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rsync(1)							      rsync(1)

       rsync - a fast, versatile, remote (and local) file-copying tool

       Local:  rsync [OPTION...] SRC...	[DEST]

       Access via remote shell:
	 Pull: rsync [OPTION...] [USER@]HOST:SRC... [DEST]
	 Push: rsync [OPTION...] SRC...	[USER@]HOST:DEST

       Access via rsync	daemon:
	 Pull: rsync [OPTION...] [USER@]HOST::SRC... [DEST]
	       rsync [OPTION...] rsync://[USER@]HOST[:PORT]/SRC... [DEST]
	 Push: rsync [OPTION...] SRC...	[USER@]HOST::DEST
	       rsync [OPTION...] SRC...	rsync://[USER@]HOST[:PORT]/DEST

       Usages with just	one SRC	arg and	no DEST	arg will list the source files
       instead of copying.

       Rsync is	a fast and extraordinarily versatile file  copying  tool.   It
       can  copy  locally,  to/from  another  host  over  any remote shell, or
       to/from a remote	rsync daemon.  It offers a  large  number  of  options
       that  control  every  aspect  of	 its behavior and permit very flexible
       specification of	the set	of files to be copied.	It is famous  for  its
       delta-transfer  algorithm,  which  reduces the amount of	data sent over
       the network by sending only the differences between  the	 source	 files
       and  the	 existing  files in the	destination.  Rsync is widely used for
       backups and mirroring and as an improved	copy command for everyday use.

       Rsync  finds  files  that  need to be transferred using a "quick	check"
       algorithm (by default) that looks for files that	have changed  in  size
       or   in	last-modified  time.   Any  changes  in	 the  other  preserved
       attributes (as requested	by options) are	made on	the  destination  file
       directly	 when  the quick check indicates that the file's data does not
       need to be updated.

       Some of the additional features of rsync	are:

       o      support for copying links, devices, owners, groups, and  permis-

       o      exclude and exclude-from options similar to GNU tar

       o      a	 CVS  exclude  mode for	ignoring the same files	that CVS would

       o      can use any transparent remote shell, including ssh or rsh

       o      does not require super-user privileges

       o      pipelining of file transfers to minimize latency costs

       o      support for anonymous or authenticated rsync daemons (ideal  for

       Rsync  copies  files either to or from a	remote host, or	locally	on the
       current host (it	does not support  copying  files  between  two	remote

       There  are  two	different  ways	 for rsync to contact a	remote system:
       using a remote-shell program as the transport (such as ssh or  rsh)  or
       contacting  an  rsync daemon directly via TCP.  The remote-shell	trans-
       port is used whenever the source	or destination path contains a	single
       colon  (:)  separator  after a host specification.  Contacting an rsync
       daemon directly happens when the	source or destination path contains  a
       double  colon  (::)  separator  after  a	host specification, OR when an
       rsync://	URL is specified (see also the	"USING	RSYNC-DAEMON  FEATURES
       VIA  A REMOTE-SHELL CONNECTION" section for an exception	to this	latter

       As a special case, if a single source arg is specified without a	desti-
       nation, the files are listed in an output format	similar	to "ls -l".

       As expected, if neither the source or destination path specify a	remote
       host, the copy occurs locally (see also the --list-only option).

       Rsync refers to the local side as the "client" and the remote  side  as
       the  "server".  Don't confuse "server" with an rsync daemon -- a	daemon
       is always a  server,  but  a  server  can  be  either  a	 daemon	 or  a
       remote-shell spawned process.

       See the file README for installation instructions.

       Once  installed,	 you  can use rsync to any machine that	you can	access
       via a remote shell (as well as some that	you can	access using the rsync
       daemon-mode  protocol).	 For remote transfers, a modern	rsync uses ssh
       for its communications, but it may have been configured to use  a  dif-
       ferent remote shell by default, such as rsh or remsh.

       You  can	also specify any remote	shell you like,	either by using	the -e
       command line option, or by setting the RSYNC_RSH	environment  variable.

       Note  that  rsync  must be installed on both the	source and destination

       You use rsync in	the same way you use rcp. You must  specify  a	source
       and a destination, one of which may be remote.

       Perhaps the best	way to explain the syntax is with some examples:

	      rsync -t *.c foo:src/

       This would transfer all files matching the pattern *.c from the current
       directory to the	directory src on the machine foo. If any of the	 files
       already	exist on the remote system then	the rsync remote-update	proto-
       col is used to update the file by sending only the differences  in  the
       data.   Note  that  the expansion of wildcards on the commandline (*.c)
       into a list of files is handled by the shell before it runs  rsync  and
       not  by	rsync  itself  (exactly	the same as all	other posix-style pro-

	      rsync -avz foo:src/bar /data/tmp

       This would recursively transfer all files from the directory src/bar on
       the  machine foo	into the /data/tmp/bar directory on the	local machine.
       The files are transferred in "archive" mode, which  ensures  that  sym-
       bolic  links,  devices,	attributes,  permissions, ownerships, etc. are
       preserved in the	transfer.  Additionally, compression will be  used  to
       reduce the size of data portions	of the transfer.

	      rsync -avz foo:src/bar/ /data/tmp

       A  trailing slash on the	source changes this behavior to	avoid creating
       an additional directory level at	the destination.  You can think	 of  a
       trailing	/ on a source as meaning "copy the contents of this directory"
       as opposed to "copy the directory by  name",  but  in  both  cases  the
       attributes  of the containing directory are transferred to the contain-
       ing directory on	the destination.  In other words, each of the  follow-
       ing  commands copies the	files in the same way, including their setting
       of the attributes of /dest/foo:

	      rsync -av	/src/foo /dest
	      rsync -av	/src/foo/ /dest/foo

       Note also that host and module  references  don't  require  a  trailing
       slash to	copy the contents of the default directory.  For example, both
       of these	copy the remote	directory's contents into "/dest":

	      rsync -av	host: /dest
	      rsync -av	host::module /dest

       You can also use	rsync in local-only mode, where	both  the  source  and
       destination  don't have a ':' in	the name. In this case it behaves like
       an improved copy	command.

       Finally,	you can	list all the (listable)	modules	available from a  par-
       ticular rsync daemon by leaving off the module name:


       See the following section for more details.

       The  syntax for requesting multiple files from a	remote host is done by
       specifying additional remote-host args in the same style	as the	first,
       or with the hostname omitted.  For instance, all	these work:

	      rsync -av	host:file1 :file2 host:file{3,4} /dest/
	      rsync -av	host::modname/file{1,2}	host::modname/file3 /dest/
	      rsync -av	host::modname/file1 ::modname/file{3,4}

       Older  versions	of rsync required using	quoted spaces in the SRC, like
       these examples:

	      rsync -av	host:'dir1/file1 dir2/file2' /dest
	      rsync host::'modname/dir1/file1 modname/dir2/file2' /dest

       This word-splitting still works (by default) in the latest  rsync,  but
       is not as easy to use as	the first method.

       If  you	need  to transfer a filename that contains whitespace, you can
       either specify the --protect-args (-s) option, or you'll	need to	escape
       the  whitespace	in  a  way that	the remote shell will understand.  For

	      rsync -av	host:'file\ name\ with\	spaces'	/dest

       It is also possible to use rsync	without	a remote shell as  the	trans-
       port.  In this case you will directly connect to	a remote rsync daemon,
       typically using TCP port	873.  (This obviously requires the  daemon  to
       be running on the remote	system,	so refer to the	STARTING AN RSYNC DAE-
       MON TO ACCEPT CONNECTIONS section below for information on that.)

       Using rsync in this way is the same as using it	with  a	 remote	 shell
       except that:

       o      you  either  use	a double colon :: instead of a single colon to
	      separate the hostname from the path, or you use an rsync:// URL.

       o      the first	word of	the "path" is actually a module	name.

       o      the  remote  daemon may print a message of the day when you con-

       o      if you specify no	path name on the remote	daemon then  the  list
	      of accessible paths on the daemon	will be	shown.

       o      if you specify no	local destination then a listing of the	speci-
	      fied files on the	remote daemon is provided.

       o      you must not specify the --rsh (-e) option.

       An example that copies all the files in a remote	module named "src":

	   rsync -av host::src /dest

       Some modules on the remote daemon may require  authentication.  If  so,
       you  will receive a password prompt when	you connect. You can avoid the
       password	prompt by setting the environment variable  RSYNC_PASSWORD  to
       the  password you want to use or	using the --password-file option. This
       may be useful when scripting rsync.

       WARNING:	On some	systems	 environment  variables	 are  visible  to  all
       users. On those systems using --password-file is	recommended.

       You  may	 establish the connection via a	web proxy by setting the envi-
       ronment variable	RSYNC_PROXY to a hostname:port pair pointing  to  your
       web proxy.  Note	that your web proxy's configuration must support proxy
       connections to port 873.

       You may also establish a	daemon connection using	a program as  a	 proxy
       by  setting the environment variable RSYNC_CONNECT_PROG to the commands
       you wish	to run in place	of making a  direct  socket  connection.   The
       string  may contain the escape "%H" to represent	the hostname specified
       in the rsync command (so	use "%%" if you	need  a	 single	 "%"  in  your
       string).	 For example:

	 export	RSYNC_CONNECT_PROG='ssh	proxyhost nc %H	873'
	 rsync -av targethost1::module/src/ /dest/
	 rsync -av rsync:://targethost2/module/src/ /dest/

       The command specified above uses	ssh to run nc (netcat) on a proxyhost,
       which forwards all data to port 873 (the	rsync daemon) on the  targeth-
       ost (%H).

       It is sometimes useful to use various features of an rsync daemon (such
       as named	modules) without actually allowing any new socket  connections
       into   a	  system  (other  than	what  is  already  required  to	 allow
       remote-shell access).  Rsync supports connecting	 to  a	host  using  a
       remote  shell  and  then	 spawning  a  single-use  "daemon" server that
       expects to read its config file in the home dir	of  the	 remote	 user.
       This  can  be  useful  if you want to encrypt a daemon-style transfer's
       data, but since the daemon is started up	fresh by the remote user,  you
       may  not	 be able to use	features such as chroot	or change the uid used
       by the daemon.  (For another way	to encrypt a daemon transfer, consider
       using  ssh  to  tunnel a	local port to a	remote machine and configure a
       normal rsync daemon on that remote host to only allow connections  from

       From  the user's	perspective, a daemon transfer via a remote-shell con-
       nection uses nearly the same command-line syntax	as a normal rsync-dae-
       mon  transfer,  with  the only exception	being that you must explicitly
       set the remote shell program on the command-line	with the --rsh=COMMAND
       option.	 (Setting  the	RSYNC_RSH  in the environment will not turn on
       this functionality.)  For example:

	   rsync -av --rsh=ssh host::module /dest

       If you need to specify a	different remote-shell user, keep in mind that
       the  user@  prefix  in  front  of the host is specifying	the rsync-user
       value (for a module that	 requires  user-based  authentication).	  This
       means  that  you	 must give the '-l user' option	to ssh when specifying
       the remote-shell, as in this example that uses the short	version	of the
       --rsh option:

	   rsync -av -e	"ssh -l	ssh-user" rsync-user@host::module /dest

       The  "ssh-user" will be used at the ssh level; the "rsync-user" will be
       used to log-in to the "module".

       In order	to connect to an rsync daemon, the remote system needs to have
       a daemon	already	running	(or it needs to	have configured	something like
       inetd to	spawn an rsync daemon for incoming connections on a particular
       port).	For  full  information on how to start a daemon	that will han-
       dling incoming socket connections, see the rsyncd.conf(5) man  page  --
       that  is	 the  config  file  for	 the  daemon, and it contains the full
       details for how to run the daemon (including stand-alone	and inetd con-

       If  you're  using  one of the remote-shell transports for the transfer,
       there is	no need	to manually start an rsync daemon.

       Rsync always sorts the specified	filenames into its  internal  transfer
       list.  This handles the merging together	of the contents	of identically
       named directories, makes	it easy	to remove duplicate filenames, and may
       confuse	someone	 when  the  files are transferred in a different order
       than what was given on the command-line.

       If you need a particular	file  to  be  transferred  prior  to  another,
       either separate the files into different	rsync calls, or	consider using
       --delay-updates (which doesn't affect the sorted	 transfer  order,  but
       does make the final file-updating phase happen much more	rapidly).

       Here are	some examples of how I use rsync.

       To  backup  my  wife's  home directory, which consists of large MS Word
       files and mail folders, I use a cron job	that runs

	      rsync -Cavz . arvidsjaur:backup

       each night over a PPP connection	to a duplicate directory on my machine

       To  synchronize my samba	source trees I use the following Makefile tar-

		   rsync -avuzb	--exclude '*~' samba:samba/ .
		   rsync -Cavuzb . samba:samba/
	   sync: get put

       this allows me to sync with a CVS directory at the  other  end  of  the
       connection. I then do CVS operations on the remote machine, which saves
       a lot of	time as	the remote CVS protocol	isn't very efficient.

       I mirror	a directory between my "old" and "new" ftp sites with the com-

       rsync -az -e ssh	--delete ~ftp/pub/samba	nimbus:"~ftp/pub/tridge"

       This is launched	from cron every	few hours.

       Here is a short summary of the options available	in rsync. Please refer
       to the detailed description below for a complete	description.

