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rsync(1)							      rsync(1)

       rsync - a fast, versatile, remote (and local) file-copying tool

       Local:  rsync [OPTION...] SRC...	[DEST]

       Access via remote shell:
	 Pull: rsync [OPTION...] [USER@]HOST:SRC... [DEST]
	 Push: rsync [OPTION...] SRC...	[USER@]HOST:DEST

       Access via rsync	daemon:
	 Pull: rsync [OPTION...] [USER@]HOST::SRC... [DEST]
	       rsync [OPTION...] rsync://[USER@]HOST[:PORT]/SRC... [DEST]
	 Push: rsync [OPTION...] SRC...	[USER@]HOST::DEST
	       rsync [OPTION...] SRC...	rsync://[USER@]HOST[:PORT]/DEST

       Usages with just	one SRC	arg and	no DEST	arg will list the source files
       instead of copying.

       Rsync is	a fast and extraordinarily versatile file  copying  tool.   It
       can  copy  locally,  to/from  another  host  over  any remote shell, or
       to/from a remote	rsync daemon.  It offers a  large  number  of  options
       that  control  every  aspect  of	 its behavior and permit very flexible
       specification of	the set	of files to be copied.	It is famous  for  its
       delta-transfer  algorithm,  which  reduces the amount of	data sent over
       the network by sending only the differences between  the	 source	 files
       and  the	 existing  files in the	destination.  Rsync is widely used for
       backups and mirroring and as an improved	copy command for everyday use.

       Rsync finds files that need to be transferred using a "quick check" al-
       gorithm	(by default) that looks	for files that have changed in size or
       in last-modified	time.  Any changes in the other	 preserved  attributes
       (as  requested  by  options)  are made on the destination file directly
       when the	quick check indicates that the file's data does	not need to be

       Some of the additional features of rsync	are:

       o      support  for copying links, devices, owners, groups, and permis-

       o      exclude and exclude-from options similar to GNU tar

       o      a	CVS exclude mode for ignoring the same files  that  CVS	 would

       o      can use any transparent remote shell, including ssh or rsh

       o      does not require super-user privileges

       o      pipelining of file transfers to minimize latency costs

       o      support  for anonymous or	authenticated rsync daemons (ideal for

       Rsync copies files either to or from a remote host, or locally  on  the
       current	host  (it  does	 not  support copying files between two	remote

       There are two different ways for	rsync to contact a remote system:  us-
       ing  a  remote-shell  program  as the transport (such as	ssh or rsh) or
       contacting an rsync daemon directly via TCP.  The  remote-shell	trans-
       port  is	used whenever the source or destination	path contains a	single
       colon (:) separator after a host	specification.	 Contacting  an	 rsync
       daemon  directly	happens	when the source	or destination path contains a
       double colon (::) separator after a  host  specification,  OR  when  an
       rsync://	 URL  is  specified (see also the "USING RSYNC-DAEMON FEATURES
       VIA A REMOTE-SHELL CONNECTION" section for an exception to this	latter

       As a special case, if a single source arg is specified without a	desti-
       nation, the files are listed in an output format	similar	to "ls -l".

       As expected, if neither the source or destination path specify a	remote
       host, the copy occurs locally (see also the --list-only option).

       Rsync  refers  to the local side	as the "client"	and the	remote side as
       the "server".  Don't confuse "server" with an rsync daemon -- a	daemon
       is  always  a  server,  but  a  server  can be either a daemon or a re-
       mote-shell spawned process.

       See the file README for installation instructions.

       Once installed, you can use rsync to any	machine	that  you  can	access
       via a remote shell (as well as some that	you can	access using the rsync
       daemon-mode protocol).  For remote transfers, a modern rsync  uses  ssh
       for  its	 communications, but it	may have been configured to use	a dif-
       ferent remote shell by default, such as rsh or remsh.

       You can also specify any	remote shell you like, either by using the  -e
       command line option, or by setting the RSYNC_RSH	environment variable.

       Note  that  rsync  must be installed on both the	source and destination

       You use rsync in	the same way you use rcp. You must  specify  a	source
       and a destination, one of which may be remote.

       Perhaps the best	way to explain the syntax is with some examples:

	      rsync -t *.c foo:src/

       This would transfer all files matching the pattern *.c from the current
       directory to the	directory src on the machine foo. If any of the	 files
       already	exist on the remote system then	the rsync remote-update	proto-
       col is used to update the file by sending only the differences  in  the
       data.   Note  that  the expansion of wildcards on the commandline (*.c)
       into a list of files is handled by the shell before it runs  rsync  and
       not  by	rsync  itself  (exactly	the same as all	other posix-style pro-

	      rsync -avz foo:src/bar /data/tmp

       This would recursively transfer all files from the directory src/bar on
       the  machine foo	into the /data/tmp/bar directory on the	local machine.
       The files are transferred in "archive" mode, which  ensures  that  sym-
       bolic  links,  devices,	attributes,  permissions, ownerships, etc. are
       preserved in the	transfer.  Additionally, compression will be  used  to
       reduce the size of data portions	of the transfer.

	      rsync -avz foo:src/bar/ /data/tmp

       A  trailing slash on the	source changes this behavior to	avoid creating
       an additional directory level at	the destination.  You can think	 of  a
       trailing	/ on a source as meaning "copy the contents of this directory"
       as opposed to "copy the directory by name", but in both cases  the  at-
       tributes	 of the	containing directory are transferred to	the containing
       directory on the	destination.  In other words, each  of	the  following
       commands	 copies	 the files in the same way, including their setting of
       the attributes of /dest/foo:

	      rsync -av	/src/foo /dest
	      rsync -av	/src/foo/ /dest/foo

       Note also that host and module  references  don't  require  a  trailing
       slash to	copy the contents of the default directory.  For example, both
       of these	copy the remote	directory's contents into "/dest":

	      rsync -av	host: /dest
	      rsync -av	host::module /dest

       You can also use	rsync in local-only mode, where	both  the  source  and
       destination  don't have a ':' in	the name. In this case it behaves like
       an improved copy	command.

       Finally,	you can	list all the (listable)	modules	available from a  par-
       ticular rsync daemon by leaving off the module name:


       See the following section for more details.

       The  syntax for requesting multiple files from a	remote host is done by
       specifying additional remote-host args in the same style	as the	first,
       or with the hostname omitted.  For instance, all	these work:

	      rsync -av	host:file1 :file2 host:file{3,4} /dest/
	      rsync -av	host::modname/file{1,2}	host::modname/file3 /dest/
	      rsync -av	host::modname/file1 ::modname/file{3,4}

       Older  versions	of rsync required using	quoted spaces in the SRC, like
       these examples:

	      rsync -av	host:'dir1/file1 dir2/file2' /dest
	      rsync host::'modname/dir1/file1 modname/dir2/file2' /dest

       This word-splitting still works (by default) in the latest  rsync,  but
       is not as easy to use as	the first method.

       If  you	need  to transfer a filename that contains whitespace, you can
       either specify the --protect-args (-s) option, or you'll	need to	escape
       the whitespace in a way that the	remote shell will understand.  For in-

	      rsync -av	host:'file\ name\ with\	spaces'	/dest

       It is also possible to use rsync	without	a remote shell as  the	trans-
       port.  In this case you will directly connect to	a remote rsync daemon,
       typically using TCP port	873.  (This obviously requires the  daemon  to
       be running on the remote	system,	so refer to the	STARTING AN RSYNC DAE-
       MON TO ACCEPT CONNECTIONS section below for information on that.)

       Using rsync in this way is the same as using it with a remote shell ex-
       cept that:

       o      you  either  use	a double colon :: instead of a single colon to
	      separate the hostname from the path, or you use an rsync:// URL.

       o      the first	word of	the "path" is actually a module	name.

       o      the remote daemon	may print a message of the day when  you  con-

       o      if  you  specify no path name on the remote daemon then the list
	      of accessible paths on the daemon	will be	shown.

       o      if you specify no	local destination then a listing of the	speci-
	      fied files on the	remote daemon is provided.

       o      you must not specify the --rsh (-e) option.

       An example that copies all the files in a remote	module named "src":

	   rsync -av host::src /dest

       Some  modules  on  the remote daemon may	require	authentication.	If so,
       you will	receive	a password prompt when you connect. You	can avoid  the
       password	 prompt	 by setting the	environment variable RSYNC_PASSWORD to
       the password you	want to	use or using the --password-file option.  This
       may be useful when scripting rsync.

       WARNING:	 On  some  systems  environment	 variables  are	visible	to all
       users. On those systems using --password-file is	recommended.

       You may establish the connection	via a web proxy	by setting  the	 envi-
       ronment	variable  RSYNC_PROXY to a hostname:port pair pointing to your
       web proxy.  Note	that your web proxy's configuration must support proxy
       connections to port 873.

       You  may	 also establish	a daemon connection using a program as a proxy
       by setting the environment variable RSYNC_CONNECT_PROG to the  commands
       you  wish  to  run  in place of making a	direct socket connection.  The
       string may contain the escape "%H" to represent the hostname  specified
       in  the	rsync  command	(so  use "%%" if you need a single "%" in your
       string).	 For example:

	 export	RSYNC_CONNECT_PROG='ssh	proxyhost nc %H	873'
	 rsync -av targethost1::module/src/ /dest/
	 rsync -av rsync:://targethost2/module/src/ /dest/

       The command specified above uses	ssh to run nc (netcat) on a proxyhost,
       which  forwards all data	to port	873 (the rsync daemon) on the targeth-
       ost (%H).

       It is sometimes useful to use various features of an rsync daemon (such
       as  named modules) without actually allowing any	new socket connections
       into a system (other  than  what	 is  already  required	to  allow  re-
       mote-shell access).  Rsync supports connecting to a host	using a	remote
       shell and then spawning a single-use "daemon" server  that  expects  to
       read  its  config file in the home dir of the remote user.  This	can be
       useful if you want to encrypt a daemon-style transfer's data, but since
       the  daemon is started up fresh by the remote user, you may not be able
       to use features such as chroot or change	the uid	used  by  the  daemon.
       (For  another  way  to encrypt a	daemon transfer, consider using	ssh to
       tunnel a	local port to a	remote machine and configure  a	 normal	 rsync
       daemon on that remote host to only allow	connections from "localhost".)

       From  the user's	perspective, a daemon transfer via a remote-shell con-
       nection uses nearly the same command-line syntax	as a normal rsync-dae-
       mon  transfer,  with  the only exception	being that you must explicitly
       set the remote shell program on the command-line	with the --rsh=COMMAND
       option.	 (Setting  the	RSYNC_RSH  in the environment will not turn on
       this functionality.)  For example:

	   rsync -av --rsh=ssh host::module /dest

       If you need to specify a	different remote-shell user, keep in mind that
       the  user@  prefix  in  front  of the host is specifying	the rsync-user
       value (for a module that	 requires  user-based  authentication).	  This
       means  that  you	 must give the '-l user' option	to ssh when specifying
       the remote-shell, as in this example that uses the short	version	of the
       --rsh option:

	   rsync -av -e	"ssh -l	ssh-user" rsync-user@host::module /dest

       The  "ssh-user" will be used at the ssh level; the "rsync-user" will be
       used to log-in to the "module".

       In order	to connect to an rsync daemon, the remote system needs to have
       a daemon	already	running	(or it needs to	have configured	something like
       inetd to	spawn an rsync daemon for incoming connections on a particular
       port).	For  full  information on how to start a daemon	that will han-
       dling incoming socket connections, see the rsyncd.conf(5) man  page  --
       that  is	 the  config file for the daemon, and it contains the full de-
       tails for how to	run the	daemon (including stand-alone and  inetd  con-

       If  you're  using  one of the remote-shell transports for the transfer,
       there is	no need	to manually start an rsync daemon.

       Rsync always sorts the specified	filenames into its  internal  transfer
       list.  This handles the merging together	of the contents	of identically
       named directories, makes	it easy	to remove duplicate filenames, and may
       confuse	someone	 when  the  files are transferred in a different order
       than what was given on the command-line.

       If you need a particular	file to	be transferred prior to	 another,  ei-
       ther  separate  the files into different	rsync calls, or	consider using
       --delay-updates (which doesn't affect the sorted	 transfer  order,  but
       does make the final file-updating phase happen much more	rapidly).

       Here are	some examples of how I use rsync.

       To  backup  my  wife's  home directory, which consists of large MS Word
       files and mail folders, I use a cron job	that runs

	      rsync -Cavz . arvidsjaur:backup

       each night over a PPP connection	to a duplicate directory on my machine

       To  synchronize my samba	source trees I use the following Makefile tar-

		   rsync -avuzb	--exclude '*~' samba:samba/ .
		   rsync -Cavuzb . samba:samba/
	   sync: get put

       this allows me to sync with a CVS directory at the  other  end  of  the
       connection. I then do CVS operations on the remote machine, which saves
       a lot of	time as	the remote CVS protocol	isn't very efficient.

       I mirror	a directory between my "old" and "new" ftp sites with the com-

       rsync -az -e ssh	--delete ~ftp/pub/samba	nimbus:"~ftp/pub/tridge"

       This is launched	from cron every	few hours.

       Here is a short summary of the options available	in rsync. Please refer
       to the detailed description below for a complete	description.

	-v, --verbose		    increase verbosity
	    --info=FLAGS	    fine-grained informational verbosity
	    --debug=FLAGS	    fine-grained debug verbosity
	    --msgs2stderr	    special output handling for	debugging
	-q, --quiet		    suppress non-error messages
	    --no-motd		    suppress daemon-mode MOTD (see caveat)
	-c, --checksum		    skip based on checksum, not	mod-time & size
	-a, --archive		    archive mode; equals -rlptgoD (no -H,-A,-X)
	    --no-OPTION		    turn off an	implied	OPTION (e.g. --no-D)
	-r, --recursive		    recurse into directories
	-R, --relative		    use	relative path names
	    --no-implied-dirs	    don't send implied dirs with --relative
	-b, --backup		    make backups (see --suffix & --backup-dir)
	    --backup-dir=DIR	    make backups into hierarchy	based in DIR
	    --suffix=SUFFIX	    backup suffix (default ~ w/o --backup-dir)
	-u, --update		    skip files that are	newer on the receiver
	    --inplace		    update destination files in-place
	    --append		    append data	onto shorter files
	    --append-verify	    --append w/old data	in file	checksum
	-d, --dirs		    transfer directories without recursing
	-l, --links		    copy symlinks as symlinks
	-L, --copy-links	    transform symlink into referent file/dir
	    --copy-unsafe-links	    only "unsafe" symlinks are transformed
	    --safe-links	    ignore symlinks that point outside the tree
	    --munge-links	    munge symlinks to make them	safer
	-k, --copy-dirlinks	    transform symlink to dir into referent dir
	-K, --keep-dirlinks	    treat symlinked dir	on receiver as dir
	-H, --hard-links	    preserve hard links
	-p, --perms		    preserve permissions
	    --fileflags		    preserve file-flags	(aka chflags)
	-E, --executability	    preserve executability
	    --chmod=CHMOD	    affect file	and/or directory permissions
	-A, --acls		    preserve ACLs (implies -p)
	-X, --xattrs		    preserve extended attributes
	-o, --owner		    preserve owner (super-user only)
	-g, --group		    preserve group
	    --devices		    preserve device files (super-user only)
	    --specials		    preserve special files
	-D			    same as --devices --specials
	-t, --times		    preserve modification times
	-O, --omit-dir-times	    omit directories from --times
	-J, --omit-link-times	    omit symlinks from --times
	    --super		    receiver attempts super-user activities
	    --fake-super	    store/recover privileged attrs using xattrs
	-S, --sparse		    handle sparse files	efficiently
	    --preallocate	    allocate dest files	before writing
	-n, --dry-run		    perform a trial run	with no	changes	made
	-W, --whole-file	    copy files whole (w/o delta-xfer algorithm)
	-x, --one-file-system	    don't cross	filesystem boundaries
	-B, --block-size=SIZE	    force a fixed checksum block-size
	-e, --rsh=COMMAND	    specify the	remote shell to	use
	    --rsync-path=PROGRAM    specify the	rsync to run on	remote machine
	    --existing		    skip creating new files on receiver
	    --ignore-existing	    skip updating files	that exist on receiver
	    --remove-source-files   sender removes synchronized	files (non-dir)
	    --del		    an alias for --delete-during
	    --delete		    delete extraneous files from dest dirs
	    --delete-before	    receiver deletes before xfer, not during
	    --delete-during	    receiver deletes during the	transfer
	    --delete-delay	    find deletions during, delete after
	    --delete-after	    receiver deletes after transfer, not during
	    --delete-excluded	    also delete	excluded files from dest dirs
	    --ignore-missing-args   ignore missing source args without error
	    --delete-missing-args   delete missing source args from destination
	    --ignore-errors	    delete even	if there are I/O errors
	    --force-delete	    force deletion of dirs even	if not empty
	    --force-change	    affect user/system immutable files/dirs
	    --force-uchange	    affect user-immutable files/dirs
	    --force-schange	    affect system-immutable files/dirs
	    --max-delete=NUM	    don't delete more than NUM files
	    --max-size=SIZE	    don't transfer any file larger than	SIZE
	    --min-size=SIZE	    don't transfer any file smaller than SIZE
	    --partial		    keep partially transferred files
	    --partial-dir=DIR	    put	a partially transferred	file into DIR
	    --delay-updates	    put	all updated files into place at	end
	-m, --prune-empty-dirs	    prune empty	directory chains from file-list
	    --numeric-ids	    don't map uid/gid values by	user/group name
	    --usermap=STRING	    custom username mapping
	    --groupmap=STRING	    custom groupname mapping
	    --chown=USER:GROUP	    simple username/groupname mapping
	    --timeout=SECONDS	    set	I/O timeout in seconds
	    --contimeout=SECONDS    set	daemon connection timeout in seconds
	-I, --ignore-times	    don't skip files that match	size and time
	    --size-only		    skip files that match in size
	    --modify-window=NUM	    compare mod-times with reduced accuracy
	-T, --temp-dir=DIR	    create temporary files in directory	DIR
	-y, --fuzzy		    find similar file for basis	if no dest file
	    --compare-dest=DIR	    also compare received files	relative to DIR
	    --copy-dest=DIR	    ...	and include copies of unchanged	files
	    --link-dest=DIR	    hardlink to	files in DIR when unchanged
	-z, --compress		    compress file data during the transfer
	    --compress-level=NUM    explicitly set compression level
	    --skip-compress=LIST    skip compressing files with	suffix in LIST
	-C, --cvs-exclude	    auto-ignore	files in the same way CVS does
	-f, --filter=RULE	    add	a file-filtering RULE
	-F			    same as --filter='dir-merge	/.rsync-filter'
				    repeated: --filter='- .rsync-filter'
	    --exclude=PATTERN	    exclude files matching PATTERN
	    --exclude-from=FILE	    read exclude patterns from FILE
	    --include=PATTERN	    don't exclude files	matching PATTERN
	    --include-from=FILE	    read include patterns from FILE
	    --files-from=FILE	    read list of source-file names from	FILE
	-0, --from0		    all	*from/filter files are delimited by 0s
	-s, --protect-args	    no space-splitting;	wildcard chars only
	    --address=ADDRESS	    bind address for outgoing socket to	daemon
	    --port=PORT		    specify double-colon alternate port	number
	    --sockopts=OPTIONS	    specify custom TCP options
	    --blocking-io	    use	blocking I/O for the remote shell
	    --outbuf=N|L|B	    set	out buffering to None, Line, or	Block
	    --stats		    give some file-transfer stats
	-8, --8-bit-output	    leave high-bit chars unescaped in output
	-h, --human-readable	    output numbers in a	human-readable format
	    --progress		    show progress during transfer
	-P			    same as --partial --progress
	-i, --itemize-changes	    output a change-summary for	all updates
	-M, --remote-option=OPTION  send OPTION	to the remote side only
	    --out-format=FORMAT	    output updates using the specified FORMAT
	    --log-file=FILE	    log	what we're doing to the	specified FILE
	    --log-file-format=FMT   log	updates	using the specified FMT
	    --password-file=FILE    read daemon-access password	from FILE
	    --list-only		    list the files instead of copying them
	    --bwlimit=RATE	    limit socket I/O bandwidth
	    --write-batch=FILE	    write a batched update to FILE
	    --only-write-batch=FILE like --write-batch but w/o updating	dest
	    --read-batch=FILE	    read a batched update from FILE
	    --protocol=NUM	    force an older protocol version to be used
	    --iconv=CONVERT_SPEC    request charset conversion of filenames
	    --checksum-seed=NUM	    set	block/file checksum seed (advanced)
	-4, --ipv4		    prefer IPv4
	-6, --ipv6		    prefer IPv6
	    --version		    print version number
       (-h) --help		    show this help (see	below for -h comment)

       Rsync can also be run as	a daemon, in which case	the following  options
       are accepted:

	    --daemon		    run	as an rsync daemon
	    --address=ADDRESS	    bind to the	specified address
	    --bwlimit=RATE	    limit socket I/O bandwidth
	    --config=FILE	    specify alternate rsyncd.conf file
	-M, --dparam=OVERRIDE	    override global daemon config parameter
	    --no-detach		    do not detach from the parent
	    --port=PORT		    listen on alternate	port number
	    --log-file=FILE	    override the "log file" setting
	    --log-file-format=FMT   override the "log format" setting
	    --sockopts=OPTIONS	    specify custom TCP options
	-v, --verbose		    increase verbosity
	-4, --ipv4		    prefer IPv4
	-6, --ipv6		    prefer IPv6
	-h, --help		    show this help (if used after --daemon)

       Rsync  accepts  both long (double-dash +	word) and short	(single-dash +
       letter) options.	 The full list of the available	options	are  described
       below.  If an option can	be specified in	more than one way, the choices
       are comma-separated.  Some options only have  a	long  variant,	not  a
       short.	If  the	option takes a parameter, the parameter	is only	listed
       after the long variant, even though it must also	be specified  for  the
       short.	When specifying	a parameter, you can either use	the form --op-
       tion=param or replace the '=' with whitespace.  The parameter may  need
       to  be quoted in	some manner for	it to survive the shell's command-line
       parsing.	 Keep in mind that a leading tilde (~) in a filename  is  sub-
       stituted	 by  your  shell,  so --option=~/foo will not change the tilde
       into your home directory	(remove	the '='	for that).

