       optionally passing in an alternate destination tree pathname which is
       then used instead of the original destination path.  This is useful
       when the destination tree path on the current host differs from the one
       used to create the batch file.


              $ rsync --write-batch=foo -a host:/source/dir/ /adest/dir/
              $ scp foo* remote:
              $ ssh remote ./ /bdest/dir/

              $ rsync --write-batch=foo -a /source/dir/ /adest/dir/
              $ ssh remote rsync --read-batch=- -a /bdest/dir/ <foo

       In these examples, rsync is used to update /adest/dir/ from
       /source/dir/ and the information to repeat this operation is stored in
       "foo" and "".  The host "remote" is then updated with the batched
       data going into the directory /bdest/dir.  The differences between the
       two examples reveals some of the flexibility you have in how you deal
       with batches:

       o      The first example shows that the initial copy doesn't have to be
              local -- you can push or pull data to/from a remote host using
              either the remote-shell syntax or rsync daemon syntax, as

       o      The first example uses the created "" file to get the
              right rsync options when running the read-batch command on the
              remote host.

       o      The second example reads the batch data via standard input so
              that the batch file doesn't need to be copied to the remote
              machine first.  This example avoids the script because it
              needed to use a modified --read-batch option, but you could edit
              the script file if you wished to make use of it (just be sure
              that no other option is trying to use standard input, such as
              the "--exclude-from=-" option).


       The read-batch option expects the destination tree that it is updating
       to be identical to the destination tree that was used to create the
       batch update fileset.  When a difference between the destination trees
       is encountered the update might be discarded with a warning (if the
       file appears to be up-to-date already) or the file-update may be
       attempted and then, if the file fails to verify, the update discarded
       with an error.  This means that it should be safe to re-run a
       read-batch operation if the command got interrupted.  If you wish to
       force the batched-update to always be attempted regardless of the
       file's size and date, use the -I option (when reading the batch).  If
       an error occurs, the destination tree will probably be in a partially
       updated state. In that case, rsync can be used in its regular
       (non-batch) mode of operation to fix up the destination tree.

       The rsync version used on all destinations must be at least as new as
       the one used to generate the batch file.  Rsync will die with an error
       if the protocol version in the batch file is too new for the
       batch-reading rsync to handle.  See also the --protocol option for a
       way to have the creating rsync generate a batch file that an older
       rsync can understand.  (Note that batch files changed format in version
       2.6.3, so mixing versions older than that with newer versions will not

       When reading a batch file, rsync will force the value of certain
       options to match the data in the batch file if you didn't set them to
       the same as the batch-writing command.  Other options can (and should)
       be changed.  For instance --write-batch changes to --read-batch,
       --files-from is dropped, and the --filter/--include/--exclude options
       are not needed unless one of the --delete options is specified.

       The code that creates the file transforms any
       filter/include/exclude options into a single list that is appended as a
       "here" document to the shell script file.  An advanced user can use
       this to modify the exclude list if a change in what gets deleted by
       --delete is desired.  A normal user can ignore this detail and just use
       the shell script as an easy way to run the appropriate --read-batch
       command for the batched data.

       The original batch mode in rsync was based on "rsync+", but the latest
       version uses a new implementation.

       Three basic behaviors are possible when rsync encounters a symbolic
       link in the source directory.

       By default, symbolic links are not transferred at all.  A message
       "skipping non-regular" file is emitted for any symlinks that exist.

       If --links is specified, then symlinks are recreated with the same
       target on the destination.  Note that --archive implies --links.

       If --copy-links is specified, then symlinks are "collapsed" by copying
       their referent, rather than the symlink.

       Rsync can also distinguish "safe" and "unsafe" symbolic links.  An
       example where this might be used is a web site mirror that wishes to
       ensure that the rsync module that is copied does not include symbolic
       links to /usr/local/etc/rsync/passwd in the public section of the site.
       Using --copy-unsafe-links will cause any links to be copied as the file
       they point to on the destination.  Using --safe-links will cause unsafe
       links to be omitted altogether.  (Note that you must specify --links
       for --safe-links to have any effect.)

       Symbolic links are considered unsafe if they are absolute symlinks
       (start with /), empty, or if they contain enough ".." components to
       ascend from the directory being copied.

       Here's a summary of how the symlink options are interpreted.  The list
       is in order of precedence, so if your combination of options isn't
       mentioned, use the first line that is a complete subset of your

              Turn all symlinks into normal files (leaving no symlinks for any
              other options to affect).

       --links --copy-unsafe-links
              Turn all unsafe symlinks into files and duplicate all safe

              Turn all unsafe symlinks into files, noisily skip all safe

       --links --safe-links
              Duplicate safe symlinks and skip unsafe ones.