	-v, --verbose		    increase verbosity
	    --info=FLAGS	    fine-grained informational verbosity
	    --debug=FLAGS	    fine-grained debug verbosity
	    --msgs2stderr	    special output handling for	debugging
	-q, --quiet		    suppress non-error messages
	    --no-motd		    suppress daemon-mode MOTD (see caveat)
	-c, --checksum		    skip based on checksum, not	mod-time & size
	-a, --archive		    archive mode; equals -rlptgoD (no -H,-A,-X)
	    --no-OPTION		    turn off an	implied	OPTION (e.g. --no-D)
	-r, --recursive		    recurse into directories
	-R, --relative		    use	relative path names
	    --no-implied-dirs	    don't send implied dirs with --relative
	-b, --backup		    make backups (see --suffix & --backup-dir)
	    --backup-dir=DIR	    make backups into hierarchy	based in DIR
	    --suffix=SUFFIX	    backup suffix (default ~ w/o --backup-dir)
	-u, --update		    skip files that are	newer on the receiver
	    --inplace		    update destination files in-place
	    --append		    append data	onto shorter files
	    --append-verify	    --append w/old data	in file	checksum
	-d, --dirs		    transfer directories without recursing
	-l, --links		    copy symlinks as symlinks
	-L, --copy-links	    transform symlink into referent file/dir
	    --copy-unsafe-links	    only "unsafe" symlinks are transformed
	    --safe-links	    ignore symlinks that point outside the tree
	    --munge-links	    munge symlinks to make them	safer
	-k, --copy-dirlinks	    transform symlink to dir into referent dir
	-K, --keep-dirlinks	    treat symlinked dir	on receiver as dir
	-H, --hard-links	    preserve hard links
	-p, --perms		    preserve permissions
	    --fileflags		    preserve file-flags	(aka chflags)
	-E, --executability	    preserve executability
	    --chmod=CHMOD	    affect file	and/or directory permissions
	-A, --acls		    preserve ACLs (implies -p)
	-X, --xattrs		    preserve extended attributes
	-o, --owner		    preserve owner (super-user only)
	-g, --group		    preserve group
	    --devices		    preserve device files (super-user only)
	    --specials		    preserve special files
	-D			    same as --devices --specials
	-t, --times		    preserve modification times
	-O, --omit-dir-times	    omit directories from --times
	-J, --omit-link-times	    omit symlinks from --times
	    --super		    receiver attempts super-user activities
	    --fake-super	    store/recover privileged attrs using xattrs
	-S, --sparse		    handle sparse files	efficiently
	    --preallocate	    allocate dest files	before writing
	-n, --dry-run		    perform a trial run	with no	changes	made
	-W, --whole-file	    copy files whole (w/o delta-xfer algorithm)
	-x, --one-file-system	    don't cross	filesystem boundaries
	-B, --block-size=SIZE	    force a fixed checksum block-size
	-e, --rsh=COMMAND	    specify the	remote shell to	use
	    --rsync-path=PROGRAM    specify the	rsync to run on	remote machine
	    --existing		    skip creating new files on receiver
	    --ignore-existing	    skip updating files	that exist on receiver
	    --remove-source-files   sender removes synchronized	files (non-dir)
	    --del		    an alias for --delete-during
	    --delete		    delete extraneous files from dest dirs
	    --delete-before	    receiver deletes before xfer, not during
	    --delete-during	    receiver deletes during the	transfer
	    --delete-delay	    find deletions during, delete after
	    --delete-after	    receiver deletes after transfer, not during
	    --delete-excluded	    also delete	excluded files from dest dirs
	    --ignore-missing-args   ignore missing source args without error
	    --delete-missing-args   delete missing source args from destination
	    --ignore-errors	    delete even	if there are I/O errors
	    --force-delete	    force deletion of dirs even	if not empty
	    --force-change	    affect user/system immutable files/dirs
	    --force-uchange	    affect user-immutable files/dirs
	    --force-schange	    affect system-immutable files/dirs
	    --max-delete=NUM	    don't delete more than NUM files
	    --max-size=SIZE	    don't transfer any file larger than	SIZE
	    --min-size=SIZE	    don't transfer any file smaller than SIZE
	    --partial		    keep partially transferred files
	    --partial-dir=DIR	    put	a partially transferred	file into DIR
	    --delay-updates	    put	all updated files into place at	end
	-m, --prune-empty-dirs	    prune empty	directory chains from file-list
	    --numeric-ids	    don't map uid/gid values by	user/group name
	    --usermap=STRING	    custom username mapping
	    --groupmap=STRING	    custom groupname mapping
	    --chown=USER:GROUP	    simple username/groupname mapping
	    --timeout=SECONDS	    set	I/O timeout in seconds
	    --contimeout=SECONDS    set	daemon connection timeout in seconds
	-I, --ignore-times	    don't skip files that match	size and time
	    --size-only		    skip files that match in size
	    --modify-window=NUM	    compare mod-times with reduced accuracy
	-T, --temp-dir=DIR	    create temporary files in directory	DIR
	-y, --fuzzy		    find similar file for basis	if no dest file
	    --compare-dest=DIR	    also compare received files	relative to DIR
	    --copy-dest=DIR	    ...	and include copies of unchanged	files
	    --link-dest=DIR	    hardlink to	files in DIR when unchanged
	-z, --compress		    compress file data during the transfer
	    --compress-level=NUM    explicitly set compression level
	    --skip-compress=LIST    skip compressing files with	suffix in LIST
	-C, --cvs-exclude	    auto-ignore	files in the same way CVS does
	-f, --filter=RULE	    add	a file-filtering RULE
	-F			    same as --filter='dir-merge	/.rsync-filter'
				    repeated: --filter='- .rsync-filter'
	    --exclude=PATTERN	    exclude files matching PATTERN
	    --exclude-from=FILE	    read exclude patterns from FILE
	    --include=PATTERN	    don't exclude files	matching PATTERN
	    --include-from=FILE	    read include patterns from FILE
	    --files-from=FILE	    read list of source-file names from	FILE
	-0, --from0		    all	*from/filter files are delimited by 0s
	-s, --protect-args	    no space-splitting;	wildcard chars only
	    --address=ADDRESS	    bind address for outgoing socket to	daemon
	    --port=PORT		    specify double-colon alternate port	number
	    --sockopts=OPTIONS	    specify custom TCP options
	    --blocking-io	    use	blocking I/O for the remote shell
	    --outbuf=N|L|B	    set	out buffering to None, Line, or	Block
	    --stats		    give some file-transfer stats
	-8, --8-bit-output	    leave high-bit chars unescaped in output
	-h, --human-readable	    output numbers in a	human-readable format
	    --progress		    show progress during transfer
	-P			    same as --partial --progress
	-i, --itemize-changes	    output a change-summary for	all updates
	-M, --remote-option=OPTION  send OPTION	to the remote side only
	    --out-format=FORMAT	    output updates using the specified FORMAT
	    --log-file=FILE	    log	what we're doing to the	specified FILE
	    --log-file-format=FMT   log	updates	using the specified FMT
	    --password-file=FILE    read daemon-access password	from FILE
	    --list-only		    list the files instead of copying them
	    --bwlimit=RATE	    limit socket I/O bandwidth
	    --write-batch=FILE	    write a batched update to FILE
	    --only-write-batch=FILE like --write-batch but w/o updating	dest
	    --read-batch=FILE	    read a batched update from FILE
	    --protocol=NUM	    force an older protocol version to be used
	    --iconv=CONVERT_SPEC    request charset conversion of filenames
	    --checksum-seed=NUM	    set	block/file checksum seed (advanced)
	-4, --ipv4		    prefer IPv4
	-6, --ipv6		    prefer IPv6
	    --version		    print version number
       (-h) --help		    show this help (see	below for -h comment)

       Rsync can also be run as	a daemon, in which case	the following  options
       are accepted:

	    --daemon		    run	as an rsync daemon
	    --address=ADDRESS	    bind to the	specified address
	    --bwlimit=RATE	    limit socket I/O bandwidth
	    --config=FILE	    specify alternate rsyncd.conf file
	-M, --dparam=OVERRIDE	    override global daemon config parameter
	    --no-detach		    do not detach from the parent
	    --port=PORT		    listen on alternate	port number
	    --log-file=FILE	    override the "log file" setting
	    --log-file-format=FMT   override the "log format" setting
	    --sockopts=OPTIONS	    specify custom TCP options
	-v, --verbose		    increase verbosity
	-4, --ipv4		    prefer IPv4
	-6, --ipv6		    prefer IPv6
	-h, --help		    show this help (if used after --daemon)

       Rsync  accepts  both long (double-dash +	word) and short	(single-dash +
       letter) options.	 The full list of the available	options	are  described
       below.  If an option can	be specified in	more than one way, the choices
       are comma-separated.  Some options only have  a	long  variant,	not  a
       short.	If  the	option takes a parameter, the parameter	is only	listed
       after the long variant, even though it must also	be specified  for  the
       short.	When  specifying  a  parameter,	 you  can  either use the form
       --option=param or replace the '=' with whitespace.  The	parameter  may
       need  to	 be  quoted  in	some manner for	it to survive the shell's com-
       mand-line parsing.  Keep	in mind	that a leading tilde (~) in a filename
       is  substituted	by  your  shell, so --option=~/foo will	not change the
       tilde into your home directory (remove the '=' for that).

       --help Print a short help page  describing  the	options	 available  in
	      rsync  and exit.	For backward-compatibility with	older versions
	      of rsync,	the help will also be output if	you use	the -h	option
	      without any other	args.

	      print the	rsync version number and exit.

       -v, --verbose
	      This  option  increases  the amount of information you are given
	      during the transfer.  By default,	rsync works silently. A	single
	      -v  will	give you information about what	files are being	trans-
	      ferred and a brief summary at the	end. Two -v options will  give
	      you  information	on  what  files	are being skipped and slightly
	      more information at the end. More	than  two  -v  options	should
	      only be used if you are debugging	rsync.

	      In a modern rsync, the -v	option is equivalent to	the setting of
	      groups of	--info and --debug options.  You  can  choose  to  use
	      these  newer options in addition to, or in place of using	--ver-
	      bose, as any fine-grained	settings override the implied settings
	      of  -v.  Both --info and --debug have a way to ask for help that
	      tells you	exactly	what flags are set for each increase  in  ver-

	      However, do keep in mind that a daemon's "max verbosity" setting
	      will limit how high of a level the various individual flags  can
	      be  set on the daemon side.  For instance, if the	max is 2, then
	      any info and/or debug flag that is set to	a  higher  value  than
	      what  would be set by -vv	will be	downgraded to the -vv level in
	      the daemon's logging.

	      This option lets you have	fine-grained control over the informa-
	      tion  output  you	 want  to see.	An individual flag name	may be
	      followed by a level number, with 0 meaning to silence that  out-
	      put,  1  being  the  default  output  level,  and	higher numbers
	      increasing the output of	that  flag  (for  those	 that  support
	      higher  levels).	 Use --info=help to see	all the	available flag
	      names, what they output, and what	flag names are added for  each
	      increase in the verbose level.  Some examples:

		  rsync	-a --info=progress2 src/ dest/
		  rsync	-avv --info=stats2,misc1,flist0	src/ dest/

	      Note  that  --info=name's	output is affected by the --out-format
	      and --itemize-changes (-i) options.  See those options for  more
	      information on what is output and	when.

	      This  option was added to	3.1.0, so an older rsync on the	server
	      side might reject	your attempts at fine-grained control (if  one
	      or more flags needed to be send to the server and	the server was
	      too old to understand  them).   See  also	 the  "max  verbosity"
	      caveat above when	dealing	with a daemon.

	      This  option  lets  you have fine-grained	control	over the debug
	      output you want to see.  An individual flag name may be followed
	      by  a  level  number,  with  0 meaning to	silence	that output, 1
	      being the	default	output level, and  higher  numbers  increasing
	      the  output of that flag (for those that support higher levels).
	      Use --debug=help to see all the available	flag names, what  they
	      output,  and  what flag names are	added for each increase	in the
	      verbose level.  Some examples:

		  rsync	-avvv --debug=none src/	dest/
		  rsync	-avA --del --debug=del2,acl src/ dest/

	      Note  that  some	debug  messages	 will  only  be	 output	  when
	      --msgs2stderr  is	 specified, especially those pertaining	to I/O
	      and buffer debugging.

	      This option was added to 3.1.0, so an older rsync	on the	server
	      side  might reject your attempts at fine-grained control (if one
	      or more flags needed to be send to the server and	the server was
	      too  old	to  understand	them).	 See  also the "max verbosity"
	      caveat above when	dealing	with a daemon.

	      This option changes rsync	to send	all  its  output  directly  to
	      stderr  rather  than to send messages to the client side via the
	      protocol (which normally	outputs	 info  messages	 via  stdout).
	      This is mainly intended for debugging in order to	avoid changing
	      the data sent via	the protocol, since the	 extra	protocol  data
	      can change what is being tested.	The option does	not affect the
	      remote side of a transfer	without	using --remote-option --  e.g.
	      -M--msgs2stderr.	 Also  keep  in	 mind that a daemon connection
	      does not have a stderr channel to	 send  messages	 back  to  the
	      client  side,  so	if you are doing any daemon-transfer debugging
	      using  this  option,  you	 should	 start	up  a	daemon	 using
	      --no-detach  so that you can see the stderr output on the	daemon

	      This option has the side-effect  of  making  stderr  output  get
	      line-buffered  so	 that  the merging of the output of 3 programs
	      happens in a more	readable manner.

       -q, --quiet
	      This option decreases the	amount of information  you  are	 given
	      during  the  transfer,  notably suppressing information messages
	      from the remote server. This  option  is	useful	when  invoking
	      rsync from cron.

	      This option affects the information that is output by the	client
	      at the start of a	daemon transfer.   This	 suppresses  the  mes-
	      sage-of-the-day  (MOTD)  text,  but  it also affects the list of
	      modules that the daemon sends in response	to the "rsync  host::"
	      request  (due  to	 a  limitation in the rsync protocol), so omit
	      this option if you want to request the list of modules from  the

       -I, --ignore-times
	      Normally	rsync  will  skip  any files that are already the same
	      size and have the	 same  modification  timestamp.	  This	option
	      turns  off  this "quick check" behavior, causing all files to be

	      This modifies rsync's "quick check" algorithm for	finding	 files
	      that  need  to  be  transferred, changing	it from	the default of
	      transferring files with either  a	 changed  size	or  a  changed
	      last-modified  time  to just looking for files that have changed
	      in size.	This is	useful when starting to	use rsync after	 using
	      another  mirroring  system  which	 may  not  preserve timestamps

	      When comparing two timestamps, rsync treats  the	timestamps  as
	      being  equal  if	they  differ by	no more	than the modify-window
	      value.  This is normally 0 (for an exact	match),	 but  you  may
	      find it useful to	set this to a larger value in some situations.
	      In particular, when transferring to or from an  MS  Windows  FAT
	      filesystem  (which represents times with a 2-second resolution),
	      --modify-window=1	is useful (allowing times to differ by up to 1

       -c, --checksum
	      This changes the way rsync checks	if the files have been changed
	      and are in need of a transfer.  Without this option, rsync  uses
	      a	"quick check" that (by default)	checks if each file's size and
	      time of last modification	match between the sender and receiver.
	      This  option changes this	to compare a 128-bit checksum for each
	      file that	has a matching size.  Generating the  checksums	 means
	      that  both  sides	 will expend a lot of disk I/O reading all the
	      data in the files	in the transfer	(and  this  is	prior  to  any
	      reading  that  will  be done to transfer changed files), so this
	      can slow things down significantly.

	      The sending side generates its checksums while it	is  doing  the
	      file-system  scan	 that  builds the list of the available	files.
	      The receiver generates its checksums when	 it  is	 scanning  for
	      changed files, and will checksum any file	that has the same size
	      as the corresponding sender's file:  files with either a changed
	      size or a	changed	checksum are selected for transfer.

	      Note  that  rsync	always verifies	that each transferred file was
	      correctly	reconstructed on the  receiving	 side  by  checking  a
	      whole-file  checksum  that  is  generated	 as the	file is	trans-
	      ferred, but that automatic after-the-transfer  verification  has
	      nothing  to do with this option's	before-the-transfer "Does this
	      file need	to be updated?"	check.