       --help Print a short help page  describing  the	options	 available  in
	      rsync  and exit.	For backward-compatibility with	older versions
	      of rsync,	the help will also be output if	you use	the -h	option
	      without any other	args.

	      print the	rsync version number and exit.

       -v, --verbose
	      This  option  increases  the amount of information you are given
	      during the transfer.  By default,	rsync works silently. A	single
	      -v  will	give you information about what	files are being	trans-
	      ferred and a brief summary at the	end. Two -v options will  give
	      you  information	on  what  files	are being skipped and slightly
	      more information at the end. More	than  two  -v  options	should
	      only be used if you are debugging	rsync.

	      In a modern rsync, the -v	option is equivalent to	the setting of
	      groups of	--info and --debug options.  You  can  choose  to  use
	      these  newer options in addition to, or in place of using	--ver-
	      bose, as any fine-grained	settings override the implied settings
	      of  -v.  Both --info and --debug have a way to ask for help that
	      tells you	exactly	what flags are set for each increase  in  ver-

	      However, do keep in mind that a daemon's "max verbosity" setting
	      will limit how high of a level the various individual flags  can
	      be  set on the daemon side.  For instance, if the	max is 2, then
	      any info and/or debug flag that is set to	a  higher  value  than
	      what  would be set by -vv	will be	downgraded to the -vv level in
	      the daemon's logging.

	      This option lets you have	fine-grained control over the informa-
	      tion  output  you	 want  to see.	An individual flag name	may be
	      followed by a level number, with 0 meaning to silence that  out-
	      put,  1  being  the default output level,	and higher numbers in-
	      creasing the output of that flag (for those that support	higher
	      levels).	 Use  --info=help to see all the available flag	names,
	      what they	output,	and what flag names are	 added	for  each  in-
	      crease in	the verbose level.  Some examples:

		  rsync	-a --info=progress2 src/ dest/
		  rsync	-avv --info=stats2,misc1,flist0	src/ dest/

	      Note  that  --info=name's	output is affected by the --out-format
	      and --itemize-changes (-i) options.  See those options for  more
	      information on what is output and	when.

	      This  option was added to	3.1.0, so an older rsync on the	server
	      side might reject	your attempts at fine-grained control (if  one
	      or more flags needed to be send to the server and	the server was
	      too old to understand  them).   See  also	 the  "max  verbosity"
	      caveat above when	dealing	with a daemon.

	      This  option  lets  you have fine-grained	control	over the debug
	      output you want to see.  An individual flag name may be followed
	      by  a level number, with 0 meaning to silence that output, 1 be-
	      ing the default output level, and	higher numbers increasing  the
	      output of	that flag (for those that support higher levels).  Use
	      --debug=help to see all the available flag names,	what they out-
	      put, and what flag names are added for each increase in the ver-
	      bose level.  Some	examples:

		  rsync	-avvv --debug=none src/	dest/
		  rsync	-avA --del --debug=del2,acl src/ dest/

	      Note  that  some	debug  messages	 will  only  be	 output	  when
	      --msgs2stderr  is	 specified, especially those pertaining	to I/O
	      and buffer debugging.

	      This option was added to 3.1.0, so an older rsync	on the	server
	      side  might reject your attempts at fine-grained control (if one
	      or more flags needed to be send to the server and	the server was
	      too  old	to  understand	them).	 See  also the "max verbosity"
	      caveat above when	dealing	with a daemon.

	      This option changes rsync	to send	all  its  output  directly  to
	      stderr  rather  than to send messages to the client side via the
	      protocol (which normally	outputs	 info  messages	 via  stdout).
	      This is mainly intended for debugging in order to	avoid changing
	      the data sent via	the protocol, since the	 extra	protocol  data
	      can change what is being tested.	The option does	not affect the
	      remote side of a transfer	without	using --remote-option --  e.g.
	      -M--msgs2stderr.	 Also  keep  in	 mind that a daemon connection
	      does not have a stderr channel to	 send  messages	 back  to  the
	      client  side,  so	if you are doing any daemon-transfer debugging
	      using this option, you should start up a daemon  using  --no-de-
	      tach so that you can see the stderr output on the	daemon side.

	      This  option  has	 the  side-effect  of making stderr output get
	      line-buffered so that the	merging	of the output  of  3  programs
	      happens in a more	readable manner.

       -q, --quiet
	      This  option  decreases  the amount of information you are given
	      during the transfer, notably  suppressing	 information  messages
	      from  the	 remote	 server.  This	option is useful when invoking
	      rsync from cron.

	      This option affects the information that is output by the	client
	      at  the  start  of  a daemon transfer.  This suppresses the mes-
	      sage-of-the-day (MOTD) text, but it also	affects	 the  list  of
	      modules  that the	daemon sends in	response to the	"rsync host::"
	      request (due to a	limitation in the  rsync  protocol),  so  omit
	      this  option if you want to request the list of modules from the

       -I, --ignore-times
	      Normally rsync will skip any files that  are  already  the  same
	      size  and	 have  the  same  modification timestamp.  This	option
	      turns off	this "quick check" behavior, causing all files	to  be

	      This  modifies rsync's "quick check" algorithm for finding files
	      that need	to be transferred, changing it	from  the  default  of
	      transferring  files  with	 either	 a  changed  size or a changed
	      last-modified time to just looking for files that	 have  changed
	      in  size.	 This is useful	when starting to use rsync after using
	      another mirroring	system which may not preserve  timestamps  ex-

	      When  comparing  two  timestamps,	rsync treats the timestamps as
	      being equal if they differ by no	more  than  the	 modify-window
	      value.   This  is	 normally  0 (for an exact match), but you may
	      find it useful to	set this to a larger value in some situations.
	      In  particular,  when  transferring to or	from an	MS Windows FAT
	      filesystem (which	represents times with a	2-second  resolution),
	      --modify-window=1	is useful (allowing times to differ by up to 1

       -c, --checksum
	      This changes the way rsync checks	if the files have been changed
	      and  are in need of a transfer.  Without this option, rsync uses
	      a	"quick check" that (by default)	checks if each file's size and
	      time of last modification	match between the sender and receiver.
	      This option changes this to compare a 128-bit checksum for  each
	      file  that  has a	matching size.	Generating the checksums means
	      that both	sides will expend a lot	of disk	I/O  reading  all  the
	      data  in	the  files  in	the transfer (and this is prior	to any
	      reading that will	be done	to transfer changed  files),  so  this
	      can slow things down significantly.

	      The  sending  side generates its checksums while it is doing the
	      file-system scan that builds the list of	the  available	files.
	      The  receiver  generates	its  checksums when it is scanning for
	      changed files, and will checksum any file	that has the same size
	      as the corresponding sender's file:  files with either a changed
	      size or a	changed	checksum are selected for transfer.

	      Note that	rsync always verifies that each	transferred  file  was
	      correctly	 reconstructed	on  the	 receiving  side by checking a
	      whole-file checksum that is generated  as	 the  file  is	trans-
	      ferred,  but  that automatic after-the-transfer verification has
	      nothing to do with this option's before-the-transfer "Does  this
	      file need	to be updated?"	check.

	      For  protocol  30	 and  beyond  (first  supported	in 3.0.0), the
	      checksum used is MD5.  For older protocols, the checksum used is

       -a, --archive
	      This  is equivalent to -rlptgoD. It is a quick way of saying you
	      want recursion and want to preserve almost everything  (with  -H
	      being  a	notable	 omission).   The  only	exception to the above
	      equivalence is when --files-from is specified, in	which case  -r
	      is not implied.

	      Note that	-a does	not preserve hardlinks,	because	finding	multi-
	      ply-linked files is expensive.  You must separately specify  -H.
	      Note also	that for backward compatibility, -a currently does not
	      imply the	--fileflags option.

	      You may turn off one or more implied options  by	prefixing  the
	      option  name with	"no-".	Not all	options	may be prefixed	with a
	      "no-": only options that are  implied  by	 other	options	 (e.g.
	      --no-D,  --no-perms)  or have different defaults in various cir-
	      cumstances (e.g. --no-whole-file,	--no-blocking-io,  --no-dirs).
	      You  may	specify	either the short or the	long option name after
	      the "no-"	prefix (e.g. --no-R is the same	as --no-relative).

	      For example: if you want to use -a (--archive) but don't want -o
	      (--owner),  instead  of  converting  -a  into -rlptgD, you could
	      specify -a --no-o	(or -a --no-owner).

	      The order	of the options is important:  if  you  specify	--no-r
	      -a,  the -r option would end up being turned on, the opposite of
	      -a --no-r.  Note also that the side-effects of the  --files-from
	      option  are  NOT	positional, as it affects the default state of
	      several options and slightly changes the meaning of -a (see  the
	      --files-from option for more details).

       -r, --recursive
	      This  tells  rsync  to  copy  directories	recursively.  See also
	      --dirs (-d).

	      Beginning	with rsync 3.0.0, the recursive	algorithm used is  now
	      an  incremental  scan that uses much less	memory than before and
	      begins the transfer after	the scanning of	the first few directo-
	      ries  have  been	completed.  This incremental scan only affects
	      our recursion algorithm, and does	 not  change  a	 non-recursive
	      transfer.	 It is also only possible when both ends of the	trans-
	      fer are at least version 3.0.0.

	      Some options require rsync to know the full file list, so	 these
	      options  disable the incremental recursion mode.	These include:
	      --delete-before, --delete-after, --prune-empty-dirs,  and	 --de-
	      lay-updates.   Because of	this, the default delete mode when you
	      specify --delete is now --delete-during when both	 ends  of  the
	      connection  are  at least	3.0.0 (use --del or --delete-during to
	      request this improved deletion mode explicitly).	See  also  the
	      --delete-delay  option  that  is	a  better  choice  than	 using

	      Incremental recursion can	be disabled using the  --no-inc-recur-
	      sive option or its shorter --no-i-r alias.

       -R, --relative
	      Use  relative  paths. This means that the	full path names	speci-
	      fied on the command line are sent	to the server rather than just
	      the  last	 parts	of  the	filenames. This	is particularly	useful
	      when you want to send several different directories at the  same
	      time. For	example, if you	used this command:

		 rsync -av /foo/bar/baz.c remote:/tmp/

	      ...  this	would create a file named baz.c	in /tmp/ on the	remote
	      machine. If instead you used

		 rsync -avR /foo/bar/baz.c remote:/tmp/

	      then a file named	/tmp/foo/bar/baz.c would be created on the re-
	      mote  machine,  preserving its full path.	 These extra path ele-
	      ments are	called "implied	directories" (i.e. the "foo"  and  the
	      "foo/bar"	directories in the above example).

	      Beginning	with rsync 3.0.0, rsync	always sends these implied di-
	      rectories	as real	directories in the file	list, even if  a  path
	      element  is really a symlink on the sending side.	 This prevents
	      some really unexpected behaviors when copying the	full path of a
	      file  that you didn't realize had	a symlink in its path.	If you
	      want to duplicate	a server-side symlink, include both  the  sym-
	      link via its path, and referent directory	via its	real path.  If
	      you're dealing with an older rsync on the	sending	side, you  may
	      need to use the --no-implied-dirs	option.

	      It is also possible to limit the amount of path information that
	      is sent as implied directories for each path you specify.	  With
	      a	 modern	 rsync on the sending side (beginning with 2.6.7), you
	      can insert a dot and a slash into	the source path, like this:

		 rsync -avR /foo/./bar/baz.c remote:/tmp/

	      That would create	/tmp/bar/baz.c on the remote  machine.	 (Note
	      that  the	dot must be followed by	a slash, so "/foo/." would not
	      be abbreviated.)	For older rsync	versions, you  would  need  to
	      use a chdir to limit the source path.  For example, when pushing

		 (cd /foo; rsync -avR bar/baz.c	remote:/tmp/)

	      (Note that the parens put	the two	commands into a	sub-shell,  so
	      that  the	 "cd" command doesn't remain in	effect for future com-
	      mands.)  If you're pulling files from an older rsync,  use  this
	      idiom (but only for a non-daemon transfer):

		 rsync -avR --rsync-path="cd /foo; rsync" \
		     remote:bar/baz.c /tmp/

	      This  option  affects the	default	behavior of the	--relative op-
	      tion.  When it is	specified, the attributes of the  implied  di-
	      rectories	 from  the source names	are not	included in the	trans-
	      fer.  This means that the	corresponding  path  elements  on  the
	      destination  system  are	left  unchanged	if they	exist, and any
	      missing implied directories are created with default attributes.
	      This even	allows these implied path elements to have big differ-
	      ences, such as being a symlink to	a directory on	the  receiving

	      For  instance,  if a command-line	arg or a files-from entry told
	      rsync to transfer	 the  file  "path/foo/file",  the  directories
	      "path"  and  "path/foo" are implied when --relative is used.  If
	      "path/foo" is a symlink to "bar" on the destination system,  the
	      receiving	 rsync would ordinarily	delete "path/foo", recreate it
	      as a directory, and receive the file  into  the  new  directory.
	      With    --no-implied-dirs,    the	   receiving   rsync   updates
	      "path/foo/file" using the	existing path  elements,  which	 means
	      that  the	file ends up being created in "path/bar".  Another way
	      to  accomplish  this   link   preservation   is	to   use   the
	      --keep-dirlinks  option  (which will also	affect symlinks	to di-
	      rectories	in the rest of the transfer).

	      When pulling files from an rsync older than 3.0.0, you may  need
	      to use this option if the	sending	side has a symlink in the path
	      you request and you wish the implied directories	to  be	trans-
	      ferred as	normal directories.

       -b, --backup
	      With  this  option, preexisting destination files	are renamed as
	      each file	is transferred or deleted.  You	can control where  the
	      backup  file  goes  and what (if any) suffix gets	appended using
	      the --backup-dir and --suffix options.

	      Note  that  if  you  don't   specify   --backup-dir,   (1)   the
	      --omit-dir-times	option will be implied,	and (2)	if --delete is
	      also in effect (without --delete-excluded),  rsync  will	add  a
	      "protect"	 filter-rule  for  the backup suffix to	the end	of all
	      your existing excludes (e.g. -f "P *~").	This will prevent pre-
	      viously  backed-up  files	 from being deleted.  Note that	if you
	      are supplying your own filter rules, you may  need  to  manually
	      insert  your own exclude/protect rule somewhere higher up	in the
	      list so that it has a  high  enough  priority  to	 be  effective
	      (e.g.,  if  your rules specify a trailing	inclusion/exclusion of
	      '*', the auto-added rule would never be reached).

	      In combination with the --backup option,	this  tells  rsync  to
	      store  all  backups  in the specified directory on the receiving
	      side.  This can be used for incremental backups.	You can	 addi-
	      tionally specify a backup	suffix using the --suffix option (oth-
	      erwise the files backed up in the	specified directory will  keep
	      their original filenames).

	      Note  that  if you specify a relative path, the backup directory
	      will be relative to the destination directory, so	 you  probably
	      want  to	specify	 either	an absolute path or a path that	starts
	      with "../".  If an rsync daemon is the receiver, the backup  dir
	      cannot  go  outside  the	module's path hierarchy, so take extra
	      care not to delete it or copy into it.

	      This option allows you to	override  the  default	backup	suffix
	      used with	the --backup (-b) option. The default suffix is	a ~ if
	      no --backup-dir was specified, otherwise it is an	empty string.

       -u, --update
	      This forces rsync	to skip	any files which	exist on the  destina-
	      tion  and	 have  a  modified  time that is newer than the	source
	      file.  (If an existing destination file has a modification  time
	      equal  to	the source file's, it will be updated if the sizes are

	      Note that	this does not affect the copying of dirs, symlinks, or
	      other  special files.  Also, a difference	of file	format between
	      the sender and receiver is always	 considered  to	 be  important
	      enough for an update, no matter what date	is on the objects.  In
	      other words, if the source has a directory where the destination
	      has  a  file,  the  transfer would occur regardless of the time-

	      This option is a transfer	rule, not an exclude,  so  it  doesn't
	      affect  the  data	 that  goes  into  the file-lists, and thus it
	      doesn't affect deletions.	 It just limits	the files that the re-
	      ceiver requests to be transferred.

	      This  option  changes  how  rsync	transfers a file when its data
	      needs to be updated: instead of the default method of creating a
	      new  copy	 of  the file and moving it into place when it is com-
	      plete, rsync instead writes the updated  data  directly  to  the
	      destination file.

	      This has several effects:

	      o	     Hard  links are not broken.  This means the new data will
		     be	visible	through	other hard links  to  the  destination
		     file.   Moreover, attempts	to copy	differing source files
		     onto a multiply-linked destination	file will result in  a
		     "tug  of war" with	the destination	data changing back and

	      o	     In-use binaries cannot be updated	(either	 the  OS  will
		     prevent  this from	happening, or binaries that attempt to
		     swap-in their data	will misbehave or crash).

	      o	     The file's	data will be in	an inconsistent	 state	during
		     the transfer and will be left that	way if the transfer is
		     interrupted or if an update fails.

	      o	     A file that rsync cannot  write  to  cannot  be  updated.
		     While  a  super  user  can	update any file, a normal user
		     needs to be granted write permission for the open of  the
		     file for writing to be successful.

	      o	     The efficiency of rsync's delta-transfer algorithm	may be
		     reduced if	some data in the destination file is overwrit-
		     ten  before  it  can be copied to a position later	in the
		     file.  This does not apply	if  you	 use  --backup,	 since
		     rsync is smart enough to use the backup file as the basis
		     file for the transfer.

	      WARNING: you should not use this option to update	files that are
	      being  accessed  by  others,  so be careful when choosing	to use
	      this for a copy.

	      This  option  is	useful	for  transferring  large  files	  with
	      block-based  changes  or appended	data, and also on systems that
	      are disk bound, not network bound.  It  can  also	 help  keep  a
	      copy-on-write filesystem snapshot	from diverging the entire con-
	      tents of a file that only	has minor changes.

	      The option implies --partial (since an interrupted transfer does
	      not delete the file), but	conflicts with --partial-dir and --de-
	      lay-updates.  Prior to rsync 2.6.4 --inplace was also incompati-
	      ble with --compare-dest and --link-dest.

	      This  causes  rsync  to update a file by appending data onto the
	      end of the file, which presumes that the data that  already  ex-
	      ists  on	the  receiving side is identical with the start	of the
	      file on the sending side.	 If a file needs to be transferred and
	      its  size	on the receiver	is the same or longer than the size on
	      the sender, the file is skipped.	This does not  interfere  with
	      the  updating  of	 a file's non-content attributes (e.g. permis-
	      sions, ownership,	etc.) when the file does not need to be	trans-
	      ferred,  nor  does  it  affect  the  updating of any non-regular
	      files.  Implies --inplace, but does not conflict	with  --sparse
	      (since it	is always extending a file's length).

	      The  use	of  --append  can be dangerous if you aren't 100% sure
	      that the files that are longer have only grown by	the  appending
	      of  data onto the	end.  You should thus use include/exclude/fil-
	      ter rules	to ensure that such a transfer is only affecting files
	      that you know to be growing via appended data.

	      This  works just like the	--append option, but the existing data
	      on the receiving side is included	in the full-file checksum ver-
	      ification	 step, which will cause	a file to be resent if the fi-
	      nal verification step fails (rsync uses a	normal,	 non-appending
	      --inplace	transfer for the resend).