              Duplicate all symlinks.

       rsync occasionally produces error messages that may seem a little
       cryptic. The one that seems to cause the most confusion is "protocol
       version mismatch -- is your shell clean?".

       This message is usually caused by your startup scripts or remote shell
       facility producing unwanted garbage on the stream that rsync is using
       for its transport. The way to diagnose this problem is to run your
       remote shell like this:

              ssh remotehost /bin/true > out.dat

       then look at out.dat. If everything is working correctly then out.dat
       should be a zero length file. If you are getting the above error from
       rsync then you will probably find that out.dat contains some text or
       data. Look at the contents and try to work out what is producing it.
       The most common cause is incorrectly configured shell startup scripts
       (such as .cshrc or .profile) that contain output statements for
       non-interactive logins.

       If you are having trouble debugging filter patterns, then try
       specifying the -vv option.  At this level of verbosity rsync will show
       why each individual file is included or excluded.

       0      Success

       1      Syntax or usage error

       2      Protocol incompatibility

       3      Errors selecting input/output files, dirs

       4      Requested action not supported: an attempt was made to
              manipulate 64-bit files on a platform that cannot support them;
              or an option was specified that is supported by the client and
              not by the server.

       5      Error starting client-server protocol

       6      Daemon unable to append to log-file

       10     Error in socket I/O

       11     Error in file I/O

       12     Error in rsync protocol data stream

       13     Errors with program diagnostics

       14     Error in IPC code

       20     Received SIGUSR1 or SIGINT

       21     Some error returned by waitpid()

       22     Error allocating core memory buffers

       23     Partial transfer due to error

       24     Partial transfer due to vanished source files

       25     The --max-delete limit stopped deletions

       30     Timeout in data send/receive

       35     Timeout waiting for daemon connection

              The CVSIGNORE environment variable supplements any ignore
              patterns in .cvsignore files. See the --cvs-exclude option for
              more details.

              Specify a default --iconv setting using this environment
              variable. (First supported in 3.0.0.)

              Specify a non-zero numeric value if you want the --protect-args
              option to be enabled by default, or a zero value to make sure
              that it is disabled by default. (First supported in 3.1.0.)

              The RSYNC_RSH environment variable allows you to override the
              default shell used as the transport for rsync.  Command line
              options are permitted after the command name, just as in the -e

              The RSYNC_PROXY environment variable allows you to redirect your
              rsync client to use a web proxy when connecting to a rsync
              daemon. You should set RSYNC_PROXY to a hostname:port pair.

              Setting RSYNC_PASSWORD to the required password allows you to
              run authenticated rsync connections to an rsync daemon without
              user intervention. Note that this does not supply a password to
              a remote shell transport such as ssh; to learn how to do that,
              consult the remote shell's documentation.

       USER or LOGNAME
              The USER or LOGNAME environment variables are used to determine
              the default username sent to an rsync daemon.  If neither is
              set, the username defaults to "nobody".

       HOME   The HOME environment variable is used to find the user's default
              .cvsignore file.

       /usr/local/etc/rsync/rsyncd.conf or rsyncd.conf


       times are transferred as *nix time_t values

       When transferring to FAT filesystems rsync may re-sync unmodified
       files.  See the comments on the --modify-window option.

       file permissions, devices, etc. are transferred as native numerical

       see also the comments on the --delete option

       Please report bugs! See the web site at

       This man page is current for version 3.1.1 of rsync.

       The options --server and --sender are used internally by rsync, and
       should never be typed by a user under normal circumstances.  Some
       awareness of these options may be needed in certain scenarios, such as
       when setting up a login that can only run an rsync command.  For
       instance, the support directory of the rsync distribution has an
       example script named rrsync (for restricted rsync) that can be used
       with a restricted ssh login.

       rsync is distributed under the GNU General Public License.  See the
       file COPYING for details.

       A WEB site is available at  The site includes
       an FAQ-O-Matic which may cover questions unanswered by this manual

       The primary ftp site for rsync is

       We would be delighted to hear from you if you like this program.
       Please contact the mailing-list at

       This program uses the excellent zlib compression library written by
       Jean-loup Gailly and Mark Adler.

       Special thanks go out to: John Van Essen, Matt McCutchen, Wesley W.
       Terpstra, David Dykstra, Jos Backus, Sebastian Krahmer, Martin Pool,
       and our gone-but-not-forgotten compadre, J.W. Schultz.

       Thanks also to Richard Brent, Brendan Mackay, Bill Waite, Stephen
       Rothwell and David Bell.  I've probably missed some people, my
       apologies if I have.

       rsync was originally written by Andrew Tridgell and Paul Mackerras.
       Many people have later contributed to it.  It is currently maintained
       by Wayne Davison.

       Mailing lists for support and development are available at

                                  22 Jun 2014                         rsync(1)


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