	      For protocol 30 and  beyond  (first  supported  in  3.0.0),  the
	      checksum used is MD5.  For older protocols, the checksum used is

       -a, --archive
	      This is equivalent to -rlptgoD. It is a quick way	of saying  you
	      want  recursion  and want	to preserve almost everything (with -H
	      being a notable omission).  The  only  exception	to  the	 above
	      equivalence  is when --files-from	is specified, in which case -r
	      is not implied.

	      Note that	-a does	not preserve hardlinks,	because	finding	multi-
	      ply-linked  files	is expensive.  You must	separately specify -H.
	      Note also	that for backward compatibility, -a currently does not
	      imply the	--fileflags option.

	      You  may	turn  off one or more implied options by prefixing the
	      option name with "no-".  Not all options may be prefixed with  a
	      "no-":  only  options  that  are	implied	by other options (e.g.
	      --no-D, --no-perms) or have different defaults in	 various  cir-
	      cumstances  (e.g.	--no-whole-file, --no-blocking-io, --no-dirs).
	      You may specify either the short or the long option  name	 after
	      the "no-"	prefix (e.g. --no-R is the same	as --no-relative).

	      For example: if you want to use -a (--archive) but don't want -o
	      (--owner), instead of converting	-a  into  -rlptgD,  you	 could
	      specify -a --no-o	(or -a --no-owner).

	      The  order  of  the options is important:	 if you	specify	--no-r
	      -a, the -r option	would end up being turned on, the opposite  of
	      -a  --no-r.  Note	also that the side-effects of the --files-from
	      option are NOT positional, as it affects the  default  state  of
	      several  options and slightly changes the	meaning	of -a (see the
	      --files-from option for more details).

       -r, --recursive
	      This tells rsync to  copy	 directories  recursively.   See  also
	      --dirs (-d).

	      Beginning	 with rsync 3.0.0, the recursive algorithm used	is now
	      an incremental scan that uses much less memory than  before  and
	      begins the transfer after	the scanning of	the first few directo-
	      ries have	been completed.	 This incremental  scan	 only  affects
	      our  recursion  algorithm,  and  does not	change a non-recursive
	      transfer.	 It is also only possible when both ends of the	trans-
	      fer are at least version 3.0.0.

	      Some  options require rsync to know the full file	list, so these
	      options disable the incremental recursion	mode.  These  include:
	      --delete-before,	  --delete-after,    --prune-empty-dirs,   and
	      --delay-updates.	Because	of this, the default delete mode  when
	      you  specify  --delete  is now --delete-during when both ends of
	      the connection are at least 3.0.0	(use --del or  --delete-during
	      to  request  this	 improved deletion mode	explicitly).  See also
	      the --delete-delay option	that is	a  better  choice  than	 using

	      Incremental  recursion can be disabled using the --no-inc-recur-
	      sive option or its shorter --no-i-r alias.

       -R, --relative
	      Use relative paths. This means that the full path	 names	speci-
	      fied on the command line are sent	to the server rather than just
	      the last parts of	the filenames.	This  is  particularly	useful
	      when  you	want to	send several different directories at the same
	      time. For	example, if you	used this command:

		 rsync -av /foo/bar/baz.c remote:/tmp/

	      ... this would create a file named baz.c in /tmp/	on the	remote
	      machine. If instead you used

		 rsync -avR /foo/bar/baz.c remote:/tmp/

	      then  a  file  named  /tmp/foo/bar/baz.c would be	created	on the
	      remote machine, preserving its full path.	 These extra path ele-
	      ments  are  called "implied directories" (i.e. the "foo" and the
	      "foo/bar"	directories in the above example).

	      Beginning	with rsync 3.0.0, rsync	 always	 sends	these  implied
	      directories as real directories in the file list,	even if	a path
	      element is really	a symlink on the sending side.	This  prevents
	      some really unexpected behaviors when copying the	full path of a
	      file that	you didn't realize had a symlink in its	path.  If  you
	      want  to	duplicate a server-side	symlink, include both the sym-
	      link via its path, and referent directory	via its	real path.  If
	      you're  dealing with an older rsync on the sending side, you may
	      need to use the --no-implied-dirs	option.

	      It is also possible to limit the amount of path information that
	      is  sent as implied directories for each path you	specify.  With
	      a	modern rsync on	the sending side (beginning with  2.6.7),  you
	      can insert a dot and a slash into	the source path, like this:

		 rsync -avR /foo/./bar/baz.c remote:/tmp/

	      That  would  create /tmp/bar/baz.c on the	remote machine.	 (Note
	      that the dot must	be followed by a slash,	so "/foo/." would  not
	      be  abbreviated.)	  For  older rsync versions, you would need to
	      use a chdir to limit the source path.  For example, when pushing

		 (cd /foo; rsync -avR bar/baz.c	remote:/tmp/)

	      (Note  that the parens put the two commands into a sub-shell, so
	      that the "cd" command doesn't remain in effect for  future  com-
	      mands.)	If  you're pulling files from an older rsync, use this
	      idiom (but only for a non-daemon transfer):

		 rsync -avR --rsync-path="cd /foo; rsync" \
		     remote:bar/baz.c /tmp/

	      This option affects  the	default	 behavior  of  the  --relative
	      option.	When  it  is  specified, the attributes	of the implied
	      directories from the source names	are not	included in the	trans-
	      fer.   This  means  that	the corresponding path elements	on the
	      destination system are left unchanged if	they  exist,  and  any
	      missing implied directories are created with default attributes.
	      This even	allows these implied path elements to have big differ-
	      ences,  such  as being a symlink to a directory on the receiving

	      For instance, if a command-line arg or a files-from  entry  told
	      rsync  to	 transfer  the	file  "path/foo/file", the directories
	      "path" and "path/foo" are	implied	when --relative	is  used.   If
	      "path/foo"  is a symlink to "bar"	on the destination system, the
	      receiving	rsync would ordinarily delete "path/foo", recreate  it
	      as  a  directory,	 and  receive the file into the	new directory.
	      With   --no-implied-dirs,	  the	 receiving    rsync    updates
	      "path/foo/file"  using  the  existing path elements, which means
	      that the file ends up being created in "path/bar".  Another  way
	      to   accomplish	this   link   preservation   is	  to  use  the
	      --keep-dirlinks option  (which  will  also  affect  symlinks  to
	      directories in the rest of the transfer).

	      When  pulling files from an rsync	older than 3.0.0, you may need
	      to use this option if the	sending	side has a symlink in the path
	      you  request  and	 you wish the implied directories to be	trans-
	      ferred as	normal directories.

       -b, --backup
	      With this	option,	preexisting destination	files are  renamed  as
	      each  file is transferred	or deleted.  You can control where the
	      backup file goes and what	(if any) suffix	 gets  appended	 using
	      the --backup-dir and --suffix options.

	      Note   that   if	 you   don't  specify  --backup-dir,  (1)  the
	      --omit-dir-times option will be implied, and (2) if --delete  is
	      also  in	effect	(without  --delete-excluded), rsync will add a
	      "protect"	filter-rule for	the backup suffix to the  end  of  all
	      your existing excludes (e.g. -f "P *~").	This will prevent pre-
	      viously backed-up	files from being deleted.  Note	 that  if  you
	      are  supplying  your  own	filter rules, you may need to manually
	      insert your own exclude/protect rule somewhere higher up in  the
	      list  so	that  it  has  a  high enough priority to be effective
	      (e.g., if	your rules specify a trailing  inclusion/exclusion  of
	      '*', the auto-added rule would never be reached).

	      In  combination  with  the  --backup option, this	tells rsync to
	      store all	backups	in the specified directory  on	the  receiving
	      side.   This can be used for incremental backups.	 You can addi-
	      tionally specify a backup	suffix using the --suffix option (oth-
	      erwise  the files	backed up in the specified directory will keep
	      their original filenames).

	      Note that	if you specify a relative path,	the  backup  directory
	      will  be	relative to the	destination directory, so you probably
	      want to specify either an	absolute path or a  path  that	starts
	      with  "../".  If an rsync	daemon is the receiver,	the backup dir
	      cannot go	outside	the module's path  hierarchy,  so  take	 extra
	      care not to delete it or copy into it.

	      This  option  allows  you	 to override the default backup	suffix
	      used with	the --backup (-b) option. The default suffix is	a ~ if
	      no  --backup-dir was specified, otherwise	it is an empty string.

       -u, --update
	      This forces rsync	to skip	any files which	exist on the  destina-
	      tion  and	 have  a  modified  time that is newer than the	source
	      file.  (If an existing destination file has a modification  time
	      equal  to	the source file's, it will be updated if the sizes are

	      Note that	this does not affect the copying of dirs, symlinks, or
	      other  special files.  Also, a difference	of file	format between
	      the sender and receiver is always	 considered  to	 be  important
	      enough for an update, no matter what date	is on the objects.  In
	      other words, if the source has a directory where the destination
	      has  a  file,  the  transfer would occur regardless of the time-

	      This option is a transfer	rule, not an exclude,  so  it  doesn't
	      affect  the  data	 that  goes  into  the file-lists, and thus it
	      doesn't affect deletions.	 It just limits	 the  files  that  the
	      receiver requests	to be transferred.

	      This  option  changes  how  rsync	transfers a file when its data
	      needs to be updated: instead of the default method of creating a
	      new  copy	 of  the file and moving it into place when it is com-
	      plete, rsync instead writes the updated  data  directly  to  the
	      destination file.

	      This has several effects:

	      o	     Hard  links are not broken.  This means the new data will
		     be	visible	through	other hard links  to  the  destination
		     file.   Moreover, attempts	to copy	differing source files
		     onto a multiply-linked destination	file will result in  a
		     "tug  of war" with	the destination	data changing back and

	      o	     In-use binaries cannot be updated	(either	 the  OS  will
		     prevent  this from	happening, or binaries that attempt to
		     swap-in their data	will misbehave or crash).

	      o	     The file's	data will be in	an inconsistent	 state	during
		     the transfer and will be left that	way if the transfer is
		     interrupted or if an update fails.

	      o	     A file that rsync cannot  write  to  cannot  be  updated.
		     While  a  super  user  can	update any file, a normal user
		     needs to be granted write permission for the open of  the
		     file for writing to be successful.

	      o	     The efficiency of rsync's delta-transfer algorithm	may be
		     reduced if	some data in the destination file is overwrit-
		     ten  before  it  can be copied to a position later	in the
		     file.  This does not apply	if  you	 use  --backup,	 since
		     rsync is smart enough to use the backup file as the basis
		     file for the transfer.

	      WARNING: you should not use this option to update	files that are
	      being  accessed  by  others,  so be careful when choosing	to use
	      this for a copy.

	      This  option  is	useful	for  transferring  large  files	  with
	      block-based  changes  or appended	data, and also on systems that
	      are disk bound, not network bound.  It  can  also	 help  keep  a
	      copy-on-write filesystem snapshot	from diverging the entire con-
	      tents of a file that only	has minor changes.

	      The option implies --partial (since an interrupted transfer does
	      not  delete  the	file),	but  conflicts	with --partial-dir and
	      --delay-updates.	Prior to rsync 2.6.4 --inplace was also	incom-
	      patible with --compare-dest and --link-dest.

	      This  causes  rsync  to update a file by appending data onto the
	      end of the file, which  presumes	that  the  data	 that  already
	      exists  on the receiving side is identical with the start	of the
	      file on the sending side.	 If a file needs to be transferred and
	      its  size	on the receiver	is the same or longer than the size on
	      the sender, the file is skipped.	This does not  interfere  with
	      the  updating  of	 a file's non-content attributes (e.g. permis-
	      sions, ownership,	etc.) when the file does not need to be	trans-
	      ferred,  nor  does  it  affect  the  updating of any non-regular
	      files.  Implies --inplace, but does not conflict	with  --sparse
	      (since it	is always extending a file's length).

	      The  use	of  --append  can be dangerous if you aren't 100% sure
	      that the files that are longer have only grown by	the  appending
	      of  data onto the	end.  You should thus use include/exclude/fil-
	      ter rules	to ensure that such a transfer is only affecting files
	      that you know to be growing via appended data.

	      This  works just like the	--append option, but the existing data
	      on the receiving side is included	in the full-file checksum ver-
	      ification	 step,	which  will  cause  a file to be resent	if the
	      final verification step fails (rsync uses	a normal,  non-append-
	      ing --inplace transfer for the resend).

	      Note:  prior  to	rsync  3.0.0,  the --append option worked like
	      --append-verify, so if you are interacting with an  older	 rsync
	      (or  the	transfer  is using a protocol prior to 30), specifying
	      either append option will	initiate an --append-verify  transfer.

       -d, --dirs
	      Tell  the	 sending  side	to  include  any  directories that are
	      encountered.  Unlike --recursive,	a directory's contents are not
	      copied unless the	directory name specified is "."	or ends	with a
	      trailing slash (e.g. ".",	"dir/.", "dir/", etc.).	 Without  this
	      option  or  the --recursive option, rsync	will skip all directo-
	      ries it encounters (and output a message to that effect for each
	      one).   If  you specify both --dirs and --recursive, --recursive
	      takes precedence.

	      The --dirs option	is implied by the --files-from option  or  the
	      --list-only  option  (including an implied --list-only usage) if
	      --recursive wasn't specified (so that directories	 are  seen  in
	      the listing).  Specify --no-dirs (or --no-d) if you want to turn
	      this off.

	      There is also a backward-compatibility helper option, --old-dirs
	      (or   --old-d)   that   tells   rsync  to	 use  a	 hack  of  "-r
	      --exclude='/*/*'"	to get an older	rsync to list a	single	direc-
	      tory without recursing.

       -l, --links
	      When  symlinks are encountered, recreate the symlink on the des-

       -L, --copy-links
	      When symlinks are	encountered, the item that they	point to  (the
	      referent)	is copied, rather than the symlink.  In	older versions
	      of rsync,	this option also had the side-effect  of  telling  the
	      receiving	 side to follow	symlinks, such as symlinks to directo-
	      ries.  In	a modern rsync such as this one, you'll	need to	 spec-
	      ify  --keep-dirlinks  (-K) to get	this extra behavior.  The only
	      exception	is when	sending	files to an rsync that is too  old  to
	      understand -K -- in that case, the -L option will	still have the
	      side-effect of -K	on that	older receiving	rsync.

	      This tells rsync to copy the referent  of	 symbolic  links  that
	      point  outside  the  copied  tree.   Absolute  symlinks are also
	      treated like ordinary files, and so  are	any  symlinks  in  the
	      source  path itself when --relative is used.  This option	has no
	      additional effect	if --copy-links	was also specified.