	      Note:  prior  to	rsync  3.0.0,  the --append option worked like
	      --append-verify, so if you are interacting with an  older	 rsync
	      (or  the	transfer  is using a protocol prior to 30), specifying
	      either append option will	initiate an --append-verify transfer.

       -d, --dirs
	      Tell the sending side to include any directories	that  are  en-
	      countered.   Unlike  --recursive,	a directory's contents are not
	      copied unless the	directory name specified is "."	or ends	with a
	      trailing	slash (e.g. ".", "dir/.", "dir/", etc.).  Without this
	      option or	the --recursive	option,	rsync will skip	 all  directo-
	      ries it encounters (and output a message to that effect for each
	      one).  If	you specify both --dirs	and  --recursive,  --recursive
	      takes precedence.

	      The  --dirs  option is implied by	the --files-from option	or the
	      --list-only option (including an implied --list-only  usage)  if
	      --recursive  wasn't  specified  (so that directories are seen in
	      the listing).  Specify --no-dirs (or --no-d) if you want to turn
	      this off.

	      There is also a backward-compatibility helper option, --old-dirs
	      (or --old-d) that	tells  rsync  to  use  a  hack	of  "-r	 --ex-
	      clude='/*/*'"  to	 get an	older rsync to list a single directory
	      without recursing.

       -l, --links
	      When symlinks are	encountered, recreate the symlink on the  des-

       -L, --copy-links
	      When  symlinks are encountered, the item that they point to (the
	      referent)	is copied, rather than the symlink.  In	older versions
	      of  rsync,  this	option also had	the side-effect	of telling the
	      receiving	side to	follow symlinks, such as symlinks to  directo-
	      ries.   In a modern rsync	such as	this one, you'll need to spec-
	      ify --keep-dirlinks (-K) to get this extra behavior.   The  only
	      exception	 is  when sending files	to an rsync that is too	old to
	      understand -K -- in that case, the -L option will	still have the
	      side-effect of -K	on that	older receiving	rsync.

	      This  tells  rsync  to  copy the referent	of symbolic links that
	      point outside the	 copied	 tree.	 Absolute  symlinks  are  also
	      treated  like  ordinary  files,  and  so are any symlinks	in the
	      source path itself when --relative is used.  This	option has  no
	      additional effect	if --copy-links	was also specified.

	      This  tells  rsync to ignore any symbolic	links which point out-
	      side the copied tree. All	absolute symlinks  are	also  ignored.
	      Using  this option in conjunction	with --relative	may give unex-
	      pected results.

	      This option tells	rsync to (1) modify all	symlinks  on  the  re-
	      ceiving  side  in	a way that makes them unusable but recoverable
	      (see below), or (2) to unmunge symlinks on the sending side that
	      had  been	stored in a munged state.  This	is useful if you don't
	      quite trust the source of	the data to not	try to slip in a  sym-
	      link to a	unexpected place.

	      The way rsync disables the use of	symlinks is to prefix each one
	      with the string "/rsyncd-munged/".  This prevents	the links from
	      being  used as long as that directory does not exist.  When this
	      option is	enabled, rsync will refuse to run if that  path	 is  a
	      directory	or a symlink to	a directory.

	      The  option  only	affects	the client side	of the transfer, so if
	      you need it to affect the	server,	specify	 it  via  --remote-op-
	      tion.   (Note  that  in a	local transfer,	the client side	is the

	      This option has no affect	on a daemon, since the daemon  config-
	      ures  whether  it	wants munged symlinks via its "munge symlinks"
	      parameter.  See also the "munge-symlinks"	 perl  script  in  the
	      support directory	of the source code.

       -k, --copy-dirlinks
	      This  option causes the sending side to treat a symlink to a di-
	      rectory as though	it were	a real directory.  This	is  useful  if
	      you  don't  want	symlinks to non-directories to be affected, as
	      they would be using --copy-links.

	      Without this option, if the sending side has replaced  a	direc-
	      tory  with  a  symlink  to  a directory, the receiving side will
	      delete anything that is in the way of the	new symlink, including
	      a	 directory hierarchy (as long as --force-delete	or --delete is
	      in effect).

	      See also --keep-dirlinks for an analogous	option for the receiv-
	      ing side.

	      --copy-dirlinks  applies	to  all	symlinks to directories	in the
	      source.  If you want to follow only a few	specified symlinks,  a
	      trick you	can use	is to pass them	as additional source args with
	      a	trailing slash,	using --relative to make the  paths  match  up
	      right.  For example:

	      rsync -r --relative src/./ src/./follow-me/ dest/

	      This  works  because  rsync  calls lstat(2) on the source	arg as
	      given, and the trailing slash makes lstat(2) follow the symlink,
	      giving  rise to a	directory in the file-list which overrides the
	      symlink found during the scan of "src/./".

       -K, --keep-dirlinks
	      This option causes the receiving side to treat a	symlink	 to  a
	      directory	 as  though  it	 were a	real directory,	but only if it
	      matches a	real directory from the	sender.	 Without this  option,
	      the receiver's symlink would be deleted and replaced with	a real

	      For example, suppose you transfer	a directory  "foo"  that  con-
	      tains  a	file "file", but "foo" is a symlink to directory "bar"
	      on the receiver.	Without	--keep-dirlinks, the receiver  deletes
	      symlink  "foo",  recreates  it  as a directory, and receives the
	      file into	the new	directory.  With --keep-dirlinks, the receiver
	      keeps the	symlink	and "file" ends	up in "bar".

	      One note of caution:  if you use --keep-dirlinks,	you must trust
	      all the symlinks in the copy!  If	it  is	possible  for  an  un-
	      trusted  user  to	create their own symlink to any	directory, the
	      user could then (on a subsequent copy) replace the symlink  with
	      a	 real  directory  and affect the content of whatever directory
	      the symlink references.  For backup copies, you are  better  off
	      using something like a bind mount	instead	of a symlink to	modify
	      your receiving hierarchy.

	      See also --copy-dirlinks for an analogous	option for the sending

       -H, --hard-links
	      This tells rsync to look for hard-linked files in	the source and
	      link together the	corresponding files on the destination.	 With-
	      out  this	option,	hard-linked files in the source	are treated as
	      though they were separate	files.

	      This option does NOT necessarily ensure that the pattern of hard
	      links  on	 the  destination  exactly matches that	on the source.
	      Cases in which the destination may end up	with extra hard	 links
	      include the following:

	      o	     If	 the  destination contains extraneous hard-links (more
		     linking than what is present in the  source  file	list),
		     the  copying  algorithm  will  not	break them explicitly.
		     However, if one or	more of	the paths have content differ-
		     ences,  the  normal  file-update process will break those
		     extra links (unless you are using the --inplace option).

	      o	     If	you specify a --link-dest directory that contains hard
		     links,  the  linking of the destination files against the
		     --link-dest files can cause some paths in the destination
		     to	become linked together due to the --link-dest associa-

	      Note that	rsync can only detect hard links  between  files  that
	      are  inside  the transfer	set.  If rsync updates a file that has
	      extra hard-link connections to files outside the transfer,  that
	      linkage will be broken.  If you are tempted to use the --inplace
	      option to	avoid this breakage, be	very careful that you know how
	      your files are being updated so that you are certain that	no un-
	      intended changes happen due to lingering hard links (and see the
	      --inplace	option for more	caveats).

	      If  incremental recursion	is active (see --recursive), rsync may
	      transfer a missing hard-linked file before it finds that another
	      link  for	that contents exists elsewhere in the hierarchy.  This
	      does not affect the accuracy of the transfer (i.e.  which	 files
	      are hard-linked together), just its efficiency (i.e. copying the
	      data for a new, early copy of a hard-linked file that could have
	      been  found  later  in  the  transfer  in	 another member	of the
	      hard-linked set of files).  One way to avoid  this  inefficiency
	      is to disable incremental	recursion using	the --no-inc-recursive

       -p, --perms
	      This option causes the receiving rsync to	 set  the  destination
	      permissions to be	the same as the	source permissions.  (See also
	      the --chmod option for a way to modify what rsync	 considers  to
	      be the source permissions.)

	      When this	option is off, permissions are set as follows:

	      o	     Existing files (including updated files) retain their ex-
		     isting permissions,  though  the  --executability	option
		     might change just the execute permission for the file.

	      o	     New  files	 get their "normal" permission bits set	to the
		     source file's permissions masked with the	receiving  di-
		     rectory's	 default  permissions  (either	the  receiving
		     process's umask, or the  permissions  specified  via  the
		     destination  directory's  default ACL), and their special
		     permission	bits disabled except in	the case where	a  new
		     directory	inherits  a  setgid bit	from its parent	direc-

	      Thus,  when  --perms  and	 --executability  are  both  disabled,
	      rsync's  behavior	 is the	same as	that of	other file-copy	utili-
	      ties, such as cp(1) and tar(1).

	      In summary: to give destination files (both  old	and  new)  the
	      source permissions, use --perms.	To give	new files the destina-
	      tion-default  permissions	 (while	 leaving  existing  files  un-
	      changed),	 make  sure  that  the	--perms	 option	is off and use
	      --chmod=ugo=rwX (which ensures that all non-masked bits get  en-
	      abled).	If  you'd  care	to make	this latter behavior easier to
	      type, you	could define a popt alias for it, such as putting this
	      line  in	the file ~/.popt (the following	defines	the -Z option,
	      and includes --no-g to use the default group of the  destination

		 rsync alias -Z	--no-p --no-g --chmod=ugo=rwX

	      You  could  then	use  this new option in	a command such as this

		 rsync -avZ src/ dest/

	      (Caveat: make sure that -a does not follow -Z, or	it will	re-en-
	      able the two "--no-*" options mentioned above.)

	      The  preservation	 of the	destination's setgid bit on newly-cre-
	      ated directories when --perms is off was added in	 rsync	2.6.7.
	      Older  rsync  versions  erroneously  preserved the three special
	      permission bits for newly-created	files when  --perms  was  off,
	      while  overriding	 the  destination's  setgid  bit  setting on a
	      newly-created directory.	Default	ACL observance	was  added  to
	      the  ACL	patch  for  rsync 2.6.7, so older (or non-ACL-enabled)
	      rsyncs use the umask even	if default ACLs	are present.  (Keep in
	      mind  that it is the version of the receiving rsync that affects
	      these behaviors.)

       -E, --executability
	      This option causes  rsync	 to  preserve  the  executability  (or
	      non-executability) of regular files when --perms is not enabled.
	      A	regular	file is	considered to be executable if	at  least  one
	      'x'  is turned on	in its permissions.  When an existing destina-
	      tion file's executability	differs	from that of the corresponding
	      source  file,  rsync modifies the	destination file's permissions
	      as follows:

	      o	     To	make a file non-executable, rsync turns	 off  all  its
		     'x' permissions.

	      o	     To	 make  a file executable, rsync	turns on each 'x' per-
		     mission that has a	corresponding 'r' permission enabled.

	      If --perms is enabled, this option is ignored.

       -A, --acls
	      This option causes rsync to update the destination  ACLs	to  be
	      the same as the source ACLs.  The	option also implies --perms.

	      The  source and destination systems must have compatible ACL en-
	      tries for	this option to work properly.	See  the  --fake-super
	      option for a way to backup and restore ACLs that are not compat-

       -X, --xattrs
	      This option causes rsync to update the destination extended  at-
	      tributes to be the same as the source ones.

	      For  systems  that support extended-attribute namespaces,	a copy
	      being done by a super-user copies	 all  namespaces  except  sys-
	      tem.*.   A  normal user only copies the user.* namespace.	 To be
	      able to backup and restore non-user namespaces as	a normal user,
	      see the --fake-super option.

	      Note  that this option does not copy rsyncs special xattr	values
	      (e.g. those used by --fake-super)	unless you repeat  the	option
	      (e.g.  -XX).   This  "copy  all xattrs" mode cannot be used with

	      This option causes rsync to update the file-flags	to be the same
	      as  the  source  files  and directories (if your OS supports the
	      chflags(2) system	call).	 Some flags can	only be	altered	by the
	      super-user  and  some  might  only  be unset below a certain se-
	      cure-level (usually single-user mode). It	will  not  make	 files
	      alterable	 that  are  set	 to  immutable on the receiver.	 To do
	      that, see	--force-change,	--force-uchange, and --force-schange.

	      This option causes rsync to disable both user-immutable and sys-
	      tem-immutable  flags on files and	directories that are being up-
	      dated or deleted on the receiving	side.  This  option  overrides
	      --force-uchange and --force-schange.

	      This  option  causes  rsync  to  disable user-immutable flags on
	      files and	directories that are being updated or deleted  on  the
	      receiving	 side.	 It does not try to affect system flags.  This
	      option overrides --force-change and --force-schange.

	      This option causes rsync to disable  system-immutable  flags  on
	      files  and  directories that are being updated or	deleted	on the
	      receiving	side.  It does not try to affect user flags.  This op-
	      tion overrides --force-change and	--force-uchange.

	      This  option  tells  rsync  to apply one or more comma-separated
	      "chmod" modes to the permission of the files  in	the  transfer.
	      The resulting value is treated as	though it were the permissions
	      that the sending side supplied for the file,  which  means  that
	      this  option  can	 seem  to  have	no effect on existing files if
	      --perms is not enabled.

	      In addition  to  the  normal  parsing  rules  specified  in  the
	      chmod(1) manpage,	you can	specify	an item	that should only apply
	      to a directory by	prefixing it with a 'D', or  specify  an  item
	      that  should  only  apply	 to a file by prefixing	it with	a 'F'.
	      For example, the following will ensure that all directories  get
	      marked  set-gid, that no files are other-writable, that both are
	      user-writable and	group-writable,	and that both have  consistent
	      executability across all bits:


	      Using octal mode numbers is also allowed:


	      It  is  also  legal to specify multiple --chmod options, as each
	      additional option	is just	appended to the	 list  of  changes  to

	      See  the --perms and --executability options for how the result-
	      ing permission value can be applied to the files in  the	trans-

       -o, --owner
	      This  option  causes  rsync  to set the owner of the destination
	      file to be the same as the source	file, but only if the  receiv-
	      ing  rsync  is being run as the super-user (see also the --super
	      and --fake-super options).  Without this option,	the  owner  of
	      new and/or transferred files are set to the invoking user	on the
	      receiving	side.

	      The preservation of ownership will associate matching  names  by
	      default,	but  may fall back to using the	ID number in some cir-
	      cumstances (see also the --numeric-ids option for	a full discus-

       -g, --group
	      This  option  causes  rsync  to set the group of the destination
	      file to be the same as the source	file.  If the  receiving  pro-
	      gram  is	not  running  as  the super-user (or if	--no-super was
	      specified), only groups that the invoking	user on	the  receiving
	      side is a	member of will be preserved.  Without this option, the
	      group is set to the default group	of the invoking	 user  on  the
	      receiving	side.

	      The  preservation	 of  group information will associate matching
	      names by default,	but may	fall back to using the	ID  number  in
	      some circumstances (see also the --numeric-ids option for	a full

	      This option causes rsync to transfer character and block	device
	      files  to	the remote system to recreate these devices.  This op-
	      tion has no effect if the	receiving rsync	is not run as the  su-
	      per-user (see also the --super and --fake-super options).

	      This option causes rsync to transfer special files such as named
	      sockets and fifos.

       -D     The -D option is equivalent to --devices --specials.

       -t, --times
	      This tells rsync to transfer modification	times along  with  the
	      files  and  update them on the remote system.  Note that if this
	      option is	not used, the optimization that	 excludes  files  that
	      have  not	 been  modified	cannot be effective; in	other words, a
	      missing -t or -a will cause the next transfer to behave as if it
	      used  -I,	 causing  all  files  to  be  updated  (though rsync's
	      delta-transfer algorithm will make the update  fairly  efficient
	      if  the  files  haven't actually changed,	you're much better off
	      using -t).

       -O, --omit-dir-times
	      This tells rsync to omit directories when	it is preserving modi-
	      fication times (see --times).  If	NFS is sharing the directories
	      on the receiving side, it	is a good idea to use -O.  This	option
	      is inferred if you use --backup without --backup-dir.

	      This  option also	has the	side-effect of avoiding	early creation
	      of directories in	incremental  recursion	copies.	  The  default
	      --inc-recursive  copying	normally  does an early-create pass of
	      all the sub-directories in a parent directory in order for it to
	      be  able	to  then  set  the modify time of the parent directory
	      right away (without having to delay that until a bunch of	recur-
	      sive copying has finished).  This	early-create idiom is not nec-
	      essary if	directory modify times are not being preserved,	so  it
	      is  skipped.  Since early-create directories don't have accurate
	      mode, mtime, or ownership, the use of this option	can help  when
	      someone wants to avoid these partially-finished directories.

       -J, --omit-link-times
	      This  tells rsync	to omit	symlinks when it is preserving modifi-
	      cation times (see	--times).

	      This tells the receiving side to attempt	super-user  activities
	      even if the receiving rsync wasn't run by	the super-user.	 These
	      activities include: preserving users  via	 the  --owner  option,
	      preserving  all  groups (not just	the current user's groups) via
	      the --groups option, and copying devices via the	--devices  op-
	      tion.   This  is	useful	for systems that allow such activities
	      without being the	super-user, and	also  for  ensuring  that  you
	      will get errors if the receiving side isn't being	run as the su-
	      per-user.	 To turn off super-user	activities, the	super-user can
	      use --no-super.

	      When  this option	is enabled, rsync simulates super-user activi-
	      ties by saving/restoring the privileged attributes  via  special
	      extended	attributes that	are attached to	each file (as needed).
	      This includes the	file's owner and group (if it is not  the  de-
	      fault),  the file's device info (device &	special	files are cre-
	      ated as empty text files), and any permission bits that we won't
	      allow  to	 be  set  on  the  real	file (e.g.  the	real file gets
	      u-s,g-s,o-t for safety) or that would limit the  owner's	access
	      (since  the real super-user can always access/change a file, the
	      files we create can always be accessed/changed by	 the  creating
	      user).   This option also	handles	ACLs (if --acls	was specified)
	      and non-user extended attributes (if --xattrs was	specified).

	      This is a	good way to backup data	without	 using	a  super-user,
	      and to store ACLs	from incompatible systems.

	      The  --fake-super	 option	only affects the side where the	option
	      is used.	To affect the remote side of  a	 remote-shell  connec-
	      tion, use	the --remote-option (-M) option:

		rsync -av -M--fake-super /src/ host:/dest/

	      For  a  local  copy, this	option affects both the	source and the
	      destination.  If you wish	a local	copy  to  enable  this	option
	      just  for	the destination	files, specify -M--fake-super.	If you
	      wish a local copy	to enable this	option	just  for  the	source
	      files, combine --fake-super with -M--super.

	      This option is overridden	by both	--super	and --no-super.

	      See  also	 the  "fake super" setting in the daemon's rsyncd.conf

       -S, --sparse
	      Try to handle sparse files efficiently  so  they	take  up  less
	      space on the destination.	 Conflicts with	--inplace because it's
	      not possible to overwrite	data in	a sparse fashion.

	      This tells the receiver to allocate each destination file	to its
	      eventual	size before writing data to the	file.  Rsync will only
	      use the real filesystem-level preallocation support provided  by
	      Linux's fallocate(2) system call or Cygwin's posix_fallocate(3),
	      not the slow glibc implementation	that writes a zero  byte  into
	      each block.

	      Without this option, larger files	may not	be entirely contiguous
	      on the filesystem, but with this option rsync will probably copy
	      more  slowly.   If  the  destination is not an extent-supporting
	      filesystem (such as ext4,	xfs, NTFS, etc.), this option may have
	      no positive effect at all.

       -n, --dry-run
	      This  makes  rsync  perform  a  trial  run that doesn't make any
	      changes (and produces mostly the same output as a	real run).  It
	      is  most	commonly  used	in  combination	with the -v, --verbose
	      and/or -i, --itemize-changes options to see what an  rsync  com-
	      mand is going to do before one actually runs it.

	      The  output  of  --itemize-changes is supposed to	be exactly the
	      same on a	dry run	and a subsequent real run (barring intentional
	      trickery	and  system call failures); if it isn't, that's	a bug.
	      Other output should be mostly unchanged, but may differ in  some
	      areas.   Notably,	 a  dry	 run does not send the actual data for
	      file transfers, so --progress has	no effect, the	"bytes	sent",
	      "bytes  received", "literal data", and "matched data" statistics
	      are too small, and the "speedup" value is	equivalent  to	a  run
	      where no file transfers were needed.