	      This tells rsync to ignore any symbolic links which  point  out-
	      side  the	 copied	 tree. All absolute symlinks are also ignored.
	      Using this option	in conjunction with --relative may give	 unex-
	      pected results.

	      This  option  tells  rsync  to  (1)  modify  all symlinks	on the
	      receiving	side in	a way that makes them unusable but recoverable
	      (see below), or (2) to unmunge symlinks on the sending side that
	      had been stored in a munged state.  This is useful if you	 don't
	      quite  trust the source of the data to not try to	slip in	a sym-
	      link to a	unexpected place.

	      The way rsync disables the use of	symlinks is to prefix each one
	      with the string "/rsyncd-munged/".  This prevents	the links from
	      being used as long as that directory does	not exist.  When  this
	      option  is  enabled,  rsync will refuse to run if	that path is a
	      directory	or a symlink to	a directory.

	      The option only affects the client side of the transfer,	so  if
	      you   need   it	to   affect   the   server,   specify  it  via
	      --remote-option.	(Note that in a	 local	transfer,  the	client
	      side is the sender.)

	      This  option has no affect on a daemon, since the	daemon config-
	      ures whether it wants munged symlinks via	its  "munge  symlinks"
	      parameter.   See	also  the  "munge-symlinks" perl script	in the
	      support directory	of the source code.

       -k, --copy-dirlinks
	      This option causes the sending side to  treat  a	symlink	 to  a
	      directory	as though it were a real directory.  This is useful if
	      you don't	want symlinks to non-directories to  be	 affected,  as
	      they would be using --copy-links.

	      Without  this  option, if	the sending side has replaced a	direc-
	      tory with	a symlink to a	directory,  the	 receiving  side  will
	      delete anything that is in the way of the	new symlink, including
	      a	directory hierarchy (as	long as	--force-delete or --delete  is
	      in effect).

	      See also --keep-dirlinks for an analogous	option for the receiv-
	      ing side.

	      --copy-dirlinks applies to all symlinks to  directories  in  the
	      source.	If you want to follow only a few specified symlinks, a
	      trick you	can use	is to pass them	as additional source args with
	      a	 trailing  slash,  using --relative to make the	paths match up
	      right.  For example:

	      rsync -r --relative src/./ src/./follow-me/ dest/

	      This works because rsync calls lstat(2) on  the  source  arg  as
	      given, and the trailing slash makes lstat(2) follow the symlink,
	      giving rise to a directory in the	file-list which	overrides  the
	      symlink found during the scan of "src/./".

       -K, --keep-dirlinks
	      This  option  causes  the	receiving side to treat	a symlink to a
	      directory	as though it were a real directory,  but  only	if  it
	      matches  a real directory	from the sender.  Without this option,
	      the receiver's symlink would be deleted and replaced with	a real

	      For  example,  suppose  you transfer a directory "foo" that con-
	      tains a file "file", but "foo" is	a symlink to  directory	 "bar"
	      on  the receiver.	 Without --keep-dirlinks, the receiver deletes
	      symlink "foo", recreates it as a	directory,  and	 receives  the
	      file into	the new	directory.  With --keep-dirlinks, the receiver
	      keeps the	symlink	and "file" ends	up in "bar".

	      One note of caution:  if you use --keep-dirlinks,	you must trust
	      all  the	symlinks  in  the  copy!   If  it  is  possible	for an
	      untrusted	user to	create their own symlink to any	directory, the
	      user  could then (on a subsequent	copy) replace the symlink with
	      a	real directory and affect the content  of  whatever  directory
	      the  symlink  references.	 For backup copies, you	are better off
	      using something like a bind mount	instead	of a symlink to	modify
	      your receiving hierarchy.

	      See also --copy-dirlinks for an analogous	option for the sending

       -H, --hard-links
	      This tells rsync to look for hard-linked files in	the source and
	      link together the	corresponding files on the destination.	 With-
	      out this option, hard-linked files in the	source are treated  as
	      though they were separate	files.

	      This option does NOT necessarily ensure that the pattern of hard
	      links on the destination exactly matches	that  on  the  source.
	      Cases  in	which the destination may end up with extra hard links
	      include the following:

	      o	     If	the destination	contains extraneous  hard-links	 (more
		     linking  than  what  is present in	the source file	list),
		     the copying algorithm will	 not  break  them  explicitly.
		     However, if one or	more of	the paths have content differ-
		     ences, the	normal file-update process  will  break	 those
		     extra  links (unless you are using	the --inplace option).

	      o	     If	you specify a --link-dest directory that contains hard
		     links,  the  linking of the destination files against the
		     --link-dest files can cause some paths in the destination
		     to	become linked together due to the --link-dest associa-

	      Note that	rsync can only detect hard links  between  files  that
	      are  inside  the transfer	set.  If rsync updates a file that has
	      extra hard-link connections to files outside the transfer,  that
	      linkage will be broken.  If you are tempted to use the --inplace
	      option to	avoid this breakage, be	very careful that you know how
	      your  files  are	being  updated so that you are certain that no
	      unintended changes happen	due to lingering hard links  (and  see
	      the --inplace option for more caveats).

	      If  incremental recursion	is active (see --recursive), rsync may
	      transfer a missing hard-linked file before it finds that another
	      link  for	that contents exists elsewhere in the hierarchy.  This
	      does not affect the accuracy of the transfer (i.e.  which	 files
	      are hard-linked together), just its efficiency (i.e. copying the
	      data for a new, early copy of a hard-linked file that could have
	      been  found  later  in  the  transfer  in	 another member	of the
	      hard-linked set of files).  One way to avoid  this  inefficiency
	      is to disable incremental	recursion using	the --no-inc-recursive

       -p, --perms
	      This option causes the receiving rsync to	 set  the  destination
	      permissions to be	the same as the	source permissions.  (See also
	      the --chmod option for a way to modify what rsync	 considers  to
	      be the source permissions.)

	      When this	option is off, permissions are set as follows:

	      o	     Existing  files  (including  updated  files) retain their
		     existing permissions, though the  --executability	option
		     might change just the execute permission for the file.

	      o	     New  files	 get their "normal" permission bits set	to the
		     source  file's  permissions  masked  with	the  receiving
		     directory's  default  permissions	(either	 the receiving
		     process's umask, or the  permissions  specified  via  the
		     destination  directory's  default ACL), and their special
		     permission	bits disabled except in	the case where	a  new
		     directory	inherits  a  setgid bit	from its parent	direc-

	      Thus,  when  --perms  and	 --executability  are  both  disabled,
	      rsync's  behavior	 is the	same as	that of	other file-copy	utili-
	      ties, such as cp(1) and tar(1).

	      In summary: to give destination files (both  old	and  new)  the
	      source permissions, use --perms.	To give	new files the destina-
	      tion-default   permissions   (while   leaving   existing	 files
	      unchanged),  make	 sure  that  the --perms option	is off and use
	      --chmod=ugo=rwX (which ensures  that  all	 non-masked  bits  get
	      enabled).	  If you'd care	to make	this latter behavior easier to
	      type, you	could define a popt alias for it, such as putting this
	      line  in	the file ~/.popt (the following	defines	the -Z option,
	      and includes --no-g to use the default group of the  destination

		 rsync alias -Z	--no-p --no-g --chmod=ugo=rwX

	      You  could  then	use  this new option in	a command such as this

		 rsync -avZ src/ dest/

	      (Caveat: make sure that -a  does	not  follow  -Z,  or  it  will
	      re-enable	the two	"--no-*" options mentioned above.)

	      The  preservation	 of the	destination's setgid bit on newly-cre-
	      ated directories when --perms is off was added in	 rsync	2.6.7.
	      Older  rsync  versions  erroneously  preserved the three special
	      permission bits for newly-created	files when  --perms  was  off,
	      while  overriding	 the  destination's  setgid  bit  setting on a
	      newly-created directory.	Default	ACL observance	was  added  to
	      the  ACL	patch  for  rsync 2.6.7, so older (or non-ACL-enabled)
	      rsyncs use the umask even	if default ACLs	are present.  (Keep in
	      mind  that it is the version of the receiving rsync that affects
	      these behaviors.)

       -E, --executability
	      This option causes  rsync	 to  preserve  the  executability  (or
	      non-executability) of regular files when --perms is not enabled.
	      A	regular	file is	considered to be executable if	at  least  one
	      'x'  is turned on	in its permissions.  When an existing destina-
	      tion file's executability	differs	from that of the corresponding
	      source  file,  rsync modifies the	destination file's permissions
	      as follows:

	      o	     To	make a file non-executable, rsync turns	 off  all  its
		     'x' permissions.

	      o	     To	 make  a file executable, rsync	turns on each 'x' per-
		     mission that has a	corresponding 'r' permission  enabled.

	      If --perms is enabled, this option is ignored.

       -A, --acls
	      This  option  causes  rsync to update the	destination ACLs to be
	      the same as the source ACLs.  The	option also implies --perms.

	      The source and destination  systems  must	 have  compatible  ACL
	      entries  for this	option to work properly.  See the --fake-super
	      option for a way to backup and restore ACLs that are not compat-

       -X, --xattrs
	      This  option  causes  rsync  to  update the destination extended
	      attributes to be the same	as the source ones.

	      For systems that support extended-attribute namespaces,  a  copy
	      being  done  by  a  super-user copies all	namespaces except sys-
	      tem.*.  A	normal user only copies	the user.* namespace.	To  be
	      able to backup and restore non-user namespaces as	a normal user,
	      see the --fake-super option.

	      Note that	this option does not copy rsyncs special xattr	values
	      (e.g.  those  used by --fake-super) unless you repeat the	option
	      (e.g. -XX).  This	"copy all xattrs" mode	cannot	be  used  with

	      This option causes rsync to update the file-flags	to be the same
	      as the source files and directories (if  your  OS	 supports  the
	      chflags(2) system	call).	 Some flags can	only be	altered	by the
	      super-user  and  some  might  only  be  unset  below  a  certain
	      secure-level  (usually single-user mode).	It will	not make files
	      alterable	that are set to	immutable  on  the  receiver.	To  do
	      that,  see --force-change, --force-uchange, and --force-schange.

	      This option causes rsync to disable both user-immutable and sys-
	      tem-immutable  flags  on	files  and  directories	that are being
	      updated or deleted on the	receiving side.	 This option overrides
	      --force-uchange and --force-schange.

	      This  option  causes  rsync  to  disable user-immutable flags on
	      files and	directories that are being updated or deleted  on  the
	      receiving	 side.	 It does not try to affect system flags.  This
	      option overrides --force-change and --force-schange.

	      This option causes rsync to disable  system-immutable  flags  on
	      files  and  directories that are being updated or	deleted	on the
	      receiving	side.  It does not try to  affect  user	 flags.	  This
	      option overrides --force-change and --force-uchange.

	      This  option  tells  rsync  to apply one or more comma-separated
	      "chmod" modes to the permission of the files  in	the  transfer.
	      The resulting value is treated as	though it were the permissions
	      that the sending side supplied for the file,  which  means  that
	      this  option  can	 seem  to  have	no effect on existing files if
	      --perms is not enabled.

	      In addition  to  the  normal  parsing  rules  specified  in  the
	      chmod(1) manpage,	you can	specify	an item	that should only apply
	      to a directory by	prefixing it with a 'D', or  specify  an  item
	      that  should  only  apply	 to a file by prefixing	it with	a 'F'.
	      For example, the following will ensure that all directories  get
	      marked  set-gid, that no files are other-writable, that both are
	      user-writable and	group-writable,	and that both have  consistent
	      executability across all bits:


	      Using octal mode numbers is also allowed:


	      It  is  also  legal to specify multiple --chmod options, as each
	      additional option	is just	appended to the	 list  of  changes  to

	      See  the --perms and --executability options for how the result-
	      ing permission value can be applied to the files in  the	trans-

       -o, --owner
	      This  option  causes  rsync  to set the owner of the destination
	      file to be the same as the source	file, but only if the  receiv-
	      ing  rsync  is being run as the super-user (see also the --super
	      and --fake-super options).  Without this option,	the  owner  of
	      new and/or transferred files are set to the invoking user	on the
	      receiving	side.

	      The preservation of ownership will associate matching  names  by
	      default,	but  may fall back to using the	ID number in some cir-
	      cumstances (see also the --numeric-ids option for	a full discus-

       -g, --group
	      This  option  causes  rsync  to set the group of the destination
	      file to be the same as the source	file.  If the  receiving  pro-
	      gram  is	not  running  as  the super-user (or if	--no-super was
	      specified), only groups that the invoking	user on	the  receiving
	      side is a	member of will be preserved.  Without this option, the
	      group is set to the default group	of the invoking	 user  on  the
	      receiving	side.

	      The  preservation	 of  group information will associate matching
	      names by default,	but may	fall back to using the	ID  number  in
	      some circumstances (see also the --numeric-ids option for	a full

	      This option causes rsync to transfer character and block	device
	      files  to	 the  remote  system  to recreate these	devices.  This
	      option has no effect if the receiving rsync is not  run  as  the
	      super-user (see also the --super and --fake-super	options).

	      This option causes rsync to transfer special files such as named
	      sockets and fifos.

       -D     The -D option is equivalent to --devices --specials.

       -t, --times
	      This tells rsync to transfer modification	times along  with  the
	      files  and  update them on the remote system.  Note that if this
	      option is	not used, the optimization that	 excludes  files  that
	      have  not	 been  modified	cannot be effective; in	other words, a
	      missing -t or -a will cause the next transfer to behave as if it
	      used  -I,	 causing  all  files  to  be  updated  (though rsync's
	      delta-transfer algorithm will make the update  fairly  efficient
	      if  the  files  haven't actually changed,	you're much better off
	      using -t).

       -O, --omit-dir-times
	      This tells rsync to omit directories when	it is preserving modi-
	      fication times (see --times).  If	NFS is sharing the directories
	      on the receiving side, it	is a good idea to use -O.  This	option
	      is inferred if you use --backup without --backup-dir.

	      This  option also	has the	side-effect of avoiding	early creation
	      of directories in	incremental  recursion	copies.	  The  default
	      --inc-recursive  copying	normally  does an early-create pass of
	      all the sub-directories in a parent directory in order for it to
	      be  able	to  then  set  the modify time of the parent directory
	      right away (without having to delay that until a bunch of	recur-
	      sive copying has finished).  This	early-create idiom is not nec-
	      essary if	directory modify times are not being preserved,	so  it
	      is  skipped.  Since early-create directories don't have accurate
	      mode, mtime, or ownership, the use of this option	can help  when
	      someone wants to avoid these partially-finished directories.

       -J, --omit-link-times
	      This  tells rsync	to omit	symlinks when it is preserving modifi-
	      cation times (see	--times).

	      This tells the receiving side to attempt	super-user  activities
	      even if the receiving rsync wasn't run by	the super-user.	 These
	      activities include: preserving users  via	 the  --owner  option,
	      preserving  all  groups (not just	the current user's groups) via
	      the --groups option,  and	 copying  devices  via	the  --devices
	      option.	This  is useful	for systems that allow such activities
	      without being the	super-user, and	also  for  ensuring  that  you
	      will  get	 errors	 if  the receiving side	isn't being run	as the
	      super-user.  To turn off super-user activities,  the  super-user
	      can use --no-super.

	      When  this option	is enabled, rsync simulates super-user activi-
	      ties by saving/restoring the privileged attributes  via  special
	      extended	attributes that	are attached to	each file (as needed).
	      This includes the	file's owner and  group	 (if  it  is  not  the
	      default),	 the  file's  device  info (device & special files are
	      created as empty text files), and	any permission	bits  that  we
	      won't allow to be	set on the real	file (e.g.  the	real file gets
	      u-s,g-s,o-t for safety) or that would limit the  owner's	access
	      (since  the real super-user can always access/change a file, the
	      files we create can always be accessed/changed by	 the  creating
	      user).   This option also	handles	ACLs (if --acls	was specified)
	      and non-user extended attributes (if --xattrs was	specified).

	      This is a	good way to backup data	without	 using	a  super-user,
	      and to store ACLs	from incompatible systems.

	      The  --fake-super	 option	only affects the side where the	option
	      is used.	To affect the remote side of  a	 remote-shell  connec-
	      tion, use	the --remote-option (-M) option:

		rsync -av -M--fake-super /src/ host:/dest/

	      For  a  local  copy, this	option affects both the	source and the
	      destination.  If you wish	a local	copy  to  enable  this	option
	      just  for	the destination	files, specify -M--fake-super.	If you
	      wish a local copy	to enable this	option	just  for  the	source
	      files, combine --fake-super with -M--super.

	      This option is overridden	by both	--super	and --no-super.

	      See  also	 the  "fake super" setting in the daemon's rsyncd.conf

       -S, --sparse
	      Try to handle sparse files efficiently  so  they	take  up  less
	      space on the destination.	 Conflicts with	--inplace because it's
	      not possible to overwrite	data in	a sparse fashion.

	      This tells the receiver to allocate each destination file	to its
	      eventual	size before writing data to the	file.  Rsync will only
	      use the real filesystem-level preallocation support provided  by
	      Linux's fallocate(2) system call or Cygwin's posix_fallocate(3),
	      not the slow glibc implementation	that writes a zero  byte  into
	      each block.

	      Without this option, larger files	may not	be entirely contiguous
	      on the filesystem, but with this option rsync will probably copy
	      more  slowly.   If  the  destination is not an extent-supporting
	      filesystem (such as ext4,	xfs, NTFS, etc.), this option may have
	      no positive effect at all.

       -n, --dry-run
	      This  makes  rsync  perform  a  trial  run that doesn't make any
	      changes (and produces mostly the same output as a	real run).  It
	      is  most	commonly  used	in  combination	with the -v, --verbose
	      and/or -i, --itemize-changes options to see what an  rsync  com-
	      mand is going to do before one actually runs it.

	      The  output  of  --itemize-changes is supposed to	be exactly the
	      same on a	dry run	and a subsequent real run (barring intentional
	      trickery	and  system call failures); if it isn't, that's	a bug.
	      Other output should be mostly unchanged, but may differ in  some
	      areas.   Notably,	 a  dry	 run does not send the actual data for
	      file transfers, so --progress has	no effect, the	"bytes	sent",
	      "bytes  received", "literal data", and "matched data" statistics
	      are too small, and the "speedup" value is	equivalent  to	a  run
	      where no file transfers were needed.

       -W, --whole-file
	      With  this  option  rsync's delta-transfer algorithm is not used
	      and the whole file is sent as-is instead.	 The transfer  may  be
	      faster  if  this	option	is used	when the bandwidth between the
	      source and destination machines is higher	than the bandwidth  to
	      disk  (especially	 when  the  "disk"  is	actually  a  networked
	      filesystem).  This is the	default	when both the source and  des-
	      tination	 are   specified  as  local  paths,  but  only	if  no
	      batch-writing option is in effect.

       -x, --one-file-system
	      This tells rsync to avoid	crossing a  filesystem	boundary  when
	      recursing.   This	 does  not limit the user's ability to specify
	      items to copy from multiple filesystems, just rsync's  recursion
	      through the hierarchy of each directory that the user specified,
	      and also the analogous recursion on the  receiving  side	during
	      deletion.	 Also keep in mind that	rsync treats a "bind" mount to
	      the same device as being on the same filesystem.

	      If this option is	repeated, rsync	omits all mount-point directo-
	      ries  from  the copy.  Otherwise,	it includes an empty directory
	      at each mount-point it encounters	(using the attributes  of  the
	      mounted  directory  because  those of the	underlying mount-point
	      directory	are inaccessible).

	      If rsync has been	told to	collapse symlinks (via --copy-links or
	      --copy-unsafe-links), a symlink to a directory on	another	device
	      is treated like a	mount-point.  Symlinks to non-directories  are
	      unaffected by this option.

       --existing, --ignore-non-existing
	      This  tells rsync	to skip	creating files (including directories)
	      that do not exist	yet on the destination.	  If  this  option  is
	      combined	with  the  --ignore-existing  option, no files will be
	      updated (which can be useful if all you want  to	do  is	delete
	      extraneous files).

	      This  option  is	a transfer rule, not an	exclude, so it doesn't
	      affect the data that goes	 into  the  file-lists,	 and  thus  it
	      doesn't  affect  deletions.   It	just limits the	files that the
	      receiver requests	to be transferred.

	      This tells rsync to skip updating	files that  already  exist  on
	      the  destination	(this does not ignore existing directories, or
	      nothing would get	done).	See also --existing.

	      This option is a transfer	rule, not an exclude,  so  it  doesn't
	      affect  the  data	 that  goes  into  the file-lists, and thus it
	      doesn't affect deletions.	 It just limits	 the  files  that  the
	      receiver requests	to be transferred.

	      This  option  can	 be  useful  for those doing backups using the
	      --link-dest option when they need	to continue a backup run  that
	      got  interrupted.	  Since	a --link-dest run is copied into a new
	      directory	hierarchy (when	it is used properly),  using  --ignore
	      existing	will  ensure  that the already-handled files don't get
	      tweaked (which avoids a change in	permissions on the hard-linked
	      files).	This does mean that this option	is only	looking	at the
	      existing files in	the destination	hierarchy itself.

	      This tells rsync to remove  from	the  sending  side  the	 files
	      (meaning	non-directories)  that	are a part of the transfer and
	      have been	successfully duplicated	on the receiving side.

	      Note that	you should only	use this option	on source  files  that
	      are quiescent.  If you are using this to move files that show up
	      in a particular directory	over to	another	host, make  sure  that
	      the  finished  files  get	renamed	into the source	directory, not
	      directly written into it,	so that	rsync can't possibly  transfer
	      a	 file that is not yet fully written.  If you can't first write
	      the files	into a different directory, you	should	use  a	naming
	      idiom  that lets rsync avoid transferring	files that are not yet
	      finished (e.g. name the  file  ""	when  it  is  written,
	      rename  it  to  "foo"  when  it is done, and then	use the	option
	      --exclude='*.new'	for the	rsync transfer).

	      Starting with 3.1.0, rsync will  skip  the  sender-side  removal
	      (and  output an error) if	the file's size	or modify time has not
	      stayed unchanged.

	      This tells rsync to delete extraneous files from	the  receiving
	      side  (ones  that	 aren't	on the sending side), but only for the
	      directories that are being synchronized.	You  must  have	 asked
	      rsync to send the	whole directory	(e.g. "dir" or "dir/") without
	      using a wildcard for the	directory's  contents  (e.g.  "dir/*")
	      since  the wildcard is expanded by the shell and rsync thus gets
	      a	request	to transfer individual files, not  the	files'	parent
	      directory.   Files  that are excluded from the transfer are also
	      excluded from being deleted unless you use the --delete-excluded
	      option  or  mark	the rules as only matching on the sending side
	      (see the include/exclude modifiers in the	FILTER RULES section).

	      Prior  to	 rsync	2.6.7, this option would have no effect	unless
	      --recursive was enabled.	Beginning with 2.6.7,  deletions  will
	      also occur when --dirs (-d) is enabled, but only for directories
	      whose contents are being copied.

	      This option can be dangerous if used incorrectly!	 It is a  very
	      good  idea to first try a	run using the --dry-run	option (-n) to
	      see what files are going to be deleted.

	      If the sending side detects any I/O errors, then the deletion of
	      any  files  at  the  destination will be automatically disabled.
	      This is to prevent temporary filesystem failures	(such  as  NFS
	      errors)  on  the sending side from causing a massive deletion of
	      files on the  destination.   You	can  override  this  with  the
	      --ignore-errors option.

	      The   --delete   option	may   be  combined  with  one  of  the
	      --delete-WHEN   options	without	  conflict,   as    well    as
	      --delete-excluded.    However,  if  none	of  the	 --delete-WHEN
	      options are specified, rsync  will  choose  the  --delete-during
	      algorithm	 when  talking	to  rsync  3.0.0  or  newer,  and  the
	      --delete-before algorithm	when talking to	an older  rsync.   See
	      also --delete-delay and --delete-after.

	      Request  that  the  file-deletions on the	receiving side be done
	      before the transfer starts.  See --delete	(which is implied) for
	      more details on file-deletion.

	      Deleting	before	the  transfer  is helpful if the filesystem is
	      tight for	space and removing extraneous files would help to make
	      the  transfer  possible.	 However,  it  does  introduce a delay
	      before the start of the transfer,	and this delay might cause the
	      transfer	to  timeout  (if  --timeout  was  specified).  It also
	      forces rsync to use the old, non-incremental recursion algorithm
	      that  requires  rsync to scan all	the files in the transfer into
	      memory at	once (see --recursive).

       --delete-during,	--del
	      Request that the file-deletions on the receiving	side  be  done
	      incrementally as the transfer happens.  The per-directory	delete
	      scan is done right before	each directory is checked for updates,
	      so  it  behaves like a more efficient --delete-before, including
	      doing the	deletions prior	 to  any  per-directory	 filter	 files
	      being  updated.	This  option  was first	added in rsync version
	      2.6.4.  See --delete (which is  implied)	for  more  details  on

	      Request  that  the  file-deletions on the	receiving side be com-
	      puted during  the	 transfer  (like  --delete-during),  and  then
	      removed  after the transfer completes.  This is useful when com-
	      bined with --delay-updates and/or	--fuzzy, and is	more efficient
	      than  using  --delete-after  (but	 can behave differently, since
	      --delete-after computes the deletions in a separate  pass	 after
	      all updates are done).  If the number of removed files overflows
	      an internal buffer, a temporary file  will  be  created  on  the
	      receiving	 side  to hold the names (it is	removed	while open, so
	      you shouldn't see	it during the transfer).  If the  creation  of
	      the  temporary  file fails, rsync	will try to fall back to using
	      --delete-after (which it cannot do if --recursive	 is  doing  an
	      incremental  scan).   See	 --delete  (which is implied) for more
	      details on file-deletion.

	      Request that the file-deletions on the receiving	side  be  done
	      after  the  transfer  has	 completed.  This is useful if you are
	      sending new per-directory	merge files as a part of the  transfer
	      and  you	want  their  exclusions	 to take effect	for the	delete
	      phase of the current transfer.  It also forces rsync to use  the
	      old,  non-incremental recursion algorithm	that requires rsync to
	      scan all the files in the	transfer  into	memory	at  once  (see
	      --recursive).   See --delete (which is implied) for more details
	      on file-deletion.

	      In addition to deleting the files	on the receiving side that are
	      not  on  the  sending  side, this	tells rsync to also delete any
	      files on the receiving side that are excluded  (see  --exclude).
	      See the FILTER RULES section for a way to	make individual	exclu-
	      sions behave this	way on the receiver, and for a way to  protect
	      files  from  --delete-excluded.  See --delete (which is implied)
	      for more details on file-deletion.

	      When rsync is first processing the explicitly  requested	source
	      files  (e.g. command-line	arguments or --files-from entries), it
	      is normally an error if the file cannot be found.	  This	option
	      suppresses  that	error,	and does not try to transfer the file.
	      This does	not affect subsequent vanished-file errors if  a  file
	      was  initially found to be present and later is no longer	there.

	      This option takes	the behavior of	(the  implied)	--ignore-miss-
	      ing-args	option a step farther:	each missing arg will become a
	      deletion request of the corresponding destination	 file  on  the
	      receiving	 side (should it exist).  If the destination file is a
	      non-empty	directory, it will only	 be  successfully  deleted  if
	      --force or --delete are in effect.  Other	than that, this	option
	      is independent of	any other type of delete processing.

	      The missing source files are represented	by  special  file-list
	      entries  which  display as a "*missing" entry in the --list-only

	      Tells --delete to	go ahead and delete files even when there  are
	      I/O errors.

	      This  option tells rsync to delete a non-empty directory when it
	      is to be replaced	by a non-directory.  This is only relevant  if
	      deletions	are not	active (see --delete for details).

	      This  option can be abbreviated --force for backward compatibil-
	      ity.  Note that some older rsync versions	used to	still  require
	      --force  when  using --delete-after, and it used to be non-func-
	      tional unless the	--recursive option was also enabled.

	      This tells rsync not to delete more than NUM files  or  directo-
	      ries.   If  that	limit  is  exceeded, all further deletions are
	      skipped through the end of the transfer.	At the end, rsync out-
	      puts  a warning (including a count of the	skipped	deletions) and
	      exits with an error code of 25 (unless some more important error
	      condition	also occurred).

	      Beginning	 with version 3.0.0, you may specify --max-delete=0 to
	      be warned	about any extraneous files in the destination  without
	      removing any of them.  Older clients interpreted this as "unlim-
	      ited", so	if you don't know what version the client is, you  can
	      use  the	less  obvious --max-delete=-1 as a backward-compatible
	      way to specify that no deletions be allowed (though  really  old
	      versions didn't warn when	the limit was exceeded).

	      This  tells  rsync to avoid transferring any file	that is	larger
	      than the specified SIZE. The SIZE	value can be suffixed  with  a
	      string  to  indicate  a size multiplier, and may be a fractional
	      value (e.g. "--max-size=1.5m").

	      This option is a transfer	rule, not an exclude,  so  it  doesn't
	      affect  the  data	 that  goes  into  the file-lists, and thus it
	      doesn't affect deletions.	 It just limits	 the  files  that  the
	      receiver requests	to be transferred.