       -W, --whole-file
	      With  this  option  rsync's delta-transfer algorithm is not used
	      and the whole file is sent as-is instead.	 The transfer  may  be
	      faster  if  this	option	is used	when the bandwidth between the
	      source and destination machines is higher	than the bandwidth  to
	      disk  (especially	 when  the  "disk"  is	actually  a  networked
	      filesystem).  This is the	default	when both the source and  des-
	      tination	 are   specified  as  local  paths,  but  only	if  no
	      batch-writing option is in effect.

       -x, --one-file-system
	      This tells rsync to avoid	crossing a  filesystem	boundary  when
	      recursing.   This	 does  not limit the user's ability to specify
	      items to copy from multiple filesystems, just rsync's  recursion
	      through the hierarchy of each directory that the user specified,
	      and also the analogous recursion on the  receiving  side	during
	      deletion.	 Also keep in mind that	rsync treats a "bind" mount to
	      the same device as being on the same filesystem.

	      If this option is	repeated, rsync	omits all mount-point directo-
	      ries  from  the copy.  Otherwise,	it includes an empty directory
	      at each mount-point it encounters	(using the attributes  of  the
	      mounted  directory  because  those of the	underlying mount-point
	      directory	are inaccessible).

	      If rsync has been	told to	collapse symlinks (via --copy-links or
	      --copy-unsafe-links), a symlink to a directory on	another	device
	      is treated like a	mount-point.  Symlinks to non-directories  are
	      unaffected by this option.

       --existing, --ignore-non-existing
	      This  tells rsync	to skip	creating files (including directories)
	      that do not exist	yet on the destination.	  If  this  option  is
	      combined with the	--ignore-existing option, no files will	be up-
	      dated (which can be useful if all	you want to do is  delete  ex-
	      traneous files).

	      This  option  is	a transfer rule, not an	exclude, so it doesn't
	      affect the data that goes	 into  the  file-lists,	 and  thus  it
	      doesn't affect deletions.	 It just limits	the files that the re-
	      ceiver requests to be transferred.

	      This tells rsync to skip updating	files that  already  exist  on
	      the  destination	(this does not ignore existing directories, or
	      nothing would get	done).	See also --existing.

	      This option is a transfer	rule, not an exclude,  so  it  doesn't
	      affect  the  data	 that  goes  into  the file-lists, and thus it
	      doesn't affect deletions.	 It just limits	the files that the re-
	      ceiver requests to be transferred.

	      This  option  can	 be  useful  for those doing backups using the
	      --link-dest option when they need	to continue a backup run  that
	      got  interrupted.	  Since	a --link-dest run is copied into a new
	      directory	hierarchy (when	it is used properly),  using  --ignore
	      existing	will  ensure  that the already-handled files don't get
	      tweaked (which avoids a change in	permissions on the hard-linked
	      files).	This does mean that this option	is only	looking	at the
	      existing files in	the destination	hierarchy itself.

	      This tells rsync to remove  from	the  sending  side  the	 files
	      (meaning	non-directories)  that	are a part of the transfer and
	      have been	successfully duplicated	on the receiving side.

	      Note that	you should only	use this option	on source  files  that
	      are quiescent.  If you are using this to move files that show up
	      in a particular directory	over to	another	host, make  sure  that
	      the  finished  files  get	renamed	into the source	directory, not
	      directly written into it,	so that	rsync can't possibly  transfer
	      a	 file that is not yet fully written.  If you can't first write
	      the files	into a different directory, you	should	use  a	naming
	      idiom  that lets rsync avoid transferring	files that are not yet
	      finished (e.g. name the file "" when it is	 written,  re-
	      name  it to "foo"	when it	is done, and then use the option --ex-
	      clude='*.new' for	the rsync transfer).

	      Starting with 3.1.0, rsync will  skip  the  sender-side  removal
	      (and  output an error) if	the file's size	or modify time has not
	      stayed unchanged.

	      This tells rsync to delete extraneous files from	the  receiving
	      side  (ones  that	 aren't	on the sending side), but only for the
	      directories that are being synchronized.	You  must  have	 asked
	      rsync to send the	whole directory	(e.g. "dir" or "dir/") without
	      using a wildcard for the	directory's  contents  (e.g.  "dir/*")
	      since  the wildcard is expanded by the shell and rsync thus gets
	      a	request	to transfer individual files, not  the	files'	parent
	      directory.   Files  that are excluded from the transfer are also
	      excluded from being deleted unless you use the --delete-excluded
	      option  or  mark	the rules as only matching on the sending side
	      (see the include/exclude modifiers in the	FILTER RULES section).

	      Prior to rsync 2.6.7, this option	would have  no	effect	unless
	      --recursive  was	enabled.  Beginning with 2.6.7,	deletions will
	      also occur when --dirs (-d) is enabled, but only for directories
	      whose contents are being copied.

	      This  option can be dangerous if used incorrectly!  It is	a very
	      good idea	to first try a run using the --dry-run option (-n)  to
	      see what files are going to be deleted.

	      If the sending side detects any I/O errors, then the deletion of
	      any files	at the destination  will  be  automatically  disabled.
	      This  is	to  prevent temporary filesystem failures (such	as NFS
	      errors) on the sending side from causing a massive  deletion  of
	      files  on	the destination.  You can override this	with the --ig-
	      nore-errors option.

	      The  --delete  option  may  be  combined	 with	one   of   the
	      --delete-WHEN  options without conflict, as well as --delete-ex-
	      cluded.  However,	if none	of the --delete-WHEN options are spec-
	      ified,  rsync  will  choose  the	--delete-during	algorithm when
	      talking to rsync 3.0.0 or	newer, and the	--delete-before	 algo-
	      rithm  when  talking to an older rsync.  See also	--delete-delay
	      and --delete-after.

	      Request that the file-deletions on the receiving	side  be  done
	      before the transfer starts.  See --delete	(which is implied) for
	      more details on file-deletion.

	      Deleting before the transfer is helpful  if  the	filesystem  is
	      tight for	space and removing extraneous files would help to make
	      the transfer possible.  However, it does introduce a  delay  be-
	      fore  the	 start of the transfer,	and this delay might cause the
	      transfer to timeout  (if	--timeout  was	specified).   It  also
	      forces rsync to use the old, non-incremental recursion algorithm
	      that requires rsync to scan all the files	in the	transfer  into
	      memory at	once (see --recursive).

       --delete-during,	--del
	      Request  that  the  file-deletions on the	receiving side be done
	      incrementally as the transfer happens.  The per-directory	delete
	      scan is done right before	each directory is checked for updates,
	      so it behaves like a more	efficient  --delete-before,  including
	      doing  the deletions prior to any	per-directory filter files be-
	      ing updated.  This option	 was  first  added  in	rsync  version
	      2.6.4.   See  --delete  (which  is  implied) for more details on

	      Request that the file-deletions on the receiving	side  be  com-
	      puted  during  the transfer (like	--delete-during), and then re-
	      moved after the transfer completes.  This	is  useful  when  com-
	      bined with --delay-updates and/or	--fuzzy, and is	more efficient
	      than using --delete-after	(but  can  behave  differently,	 since
	      --delete-after  computes	the deletions in a separate pass after
	      all updates are done).  If the number of removed files overflows
	      an  internal buffer, a temporary file will be created on the re-
	      ceiving side to hold the names (it is removed while open,	so you
	      shouldn't	 see  it during	the transfer).	If the creation	of the
	      temporary	file fails, rsync will	try  to	 fall  back  to	 using
	      --delete-after  (which  it  cannot do if --recursive is doing an
	      incremental scan).  See --delete (which is implied) for more de-
	      tails on file-deletion.

	      Request  that  the  file-deletions on the	receiving side be done
	      after the	transfer has completed.	 This is  useful  if  you  are
	      sending  new per-directory merge files as	a part of the transfer
	      and you want their exclusions to	take  effect  for  the	delete
	      phase  of	the current transfer.  It also forces rsync to use the
	      old, non-incremental recursion algorithm that requires rsync  to
	      scan  all	 the  files  in	 the transfer into memory at once (see
	      --recursive).  See --delete (which is implied) for more  details
	      on file-deletion.

	      In addition to deleting the files	on the receiving side that are
	      not on the sending side, this tells rsync	 to  also  delete  any
	      files  on	 the receiving side that are excluded (see --exclude).
	      See the FILTER RULES section for a way to	make individual	exclu-
	      sions  behave this way on	the receiver, and for a	way to protect
	      files from --delete-excluded.  See --delete (which  is  implied)
	      for more details on file-deletion.

	      When  rsync  is first processing the explicitly requested	source
	      files (e.g. command-line arguments or --files-from entries),  it
	      is  normally  an error if	the file cannot	be found.  This	option
	      suppresses that error, and does not try to  transfer  the	 file.
	      This  does  not affect subsequent	vanished-file errors if	a file
	      was initially found to be	present	and later is no	longer there.

	      This option takes	the behavior of	(the  implied)	--ignore-miss-
	      ing-args	option a step farther:	each missing arg will become a
	      deletion request of the corresponding destination	 file  on  the
	      receiving	 side (should it exist).  If the destination file is a
	      non-empty	directory, it will only	 be  successfully  deleted  if
	      --force or --delete are in effect.  Other	than that, this	option
	      is independent of	any other type of delete processing.

	      The missing source files are represented	by  special  file-list
	      entries  which  display as a "*missing" entry in the --list-only

	      Tells --delete to	go ahead and delete files even when there  are
	      I/O errors.

	      This  option tells rsync to delete a non-empty directory when it
	      is to be replaced	by a non-directory.  This is only relevant  if
	      deletions	are not	active (see --delete for details).

	      This  option can be abbreviated --force for backward compatibil-
	      ity.  Note that some older rsync versions	used to	still  require
	      --force  when  using --delete-after, and it used to be non-func-
	      tional unless the	--recursive option was also enabled.

	      This tells rsync not to delete more than NUM files  or  directo-
	      ries.   If  that	limit  is  exceeded, all further deletions are
	      skipped through the end of the transfer.	At the end, rsync out-
	      puts  a warning (including a count of the	skipped	deletions) and
	      exits with an error code of 25 (unless some more important error
	      condition	also occurred).

	      Beginning	 with version 3.0.0, you may specify --max-delete=0 to
	      be warned	about any extraneous files in the destination  without
	      removing any of them.  Older clients interpreted this as "unlim-
	      ited", so	if you don't know what version the client is, you  can
	      use  the	less  obvious --max-delete=-1 as a backward-compatible
	      way to specify that no deletions be allowed (though  really  old
	      versions didn't warn when	the limit was exceeded).

	      This  tells  rsync to avoid transferring any file	that is	larger
	      than the specified SIZE. The SIZE	value can be suffixed  with  a
	      string  to  indicate  a size multiplier, and may be a fractional
	      value (e.g. "--max-size=1.5m").

	      This option is a transfer	rule, not an exclude,  so  it  doesn't
	      affect  the  data	 that  goes  into  the file-lists, and thus it
	      doesn't affect deletions.	 It just limits	the files that the re-
	      ceiver requests to be transferred.

	      The  suffixes  are  as  follows:	"K"  (or  "KiB") is a kibibyte
	      (1024), "M" (or "MiB") is	a mebibyte (1024*1024),	 and  "G"  (or
	      "GiB")  is  a gibibyte (1024*1024*1024).	If you want the	multi-
	      plier to be 1000 instead of  1024,  use  "KB",  "MB",  or	 "GB".
	      (Note: lower-case	is also	accepted for all values.)  Finally, if
	      the suffix ends in either	"+1" or	"-1", the value	will be	offset
	      by one byte in the indicated direction.

	      Examples:	   --max-size=1.5mb-1	 is    1499999	  bytes,   and
	      --max-size=2g+1 is 2147483649 bytes.

	      Note  that  rsync	 versions  prior  to  3.1.0  did   not	 allow

	      This  tells rsync	to avoid transferring any file that is smaller
	      than the specified SIZE, which  can  help	 in  not  transferring
	      small,  junk files.  See the --max-size option for a description
	      of SIZE and other	information.

	      Note  that  rsync	 versions  prior  to  3.1.0  did   not	 allow

       -B, --block-size=BLOCKSIZE
	      This  forces the block size used in rsync's delta-transfer algo-
	      rithm to a fixed value.  It is normally selected	based  on  the
	      size  of	each file being	updated.  See the technical report for

       -e, --rsh=COMMAND
	      This option allows you to	choose	an  alternative	 remote	 shell
	      program  to  use	for communication between the local and	remote
	      copies of	rsync. Typically, rsync	is configured to  use  ssh  by
	      default, but you may prefer to use rsh on	a local	network.

	      If  this	option is used with [user@]host::module/path, then the
	      remote shell COMMAND will	be used	to run an rsync	daemon on  the
	      remote  host,  and all data will be transmitted through that re-
	      mote shell connection, rather than through a direct socket  con-
	      nection  to  a running rsync daemon on the remote	host.  See the
	      TION" above.

	      Command-line  arguments  are  permitted in COMMAND provided that
	      COMMAND is presented to rsync as a single	 argument.   You  must
	      use  spaces  (not	tabs or	other whitespace) to separate the com-
	      mand and args from each other, and you can  use  single-	and/or
	      double-quotes  to	 preserve spaces in an argument	(but not back-
	      slashes).	 Note that  doubling  a	 single-quote  inside  a  sin-
	      gle-quoted  string  gives	 you a single-quote; likewise for dou-
	      ble-quotes (though you need to pay  attention  to	 which	quotes
	      your  shell is parsing and which quotes rsync is parsing).  Some

		  -e 'ssh -p 2234'
		  -e 'ssh -o "ProxyCommand nohup ssh firewall nc -w1 %h	%p"'

	      (Note that ssh users  can	 alternately  customize	 site-specific
	      connect options in their .ssh/config file.)

	      You can also choose the remote shell program using the RSYNC_RSH
	      environment variable, which accepts the same range of values  as

	      See  also	the --blocking-io option which is affected by this op-

	      Use this to specify what program is to be	run on the remote  ma-
	      chine  to	 start-up  rsync.  Often used when rsync is not	in the
	      default	remote-shell's	 path	(e.g.	 --rsync-path=/usr/lo-
	      cal/bin/rsync).	Note  that  PROGRAM  is	run with the help of a
	      shell, so	it can be any program,	script,	 or  command  sequence
	      you'd  care  to  run,  so	 long as it does not corrupt the stan-
	      dard-in &	standard-out that rsync	is using to communicate.

	      One tricky example is to set a different	default	 directory  on
	      the  remote machine for use with the --relative option.  For in-

		  rsync	-avR --rsync-path="cd /a/b && rsync" host:c/d /e/

       -M, --remote-option=OPTION
	      This option is used for more advanced situations where you  want
	      certain  effects to be limited to	one side of the	transfer only.
	      For instance, if you want	to pass	--log-file=FILE	and --fake-su-
	      per to the remote	system,	specify	it like	this:

		  rsync	-av -M --log-file=foo -M--fake-super src/ dest/

	      If  you  want  to	have an	option affect only the local side of a
	      transfer when it normally	affects	both sides, send its  negation
	      to the remote side.  Like	this:

		  rsync	-av -x -M--no-x	src/ dest/

	      Be  cautious  using  this, as it is possible to toggle an	option
	      that will	cause rsync to have a different	idea about  what  data
	      to  expect next over the socket, and that	will make it fail in a
	      cryptic fashion.

	      Note that	it is best to use a separate --remote-option for  each
	      option you want to pass.	This makes your	useage compatible with
	      the --protect-args option.  If that option is off, any spaces in
	      your remote options will be split	by the remote shell unless you
	      take steps to protect them.

	      When performing a	local transfer,	the "local" side is the	sender
	      and the "remote" side is the receiver.

	      Note some	versions of the	popt option-parsing library have a bug
	      in them that prevents you	from using an  adjacent	 arg  with  an
	      equal   in   it	next   to   a	short	option	 letter	 (e.g.
	      -M--log-file=/tmp/foo.  If this  bug  affects  your  version  of
	      popt,  you  can  use  the	 version of popt that is included with

       -C, --cvs-exclude
	      This is a	useful shorthand for excluding a broad range of	 files
	      that you often don't want	to transfer between systems. It	uses a
	      similar algorithm	to CVS to determine if a file  should  be  ig-

	      The  exclude  list is initialized	to exclude the following items
	      (these initial items are marked as perishable -- see the	FILTER
	      RULES section):

		     RCS   SCCS	  CVS	CVS.adm	  RCSLOG  cvslog.*  tags  TAGS
		     .make.state .nse_depinfo *~ #* .#*	,* _$* *$ *.old	 *.bak
		     *.BAK  *.orig *.rej .del-*	*.a *.olb *.o *.obj *.so *.exe
		     *.Z *.elc *.ln core .svn/ .git/ .hg/ .bzr/

	      then, files listed in a $HOME/.cvsignore are added to  the  list
	      and  any files listed in the CVSIGNORE environment variable (all
	      cvsignore	names are delimited by whitespace).

	      Finally, any file	is ignored if it is in the same	directory as a
	      .cvsignore  file and matches one of the patterns listed therein.
	      Unlike rsync's filter/exclude files, these patterns are split on
	      whitespace.  See the cvs(1) manual for more information.

	      If  you're combining -C with your	own --filter rules, you	should
	      note that	these CVS excludes are appended	at the end of your own
	      rules,  regardless  of  where  the  -C  was  placed  on the com-
	      mand-line.  This makes them a lower priority than	any rules  you
	      specified	 explicitly.   If  you want to control where these CVS
	      excludes get inserted into your filter rules,  you  should  omit
	      the  -C as a command-line	option and use a combination of	--fil-
	      ter=:C and  --filter=-C  (either	on  your  command-line	or  by
	      putting  the  ":C"  and  "-C" rules into a filter	file with your
	      other rules).  The first option turns on the per-directory scan-
	      ning for the .cvsignore file.  The second	option does a one-time
	      import of	the CVS	excludes mentioned above.

       -f, --filter=RULE
	      This option allows you to	add rules to selectively exclude  cer-
	      tain  files  from	 the  list of files to be transferred. This is
	      most useful in combination with a	recursive transfer.

	      You may use as many --filter options on the command line as  you
	      like  to	build  up the list of files to exclude.	 If the	filter
	      contains whitespace, be sure to quote it so that the shell gives
	      the  rule	 to  rsync  as a single	argument.  The text below also
	      mentions that you	can use	an underscore  to  replace  the	 space
	      that separates a rule from its arg.

	      See  the	FILTER	RULES section for detailed information on this

       -F     The -F option is a shorthand for adding two  --filter  rules  to
	      your command.  The first time it is used is a shorthand for this

		 --filter='dir-merge /.rsync-filter'

	      This tells rsync to look for per-directory  .rsync-filter	 files
	      that  have  been	sprinkled  through the hierarchy and use their
	      rules to filter the files	in the transfer.  If -F	 is  repeated,
	      it is a shorthand	for this rule:

		 --filter='exclude .rsync-filter'

	      This  filters  out  the  .rsync-filter files themselves from the

	      See the FILTER RULES section for	detailed  information  on  how
	      these options work.

	      This option is a simplified form of the --filter option that de-
	      faults to	an exclude rule	and does not allow the full rule-pars-
	      ing syntax of normal filter rules.

	      See  the	FILTER	RULES section for detailed information on this

	      This option is related to	the --exclude option, but it specifies
	      a	 FILE  that  contains  exclude patterns	(one per line).	 Blank
	      lines in the file	and lines starting with	';'  or	 '#'  are  ig-
	      nored.  If FILE is -, the	list will be read from standard	input.

	      This option is a simplified form of the --filter option that de-
	      faults to	an include rule	and does not allow the full rule-pars-
	      ing syntax of normal filter rules.

	      See  the	FILTER	RULES section for detailed information on this

	      This option is related to	the --include option, but it specifies
	      a	 FILE  that  contains  include patterns	(one per line).	 Blank
	      lines in the file	and lines starting with	';'  or	 '#'  are  ig-
	      nored.  If FILE is -, the	list will be read from standard	input.

	      Using  this option allows	you to specify the exact list of files
	      to transfer (as read from	the specified FILE or -	 for  standard
	      input).	It  also  tweaks the default behavior of rsync to make
	      transferring just	the specified files and	directories easier:

	      o	     The --relative (-R) option	is  implied,  which  preserves
		     the  path	information that is specified for each item in
		     the file (use --no-relative or --no-R if you want to turn
		     that off).

	      o	     The  --dirs (-d) option is	implied, which will create di-
		     rectories specified in the	list on	the destination	rather
		     than  noisily  skipping  them (use	--no-dirs or --no-d if
		     you want to turn that off).

	      o	     The --archive (-a)	option's behavior does not imply --re-
		     cursive (-r), so specify it explicitly, if	you want it.

	      o	     These  side-effects change	the default state of rsync, so
		     the position of  the  --files-from	 option	 on  the  com-
		     mand-line	has no bearing on how other options are	parsed
		     (e.g. -a works the	same before or after --files-from,  as
		     does --no-R and all other options).