	      The  suffixes  are  as  follows:	"K"  (or  "KiB") is a kibibyte
	      (1024), "M" (or "MiB") is	a mebibyte (1024*1024),	 and  "G"  (or
	      "GiB")  is  a gibibyte (1024*1024*1024).	If you want the	multi-
	      plier to be 1000 instead of  1024,  use  "KB",  "MB",  or	 "GB".
	      (Note: lower-case	is also	accepted for all values.)  Finally, if
	      the suffix ends in either	"+1" or	"-1", the value	will be	offset
	      by one byte in the indicated direction.

	      Examples:	   --max-size=1.5mb-1	 is    1499999	  bytes,   and
	      --max-size=2g+1 is 2147483649 bytes.

	      Note  that  rsync	 versions  prior  to  3.1.0  did   not	 allow

	      This  tells rsync	to avoid transferring any file that is smaller
	      than the specified SIZE, which  can  help	 in  not  transferring
	      small,  junk files.  See the --max-size option for a description
	      of SIZE and other	information.

	      Note  that  rsync	 versions  prior  to  3.1.0  did   not	 allow

       -B, --block-size=BLOCKSIZE
	      This  forces the block size used in rsync's delta-transfer algo-
	      rithm to a fixed value.  It is normally selected	based  on  the
	      size  of	each file being	updated.  See the technical report for

       -e, --rsh=COMMAND
	      This option allows you to	choose	an  alternative	 remote	 shell
	      program  to  use	for communication between the local and	remote
	      copies of	rsync. Typically, rsync	is configured to  use  ssh  by
	      default, but you may prefer to use rsh on	a local	network.

	      If  this	option is used with [user@]host::module/path, then the
	      remote shell COMMAND will	be used	to run an rsync	daemon on  the
	      remote  host,  and  all  data  will  be transmitted through that
	      remote shell connection, rather than  through  a	direct	socket
	      connection  to  a	 running rsync daemon on the remote host.  See
	      NECTION" above.

	      Command-line  arguments  are  permitted in COMMAND provided that
	      COMMAND is presented to rsync as a single	 argument.   You  must
	      use  spaces  (not	tabs or	other whitespace) to separate the com-
	      mand and args from each other, and you can  use  single-	and/or
	      double-quotes  to	 preserve spaces in an argument	(but not back-
	      slashes).	 Note that  doubling  a	 single-quote  inside  a  sin-
	      gle-quoted  string  gives	 you a single-quote; likewise for dou-
	      ble-quotes (though you need to pay  attention  to	 which	quotes
	      your  shell is parsing and which quotes rsync is parsing).  Some

		  -e 'ssh -p 2234'
		  -e 'ssh -o "ProxyCommand nohup ssh firewall nc -w1 %h	%p"'

	      (Note that ssh users  can	 alternately  customize	 site-specific
	      connect options in their .ssh/config file.)

	      You can also choose the remote shell program using the RSYNC_RSH
	      environment variable, which accepts the same range of values  as

	      See  also	 the  --blocking-io  option  which is affected by this

	      Use this to specify what program is to  be  run  on  the	remote
	      machine  to start-up rsync.  Often used when rsync is not	in the
	      default		remote-shell's		 path		 (e.g.
	      --rsync-path=/usr/local/bin/rsync).   Note  that	PROGRAM	is run
	      with the help of a shell,	so it can be any program,  script,  or
	      command  sequence	you'd care to run, so long as it does not cor-
	      rupt the standard-in & standard-out that rsync is	using to  com-

	      One  tricky  example  is to set a	different default directory on
	      the remote machine for use  with	the  --relative	 option.   For

		  rsync	-avR --rsync-path="cd /a/b && rsync" host:c/d /e/

       -M, --remote-option=OPTION
	      This  option is used for more advanced situations	where you want
	      certain effects to be limited to one side	of the transfer	 only.
	      For   instance,	if   you  want	to  pass  --log-file=FILE  and
	      --fake-super to the remote system, specify it like this:

		  rsync	-av -M --log-file=foo -M--fake-super src/ dest/

	      If you want to have an option affect only	the local  side	 of  a
	      transfer	when it	normally affects both sides, send its negation
	      to the remote side.  Like	this:

		  rsync	-av -x -M--no-x	src/ dest/

	      Be cautious using	this, as it is possible	to  toggle  an	option
	      that  will  cause	rsync to have a	different idea about what data
	      to expect	next over the socket, and that will make it fail in  a
	      cryptic fashion.

	      Note  that it is best to use a separate --remote-option for each
	      option you want to pass.	This makes your	useage compatible with
	      the --protect-args option.  If that option is off, any spaces in
	      your remote options will be split	by the remote shell unless you
	      take steps to protect them.

	      When performing a	local transfer,	the "local" side is the	sender
	      and the "remote" side is the receiver.

	      Note some	versions of the	popt option-parsing library have a bug
	      in  them	that  prevents	you from using an adjacent arg with an
	      equal  in	  it   next   to   a   short   option	letter	 (e.g.
	      -M--log-file=/tmp/foo.   If  this	 bug  affects  your version of
	      popt, you	can use	the version of	popt  that  is	included  with

       -C, --cvs-exclude
	      This  is a useful	shorthand for excluding	a broad	range of files
	      that you often don't want	to transfer between systems. It	uses a
	      similar  algorithm  to  CVS  to  determine  if  a	file should be

	      The exclude list is initialized to exclude the  following	 items
	      (these  initial items are	marked as perishable --	see the	FILTER
	      RULES section):

		     RCS  SCCS	CVS  CVS.adm   RCSLOG	cvslog.*   tags	  TAGS
		     .make.state  .nse_depinfo *~ #* .#* ,* _$*	*$ *.old *.bak
		     *.BAK *.orig *.rej	.del-* *.a *.olb *.o *.obj *.so	 *.exe
		     *.Z *.elc *.ln core .svn/ .git/ .hg/ .bzr/

	      then,  files  listed in a	$HOME/.cvsignore are added to the list
	      and any files listed in the CVSIGNORE environment	variable  (all
	      cvsignore	names are delimited by whitespace).

	      Finally, any file	is ignored if it is in the same	directory as a
	      .cvsignore file and matches one of the patterns listed  therein.
	      Unlike rsync's filter/exclude files, these patterns are split on
	      whitespace.  See the cvs(1) manual for more information.

	      If you're	combining -C with your own --filter rules, you	should
	      note that	these CVS excludes are appended	at the end of your own
	      rules, regardless	of  where  the	-C  was	 placed	 on  the  com-
	      mand-line.   This	makes them a lower priority than any rules you
	      specified	explicitly.  If	you want to control  where  these  CVS
	      excludes	get  inserted  into your filter	rules, you should omit
	      the -C as	a command-line option and use a	combination of	--fil-
	      ter=:C  and  --filter=-C	(either	 on  your  command-line	 or by
	      putting the ":C" and "-C"	rules into a  filter  file  with  your
	      other rules).  The first option turns on the per-directory scan-
	      ning for the .cvsignore file.  The second	option does a one-time
	      import of	the CVS	excludes mentioned above.

       -f, --filter=RULE
	      This  option allows you to add rules to selectively exclude cer-
	      tain files from the list of files	to  be	transferred.  This  is
	      most useful in combination with a	recursive transfer.

	      You  may use as many --filter options on the command line	as you
	      like to build up the list	of files to exclude.   If  the	filter
	      contains whitespace, be sure to quote it so that the shell gives
	      the rule to rsync	as a single argument.	The  text  below  also
	      mentions	that  you  can	use an underscore to replace the space
	      that separates a rule from its arg.

	      See the FILTER RULES section for detailed	 information  on  this

       -F     The  -F  option  is a shorthand for adding two --filter rules to
	      your command.  The first time it is used is a shorthand for this

		 --filter='dir-merge /.rsync-filter'

	      This  tells  rsync to look for per-directory .rsync-filter files
	      that have	been sprinkled through the  hierarchy  and  use	 their
	      rules  to	 filter	the files in the transfer.  If -F is repeated,
	      it is a shorthand	for this rule:

		 --filter='exclude .rsync-filter'

	      This filters out the .rsync-filter  files	 themselves  from  the

	      See  the	FILTER	RULES  section for detailed information	on how
	      these options work.

	      This option is a simplified form of  the	--filter  option  that
	      defaults	to  an	exclude	 rule  and  does  not  allow  the full
	      rule-parsing syntax of normal filter rules.

	      See the FILTER RULES section for detailed	 information  on  this

	      This option is related to	the --exclude option, but it specifies
	      a	FILE that contains exclude patterns  (one  per	line).	 Blank
	      lines  in	 the  file  and	 lines	starting  with	';' or '#' are
	      ignored.	If FILE	is -, the list	will  be  read	from  standard

	      This  option  is	a  simplified form of the --filter option that
	      defaults to  an  include	rule  and  does	 not  allow  the  full
	      rule-parsing syntax of normal filter rules.

	      See  the	FILTER	RULES section for detailed information on this

	      This option is related to	the --include option, but it specifies
	      a	 FILE  that  contains  include patterns	(one per line).	 Blank
	      lines in the file	 and  lines  starting  with  ';'  or  '#'  are
	      ignored.	 If  FILE  is  -,  the list will be read from standard

	      Using this option	allows you to specify the exact	list of	 files
	      to  transfer  (as	read from the specified	FILE or	- for standard
	      input).  It also tweaks the default behavior of  rsync  to  make
	      transferring just	the specified files and	directories easier:

	      o	     The  --relative  (-R)  option is implied, which preserves
		     the path information that is specified for	each  item  in
		     the file (use --no-relative or --no-R if you want to turn
		     that off).

	      o	     The --dirs	(-d) option  is	 implied,  which  will	create
		     directories  specified  in	 the  list  on the destination
		     rather than  noisily  skipping  them  (use	 --no-dirs  or
		     --no-d if you want	to turn	that off).

	      o	     The  --archive  (-a)  option's  behavior  does  not imply
		     --recursive (-r), so specify it explicitly, if  you  want

	      o	     These  side-effects change	the default state of rsync, so
		     the position of  the  --files-from	 option	 on  the  com-
		     mand-line	has no bearing on how other options are	parsed
		     (e.g. -a works the	same before or after --files-from,  as
		     does --no-R and all other options).

	      The  filenames  that  are	read from the FILE are all relative to
	      the source dir --	any leading slashes are	removed	 and  no  ".."
	      references  are  allowed	to go higher than the source dir.  For
	      example, take this command:

		 rsync -a --files-from=/tmp/foo	/usr remote:/backup

	      If /tmp/foo contains the string  "bin"  (or  even	 "/bin"),  the
	      /usr/bin	directory will be created as /backup/bin on the	remote
	      host.  If	it contains "bin/"  (note  the	trailing  slash),  the
	      immediate	 contents of the directory would also be sent (without
	      needing to be explicitly mentioned in the	file --	this began  in
	      version  2.6.4).	 In  both cases, if the	-r option was enabled,
	      that dir's entire	hierarchy would	also be	transferred  (keep  in
	      mind that	-r needs to be specified explicitly with --files-from,
	      since it is not implied by -a).  Also note that  the  effect  of
	      the  (enabled by default)	--relative option is to	duplicate only
	      the path info that is read from the file -- it  does  not	 force
	      the duplication of the source-spec path (/usr in this case).

	      In  addition,  the --files-from file can be read from the	remote
	      host instead of the local	host if	you specify a "host:" in front
	      of the file (the host must match one end of the transfer).  As a
	      short-cut, you can specify just a	prefix of ":" to mean "use the
	      remote end of the	transfer".  For	example:

		 rsync -a --files-from=:/path/file-list	src:/ /tmp/copy

	      This  would  copy	all the	files specified	in the /path/file-list
	      file that	was located on the remote "src"	host.

	      If the --iconv and --protect-args	options	are specified and  the
	      --files-from  filenames are being	sent from one host to another,
	      the filenames will be translated from the	sending	host's charset
	      to the receiving host's charset.

	      NOTE:  sorting the list of files in the --files-from input helps
	      rsync to be more efficient, as it	 will  avoid  re-visiting  the
	      path  elements that are shared between adjacent entries.	If the
	      input is not sorted, some	path  elements	(implied  directories)
	      may  end up being	scanned	multiple times,	and rsync will eventu-
	      ally unduplicate them after they get turned into file-list  ele-

       -0, --from0
	      This  tells  rsync that the rules/filenames it reads from	a file
	      are terminated by	a null ('\0') character,  not  a  NL,  CR,  or
	      CR+LF.	 This	 affects    --exclude-from,    --include-from,
	      --files-from, and	any merged files specified in a	--filter rule.
	      It  does	not  affect --cvs-exclude (since all names read	from a
	      .cvsignore file are split	on whitespace).

       -s, --protect-args
	      This option sends	all filenames and most options to  the	remote
	      rsync without allowing the remote	shell to interpret them.  This
	      means that spaces	are not	split in names,	and  any  non-wildcard
	      special  characters  are	not  translated	 (such	as ~, $, ;, &,
	      etc.).  Wildcards	are expanded  on  the  remote  host  by	 rsync
	      (instead of the shell doing it).

	      If  you  use  this  option with --iconv, the args	related	to the
	      remote side will also be translated from the local to the	remote
	      character-set.   The  translation	 happens before	wild-cards are
	      expanded.	 See also the --files-from option.

	      You may also control  this  option  via  the  RSYNC_PROTECT_ARGS
	      environment  variable.   If  this	variable has a non-zero	value,
	      this option will be enabled by default,  otherwise  it  will  be
	      disabled	by  default.  Either state is overridden by a manually
	      specified	positive or negative version of	this option (note that
	      --no-s  and --no-protect-args are	the negative versions).	 Since
	      this option was first introduced in 3.0.0, you'll	need  to  make
	      sure  it's  disabled  if you ever	need to	interact with a	remote
	      rsync that is older than that.

	      Rsync can	also be	configured (at build time) to have this	option
	      enabled  by  default (with is overridden by both the environment
	      and the command-line).  This option will eventually become a new
	      default setting at some as-yet-undetermined point	in the future.

       -T, --temp-dir=DIR
	      This option instructs rsync to use DIR as	 a  scratch  directory
	      when  creating  temporary	copies of the files transferred	on the
	      receiving	side.  The default behavior is to create  each	tempo-
	      rary  file  in  the same directory as the	associated destination
	      file.  Beginning with rsync 3.1.1, the  temp-file	 names	inside
	      the specified DIR	will not be prefixed with an extra dot (though
	      they will	still have a random suffix added).

	      This option is most often	used when the receiving	disk partition
	      does  not	 have  enough free space to hold a copy	of the largest
	      file in the transfer.  In	 this  case  (i.e.  when  the  scratch
	      directory	 is  on	a different disk partition), rsync will	not be
	      able to rename each received temporary file over the top of  the
	      associated  destination  file,  but  instead  must  copy it into
	      place.  Rsync does this by copying the file over the top of  the
	      destination  file,  which	 means	that the destination file will
	      contain truncated	data during this copy.	If this	were not  done
	      this  way	 (even if the destination file were first removed, the
	      data locally copied to  a	 temporary  file  in  the  destination
	      directory, and then renamed into place) it would be possible for
	      the old file to continue taking up disk space (if	someone	had it
	      open),  and  thus	 there might not be enough room	to fit the new
	      version on the disk at the same time.

	      If you are using this option for reasons other than  a  shortage
	      of   disk	  space,   you	 may  wish  to	combine	 it  with  the
	      --delay-updates option, which will ensure	that all copied	 files
	      get put into subdirectories in the destination hierarchy,	await-
	      ing the end of the transfer.  If you don't have enough  room  to
	      duplicate	 all  the arriving files on the	destination partition,
	      another way to tell rsync	that you aren't	overly concerned about
	      disk  space  is  to use the --partial-dir	option with a relative
	      path; because this tells rsync that it is	OK to stash off	a copy
	      of a single file in a subdir in the destination hierarchy, rsync
	      will use the partial-dir as a staging area  to  bring  over  the
	      copied file, and then rename it into place from there. (Specify-
	      ing a --partial-dir with an absolute path	 does  not  have  this

       -y, --fuzzy
	      This option tells	rsync that it should look for a	basis file for
	      any destination file that	is  missing.   The  current  algorithm
	      looks in the same	directory as the destination file for either a
	      file that	has an identical size and modified-time,  or  a	 simi-
	      larly-named  file.  If found, rsync uses the fuzzy basis file to
	      try to speed up the transfer.

	      If the option is repeated, the fuzzy scan	will also be  done  in
	      any  matching  alternate destination directories that are	speci-
	      fied via --compare-dest, --copy-dest, or --link-dest.

	      Note that	the use	of the --delete	option might get  rid  of  any
	      potential	 fuzzy-match  files,  so  either use --delete-after or
	      specify some filename exclusions if you need to prevent this.

	      This option instructs  rsync  to	use  DIR  on  the  destination
	      machine  as an additional	hierarchy to compare destination files
	      against doing transfers (if the files are	missing	in the	desti-
	      nation  directory).  If a	file is	found in DIR that is identical
	      to the sender's file, the	file will NOT be  transferred  to  the
	      destination  directory.	This  is  useful for creating a	sparse
	      backup of	just files that	have changed from an  earlier  backup.
	      This  option  is	typically used to copy into an empty (or newly
	      created) directory.

	      Beginning	in version 2.6.4, multiple --compare-dest  directories
	      may  be  provided,  which	will cause rsync to search the list in
	      the order	specified for an exact match.  If  a  match  is	 found
	      that  differs  only  in attributes, a local copy is made and the
	      attributes updated.  If a	match is not found, a basis file  from
	      one  of  the DIRs	will be	selected to try	to speed up the	trans-

	      If DIR is	a relative path, it is	relative  to  the  destination
	      directory.  See also --copy-dest and --link-dest.

	      NOTE:  beginning	with  version  3.1.0, rsync will remove	a file
	      from a non-empty destination hierarchy  if  an  exact  match  is
	      found  in	 one  of  the compare-dest hierarchies (making the end
	      result more closely match	a fresh	copy).

	      This option behaves like --compare-dest,	but  rsync  will  also
	      copy  unchanged  files found in DIR to the destination directory
	      using a local copy.  This	is useful for doing transfers to a new
	      destination  while leaving existing files	intact,	and then doing
	      a	flash-cutover when all files  have  been  successfully	trans-

	      Multiple	--copy-dest  directories  may  be provided, which will
	      cause rsync to search the	list in	the  order  specified  for  an
	      unchanged	 file.	If a match is not found, a basis file from one
	      of the DIRs will be selected to try to speed up the transfer.

	      If DIR is	a relative path, it is	relative  to  the  destination
	      directory.  See also --compare-dest and --link-dest.

	      This  option  behaves  like --copy-dest, but unchanged files are
	      hard linked from DIR to the destination  directory.   The	 files
	      must be identical	in all preserved attributes (e.g. permissions,
	      possibly	ownership)  in	order  for  the	 files	to  be	linked
	      together.	 An example:

		rsync -av --link-dest=$PWD/prior_dir host:src_dir/ new_dir/

	      If  file's  aren't linking, double-check their attributes.  Also
	      check if some attributes are getting forced outside  of  rsync's
	      control,	such  a	 mount	option	that squishes root to a	single
	      user, or mounts a	removable drive	with generic  ownership	 (such
	      as OS X's	"Ignore	ownership on this volume" option).

	      Beginning	in version 2.6.4, multiple --link-dest directories may
	      be provided, which will cause rsync to search the	 list  in  the
	      order  specified	for  an	exact match.  If a match is found that
	      differs only in  attributes,  a  local  copy  is	made  and  the
	      attributes  updated.  If a match is not found, a basis file from
	      one of the DIRs will be selected to try to speed up  the	trans-

	      This  option  works  best	when copying into an empty destination
	      hierarchy, as existing files may get their  attributes  tweaked,
	      and  that	can affect alternate destination files via hard-links.
	      Also, itemizing of changes can get a  bit	 muddled.   Note  that
	      prior to version 3.1.0, an alternate-directory exact match would
	      never be found (nor linked into the destination) when a destina-
	      tion file	already	exists.

	      Note  that if you	combine	this option with --ignore-times, rsync
	      will not link any	files together because it only links identical
	      files  together as a substitute for transferring the file, never
	      as an additional check after the file is updated.

	      If DIR is	a relative path, it is	relative  to  the  destination
	      directory.  See also --compare-dest and --copy-dest.

	      Note  that  rsync	 versions  prior to 2.6.1 had a	bug that could
	      prevent --link-dest from working properly	for  a	non-super-user
	      when  -o	was specified (or implied by -a).  You can work-around
	      this bug by avoiding the -o option when sending to an old	rsync.

       -z, --compress
	      With  this  option, rsync	compresses the file data as it is sent
	      to the destination machine, which	reduces	 the  amount  of  data
	      being  transmitted  -- something that is useful over a slow con-

	      Note that	this  option  typically	 achieves  better  compression
	      ratios  than can be achieved by using a compressing remote shell
	      or a compressing transport because it  takes  advantage  of  the
	      implicit	information  in	 the matching data blocks that are not
	      explicitly sent over the connection.   This  matching-data  com-
	      pression	comes at a cost	of CPU,	though,	and can	be disabled by
	      repeating	the -z option, but only	if both	 sides	are  at	 least
	      version 3.1.1.

	      Note that	if your	version	of rsync was compiled with an external
	      zlib (instead of the zlib	that comes packaged with  rsync)  then
	      it   will	 not  support  the  old-style  compression,  only  the
	      new-style	(repeated-option) compression.	 In  the  future  this
	      new-style	compression will likely	become the default.

	      The  client  rsync  requests new-style compression on the	server
	      via the  --new-compress  option,	so  if	you  see  that	option
	      rejected	it  means that the server is not new enough to support
	      -zz.  Rsync also accepts the --old-compress option for a	future
	      time when	new-style compression becomes the default.

	      See the --skip-compress option for the default list of file suf-
	      fixes that will not be compressed.

	      Explicitly set the compression level  to	use  (see  --compress)
	      instead  of  letting it default.	If NUM is non-zero, the	--com-
	      press option is implied.

	      Override the list	of file	suffixes that will not be  compressed.
	      The  LIST	 should	be one or more file suffixes (without the dot)
	      separated	by slashes (/).

	      You may specify an empty string to indicate that no file	should
	      be skipped.

	      Simple  character-class matching is supported: each must consist
	      of a list	of letters inside the square brackets (e.g. no special
	      classes, such as "[:alpha:]", are	supported, and '-' has no spe-
	      cial meaning).

	      The characters asterisk (*) and question-mark (?)	have  no  spe-
	      cial meaning.

	      Here's  an example that specifies	6 suffixes to skip (since 1 of
	      the 5 rules matches 2 suffixes):


	      The default list of suffixes that	will not be compressed is this
	      (in this version of rsync):

	      7z  ace  avi bz2 deb gpg gz iso jpeg jpg lz lzma lzo mov mp3 mp4
	      ogg png rar rpm rzip tbz tgz tlz txz xz z	zip

	      This list	will be	replaced by your --skip-compress list  in  all
	      but  one	situation:  a  copy  from a daemon rsync will add your
	      skipped suffixes to its list of non-compressing files  (and  its
	      list may be configured to	a different default).

	      With  this option	rsync will transfer numeric group and user IDs
	      rather than using	user and group names and mapping them at  both

	      By  default  rsync will use the username and groupname to	deter-
	      mine what	ownership to give files. The special  uid  0  and  the
	      special  group  0	 are never mapped via user/group names even if
	      the --numeric-ids	option is not specified.

	      If a user	or group has no	name on	the source system or it	has no
	      match  on	 the  destination system, then the numeric ID from the
	      source system is used instead.  See also	the  comments  on  the
	      "use  chroot" setting in the rsyncd.conf manpage for information
	      on how the chroot	setting	affects	rsync's	ability	to look	up the
	      names of the users and groups and	what you can do	about it.

       --usermap=STRING, --groupmap=STRING
	      These  options allow you to specify users	and groups that	should
	      be mapped	to other values	by the receiving side.	The STRING  is
	      one  or  more  FROM:TO pairs of values separated by commas.  Any
	      matching FROM value from the sender is replaced with a TO	 value
	      from  the	 receiver.   You may specify usernames or user IDs for
	      the FROM and TO values,  and  the	 FROM  value  may  also	 be  a
	      wild-card	 string,  which	 will  be matched against the sender's
	      names (wild-cards	do NOT match against ID	 numbers,  though  see
	      below  for why a '*' matches everything).	 You may instead spec-
	      ify a range of ID	numbers	via an inclusive range:	LOW-HIGH.  For

		--usermap=0-99:nobody,wayne:admin,*:normal --groupmap=usr:1,1:usr

	      The first	match in the list is the one that is used.  You	should
	      specify all your user mappings using a single --usermap  option,
	      and/or all your group mappings using a single --groupmap option.

	      Note that	the sender's name for the 0 user  and  group  are  not
	      transmitted  to  the  receiver, so you should either match these
	      values using a 0,	or use the names in effect  on	the  receiving
	      side  (typically	"root").   All other FROM names	match those in
	      use on the sending side.	All TO names match those in use	on the
	      receiving	side.

	      Any  IDs that do not have	a name on the sending side are treated
	      as having	an empty name  for  the	 purpose  of  matching.	  This
	      allows them to be	matched	via a "*" or using an empty name.  For

		--usermap=:nobody --groupmap=*:nobody

	      When the --numeric-ids option is used, the sender	does not  send
	      any  names,  so all the IDs are treated as having	an empty name.
	      This means that you will need to specify numeric FROM values  if
	      you want to map these nameless IDs to different values.

	      For  the	--usermap  option to have any effect, the -o (--owner)
	      option must be used (or implied),	and the	receiver will need  to
	      be  running  as a	super-user (see	also the --fake-super option).
	      For the --groupmap option	to have	any effect, the	-g  (--groups)
	      option  must be used (or implied), and the receiver will need to
	      have permissions to set that group.

	      This option forces all files to be  owned	 by  USER  with	 group
	      GROUP.   This  is	 a  simpler interface than using --usermap and
	      --groupmap directly, but it is implemented using	those  options
	      internally, so you cannot	mix them.  If either the USER or GROUP
	      is empty,	no mapping for the omitted user/group will occur.   If
	      GROUP  is	 empty,	the trailing colon may be omitted, but if USER
	      is empty,	a leading colon	must be	supplied.

	      If you specify "--chown=foo:bar, this is	exactly	 the  same  as
	      specifying "--usermap=*:foo --groupmap=*:bar", only easier.

	      This  option allows you to set a maximum I/O timeout in seconds.
	      If no data is transferred	for the	specified time then rsync will
	      exit. The	default	is 0, which means no timeout.

	      This option allows you to	set the	amount of time that rsync will
	      wait for its connection to an rsync daemon to succeed.   If  the
	      timeout is reached, rsync	exits with an error.

	      By default rsync will bind to the	wildcard address when connect-
	      ing to an	rsync daemon.  The  --address  option  allows  you  to
	      specify  a  specific  IP	address	(or hostname) to bind to.  See
	      also this	option in the --daemon mode section.

	      This specifies an	alternate TCP port number to use  rather  than
	      the  default  of	873.  This is only needed if you are using the
	      double-colon (::)	syntax to connect with an rsync	daemon	(since
	      the  URL	syntax	has a way to specify the port as a part	of the
	      URL).  See also this option in the --daemon mode section.

	      This option can provide endless fun for people who like to  tune
	      their  systems  to  the  utmost degree. You can set all sorts of
	      socket options which may make  transfers	faster	(or  slower!).
	      Read  the	 man page for the setsockopt() system call for details
	      on some of the options you may be	able to	 set.  By  default  no
	      special  socket options are set. This only affects direct	socket
	      connections to a remote rsync daemon.  This option  also	exists
	      in the --daemon mode section.

	      This  tells  rsync  to  use blocking I/O when launching a	remote
	      shell transport.	If the remote shell is either  rsh  or	remsh,
	      rsync  defaults  to using	blocking I/O, otherwise	it defaults to
	      using non-blocking I/O.  (Note  that  ssh	 prefers  non-blocking

	      This  sets the output buffering mode.  The mode can be None (aka
	      Unbuffered), Line, or Block (aka Full).  You may specify as lit-
	      tle  as  a  single  letter  for the mode,	and use	upper or lower

	      The main use of this option is to	change Full buffering to  Line
	      buffering	when rsync's output is going to	a file or pipe.

       -i, --itemize-changes
	      Requests	a  simple  itemized list of the	changes	that are being
	      made to each file, including attribute changes.  This is exactly
	      the  same	 as  specifying	--out-format='%i %n%L'.	 If you	repeat
	      the option, unchanged files will also be output, but only	if the
	      receiving	 rsync is at least version 2.6.7 (you can use -vv with
	      older versions of	rsync, but that	also turns on  the  output  of
	      other verbose messages).

	      The  "%i"	 escape	 has a cryptic output that is 11 letters long.
	      The general format is like the string YXcstpogfax,  where	 Y  is
	      replaced	by the type of update being done, X is replaced	by the
	      file-type, and the other letters represent attributes  that  may
	      be output	if they	are being modified.