	      The  filenames  that  are	read from the FILE are all relative to
	      the source dir --	any leading slashes are	removed	 and  no  ".."
	      references  are  allowed	to go higher than the source dir.  For
	      example, take this command:

		 rsync -a --files-from=/tmp/foo	/usr remote:/backup

	      If /tmp/foo contains the string  "bin"  (or  even	 "/bin"),  the
	      /usr/bin	directory will be created as /backup/bin on the	remote
	      host.  If	it contains "bin/" (note the trailing slash), the  im-
	      mediate  contents	 of  the directory would also be sent (without
	      needing to be explicitly mentioned in the	file --	this began  in
	      version  2.6.4).	 In  both cases, if the	-r option was enabled,
	      that dir's entire	hierarchy would	also be	transferred  (keep  in
	      mind that	-r needs to be specified explicitly with --files-from,
	      since it is not implied by -a).  Also note that  the  effect  of
	      the  (enabled by default)	--relative option is to	duplicate only
	      the path info that is read from the file -- it  does  not	 force
	      the duplication of the source-spec path (/usr in this case).

	      In  addition,  the --files-from file can be read from the	remote
	      host instead of the local	host if	you specify a "host:" in front
	      of the file (the host must match one end of the transfer).  As a
	      short-cut, you can specify just a	prefix of ":" to mean "use the
	      remote end of the	transfer".  For	example:

		 rsync -a --files-from=:/path/file-list	src:/ /tmp/copy

	      This  would  copy	all the	files specified	in the /path/file-list
	      file that	was located on the remote "src"	host.

	      If the --iconv and --protect-args	options	are specified and  the
	      --files-from  filenames are being	sent from one host to another,
	      the filenames will be translated from the	sending	host's charset
	      to the receiving host's charset.

	      NOTE:  sorting the list of files in the --files-from input helps
	      rsync to be more efficient, as it	 will  avoid  re-visiting  the
	      path  elements that are shared between adjacent entries.	If the
	      input is not sorted, some	path  elements	(implied  directories)
	      may  end up being	scanned	multiple times,	and rsync will eventu-
	      ally unduplicate them after they get turned into file-list  ele-

       -0, --from0
	      This  tells  rsync that the rules/filenames it reads from	a file
	      are terminated by	a null ('\0') character,  not  a  NL,  CR,  or
	      CR+LF.	 This	 affects    --exclude-from,    --include-from,
	      --files-from, and	any merged files specified in a	--filter rule.
	      It  does	not  affect --cvs-exclude (since all names read	from a
	      .cvsignore file are split	on whitespace).

       -s, --protect-args
	      This option sends	all filenames and most options to  the	remote
	      rsync without allowing the remote	shell to interpret them.  This
	      means that spaces	are not	split in names,	and  any  non-wildcard
	      special  characters  are	not  translated	 (such	as ~, $, ;, &,
	      etc.).  Wildcards	are expanded on	the remote host	by rsync  (in-
	      stead of the shell doing it).

	      If you use this option with --iconv, the args related to the re-
	      mote side	will also be translated	from the local to  the	remote
	      character-set.   The  translation	 happens before	wild-cards are
	      expanded.	 See also the --files-from option.

	      You may also control this	option via the RSYNC_PROTECT_ARGS  en-
	      vironment	variable.  If this variable has	a non-zero value, this
	      option will be enabled by	default, otherwise it will be disabled
	      by  default.  Either state is overridden by a manually specified
	      positive or negative version of this option  (note  that	--no-s
	      and  --no-protect-args  are  the negative	versions).  Since this
	      option was first introduced in 3.0.0, you'll need	to  make  sure
	      it's  disabled  if you ever need to interact with	a remote rsync
	      that is older than that.

	      Rsync can	also be	configured (at build time) to have this	option
	      enabled  by  default (with is overridden by both the environment
	      and the command-line).  This option will eventually become a new
	      default setting at some as-yet-undetermined point	in the future.

       -T, --temp-dir=DIR
	      This  option  instructs  rsync to	use DIR	as a scratch directory
	      when creating temporary copies of	the files transferred  on  the
	      receiving	 side.	 The default behavior is to create each	tempo-
	      rary file	in the same directory as  the  associated  destination
	      file.   Beginning	 with  rsync 3.1.1, the	temp-file names	inside
	      the specified DIR	will not be prefixed with an extra dot (though
	      they will	still have a random suffix added).

	      This option is most often	used when the receiving	disk partition
	      does not have enough free	space to hold a	copy  of  the  largest
	      file  in	the transfer.  In this case (i.e. when the scratch di-
	      rectory is on a different	disk partition),  rsync	 will  not  be
	      able  to rename each received temporary file over	the top	of the
	      associated destination file,  but	 instead  must	copy  it  into
	      place.   Rsync does this by copying the file over	the top	of the
	      destination file,	which means that  the  destination  file  will
	      contain  truncated data during this copy.	 If this were not done
	      this way (even if	the destination	file were first	 removed,  the
	      data  locally  copied to a temporary file	in the destination di-
	      rectory, and then	renamed	into place) it would be	 possible  for
	      the old file to continue taking up disk space (if	someone	had it
	      open), and thus there might not be enough	room to	 fit  the  new
	      version on the disk at the same time.

	      If  you  are using this option for reasons other than a shortage
	      of disk space, you may wish to combine it	with  the  --delay-up-
	      dates  option,  which  will ensure that all copied files get put
	      into subdirectories in the destination hierarchy,	 awaiting  the
	      end of the transfer.  If you don't have enough room to duplicate
	      all the arriving files on	the destination	partition, another way
	      to  tell rsync that you aren't overly concerned about disk space
	      is to use	the --partial-dir option with a	relative path; because
	      this  tells  rsync that it is OK to stash	off a copy of a	single
	      file in a	subdir in the destination hierarchy,  rsync  will  use
	      the partial-dir as a staging area	to bring over the copied file,
	      and then rename it into place from there.	(Specifying  a	--par-
	      tial-dir with an absolute	path does not have this	side-effect.)

       -y, --fuzzy
	      This option tells	rsync that it should look for a	basis file for
	      any destination file that	is  missing.   The  current  algorithm
	      looks in the same	directory as the destination file for either a
	      file that	has an identical size and modified-time,  or  a	 simi-
	      larly-named  file.  If found, rsync uses the fuzzy basis file to
	      try to speed up the transfer.

	      If the option is repeated, the fuzzy scan	will also be  done  in
	      any  matching  alternate destination directories that are	speci-
	      fied via --compare-dest, --copy-dest, or --link-dest.

	      Note that	the use	of the --delete	option might get  rid  of  any
	      potential	 fuzzy-match  files,  so  either use --delete-after or
	      specify some filename exclusions if you need to prevent this.

	      This option instructs rsync to use DIR on	 the  destination  ma-
	      chine  as	 an  additional	hierarchy to compare destination files
	      against doing transfers (if the files are	missing	in the	desti-
	      nation  directory).  If a	file is	found in DIR that is identical
	      to the sender's file, the	file will NOT be  transferred  to  the
	      destination  directory.	This  is  useful for creating a	sparse
	      backup of	just files that	have changed from an  earlier  backup.
	      This  option  is	typically used to copy into an empty (or newly
	      created) directory.

	      Beginning	in version 2.6.4, multiple --compare-dest  directories
	      may  be  provided,  which	will cause rsync to search the list in
	      the order	specified for an exact match.  If  a  match  is	 found
	      that  differs  only  in attributes, a local copy is made and the
	      attributes updated.  If a	match is not found, a basis file  from
	      one  of  the DIRs	will be	selected to try	to speed up the	trans-

	      If DIR is	a relative path, it is relative	to the destination di-
	      rectory.	See also --copy-dest and --link-dest.

	      NOTE:  beginning	with  version  3.1.0, rsync will remove	a file
	      from a non-empty destination hierarchy  if  an  exact  match  is
	      found in one of the compare-dest hierarchies (making the end re-
	      sult more	closely	match a	fresh copy).

	      This option behaves like --compare-dest,	but  rsync  will  also
	      copy  unchanged  files found in DIR to the destination directory
	      using a local copy.  This	is useful for doing transfers to a new
	      destination  while leaving existing files	intact,	and then doing
	      a	flash-cutover when all files  have  been  successfully	trans-

	      Multiple	--copy-dest  directories  may  be provided, which will
	      cause rsync to search the	list in	the order specified for	an un-
	      changed file.  If	a match	is not found, a	basis file from	one of
	      the DIRs will be selected	to try to speed	up the transfer.

	      If DIR is	a relative path, it is relative	to the destination di-
	      rectory.	See also --compare-dest	and --link-dest.

	      This  option  behaves  like --copy-dest, but unchanged files are
	      hard linked from DIR to the destination  directory.   The	 files
	      must be identical	in all preserved attributes (e.g. permissions,
	      possibly ownership) in order for the  files  to  be  linked  to-
	      gether.  An example:

		rsync -av --link-dest=$PWD/prior_dir host:src_dir/ new_dir/

	      If  file's  aren't linking, double-check their attributes.  Also
	      check if some attributes are getting forced outside  of  rsync's
	      control,	such  a	 mount	option	that squishes root to a	single
	      user, or mounts a	removable drive	with generic  ownership	 (such
	      as OS X's	"Ignore	ownership on this volume" option).

	      Beginning	in version 2.6.4, multiple --link-dest directories may
	      be provided, which will cause rsync to search the	 list  in  the
	      order  specified	for  an	exact match.  If a match is found that
	      differs only in attributes, a local copy is  made	 and  the  at-
	      tributes	updated.   If  a match is not found, a basis file from
	      one of the DIRs will be selected to try to speed up  the	trans-

	      This  option  works  best	when copying into an empty destination
	      hierarchy, as existing files may get their  attributes  tweaked,
	      and  that	can affect alternate destination files via hard-links.
	      Also, itemizing of changes can get a  bit	 muddled.   Note  that
	      prior to version 3.1.0, an alternate-directory exact match would
	      never be found (nor linked into the destination) when a destina-
	      tion file	already	exists.

	      Note  that if you	combine	this option with --ignore-times, rsync
	      will not link any	files together because it only links identical
	      files  together as a substitute for transferring the file, never
	      as an additional check after the file is updated.

	      If DIR is	a relative path, it is relative	to the destination di-
	      rectory.	See also --compare-dest	and --copy-dest.

	      Note  that  rsync	 versions  prior to 2.6.1 had a	bug that could
	      prevent --link-dest from working properly	for  a	non-super-user
	      when  -o	was specified (or implied by -a).  You can work-around
	      this bug by avoiding the -o option when sending to an old	rsync.

       -z, --compress
	      With this	option,	rsync compresses the file data as it  is  sent
	      to the destination machine, which	reduces	the amount of data be-
	      ing transmitted -- something that	is useful over a slow  connec-

	      Note  that this option typically achieves	better compression ra-
	      tios than	can be achieved	by using a compressing remote shell or
	      a	 compressing  transport	 because it takes advantage of the im-
	      plicit information in the	matching data blocks that are not  ex-
	      plicitly	sent over the connection.  This	matching-data compres-
	      sion comes at a cost of CPU, though, and can be disabled by  re-
	      peating  the -z option, but only if both sides are at least ver-
	      sion 3.1.1.

	      Note that	if your	version	of rsync was compiled with an external
	      zlib  (instead  of the zlib that comes packaged with rsync) then
	      it  will	not  support  the  old-style  compression,  only   the
	      new-style	 (repeated-option)  compression.   In  the future this
	      new-style	compression will likely	become the default.

	      The client rsync requests	new-style compression  on  the	server
	      via  the	--new-compress	option,	 so if you see that option re-
	      jected it	means that the server is not  new  enough  to  support
	      -zz.   Rsync also	accepts	the --old-compress option for a	future
	      time when	new-style compression becomes the default.

	      See the --skip-compress option for the default list of file suf-
	      fixes that will not be compressed.

	      Explicitly set the compression level to use (see --compress) in-
	      stead of letting it default.  If NUM is non-zero,	the --compress
	      option is	implied.

	      Override	the list of file suffixes that will not	be compressed.
	      The LIST should be one or	more file suffixes (without  the  dot)
	      separated	by slashes (/).

	      You  may specify an empty	string to indicate that	no file	should
	      be skipped.

	      Simple character-class matching is supported: each must  consist
	      of a list	of letters inside the square brackets (e.g. no special
	      classes, such as "[:alpha:]", are	supported, and '-' has no spe-
	      cial meaning).

	      The  characters  asterisk	(*) and	question-mark (?) have no spe-
	      cial meaning.

	      Here's an	example	that specifies 6 suffixes to skip (since 1  of
	      the 5 rules matches 2 suffixes):


	      The default list of suffixes that	will not be compressed is this
	      (in this version of rsync):

	      7z ace avi bz2 deb gpg gz	iso jpeg jpg lz	lzma lzo mov  mp3  mp4
	      ogg png rar rpm rzip tbz tgz tlz txz xz z	zip

	      This  list  will be replaced by your --skip-compress list	in all
	      but one situation: a copy	from a	daemon	rsync  will  add  your
	      skipped  suffixes	 to its	list of	non-compressing	files (and its
	      list may be configured to	a different default).

	      With this	option rsync will transfer numeric group and user  IDs
	      rather  than using user and group	names and mapping them at both

	      By default rsync will use	the username and groupname  to	deter-
	      mine  what  ownership  to	 give files. The special uid 0 and the
	      special group 0 are never	mapped via user/group  names  even  if
	      the --numeric-ids	option is not specified.

	      If a user	or group has no	name on	the source system or it	has no
	      match on the destination system, then the	numeric	 ID  from  the
	      source  system  is  used	instead.  See also the comments	on the
	      "use chroot" setting in the rsyncd.conf manpage for  information
	      on how the chroot	setting	affects	rsync's	ability	to look	up the
	      names of the users and groups and	what you can do	about it.

       --usermap=STRING, --groupmap=STRING
	      These options allow you to specify users and groups that	should
	      be  mapped to other values by the	receiving side.	 The STRING is
	      one or more FROM:TO pairs	of values separated  by	 commas.   Any
	      matching	FROM value from	the sender is replaced with a TO value
	      from the receiver.  You may specify usernames or	user  IDs  for
	      the  FROM	 and  TO  values,  and	the  FROM  value may also be a
	      wild-card	string,	which will be  matched	against	 the  sender's
	      names  (wild-cards  do  NOT match	against	ID numbers, though see
	      below for	why a '*' matches everything).	You may	instead	 spec-
	      ify a range of ID	numbers	via an inclusive range:	LOW-HIGH.  For

		--usermap=0-99:nobody,wayne:admin,*:normal --groupmap=usr:1,1:usr

	      The first	match in the list is the one that is used.  You	should
	      specify  all your	user mappings using a single --usermap option,
	      and/or all your group mappings using a single --groupmap option.

	      Note that	the sender's name for the 0 user  and  group  are  not
	      transmitted  to  the  receiver, so you should either match these
	      values using a 0,	or use the names in effect  on	the  receiving
	      side  (typically	"root").   All other FROM names	match those in
	      use on the sending side.	All TO names match those in use	on the
	      receiving	side.

	      Any  IDs that do not have	a name on the sending side are treated
	      as having	an empty name for the purpose of matching.   This  al-
	      lows  them  to be	matched	via a "*" or using an empty name.  For

		--usermap=:nobody --groupmap=*:nobody

	      When the --numeric-ids option is used, the sender	does not  send
	      any  names,  so all the IDs are treated as having	an empty name.
	      This means that you will need to specify numeric FROM values  if
	      you want to map these nameless IDs to different values.

	      For  the	--usermap  option to have any effect, the -o (--owner)
	      option must be used (or implied),	and the	receiver will need  to
	      be  running  as a	super-user (see	also the --fake-super option).
	      For the --groupmap option	to have	any effect, the	-g  (--groups)
	      option  must be used (or implied), and the receiver will need to
	      have permissions to set that group.

	      This option forces all files to be  owned	 by  USER  with	 group
	      GROUP.   This  is	 a  simpler interface than using --usermap and
	      --groupmap directly, but it is implemented using	those  options
	      internally, so you cannot	mix them.  If either the USER or GROUP
	      is empty,	no mapping for the omitted user/group will occur.   If
	      GROUP  is	 empty,	the trailing colon may be omitted, but if USER
	      is empty,	a leading colon	must be	supplied.

	      If you specify "--chown=foo:bar, this is	exactly	 the  same  as
	      specifying "--usermap=*:foo --groupmap=*:bar", only easier.

	      This  option allows you to set a maximum I/O timeout in seconds.
	      If no data is transferred	for the	specified time then rsync will
	      exit. The	default	is 0, which means no timeout.

	      This option allows you to	set the	amount of time that rsync will
	      wait for its connection to an rsync daemon to succeed.   If  the
	      timeout is reached, rsync	exits with an error.

	      By default rsync will bind to the	wildcard address when connect-
	      ing to an	rsync daemon.  The  --address  option  allows  you  to
	      specify  a  specific  IP	address	(or hostname) to bind to.  See
	      also this	option in the --daemon mode section.

	      This specifies an	alternate TCP port number to use  rather  than
	      the  default  of	873.  This is only needed if you are using the
	      double-colon (::)	syntax to connect with an rsync	daemon	(since
	      the  URL	syntax	has a way to specify the port as a part	of the
	      URL).  See also this option in the --daemon mode section.

	      This option can provide endless fun for people who like to  tune
	      their  systems  to  the  utmost degree. You can set all sorts of
	      socket options which may make  transfers	faster	(or  slower!).
	      Read  the	 man page for the setsockopt() system call for details
	      on some of the options you may be	able to	 set.  By  default  no
	      special  socket options are set. This only affects direct	socket
	      connections to a remote rsync daemon.  This option  also	exists
	      in the --daemon mode section.

	      This  tells  rsync  to  use blocking I/O when launching a	remote
	      shell transport.	If the remote shell is either  rsh  or	remsh,
	      rsync  defaults  to using	blocking I/O, otherwise	it defaults to
	      using non-blocking I/O.  (Note  that  ssh	 prefers  non-blocking

	      This  sets the output buffering mode.  The mode can be None (aka
	      Unbuffered), Line, or Block (aka Full).  You may specify as lit-
	      tle  as  a  single  letter  for the mode,	and use	upper or lower

	      The main use of this option is to	change Full buffering to  Line
	      buffering	when rsync's output is going to	a file or pipe.

       -i, --itemize-changes
	      Requests	a  simple  itemized list of the	changes	that are being
	      made to each file, including attribute changes.  This is exactly
	      the  same	 as  specifying	--out-format='%i %n%L'.	 If you	repeat
	      the option, unchanged files will also be output, but only	if the
	      receiving	 rsync is at least version 2.6.7 (you can use -vv with
	      older versions of	rsync, but that	also turns on  the  output  of
	      other verbose messages).

	      The  "%i"	 escape	 has a cryptic output that is 11 letters long.
	      The general format is like the string YXcstpogfax,  where	 Y  is
	      replaced	by the type of update being done, X is replaced	by the
	      file-type, and the other letters represent attributes  that  may
	      be output	if they	are being modified.

	      The update types that replace the	Y are as follows:

	      o	     A	< means	that a file is being transferred to the	remote
		     host (sent).

	      o	     A > means that a file is being transferred	to  the	 local
		     host (received).

	      o	     A	c  means that a	local change/creation is occurring for
		     the item (such as the creation  of	 a  directory  or  the
		     changing of a symlink, etc.).

	      o	     A	h  means  that the item	is a hard link to another item
		     (requires --hard-links).

	      o	     A . means that the	item is	not being updated  (though  it
		     might have	attributes that	are being modified).

	      o	     A	* means	that the rest of the itemized-output area con-
		     tains a message (e.g. "deleting").

	      The file-types that replace the X	are: f for a file, a d	for  a
	      directory,  an  L	for a symlink, a D for a device, and a S for a
	      special file (e.g. named sockets and fifos).

	      The other	letters	in the string above  are  the  actual  letters
	      that  will be output if the associated attribute for the item is
	      being updated or a "." for no change.  Three exceptions to  this
	      are:  (1)	 a newly created item replaces each letter with	a "+",
	      (2) an identical item replaces the dots with spaces, and (3)  an
	      unknown attribute	replaces each letter with a "?"	(this can hap-
	      pen when talking to an older rsync).

	      The attribute that is associated with each letter	is as follows:

	      o	     A c means either that a  regular  file  has  a  different
		     checksum (requires	--checksum) or that a symlink, device,
		     or	special	file has a changed value.  Note	 that  if  you
		     are sending files to an rsync prior to 3.0.1, this	change
		     flag will be present only for checksum-differing  regular

	      o	     A	s  means  the  size of a regular file is different and
		     will be updated by	the file transfer.

	      o	     A t means the modification	time is	different and is being
		     updated to	the sender's value (requires --times).	An al-
		     ternate value of T	means that the modification time  will
		     be	 set  to  the  transfer	 time,	which  happens	when a
		     file/symlink/device is updated without --times and	when a
		     symlink  is  changed and the receiver can't set its time.
		     (Note: when using an rsync	3.0.0 client,  you  might  see
		     the  s  flag combined with	t instead of the proper	T flag
		     for this time-setting failure.)

	      o	     A p means the permissions are different and are being up-
		     dated to the sender's value (requires --perms).

	      o	     An	o means	the owner is different and is being updated to
		     the sender's value	(requires --owner and super-user priv-

	      o	     A	g means	the group is different and is being updated to
		     the sender's value	(requires --group and the authority to
		     set the group).

	      o	     The f means that the fileflags information	changed.

	      o	     The a means that the ACL information changed.

	      o	     The  x  means  that  the  extended	 attribute information

	      One other	output is possible:  when  deleting  files,  the  "%i"
	      will  output  the	string "*deleting" for each item that is being
	      removed (assuming	that you are talking to	a recent enough	 rsync
	      that  it	logs deletions instead of outputting them as a verbose

	      This allows you to specify exactly what the rsync	client outputs
	      to  the user on a	per-update basis.  The format is a text	string
	      containing embedded single-character escape  sequences  prefixed
	      with  a  percent	(%) character.	 A default format of "%n%L" is
	      assumed if either	--info=name or -v is specified (this tells you
	      just  the	 name of the file and, if the item is a	link, where it
	      points).	For a full list	of the possible	escape characters, see
	      the "log format" setting in the rsyncd.conf manpage.

	      Specifying  the  --out-format option implies the --info=name op-
	      tion, which will mention each file, dir, etc. that gets  updated
	      in  a  significant  way  (a  transferred	file, a	recreated sym-
	      link/device, or a	touched	directory).  In	addition, if the item-
	      ize-changes  escape  (%i)	is included in the string (e.g.	if the
	      --itemize-changes	option was used), the  logging	of  names  in-
	      creases  to mention any item that	is changed in any way (as long
	      as the receiving side is	at  least  2.6.4).   See  the  --item-
	      ize-changes option for a description of the output of "%i".

	      Rsync will output	the out-format string prior to a file's	trans-
	      fer unless one of	the transfer-statistic escapes	is  requested,
	      in  which	 case  the  logging  is	 done at the end of the	file's
	      transfer.	 When this late	logging	is in effect and --progress is
	      also  specified, rsync will also output the name of the file be-
	      ing transferred prior to its progress information	(followed,  of
	      course, by the out-format	output).

	      This  option  causes  rsync  to  log what	it is doing to a file.
	      This is similar to the logging that a daemon does,  but  can  be
	      requested	 for  the  client  side	 and/or	 the  server side of a
	      non-daemon transfer.  If specified as a client option,  transfer
	      logging will be enabled with a default format of "%i %n%L".  See
	      the --log-file-format option if you wish to override this.

	      Here's a example command that requests the remote	 side  to  log
	      what is happening:

		rsync -av --remote-option=--log-file=/tmp/rlog src/ dest/

	      This  is	very  useful  if you need to debug why a connection is
	      closing unexpectedly.

	      This allows you to specify exactly what  per-update  logging  is
	      put into the file	specified by the --log-file option (which must
	      also be specified	for this option	to have	any effect).   If  you
	      specify  an empty	string,	updated	files will not be mentioned in
	      the log file.  For a list	of the possible	escape characters, see
	      the "log format" setting in the rsyncd.conf manpage.

	      The  default FORMAT used if --log-file is	specified and this op-
	      tion is not is '%i %n%L'.

	      This tells rsync to print	a verbose set  of  statistics  on  the
	      file  transfer,  allowing	 you  to  tell	how  effective rsync's
	      delta-transfer algorithm is  for	your  data.   This  option  is
	      equivalent  to --info=stats2 if combined with 0 or 1 -v options,
	      or --info=stats3 if combined with	2 or more -v options.

	      The current statistics are as follows:

	      o	     Number of files is	the  count  of	all  "files"  (in  the
		     generic  sense),  which  includes	directories, symlinks,
		     etc.  The total count will	 be  followed  by  a  list  of
		     counts by filetype	(if the	total is non-zero).  For exam-
		     ple: "(reg: 5, dir: 3, link:  2,  dev:  1,	 special:  1)"
		     lists  the	 totals	 for  regular files, directories, sym-
		     links, devices, and special files.	 If any	of value is 0,
		     it	is completely omitted from the list.

	      o	     Number  of	created	files is the count of how many "files"
		     (generic sense) were created  (as	opposed	 to  updated).
		     The  total	 count will be followed	by a list of counts by
		     filetype (if the total is non-zero).

	      o	     Number of deleted files is	the count of how many  "files"
		     (generic  sense)  were  created  (as opposed to updated).
		     The total count will be followed by a list	of  counts  by
		     filetype (if the total is non-zero).  Note	that this line
		     is	only output if deletions are in	effect,	 and  only  if
		     protocol 31 is being used (the default for	rsync 3.1.x).

	      o	     Number  of	regular	files transferred is the count of nor-
		     mal files that were updated  via  rsync's	delta-transfer
		     algorithm,	 which	does  not include dirs,	symlinks, etc.
		     Note that rsync 3.1.0 added the word "regular" into  this

	      o	     Total file	size is	the total sum of all file sizes	in the
		     transfer.	This does not count any	size  for  directories
		     or	special	files, but does	include	the size of symlinks.

	      o	     Total transferred file size is the	total sum of all files
		     sizes for just the	transferred files.

	      o	     Literal data is how much unmatched	 file-update  data  we
		     had  to  send  to the receiver for	it to recreate the up-
		     dated files.

	      o	     Matched data is how much data the	receiver  got  locally
		     when recreating the updated files.

	      o	     File list size is how big the file-list data was when the
		     sender sent it to the receiver.  This is smaller than the
		     in-memory	size for the file list due to some compressing
		     of	duplicated data	when rsync sends the list.

	      o	     File list generation time is the number of	 seconds  that
		     the sender	spent creating the file	list.  This requires a
		     modern rsync on the sending side for this to be present.

	      o	     File list transfer	time is	the number of seconds that the
		     sender spent sending the file list	to the receiver.

	      o	     Total bytes sent is the count of all the bytes that rsync
		     sent from the client side to the server side.

	      o	     Total bytes received is  the  count  of  all  non-message
		     bytes  that  rsync	 received  by the client side from the
		     server side.  "Non-message" bytes	means  that  we	 don't
		     count  the	 bytes	for  a verbose message that the	server
		     sent to us, which makes the stats more consistent.

       -8, --8-bit-output
	      This tells rsync to leave	all high-bit characters	 unescaped  in
	      the  output  instead  of	trying	to test	them to	see if they're
	      valid in the current locale and escaping the invalid ones.   All
	      control  characters (but never tabs) are always escaped, regard-
	      less of this option's setting.

	      The escape idiom that started in 2.6.7 is	to  output  a  literal
	      backslash	 (\)  and a hash (#), followed by exactly 3 octal dig-
	      its.  For	example, a newline would output	as "\#012".  A literal
	      backslash	that is	in a filename is not escaped unless it is fol-
	      lowed by a hash and 3 digits (0-9).

       -h, --human-readable
	      Output numbers in	a more human-readable  format.	 There	are  3
	      possible	levels:	  (1)  output numbers with a separator between
	      each set of 3 digits (either a comma or a	period,	 depending  on
	      if the decimal point is represented by a period or a comma); (2)
	      output numbers in	units of 1000 (with  a	character  suffix  for
	      larger units -- see below); (3) output numbers in	units of 1024.

	      The default is human-readable level 1.  Each -h option increases
	      the level	by one.	 You can take the level	down to	0  (to	output
	      numbers  as  pure	 digits)  by specifing the --no-human-readable
	      (--no-h) option.

	      The unit letters that are	appended in levels  2  and  3  are:  K
	      (kilo),  M  (mega),  G  (giga),  or  T  (tera).	For example, a
	      1234567-byte file	would output as	 1.23M	in  level-2  (assuming
	      that a period is your local decimal point).

	      Backward	compatibility  note:  versions of rsync	prior to 3.1.0
	      do not support human-readable level 1, and they default to level
	      0.  Thus,	specifying one or two -h options will behave in	a com-
	      parable manner in	old and	new versions as	 long  as  you	didn't
	      specify  a  --no-h  option prior to one or more -h options.  See
	      the --list-only option for one difference.

	      By default, rsync	will delete any	partially transferred file  if
	      the  transfer  is	 interrupted. In some circumstances it is more
	      desirable	to keep	partially transferred files. Using the	--par-
	      tial  option  tells  rsync to keep the partial file which	should
	      make a subsequent	transfer of the	rest of	the file much faster.

	      A	better way to keep partial files than the --partial option  is
	      to specify a DIR that will be used to hold the partial data (in-
	      stead of writing it out to the destination file).	 On  the  next
	      transfer,	 rsync	will  use  a file found	in this	dir as data to
	      speed up the resumption of the transfer and then delete it after
	      it has served its	purpose.

	      Note  that  if  --whole-file is specified	(or implied), any par-
	      tial-dir file that is found for a	file  that  is	being  updated
	      will simply be removed (since rsync is sending files without us-
	      ing rsync's delta-transfer algorithm).

	      Rsync will create	the DIR	if it is missing (just the last	dir --
	      not  the whole path).  This makes	it easy	to use a relative path
	      (such as "--partial-dir=.rsync-partial") to  have	 rsync	create
	      the  partial-directory  in the destination file's	directory when
	      needed, and then remove  it  again  when	the  partial  file  is

	      If the partial-dir value is not an absolute path,	rsync will add
	      an exclude rule at the end of all	your existing excludes.	  This
	      will prevent the sending of any partial-dir files	that may exist
	      on the sending side, and will also prevent the untimely deletion
	      of  partial-dir  items  on  the receiving	side.  An example: the
	      above --partial-dir option would add the equivalent of  "-f  '-p
	      .rsync-partial/'"	at the end of any other	filter rules.

	      If you are supplying your	own exclude rules, you may need	to add
	      your own exclude/hide/protect rule for the  partial-dir  because
	      (1)  the	auto-added  rule may be	ineffective at the end of your
	      other rules, or (2) you may wish	to  override  rsync's  exclude
	      choice.	For  instance,	if you want to make rsync clean-up any
	      left-over	partial-dirs that may  be  lying  around,  you	should
	      specify --delete-after and add a "risk" filter rule, e.g.	 -f 'R
	      .rsync-partial/'.	 (Avoid	using --delete-before or --delete-dur-
	      ing unless you don't need	rsync to use any of the	left-over par-
	      tial-dir data during the current run.)

	      IMPORTANT: the --partial-dir should not  be  writable  by	 other
	      users or it is a security	risk.  E.g. AVOID "/tmp".

	      You can also set the partial-dir value the RSYNC_PARTIAL_DIR en-
	      vironment	variable.  Setting this	in the	environment  does  not
	      force  --partial to be enabled, but rather it affects where par-
	      tial files go when --partial is specified.   For	instance,  in-
	      stead  of	 using --partial-dir=.rsync-tmp	along with --progress,
	      you could	set RSYNC_PARTIAL_DIR=.rsync-tmp in  your  environment
	      and  then	 just  use  the	 -P  option  to	turn on	the use	of the
	      .rsync-tmp dir for partial transfers.  The only times  that  the
	      --partial	 option	 does  not look	for this environment value are
	      (1) when --inplace was specified (since --inplace	conflicts with
	      --partial-dir),  and (2) when --delay-updates was	specified (see

	      For the purposes of the daemon-config's  "refuse	options"  set-
	      ting, --partial-dir does not imply --partial.  This is so	that a
	      refusal of the --partial option can  be  used  to	 disallow  the
	      overwriting  of destination files	with a partial transfer, while
	      still allowing the safer idiom provided by --partial-dir.

	      This option puts the temporary file from each updated file  into
	      a	holding	directory until	the end	of the transfer, at which time
	      all the files are	renamed	into place in rapid succession.	  This
	      attempts to make the updating of the files a little more atomic.
	      By default the files are placed into a directory named  ".~tmp~"
	      in  each	file's	destination directory, but if you've specified
	      the --partial-dir	option,	that directory will be	used  instead.
	      See  the	comments in the	--partial-dir section for a discussion
	      of how this ".~tmp~" dir will be excluded	from the transfer, and
	      what  you	 can do	if you want rsync to cleanup old ".~tmp~" dirs
	      that might be lying around.  Conflicts with --inplace and	 --ap-

	      This  option uses	more memory on the receiving side (one bit per
	      file transferred)	and also requires enough free  disk  space  on
	      the receiving side to hold an additional copy of all the updated
	      files.  Note also	that you should	not use	an  absolute  path  to
	      --partial-dir  unless (1)	there is no chance of any of the files
	      in the transfer having the same  name  (since  all  the  updated
	      files  will  be put into a single	directory if the path is abso-
	      lute) and	(2) there are no mount points in the hierarchy	(since
	      the  delayed  updates  will  fail	 if they can't be renamed into

	      See also the "atomic-rsync" perl script in the "support"	subdir
	      for  an  update  algorithm  that	is  even  more atomic (it uses
	      --link-dest and a	parallel hierarchy of files).

       -m, --prune-empty-dirs
	      This option tells	the receiving rsync to get rid of empty	direc-
	      tories  from  the	 file-list,  including nested directories that
	      have no non-directory children.  This is useful for avoiding the
	      creation	of  a  bunch  of  useless directories when the sending
	      rsync is recursively scanning a hierarchy	 of  files  using  in-
	      clude/exclude/filter rules.

	      Note  that the use of transfer rules, such as the	--min-size op-
	      tion, does not affect what goes into the	file  list,  and  thus
	      does not leave directories empty,	even if	none of	the files in a
	      directory	match the transfer rule.

	      Because the file-list is actually	being pruned, this option also
	      affects  what  directories  get deleted when a delete is active.
	      However, keep in mind that excluded files	 and  directories  can
	      prevent existing items from being	deleted	due to an exclude both
	      hiding source files and protecting destination files.   See  the
	      perishable filter-rule option for	how to avoid this.

	      You  can	prevent	 the pruning of	certain	empty directories from
	      the file-list by using a global "protect"	filter.	 For instance,
	      this  option would ensure	that the directory "emptydir" was kept
	      in the file-list:

	      --filter 'protect	emptydir/'

	      Here's an	example	that copies all	.pdf  files  in	 a  hierarchy,
	      only  creating the necessary destination directories to hold the
	      .pdf files, and ensures that any superfluous files and  directo-
	      ries  in	the  destination  are removed (note the	hide filter of
	      non-directories being used instead of an exclude):

	      rsync -avm --del --include='*.pdf' -f 'hide,! */'	src/ dest

	      If you didn't want to remove superfluous destination files,  the
	      more  time-honored  options  of  "--include='*/'	--exclude='*'"
	      would work fine in place of the hide-filter  (if	that  is  more
	      natural to you).

	      This  option  tells  rsync  to  print  information  showing  the
	      progress of the transfer.	This gives a bored user	 something  to
	      watch.   With  a	modern	rsync  this  is	the same as specifying
	      --info=flist2,name,progress, but any user-supplied settings  for
	      those   info   flags   takes   precedence	 (e.g.	"--info=flist0

	      While rsync  is  transferring  a	regular	 file,	it  updates  a
	      progress line that looks like this:

		    782448  63%	 110.64kB/s    0:00:04

	      In  this example,	the receiver has reconstructed 782448 bytes or
	      63% of the sender's file,	which is being reconstructed at	a rate
	      of  110.64 kilobytes per second, and the transfer	will finish in
	      4	seconds	if the current rate is maintained until	the end.

	      These statistics can be misleading if rsync's delta-transfer al-
	      gorithm  is  in use.  For	example, if the	sender's file consists
	      of the basis file	followed by additional data, the reported rate
	      will  probably  drop  dramatically when the receiver gets	to the
	      literal data, and	the transfer will probably take	much longer to
	      finish  than  the	 receiver  estimated  as  it was finishing the
	      matched part of the file.

	      When the file transfer finishes,	rsync  replaces	 the  progress
	      line with	a summary line that looks like this:

		    1,238,099 100%  146.38kB/s	  0:00:08  (xfr#5, to-chk=169/396)

	      In this example, the file	was 1,238,099 bytes long in total, the
	      average rate of transfer for the whole file was 146.38 kilobytes
	      per  second  over	the 8 seconds that it took to complete,	it was
	      the 5th transfer of a regular file during	the current rsync ses-
	      sion, and	there are 169 more files for the receiver to check (to
	      see if they are up-to-date or not) remaining out of the 396  to-
	      tal files	in the file-list.

	      In  an  incremental  recursion  scan, rsync won't	know the total
	      number of	files in the file-list until it	reaches	 the  ends  of
	      the scan,	but since it starts to transfer	files during the scan,
	      it will display a	line with the text "ir-chk"  (for  incremental
	      recursion	 check)	 instead  of  "to-chk" until the point that it
	      knows the	full size of the list, at which	point it  will	switch
	      to using "to-chk".  Thus,	seeing "ir-chk"	lets you know that the
	      total count of files in the file list is still going to increase
	      (and  each  time it does,	the count of files left	to check  will
	      increase by the number of	the files added	to the list).

       -P     The -P option is equivalent to --partial --progress.   Its  pur-
	      pose  is to make it much easier to specify these two options for
	      a	long transfer that may be interrupted.

	      There is also a --info=progress2 option that outputs  statistics
	      based  on	the whole transfer, rather than	individual files.  Use
	      this flag	without	outputting a filename (e.g. avoid -v or	 spec-
	      ify  --info=name0)  if you want to see how the transfer is doing
	      without scrolling	the screen with	a lot of  names.   (You	 don't
	      need   to	  specify  the	--progress  option  in	order  to  use

	      This option allows you to	provide	a password  for	 accessing  an
	      rsync daemon via a file or via standard input if FILE is -.  The
	      file should contain just the password on	the  first  line  (all
	      other lines are ignored).	 Rsync will exit with an error if FILE
	      is world readable	 or  if	 a  root-run  rsync  command  finds  a
	      non-root-owned file.

	      This  option does	not supply a password to a remote shell	trans-
	      port such	as ssh;	to learn how to	do that,  consult  the	remote
	      shell's  documentation.	When accessing an rsync	daemon using a
	      remote shell as the transport, this option only comes  into  ef-
	      fect after the remote shell finishes its authentication (i.e. if
	      you have also specified a	password in the	daemon's config	file).

	      This option will cause the source	files to be listed instead  of
	      transferred.   This  option  is  inferred	 if  there is a	single
	      source arg and no	destination specified, so its main  uses  are:
	      (1)  to turn a copy command that includes	a destination arg into
	      a	file-listing command, or (2) to	be able	to specify  more  than
	      one source arg (note: be sure to include the destination).  Cau-
	      tion: keep in mind that a	source arg with	 a  wild-card  is  ex-
	      panded  by  the shell into multiple args,	so it is never safe to
	      try to list such an arg without using this option.  For example:

		  rsync	-av --list-only	foo* dest/

	      Starting with rsync 3.1.0, the sizes output by  --list-only  are
	      affected	by  the	--human-readable option.  By default they will
	      contain digit separators,	but higher levels of readability  will
	      output  the sizes	with unit suffixes.  Note also that the	column
	      width for	the size output	has increased from 11 to 14 characters
	      for all human-readable levels.  Use --no-h if you	want just dig-
	      its in the sizes,	and the	old column width of 11 characters.

	      Compatibility note:  when	requesting a remote listing  of	 files
	      from  an rsync that is version 2.6.3 or older, you may encounter
	      an error if you ask for a	non-recursive listing.	 This  is  be-
	      cause  a file listing implies the	--dirs option w/o --recursive,
	      and older	rsyncs don't have that option.	To avoid this problem,
	      either specify the --no-dirs option (if you don't	need to	expand
	      a	directory's content), or turn on  recursion  and  exclude  the
	      content of subdirectories: -r --exclude='/*/*'.

	      This  option allows you to specify the maximum transfer rate for
	      the data sent over the socket, specified in  units  per  second.
	      The  RATE	value can be suffixed with a string to indicate	a size
	      multiplier,   and	  may	be   a	  fractional	value	 (e.g.
	      "--bwlimit=1.5m").  If no	suffix is specified, the value will be
	      assumed to be in units of	1024 bytes (as if  "K"	or  "KiB"  had
	      been  appended).	See the	--max-size option for a	description of
	      all the available	suffixes. A value of zero specifies no limit.

	      For backward-compatibility  reasons,  the	 rate  limit  will  be
	      rounded  to  the	nearest	KiB unit, so no	rate smaller than 1024
	      bytes per	second is possible.

	      Rsync writes data	over the socket	in  blocks,  and  this	option
	      both  limits the size of the blocks that rsync writes, and tries
	      to keep the average transfer rate	at the requested limit.	  Some
	      "burstiness"  may	be seen	where rsync writes out a block of data
	      and then sleeps to bring the average rate	into compliance.

	      Due to the internal buffering of data, the --progress option may
	      not  be  an  accurate  reflection	 on how	fast the data is being
	      sent.  This is because some files	can show up as	being  rapidly
	      sent  when the data is quickly buffered, while other can show up
	      as very slow when	the flushing  of  the  output  buffer  occurs.
	      This may be fixed	in a future version.

	      Record  a	 file  that  can later be applied to another identical
	      destination with --read-batch. See the "BATCH MODE" section  for
	      details, and also	the --only-write-batch option.

	      Works like --write-batch,	except that no updates are made	on the
	      destination system when  creating	 the  batch.   This  lets  you
	      transport	 the  changes to the destination system	via some other
	      means and	then apply the changes via --read-batch.

	      Note that	you can	feel free to write the batch directly to  some
	      portable	media:	if this	media fills to capacity	before the end
	      of the transfer, you can just apply that partial transfer	to the
	      destination  and repeat the whole	process	to get the rest	of the
	      changes (as long as you don't mind a partially updated  destina-
	      tion system while	the multi-update cycle is happening).

	      Also note	that you only save bandwidth when pushing changes to a
	      remote system because this allows	the batched  data  to  be  di-
	      verted  from  the	 sender	 into the batch	file without having to
	      flow over	the wire to the	receiver (when pulling,	the sender  is
	      remote, and thus can't write the batch).

	      Apply  all of the	changes	stored in FILE,	a file previously gen-
	      erated by	--write-batch.	If FILE	is -, the batch	data  will  be
	      read  from standard input.  See the "BATCH MODE" section for de-

	      Force an older protocol version to be used.  This	is useful  for
	      creating	a  batch file that is compatible with an older version
	      of rsync.	 For instance, if rsync	2.6.4 is being used  with  the
	      --write-batch  option,  but  rsync 2.6.3 is what will be used to
	      run the --read-batch option, you should use "--protocol=28" when
	      creating	the  batch file	to force the older protocol version to
	      be used in the batch file	(assuming you can't upgrade the	 rsync
	      on the reading system).

	      Rsync  can  convert  filenames between character sets using this
	      option.  Using a CONVERT_SPEC of "." tells rsync to look up  the
	      default  character-set via the locale setting.  Alternately, you
	      can fully	specify	what conversion	to do by giving	a local	and  a
	      remote  charset  separated  by  a	comma in the order --iconv=LO-
	      CAL,REMOTE, e.g.	 --iconv=utf8,iso88591.	  This	order  ensures
	      that  the	 option	 will  stay the	same whether you're pushing or
	      pulling files.  Finally, you can specify either --no-iconv or  a
	      CONVERT_SPEC  of	"-"  to	 turn off any conversion.  The default
	      setting of this option is	site-specific, and  can	 also  be  af-
	      fected via the RSYNC_ICONV environment variable.

	      For  a  list of what charset names your local iconv library sup-
	      ports, you can run "iconv	--list".

	      If you specify the --protect-args	option (-s), rsync will	trans-
	      late  the	filenames you specify on the command-line that are be-
	      ing sent to the remote host.  See	also the --files-from option.

	      Note that	rsync does not do any conversion of  names  in	filter
	      files (including include/exclude files).	It is up to you	to en-
	      sure that	you're specifying matching rules  that	can  match  on
	      both sides of the	transfer.  For instance, you can specify extra
	      include/exclude rules if there are filename differences  on  the
	      two sides	that need to be	accounted for.

	      When  you	 pass an --iconv option	to an rsync daemon that	allows
	      it, the daemon uses the charset specified	in its "charset"  con-
	      figuration  parameter regardless of the remote charset you actu-
	      ally pass.  Thus,	you may	feel free to specify  just  the	 local
	      charset for a daemon transfer (e.g. --iconv=utf8).

       -4, --ipv4 or -6, --ipv6
	      Tells  rsync  to	prefer	IPv4/IPv6 when creating	sockets.  This
	      only affects sockets that	rsync has direct control over, such as
	      the  outgoing  socket  when directly contacting an rsync daemon.
	      See also these options in	the --daemon mode section.

	      If rsync was complied without support for	IPv6, the  --ipv6  op-
	      tion will	have no	effect.	 The --version output will tell	you if
	      this is the case.

	      Set the checksum seed to the integer NUM.	 This 4	byte  checksum
	      seed is included in each block and MD4 file checksum calculation
	      (the more	modern MD5 file	checksums don't	use a seed).   By  de-
	      fault  the checksum seed is generated by the server and defaults
	      to the current time() .  This option is used to set  a  specific
	      checksum	seed,  which  is useful	for applications that want re-
	      peatable block checksums,	or in the case where the user wants  a
	      more random checksum seed.  Setting NUM to 0 causes rsync	to use
	      the default of time() for	checksum seed.

       The options allowed when	starting an rsync daemon are as	follows:

	      This tells rsync that it is to run as a daemon.  The daemon  you
	      start  running  may  be accessed using an	rsync client using the
	      host::module or rsync://host/module/ syntax.

	      If standard input	is a socket then rsync will assume that	it  is
	      being  run  via inetd, otherwise it will detach from the current
	      terminal and become a background daemon.	The daemon  will  read
	      the  config  file	(rsyncd.conf) on each connect made by a	client
	      and respond to requests accordingly.  See	the rsyncd.conf(5) man
	      page for more details.

	      By default rsync will bind to the	wildcard address when run as a
	      daemon with the --daemon option.	The  --address	option	allows
	      you  to  specify a specific IP address (or hostname) to bind to.
	      This makes virtual hosting  possible  in	conjunction  with  the
	      --config	option.	  See  also the	"address" global option	in the
	      rsyncd.conf manpage.

	      This option allows you to	specify	the maximum transfer rate  for
	      the data the daemon sends	over the socket.  The client can still
	      specify a	smaller	--bwlimit value, but no	larger value  will  be
	      allowed.	See the	client version of this option (above) for some
	      extra details.

	      This specifies an	alternate config file than the default.	  This
	      is  only	relevant  when	--daemon is specified.	The default is
	      /usr/local/etc/rsync/rsyncd.conf unless the  daemon  is  running
	      over  a  remote shell program and	the remote user	is not the su-
	      per-user;	in that	case the default is rsyncd.conf	in the current
	      directory	(typically $HOME).

       -M, --dparam=OVERRIDE
	      This  option  can	 be used to set	a daemon-config	parameter when
	      starting up rsync	in daemon mode.	 It is	equivalent  to	adding
	      the  parameter  at  the  end of the global settings prior	to the
	      first module's definition.  The parameter	names can be specified
	      without spaces, if you so	desire.	 For instance:

		  rsync	--daemon -M pidfile=/path/

	      When running as a	daemon,	this option instructs rsync to not de-
	      tach itself and become a background process.  This option	is re-
	      quired when running as a service on Cygwin, and may also be use-
	      ful when rsync is	supervised by a	program	such as	daemontools or
	      AIX's  System  Resource  Controller.  --no-detach	is also	recom-
	      mended when rsync	is run under a debugger.  This option  has  no
	      effect if	rsync is run from inetd	or sshd.

	      This  specifies  an  alternate TCP port number for the daemon to
	      listen on	rather than the	default	of 873.	 See also  the	"port"
	      global option in the rsyncd.conf manpage.

	      This  option  tells  the	rsync daemon to	use the	given log-file
	      name instead of using the	"log file" setting in the config file.

	      This option tells	the rsync  daemon  to  use  the	 given	FORMAT
	      string  instead  of using	the "log format" setting in the	config
	      file.  It	also enables "transfer logging"	unless the  string  is
	      empty, in	which case transfer logging is turned off.

	      This  overrides  the  socket  options setting in the rsyncd.conf
	      file and has the same syntax.

       -v, --verbose
	      This option increases the	amount of information the daemon  logs
	      during  its  startup phase.  After the client connects, the dae-
	      mon's verbosity level will be controlled by the options that the
	      client used and the "max verbosity" setting in the module's con-
	      fig section.

       -4, --ipv4 or -6, --ipv6
	      Tells rsync to prefer IPv4/IPv6 when creating the	incoming sock-
	      ets  that	 the  rsync daemon will	use to listen for connections.
	      One of these options may be required in older versions of	 Linux
	      to work around an	IPv6 bug in the	kernel (if you see an "address
	      already in use" error when nothing else is using the  port,  try
	      specifying --ipv6	or --ipv4 when starting	the daemon).

	      If  rsync	 was complied without support for IPv6,	the --ipv6 op-
	      tion will	have no	effect.	 The --version output will tell	you if
	      this is the case.

       -h, --help
	      When  specified after --daemon, print a short help page describ-
	      ing the options available	for starting an	rsync daemon.

       The filter rules	allow for flexible selection of	which files to	trans-
       fer  (include) and which	files to skip (exclude).  The rules either di-
       rectly specify include/exclude patterns or they specify a  way  to  ac-
       quire more include/exclude patterns (e.g. to read them from a file).

       As  the	list  of  files/directories to transfer	is built, rsync	checks
       each name to be transferred against the list  of	 include/exclude  pat-
       terns in	turn, and the first matching pattern is	acted on:  if it is an
       exclude pattern,	then that file is skipped; if it is an include pattern
       then  that  filename  is	 not skipped; if no matching pattern is	found,
       then the	filename is not	skipped.

       Rsync builds an ordered list of filter rules as specified on  the  com-
       mand-line.  Filter rules	have the following syntax:


       You  have  your choice of using either short or long RULE names,	as de-
       scribed below.  If you use a short-named	rule, the ','  separating  the
       RULE from the MODIFIERS is optional.  The PATTERN or FILENAME that fol-
       lows (when present) must	come after either a single space or an	under-
       score (_).  Here	are the	available rule prefixes:

	      exclude, - specifies an exclude pattern.
	      include, + specifies an include pattern.
	      merge, . specifies a merge-file to read for more rules.
	      dir-merge, : specifies a per-directory merge-file.
	      hide, H specifies	a pattern for hiding files from	the transfer.
	      show, S files that match the pattern are not hidden.
	      protect,	P  specifies a pattern for protecting files from dele-
	      risk, R files that match the pattern are not protected.
	      clear, ! clears the current include/exclude list (takes no arg)

       When rules are being read from a	file, empty lines are ignored, as  are
       comment lines that start	with a "#".

       Note that the --include/--exclude command-line options do not allow the
       full range of rule parsing as described above --	they  only  allow  the
       specification of	include/exclude	patterns plus a	"!" token to clear the
       list (and the normal comment parsing when rules are read	from a	file).
       If  a  pattern  does  not  begin	with "-	" (dash, space)	or "+ "	(plus,
       space), then the	rule will be interpreted as if "+ "  (for  an  include
       option) or "- " (for an exclude option) were prefixed to	the string.  A
       --filter	option,	on the other hand, must	always contain either a	 short
       or long rule name at the	start of the rule.

       Note  also that the --filter, --include,	and --exclude options take one
       rule/pattern each. To add multiple ones,	you can	repeat the options  on
       the  command-line, use the merge-file syntax of the --filter option, or
       the --include-from/--exclude-from options.

       You can include and exclude files by specifying patterns	using the "+",
       "-",  etc.  filter  rules  (as  introduced  in the FILTER RULES section
       above).	The include/exclude rules  each	 specify  a  pattern  that  is
       matched	against	 the  names  of	 the files that	are going to be	trans-
       ferred.	These patterns can take	several	forms:

       o      if the pattern starts with a / then it is	anchored to a particu-
	      lar  spot	 in  the  hierarchy  of	files, otherwise it is matched
	      against the end of the pathname.	This is	similar	to a leading ^
	      in regular expressions.  Thus "/foo" would match a name of "foo"
	      at either	the "root of the transfer" (for	a global rule)	or  in
	      the  merge-file's	 directory (for	a per-directory	rule).	An un-
	      qualified	"foo" would match a name of "foo" anywhere in the tree
	      because  the algorithm is	applied	recursively from the top down;
	      it behaves as if each path component gets	a turn	at  being  the
	      end  of the filename.  Even the unanchored "sub/foo" would match
	      at any point in the hierarchy where a "foo" was found  within  a
	      directory	named "sub".  See the section on ANCHORING INCLUDE/EX-
	      CLUDE PATTERNS for a full	discussion of how to specify a pattern
	      that matches at the root of the transfer.

       o      if  the  pattern	ends with a / then it will only	match a	direc-
	      tory, not	a regular file,	symlink, or device.

       o      rsync chooses between doing a simple string match	 and  wildcard
	      matching	by checking if the pattern contains one	of these three
	      wildcard characters: '*',	'?', and '[' .

       o      a	'*' matches any	path component,	but it stops at	slashes.

       o      use '**' to match	anything, including slashes.

       o      a	'?' matches any	character except a slash (/).

       o      a	'[' introduces a character class,  such	 as  [a-z]  or	[[:al-

       o      in a wildcard pattern, a backslash can be	used to	escape a wild-
	      card character, but it is	matched	literally  when	 no  wildcards
	      are  present.   This means that there is an extra	level of back-
	      slash removal when a pattern contains wildcard  characters  com-
	      pared to a pattern that has none.	 e.g. if you add a wildcard to
	      "foo\bar"	(which matches the backslash) you would	 need  to  use
	      "foo\\bar*" to avoid the "\b" becoming just "b".

       o      if  the  pattern	contains  a / (not counting a trailing /) or a
	      "**", then it is matched against the  full  pathname,  including
	      any leading directories. If the pattern doesn't contain a	/ or a
	      "**", then it is matched only against the	final component	of the
	      filename.	  (Remember  that the algorithm	is applied recursively
	      so "full filename" can actually be any portion of	 a  path  from
	      the starting directory on	down.)

       o      a	 trailing  "dir_name/***" will match both the directory	(as if
	      "dir_name/" had been specified) and everything in	the  directory
	      (as  if  "dir_name/**"  had  been	specified).  This behavior was
	      added in version 2.6.7.

       Note that, when using the --recursive (-r) option (which	is implied  by
       -a),  every subcomponent	of every path is visited from the top down, so
       include/exclude patterns	get applied recursively	to each	subcomponent's
       full  name (e.g.	to include "/foo/bar/baz" the subcomponents "/foo" and
       "/foo/bar" must	not  be	 excluded).   The  exclude  patterns  actually
       short-circuit  the directory traversal stage when rsync finds the files
       to send.	 If a pattern excludes a particular parent directory,  it  can
       render  a  deeper include pattern ineffectual because rsync did not de-
       scend through that excluded section of the hierarchy.  This is particu-
       larly  important	 when  using  a	trailing '*' rule.  For	instance, this
       won't work:

	      +	/some/path/this-file-will-not-be-found
	      +	/file-is-included
	      -	*

       This fails because the parent directory "some" is excluded by  the  '*'
       rule,  so  rsync	 never	visits	any  of	 the  files  in	 the "some" or
       "some/path" directories.	 One solution is to ask	for all	directories in
       the  hierarchy  to  be  included	by using a single rule:	"+ */" (put it
       somewhere   before   the	  "-   *"   rule),   and   perhaps   use   the
       --prune-empty-dirs option.  Another solution is to add specific include
       rules for all the parent	dirs that need to be visited.	For  instance,
       this set	of rules works fine:

	      +	/some/
	      +	/some/path/
	      +	/some/path/this-file-is-found
	      +	/file-also-included
	      -	*

       Here are	some examples of exclude/include matching:

       o      "- *.o" would exclude all	names matching *.o

       o      "-  /foo"	 would	exclude	a file (or directory) named foo	in the
	      transfer-root directory

       o      "- foo/" would exclude any directory named foo

       o      "- /foo/*/bar" would exclude any file named bar which is at  two
	      levels  below  a directory named foo in the transfer-root	direc-

       o      "- /foo/**/bar" would exclude any	file named  bar	 two  or  more
	      levels  below  a directory named foo in the transfer-root	direc-

       o      The combination of "+ */", "+ *.c", and "- *" would include  all
	      directories  and	C  source files	but nothing else (see also the
	      --prune-empty-dirs option)

       o      The combination of "+ foo/", "+ foo/bar.c", and "- *" would  in-
	      clude  only  the	foo directory and foo/bar.c (the foo directory
	      must be explicitly included or it	would be excluded by the "*")

       The following modifiers are accepted after a "+"	or "-":

       o      A	/ specifies that the include/exclude rule  should  be  matched
	      against the absolute pathname of the current item.  For example,
	      "-/ /usr/local/etc/rsync/passwd" would exclude the  passwd  file
	      any  time	 the transfer was sending files	from the "/etc"	direc-
	      tory, and	"-/ subdir/foo"	would always exclude "foo" when	it  is
	      in  a  dir  named	 "subdir", even	if "foo" is at the root	of the
	      current transfer.

       o      A	! specifies that the include/exclude should take effect	if the
	      pattern fails to match.  For instance, "-! */" would exclude all

       o      A	C is used to indicate that all the  global  CVS-exclude	 rules
	      should  be  inserted  as	excludes in place of the "-C".	No arg
	      should follow.

       o      An s is used to indicate that the	rule applies  to  the  sending
	      side.   When  a rule affects the sending side, it	prevents files
	      from being transferred.  The default is for  a  rule  to	affect
	      both sides unless	--delete-excluded was specified, in which case
	      default rules become sender-side only.  See also	the  hide  (H)
	      and  show	(S) rules, which are an	alternate way to specify send-
	      ing-side includes/excludes.

       o      An r is used to indicate that the	rule applies to	the  receiving
	      side.  When a rule affects the receiving side, it	prevents files
	      from being deleted.  See the s modifier for more info.  See also
	      the  protect  (P)	and risk (R) rules, which are an alternate way
	      to specify receiver-side includes/excludes.

       o      A	p indicates that a rule	is perishable, meaning that it is  ig-
	      nored  in	directories that are being deleted.  For instance, the
	      -C option's default rules	that exclude  things  like  "CVS"  and
	      "*.o" are	marked as perishable, and will not prevent a directory
	      that was removed on the source from being	deleted	on the	desti-

       You can merge whole files into your filter rules	by specifying either a
       merge (.) or a dir-merge	(:) filter rule	(as introduced in  the	FILTER
       RULES section above).

       There  are  two	kinds  of  merged  files  -- single-instance ('.') and
       per-directory (':').  A single-instance merge file is  read  one	 time,
       and its rules are incorporated into the filter list in the place	of the
       "." rule.  For per-directory merge files, rsync will scan every	direc-
       tory  that  it  traverses for the named file, merging its contents when
       the file	exists into  the  current  list	 of  inherited	rules.	 These
       per-directory rule files	must be	created	on the sending side because it
       is the sending side that	is being scanned for the  available  files  to
       transfer.   These rule files may	also need to be	transferred to the re-
       ceiving side if you want	them to	affect what files  don't  get  deleted

       Some examples:

	      merge /usr/local/etc/rsync/rsync/default.rules
	      .	/usr/local/etc/rsync/rsync/default.rules
	      dir-merge	.per-dir-filter
	      dir-merge,n- .non-inherited-per-dir-excludes
	      :n- .non-inherited-per-dir-excludes

       The following modifiers are accepted after a merge or dir-merge rule:

       o      A	 - specifies that the file should consist of only exclude pat-
	      terns, with no other rule-parsing	except for in-file comments.

       o      A	+ specifies that the file should consist of only include  pat-
	      terns, with no other rule-parsing	except for in-file comments.

       o      A	 C  is	a  way	to  specify  that the file should be read in a
	      CVS-compatible manner.  This turns on 'n',  'w',	and  '-',  but
	      also  allows the list-clearing token (!) to be specified.	 If no
	      filename is provided, ".cvsignore" is assumed.

       o      A	e will exclude the merge-file name  from  the  transfer;  e.g.
	      "dir-merge,e .rules" is like "dir-merge .rules" and "- .rules".

       o      An  n  specifies that the	rules are not inherited	by subdirecto-

       o      A	w specifies that the rules are word-split  on  whitespace  in-
	      stead  of	 the  normal line-splitting.  This also	turns off com-
	      ments.  Note: the	space that separates the prefix	from the  rule
	      is  treated  specially,  so "- foo + bar"	is parsed as two rules
	      (assuming	that prefix-parsing wasn't also	disabled).

       o      You may also specify any of the modifiers	for  the  "+"  or  "-"
	      rules  (above)  in order to have the rules that are read in from
	      the file default to having that modifier set (except for	the  !
	      modifier,	 which	would not be useful).  For instance, "merge,-/
	      .excl" would treat the contents of .excl	as  absolute-path  ex-
	      cludes,  while "dir-merge,s .filt" and ":sC" would each make all
	      their per-directory rules	apply only on the  sending  side.   If
	      the  merge  rule specifies sides to affect (via the s or r modi-
	      fier or both), then the rules in the file	must not specify sides
	      (via a modifier or a rule	prefix such as hide).

       Per-directory  rules  are inherited in all subdirectories of the	direc-
       tory where the merge-file was found unless the 'n' modifier  was	 used.
       Each  subdirectory's  rules are prefixed	to the inherited per-directory
       rules from its parents, which gives the newest rules a higher  priority
       than  the  inherited  rules.   The  entire  set	of dir-merge rules are
       grouped together	in the spot where the merge-file was specified,	so  it
       is  possible  to	override dir-merge rules via a rule that got specified
       earlier in the list of global rules.  When the list-clearing rule ("!")
       is  read	 from a	per-directory file, it only clears the inherited rules
       for the current merge file.

       Another way to prevent a	single rule from a dir-merge file  from	 being
       inherited  is  to  anchor it with a leading slash.  Anchored rules in a
       per-directory merge-file	are relative to	the merge-file's directory, so
       a pattern "/foo"	would only match the file "foo"	in the directory where
       the dir-merge filter file was found.

       Here's an example filter	 file  which  you'd  specify  via  --filter=".

	      merge /home/user/.global-filter
	      -	*.gz
	      dir-merge	.rules
	      +	*.[ch]
	      -	*.o

       This  will  merge the contents of the /home/user/.global-filter file at
       the start of the	list and also  turns  the  ".rules"  filename  into  a
       per-directory filter file.  All rules read in prior to the start	of the
       directory scan follow the global	anchoring rules	(i.e. a	leading	 slash
       matches at the root of the transfer).

       If a per-directory merge-file is	specified with a path that is a	parent
       directory of the	first transfer directory, rsync	will scan all the par-
       ent dirs	from that starting point to the	transfer directory for the in-
       dicated per-directory file.  For	instance, here is a common filter (see

	      --filter=': /.rsync-filter'

       That  rule tells	rsync to scan for the file .rsync-filter in all	direc-
       tories from the root down through the parent directory of the  transfer
       prior  to the start of the normal directory scan	of the file in the di-
       rectories that are sent as a part of the	transfer.  (Note: for an rsync
       daemon, the root	is always the same as the module's "path".)

       Some examples of	this pre-scanning for per-directory files:

	      rsync -avF /src/path/ /dest/dir
	      rsync -av	--filter=': ../../.rsync-filter' /src/path/ /dest/dir
	      rsync -av	--filter=': .rsync-filter' /src/path/ /dest/dir

       The  first  two commands	above will look	for ".rsync-filter" in "/" and
       "/src"  before  the  normal  scan  begins  looking  for	the  file   in
       "/src/path"  and	 its subdirectories.  The last command avoids the par-
       ent-dir scan and	only looks for the ".rsync-filter" files in  each  di-
       rectory that is a part of the transfer.

       If you want to include the contents of a	".cvsignore" in	your patterns,
       you should use the rule ":C", which creates a dir-merge of the  .cvsig-
       nore  file, but parsed in a CVS-compatible manner.  You can use this to
       affect where the	--cvs-exclude (-C) option's inclusion of  the  per-di-
       rectory .cvsignore file gets placed into	your rules by putting the ":C"
       wherever	you like in your filter	rules.	Without	this, rsync would  add
       the dir-merge rule for the .cvsignore file at the end of	all your other
       rules (giving it	a lower	priority than your command-line	 rules).   For

	      cat <<EOT	| rsync	-avC --filter='. -' a/ b
	      +	foo.o
	      -	*.old
	      rsync -avC --include=foo.o -f :C --exclude='*.old' a/ b

       Both  of	 the  above rsync commands are identical.  Each	one will merge
       all the per-directory .cvsignore	rules in the middle of the list	rather
       than at the end.	 This allows their dir-specific	rules to supersede the
       rules that follow the :C	instead	 of  being  subservient	 to  all  your
       rules.  To affect the other CVS exclude rules (i.e. the default list of
       exclusions, the contents	of $HOME/.cvsignore, and the value of  $CVSIG-
       NORE)  you  should omit the -C command-line option and instead insert a
       "-C" rule into your filter rules; e.g. "--filter=-C".

       You can clear the current include/exclude list by using the "!"	filter
       rule  (as introduced in the FILTER RULES	section	above).	 The "current"
       list is either the global list of rules (if  the	 rule  is  encountered
       while  parsing  the  filter  options)  or  a set	of per-directory rules
       (which are inherited in their own sub-list, so a	subdirectory  can  use
       this to clear out the parent's rules).

       As  mentioned  earlier, global include/exclude patterns are anchored at
       the "root of the	transfer" (as opposed to per-directory patterns, which
       are  anchored  at  the  merge-file's  directory).   If you think	of the
       transfer	as a subtree of	names that are being sent from sender  to  re-
       ceiver,	the transfer-root is where the tree starts to be duplicated in
       the destination directory.  This	root governs where patterns that start
       with a /	match.

       Because	the  matching  is  relative to the transfer-root, changing the
       trailing	slash on a source path or changing your	use of the  --relative
       option  affects	the path you need to use in your matching (in addition
       to changing how much of the file	tree is	duplicated on the  destination
       host).  The following examples demonstrate this.

       Let's  say that we want to match	two source files, one with an absolute
       path of "/home/me/foo/bar", and one with	a path of "/home/you/bar/baz".
       Here is how the various command choices differ for a 2-source transfer:

	      Example cmd: rsync -a /home/me /home/you /dest
	      +/- pattern: /me/foo/bar
	      +/- pattern: /you/bar/baz
	      Target file: /dest/me/foo/bar
	      Target file: /dest/you/bar/baz

	      Example cmd: rsync -a /home/me/ /home/you/ /dest
	      +/- pattern: /foo/bar		  (note	missing	"me")
	      +/- pattern: /bar/baz		  (note	missing	"you")
	      Target file: /dest/foo/bar
	      Target file: /dest/bar/baz

	      Example cmd: rsync -a --relative /home/me/ /home/you /dest
	      +/- pattern: /home/me/foo/bar	  (note	full path)
	      +/- pattern: /home/you/bar/baz	  (ditto)
	      Target file: /dest/home/me/foo/bar
	      Target file: /dest/home/you/bar/baz

	      Example cmd: cd /home; rsync -a --relative me/foo	you/ /dest
	      +/- pattern: /me/foo/bar	    (starts at specified path)
	      +/- pattern: /you/bar/baz	    (ditto)
	      Target file: /dest/me/foo/bar
	      Target file: /dest/you/bar/baz

       The  easiest  way to see	what name you should filter is to just look at
       the output when using --verbose and put a / in front of the  name  (use
       the --dry-run option if you're not yet ready to copy any	files).

       Without	a  delete option, per-directory	rules are only relevant	on the
       sending side, so	you can	feel free to exclude  the  merge  files	 them-
       selves without affecting	the transfer.  To make this easy, the 'e' mod-
       ifier adds this exclude for you,	as seen	in these two  equivalent  com-

	      rsync -av	--filter=': .excl' --exclude=.excl host:src/dir	/dest
	      rsync -av	--filter=':e .excl' host:src/dir /dest

       However,	 if you	want to	do a delete on the receiving side AND you want
       some files to be	excluded from being deleted, you'll need  to  be  sure
       that  the  receiving side knows what files to exclude.  The easiest way
       is to include the per-directory merge files in  the  transfer  and  use
       --delete-after,	because	 this ensures that the receiving side gets all
       the same	exclude	rules as the sending side before it  tries  to	delete

	      rsync -avF --delete-after	host:src/dir /dest

       However,	if the merge files are not a part of the transfer, you'll need
       to either specify some global exclude rules (i.e. specified on the com-
       mand  line),  or	 you'll	 need to maintain your own per-directory merge
       files on	the receiving side.  An	example	of the first is	 this  (assume
       that the	remote .rules files exclude themselves):

       rsync -av --filter=': .rules' --filter='. /my/extra.rules'
	  --delete host:src/dir	/dest

       In  the above example the extra.rules file can affect both sides	of the
       transfer, but (on the sending side) the rules are  subservient  to  the
       rules  merged  from  the	.rules files because they were specified after
       the per-directory merge rule.

       In one final example, the remote	side is	 excluding  the	 .rsync-filter
       files from the transfer,	but we want to use our own .rsync-filter files
       to control what gets deleted on the receiving side.  To do this we must
       specifically  exclude the per-directory merge files (so that they don't
       get deleted) and	then put rules into the	local files  to	 control  what
       else should not get deleted.  Like one of these commands:

	   rsync -av --filter=':e /.rsync-filter' --delete \
	       host:src/dir /dest
	   rsync -avFF --delete	host:src/dir /dest

       Batch mode can be used to apply the same	set of updates to many identi-
       cal systems. Suppose one	has a tree which is replicated on a number  of
       hosts.  Now suppose some	changes	have been made to this source tree and
       those changes need to be	propagated to the other	hosts. In order	to  do
       this  using batch mode, rsync is	run with the write-batch option	to ap-
       ply the changes made to the source  tree	 to  one  of  the  destination
       trees.	The  write-batch  option causes	the rsync client to store in a
       "batch file" all	 the  information  needed  to  repeat  this  operation
       against other, identical	destination trees.

       Generating the batch file once saves having to perform the file status,
       checksum, and data block	generation more	than once when updating	multi-
       ple  destination	 trees.	 Multicast  transport protocols	can be used to
       transfer	the batch update files in parallel to many hosts at once,  in-
       stead of	sending	the same data to every host individually.

       To  apply  the  recorded	changes	to another destination tree, run rsync
       with the	read-batch option, specifying the name of the same batch file,
       and the destination tree.  Rsync	updates	the destination	tree using the
       information stored in the batch file.

       For  your  convenience,	a  script  file	 is  also  created  when   the
       write-batch  option  is	used:	it will	be named the same as the batch
       file with ".sh" appended.  This script  file  contains  a  command-line
       suitable	 for  updating	a  destination tree using the associated batch
       file. It	can be executed	using a	Bourne (or Bourne-like)	shell, option-
       ally  passing  in  an alternate destination tree	pathname which is then
       used instead of the original destination	path.  This is useful when the
       destination  tree path on the current host differs from the one used to
       create the batch	file.


	      $	rsync --write-batch=foo	-a host:/source/dir/ /adest/dir/
	      $	scp foo* remote:
	      $	ssh remote ./ /bdest/dir/

	      $	rsync --write-batch=foo	-a /source/dir/	/adest/dir/
	      $	ssh remote rsync --read-batch=-	-a /bdest/dir/ <foo

       In  these  examples,  rsync  is	used  to   update   /adest/dir/	  from
       /source/dir/  and the information to repeat this	operation is stored in
       "foo" and "".  The	host "remote" is then updated with the batched
       data  going into	the directory /bdest/dir.  The differences between the
       two examples reveals some of the	flexibility you	have in	how  you  deal
       with batches:

       o      The first	example	shows that the initial copy doesn't have to be
	      local -- you can push or pull data to/from a remote  host	 using
	      either  the  remote-shell	 syntax	or rsync daemon	syntax,	as de-

       o      The first	example	uses the created  ""  file  to  get  the
	      right  rsync  options when running the read-batch	command	on the
	      remote host.

       o      The second example reads the batch data via  standard  input  so
	      that  the	batch file doesn't need	to be copied to	the remote ma-
	      chine first.  This example avoids	the script  because  it
	      needed to	use a modified --read-batch option, but	you could edit
	      the script file if you wished to make use	of it  (just  be  sure
	      that  no	other  option is trying	to use standard	input, such as
	      the "--exclude-from=-" option).


       The read-batch option expects the destination tree that it is  updating
       to  be  identical  to  the destination tree that	was used to create the
       batch update fileset.  When a difference	between	the destination	 trees
       is  encountered	the  update  might be discarded	with a warning (if the
       file appears to be up-to-date already) or the file-update  may  be  at-
       tempted	and  then,  if	the file fails to verify, the update discarded
       with an error.	This  means  that  it  should  be  safe	 to  re-run  a
       read-batch  operation  if  the command got interrupted.	If you wish to
       force the batched-update	to  always  be	attempted  regardless  of  the
       file's  size  and date, use the -I option (when reading the batch).  If
       an error	occurs,	the destination	tree will probably be in  a  partially
       updated	state.	In  that  case,	 rsync	can  be	 used  in  its regular
       (non-batch) mode	of operation to	fix up the destination tree.

       The rsync version used on all destinations must be at least as  new  as
       the  one	used to	generate the batch file.  Rsync	will die with an error
       if the  protocol	 version  in  the  batch  file	is  too	 new  for  the
       batch-reading  rsync  to	 handle.  See also the --protocol option for a
       way to have the creating	rsync generate a  batch	 file  that  an	 older
       rsync can understand.  (Note that batch files changed format in version
       2.6.3, so mixing	versions older than that with newer versions will  not

       When  reading  a	 batch file, rsync will	force the value	of certain op-
       tions to	match the data in the batch file if you	didn't set them	to the
       same  as	 the batch-writing command.  Other options can (and should) be
       changed.	  For  instance	  --write-batch	  changes   to	 --read-batch,
       --files-from  is	 dropped, and the --filter/--include/--exclude options
       are not needed unless one of the	--delete options is specified.

       The code	that creates  the  file  transforms  any  filter/in-
       clude/exclude  options  into a single list that is appended as a	"here"
       document	to the shell script file.  An advanced user can	 use  this  to
       modify the exclude list if a change in what gets	deleted	by --delete is
       desired.	 A normal user can ignore this detail and just use  the	 shell
       script  as  an easy way to run the appropriate --read-batch command for
       the batched data.

       The original batch mode in rsync	was based on "rsync+", but the	latest
       version uses a new implementation.

       Three  basic  behaviors	are  possible when rsync encounters a symbolic
       link in the source directory.

       By default, symbolic links are  not  transferred	 at  all.   A  message
       "skipping non-regular" file is emitted for any symlinks that exist.

       If --links is specified,	then symlinks are recreated with the same tar-
       get on the destination.	Note that --archive implies --links.

       If --copy-links is specified, then symlinks are "collapsed" by  copying
       their referent, rather than the symlink.

       Rsync  can also distinguish "safe" and "unsafe" symbolic	links.	An ex-
       ample where this	might be used is a web site mirror that	wishes to  en-
       sure  that  the	rsync  module that is copied does not include symbolic
       links to	/usr/local/etc/rsync/passwd in the public section of the site.
       Using --copy-unsafe-links will cause any	links to be copied as the file
       they point to on	the destination.  Using	--safe-links will cause	unsafe
       links  to  be  omitted altogether.  (Note that you must specify --links
       for --safe-links	to have	any effect.)

       Symbolic	links are considered unsafe  if	 they  are  absolute  symlinks
       (start with /), empty, or if they contain enough	".." components	to as-
       cend from the directory being copied.

       Here's a	summary	of how the symlink options are interpreted.  The  list
       is in order of precedence, so if	your combination of options isn't men-
       tioned, use the first line that is a complete subset of your options:

	      Turn all symlinks	into normal files (leaving no symlinks for any
	      other options to affect).

       --links --copy-unsafe-links
	      Turn  all	unsafe symlinks	into files and duplicate all safe sym-

	      Turn all unsafe symlinks into files, noisily skip	all safe  sym-

       --links --safe-links
	      Duplicate	safe symlinks and skip unsafe ones.

	      Duplicate	all symlinks.

       rsync occasionally produces error messages that may seem	a little cryp-
       tic. The	one that seems to cause	the most confusion is  "protocol  ver-
       sion mismatch --	is your	shell clean?".

       This  message is	usually	caused by your startup scripts or remote shell
       facility	producing unwanted garbage on the stream that rsync  is	 using
       for  its	transport. The way to diagnose this problem is to run your re-
       mote shell like this:

	      ssh remotehost /bin/true > out.dat

       then look at out.dat. If	everything is working correctly	 then  out.dat
       should  be  a zero length file. If you are getting the above error from
       rsync then you will probably find that out.dat contains	some  text  or
       data.  Look  at	the contents and try to	work out what is producing it.
       The most	common cause is	incorrectly configured shell  startup  scripts
       (such as	.cshrc or .profile) that contain output	statements for non-in-
       teractive logins.

       If you are having trouble debugging filter patterns, then try  specify-
       ing  the	 -vv  option.	At this	level of verbosity rsync will show why
       each individual file is included	or excluded.

       0      Success

       1      Syntax or	usage error

       2      Protocol incompatibility

       3      Errors selecting input/output files, dirs

       4      Requested	action not supported: an attempt was made  to  manipu-
	      late  64-bit files on a platform that cannot support them; or an
	      option was specified that	is supported by	the client and not  by
	      the server.

       5      Error starting client-server protocol

       6      Daemon unable to append to log-file

       10     Error in socket I/O

       11     Error in file I/O

       12     Error in rsync protocol data stream

       13     Errors with program diagnostics

       14     Error in IPC code

       20     Received SIGUSR1 or SIGINT

       21     Some error returned by waitpid()

       22     Error allocating core memory buffers

       23     Partial transfer due to error

       24     Partial transfer due to vanished source files

       25     The --max-delete limit stopped deletions

       30     Timeout in data send/receive

       35     Timeout waiting for daemon connection

	      The  CVSIGNORE  environment variable supplements any ignore pat-
	      terns in .cvsignore files. See the --cvs-exclude option for more

	      Specify  a  default --iconv setting using	this environment vari-
	      able. (First supported in	3.0.0.)

	      Specify a	non-zero numeric value if you want the	--protect-args
	      option  to  be  enabled by default, or a zero value to make sure
	      that it is disabled by default. (First supported in 3.1.0.)

	      The RSYNC_RSH environment	variable allows	you  to	 override  the
	      default shell used as the	transport for rsync.  Command line op-
	      tions are	permitted after	the command name, just as  in  the  -e

	      The RSYNC_PROXY environment variable allows you to redirect your
	      rsync client to use a web	proxy when connecting to a rsync  dae-
	      mon. You should set RSYNC_PROXY to a hostname:port pair.

	      Setting  RSYNC_PASSWORD  to  the required	password allows	you to
	      run authenticated	rsync connections to an	rsync  daemon  without
	      user  intervention. Note that this does not supply a password to
	      a	remote shell transport such as ssh; to learn how to  do	 that,
	      consult the remote shell's documentation.

       USER or LOGNAME
	      The  USER	or LOGNAME environment variables are used to determine
	      the default username sent	to an rsync  daemon.   If  neither  is
	      set, the username	defaults to "nobody".

       HOME   The HOME environment variable is used to find the	user's default
	      .cvsignore file.

       /usr/local/etc/rsync/rsyncd.conf	or rsyncd.conf


       times are transferred as	*nix time_t values

       When transferring to  FAT  filesystems  rsync  may  re-sync  unmodified
       files.  See the comments	on the --modify-window option.

       file  permissions,  devices,  etc.  are transferred as native numerical

       see also	the comments on	the --delete option

       Please report bugs! See the web site at

       This man	page is	current	for version 3.1.2 of rsync.

       The options --server and	--sender are used  internally  by  rsync,  and
       should  never  be  typed	 by  a	user under normal circumstances.  Some
       awareness of these options may be needed	in certain scenarios, such  as
       when  setting  up  a login that can only	run an rsync command.  For in-
       stance, the support directory of	the rsync distribution has an  example
       script  named rrsync (for restricted rsync) that	can be used with a re-
       stricted	ssh login.

       rsync is	distributed under the GNU General  Public  License.   See  the
       file COPYING for	details.

       A  WEB site is available	at  The site includes
       an FAQ-O-Matic which may	cover  questions  unanswered  by  this	manual

       The primary ftp site for	rsync is

       We  would  be  delighted	 to  hear  from	 you if	you like this program.
       Please contact the mailing-list at

       This program uses the excellent zlib  compression  library  written  by
       Jean-loup Gailly	and Mark Adler.

       Special	thanks	go  out	 to: John Van Essen, Matt McCutchen, Wesley W.
       Terpstra, David Dykstra,	Jos Backus, Sebastian  Krahmer,	 Martin	 Pool,
       and our gone-but-not-forgotten compadre,	J.W. Schultz.

       Thanks also to Richard Brent, Brendan Mackay, Bill Waite, Stephen Roth-
       well and	David Bell.  I've probably missed some people, my apologies if
       I have.

       rsync  was  originally  written	by Andrew Tridgell and Paul Mackerras.
       Many people have	later contributed to it.  It is	 currently  maintained
       by Wayne	Davison.

       Mailing	 lists	 for   support	 and   development  are	 available  at

				  21 Dec 2015			      rsync(1)


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