	      The update types that replace the	Y are as follows:

	      o	     A	< means	that a file is being transferred to the	remote
		     host (sent).

	      o	     A > means that a file is being transferred	to  the	 local
		     host (received).

	      o	     A	c  means that a	local change/creation is occurring for
		     the item (such as the creation  of	 a  directory  or  the
		     changing of a symlink, etc.).

	      o	     A	h  means  that the item	is a hard link to another item
		     (requires --hard-links).

	      o	     A . means that the	item is	not being updated  (though  it
		     might have	attributes that	are being modified).

	      o	     A	* means	that the rest of the itemized-output area con-
		     tains a message (e.g. "deleting").

	      The file-types that replace the X	are: f for a file, a d	for  a
	      directory,  an  L	for a symlink, a D for a device, and a S for a
	      special file (e.g. named sockets and fifos).

	      The other	letters	in the string above  are  the  actual  letters
	      that  will be output if the associated attribute for the item is
	      being updated or a "." for no change.  Three exceptions to  this
	      are:  (1)	 a newly created item replaces each letter with	a "+",
	      (2) an identical item replaces the dots with spaces, and (3)  an
	      unknown attribute	replaces each letter with a "?"	(this can hap-
	      pen when talking to an older rsync).

	      The attribute that is associated with each letter	is as follows:

	      o	     A	c  means  either  that	a regular file has a different
		     checksum (requires	--checksum) or that a symlink, device,
		     or	 special  file	has a changed value.  Note that	if you
		     are sending files to an rsync prior to 3.0.1, this	change
		     flag  will	be present only	for checksum-differing regular

	      o	     A s means the size	of a regular  file  is	different  and
		     will be updated by	the file transfer.

	      o	     A t means the modification	time is	different and is being
		     updated to	the sender's  value  (requires	--times).   An
		     alternate	value  of  T  means that the modification time
		     will be set to the	transfer time, which  happens  when  a
		     file/symlink/device is updated without --times and	when a
		     symlink is	changed	and the	receiver can't set  its	 time.
		     (Note:  when  using  an rsync 3.0.0 client, you might see
		     the s flag	combined with t	instead	of the proper  T  flag
		     for this time-setting failure.)

	      o	     A	p  means  the  permissions are different and are being
		     updated to	the sender's value (requires --perms).

	      o	     An	o means	the owner is different and is being updated to
		     the sender's value	(requires --owner and super-user priv-

	      o	     A g means the group is different and is being updated  to
		     the sender's value	(requires --group and the authority to
		     set the group).

	      o	     The f means that the fileflags information	changed.

	      o	     The a means that the ACL information changed.

	      o	     The x  means  that	 the  extended	attribute  information

	      One  other  output  is  possible:	 when deleting files, the "%i"
	      will output the string "*deleting" for each item that  is	 being
	      removed  (assuming that you are talking to a recent enough rsync
	      that it logs deletions instead of	outputting them	as  a  verbose

	      This allows you to specify exactly what the rsync	client outputs
	      to the user on a per-update basis.  The format is	a text	string
	      containing  embedded  single-character escape sequences prefixed
	      with a percent (%) character.   A	default	format	of  "%n%L"  is
	      assumed if either	--info=name or -v is specified (this tells you
	      just the name of the file	and, if	the item is a link,  where  it
	      points).	For a full list	of the possible	escape characters, see
	      the "log format" setting in the rsyncd.conf manpage.

	      Specifying  the  --out-format  option  implies  the  --info=name
	      option,  which  will  mention  each  file,  dir,	etc. that gets
	      updated in a significant way (a transferred  file,  a  recreated
	      symlink/device,  or  a  touched directory).  In addition,	if the
	      itemize-changes escape (%i) is included in the string  (e.g.  if
	      the  --itemize-changes  option  was  used), the logging of names
	      increases	to mention any item that is changed  in	 any  way  (as
	      long  as the receiving side is at	least 2.6.4).  See the --item-
	      ize-changes option for a description of the output of "%i".

	      Rsync will output	the out-format string prior to a file's	trans-
	      fer  unless  one of the transfer-statistic escapes is requested,
	      in which case the	logging	is done	 at  the  end  of  the	file's
	      transfer.	 When this late	logging	is in effect and --progress is
	      also specified, rsync will also output  the  name	 of  the  file
	      being  transferred  prior	to its progress	information (followed,
	      of course, by the	out-format output).

	      This option causes rsync to log what it  is  doing  to  a	 file.
	      This  is	similar	 to the	logging	that a daemon does, but	can be
	      requested	for the	client	side  and/or  the  server  side	 of  a
	      non-daemon  transfer.  If	specified as a client option, transfer
	      logging will be enabled with a default format of "%i %n%L".  See
	      the --log-file-format option if you wish to override this.

	      Here's  a	 example  command that requests	the remote side	to log
	      what is happening:

		rsync -av --remote-option=--log-file=/tmp/rlog src/ dest/

	      This is very useful if you need to debug	why  a	connection  is
	      closing unexpectedly.

	      This  allows  you	 to specify exactly what per-update logging is
	      put into the file	specified by the --log-file option (which must
	      also  be	specified for this option to have any effect).	If you
	      specify an empty string, updated files will not be mentioned  in
	      the log file.  For a list	of the possible	escape characters, see
	      the "log format" setting in the rsyncd.conf manpage.

	      The default FORMAT used if  --log-file  is  specified  and  this
	      option is	not is '%i %n%L'.

	      This  tells  rsync  to  print a verbose set of statistics	on the
	      file transfer,  allowing	you  to	 tell  how  effective  rsync's
	      delta-transfer  algorithm	 is  for  your	data.	This option is
	      equivalent to --info=stats2 if combined with 0 or	1 -v  options,
	      or --info=stats3 if combined with	2 or more -v options.

	      The current statistics are as follows:

	      o	     Number  of	 files	is  the	 count	of all "files" (in the
		     generic sense),  which  includes  directories,  symlinks,
		     etc.   The	 total	count  will  be	 followed by a list of
		     counts by filetype	(if the	total is non-zero).  For exam-
		     ple:  "(reg:  5,  dir:  3,	 link: 2, dev: 1, special: 1)"
		     lists the totals for  regular  files,  directories,  sym-
		     links, devices, and special files.	 If any	of value is 0,
		     it	is completely omitted from the list.

	      o	     Number of created files is	the count of how many  "files"
		     (generic  sense)  were  created  (as opposed to updated).
		     The total count will be followed by a list	of  counts  by
		     filetype (if the total is non-zero).

	      o	     Number  of	deleted	files is the count of how many "files"
		     (generic sense) were created  (as	opposed	 to  updated).
		     The  total	 count will be followed	by a list of counts by
		     filetype (if the total is non-zero).  Note	that this line
		     is	 only  output  if deletions are	in effect, and only if
		     protocol 31 is being used (the default for	rsync  3.1.x).

	      o	     Number  of	regular	files transferred is the count of nor-
		     mal files that were updated  via  rsync's	delta-transfer
		     algorithm,	 which	does  not include dirs,	symlinks, etc.
		     Note that rsync 3.1.0 added the word "regular" into  this

	      o	     Total file	size is	the total sum of all file sizes	in the
		     transfer.	This does not count any	size  for  directories
		     or	 special files,	but does include the size of symlinks.

	      o	     Total transferred file size is the	total sum of all files
		     sizes for just the	transferred files.

	      o	     Literal  data  is	how much unmatched file-update data we
		     had to send to  the  receiver  for	 it  to	 recreate  the
		     updated files.

	      o	     Matched  data  is	how much data the receiver got locally
		     when recreating the updated files.

	      o	     File list size is how big the file-list data was when the
		     sender sent it to the receiver.  This is smaller than the
		     in-memory size for	the file list due to some  compressing
		     of	duplicated data	when rsync sends the list.

	      o	     File  list	 generation time is the	number of seconds that
		     the sender	spent creating the file	list.  This requires a
		     modern  rsync on the sending side for this	to be present.

	      o	     File list transfer	time is	the number of seconds that the
		     sender spent sending the file list	to the receiver.

	      o	     Total bytes sent is the count of all the bytes that rsync
		     sent from the client side to the server side.

	      o	     Total bytes received is  the  count  of  all  non-message
		     bytes  that  rsync	 received  by the client side from the
		     server side.  "Non-message" bytes	means  that  we	 don't
		     count  the	 bytes	for  a verbose message that the	server
		     sent to us, which makes the stats more consistent.

       -8, --8-bit-output
	      This tells rsync to leave	all high-bit characters	 unescaped  in
	      the  output  instead  of	trying	to test	them to	see if they're
	      valid in the current locale and escaping the invalid ones.   All
	      control  characters (but never tabs) are always escaped, regard-
	      less of this option's setting.

	      The escape idiom that started in 2.6.7 is	to  output  a  literal
	      backslash	 (\)  and a hash (#), followed by exactly 3 octal dig-
	      its.  For	example, a newline would output	as "\#012".  A literal
	      backslash	that is	in a filename is not escaped unless it is fol-
	      lowed by a hash and 3 digits (0-9).

       -h, --human-readable
	      Output numbers in	a more human-readable  format.	 There	are  3
	      possible	levels:	  (1)  output numbers with a separator between
	      each set of 3 digits (either a comma or a	period,	 depending  on
	      if the decimal point is represented by a period or a comma); (2)
	      output numbers in	units of 1000 (with  a	character  suffix  for
	      larger units -- see below); (3) output numbers in	units of 1024.

	      The default is human-readable level 1.  Each -h option increases
	      the  level  by one.  You can take	the level down to 0 (to	output
	      numbers as pure digits)  by  specifing  the  --no-human-readable
	      (--no-h) option.

	      The  unit	 letters  that	are  appended in levels	2 and 3	are: K
	      (kilo), M	(mega),	 G  (giga),  or	 T  (tera).   For  example,  a
	      1234567-byte  file  would	 output	 as 1.23M in level-2 (assuming
	      that a period is your local decimal point).

	      Backward compatibility note:  versions of	rsync prior  to	 3.1.0
	      do not support human-readable level 1, and they default to level
	      0.  Thus,	specifying one or two -h options will behave in	a com-
	      parable  manner  in  old	and new	versions as long as you	didn't
	      specify a	--no-h option prior to one or more  -h	options.   See
	      the --list-only option for one difference.

	      By  default, rsync will delete any partially transferred file if
	      the transfer is interrupted. In some circumstances  it  is  more
	      desirable	 to keep partially transferred files. Using the	--par-
	      tial option tells	rsync to keep the partial  file	 which	should
	      make  a subsequent transfer of the rest of the file much faster.

	      A	better way to keep partial files than the --partial option  is
	      to  specify  a  DIR  that	 will be used to hold the partial data
	      (instead of writing it out to the	 destination  file).   On  the
	      next  transfer,  rsync will use a	file found in this dir as data
	      to speed up the resumption of the	transfer and  then  delete  it
	      after it has served its purpose.

	      Note  that  if  --whole-file is specified	(or implied), any par-
	      tial-dir file that is found for a	file  that  is	being  updated
	      will  simply  be	removed	 (since	rsync is sending files without
	      using rsync's delta-transfer algorithm).

	      Rsync will create	the DIR	if it is missing (just the last	dir --
	      not  the whole path).  This makes	it easy	to use a relative path
	      (such as "--partial-dir=.rsync-partial") to  have	 rsync	create
	      the  partial-directory  in the destination file's	directory when
	      needed, and then remove  it  again  when	the  partial  file  is

	      If the partial-dir value is not an absolute path,	rsync will add
	      an exclude rule at the end of all	your existing excludes.	  This
	      will prevent the sending of any partial-dir files	that may exist
	      on the sending side, and will also prevent the untimely deletion
	      of  partial-dir  items  on  the receiving	side.  An example: the
	      above --partial-dir option would add the equivalent of  "-f  '-p
	      .rsync-partial/'"	at the end of any other	filter rules.

	      If you are supplying your	own exclude rules, you may need	to add
	      your own exclude/hide/protect rule for the  partial-dir  because
	      (1)  the	auto-added  rule may be	ineffective at the end of your
	      other rules, or (2) you may wish	to  override  rsync's  exclude
	      choice.	For  instance,	if you want to make rsync clean-up any
	      left-over	partial-dirs that may  be  lying  around,  you	should
	      specify --delete-after and add a "risk" filter rule, e.g.	 -f 'R
	      .rsync-partial/'.	 (Avoid	using --delete-before or --delete-dur-
	      ing unless you don't need	rsync to use any of the	left-over par-
	      tial-dir data during the current run.)

	      IMPORTANT: the --partial-dir should not  be  writable  by	 other
	      users or it is a security	risk.  E.g. AVOID "/tmp".

	      You  can	also  set  the partial-dir value the RSYNC_PARTIAL_DIR
	      environment variable.  Setting this in the environment does  not
	      force  --partial to be enabled, but rather it affects where par-
	      tial files  go  when  --partial  is  specified.	For  instance,
	      instead of using --partial-dir=.rsync-tmp	along with --progress,
	      you could	set RSYNC_PARTIAL_DIR=.rsync-tmp in  your  environment
	      and  then	 just  use  the	 -P  option  to	turn on	the use	of the
	      .rsync-tmp dir for partial transfers.  The only times  that  the
	      --partial	 option	 does  not look	for this environment value are
	      (1) when --inplace was specified (since --inplace	conflicts with
	      --partial-dir),  and (2) when --delay-updates was	specified (see

	      For the purposes of the daemon-config's  "refuse	options"  set-
	      ting, --partial-dir does not imply --partial.  This is so	that a
	      refusal of the --partial option can  be  used  to	 disallow  the
	      overwriting  of destination files	with a partial transfer, while
	      still allowing the safer idiom provided by --partial-dir.

	      This option puts the temporary file from each updated file  into
	      a	holding	directory until	the end	of the transfer, at which time
	      all the files are	renamed	into place in rapid succession.	  This
	      attempts to make the updating of the files a little more atomic.
	      By default the files are placed into a directory named  ".~tmp~"
	      in  each	file's	destination directory, but if you've specified
	      the --partial-dir	option,	that directory will be	used  instead.
	      See  the	comments in the	--partial-dir section for a discussion
	      of how this ".~tmp~" dir will be excluded	from the transfer, and
	      what  you	 can do	if you want rsync to cleanup old ".~tmp~" dirs
	      that might  be  lying  around.   Conflicts  with	--inplace  and

	      This  option uses	more memory on the receiving side (one bit per
	      file transferred)	and also requires enough free  disk  space  on
	      the receiving side to hold an additional copy of all the updated
	      files.  Note also	that you should	not use	an  absolute  path  to
	      --partial-dir  unless (1)	there is no chance of any of the files
	      in the transfer having the same  name  (since  all  the  updated
	      files  will  be put into a single	directory if the path is abso-
	      lute) and	(2) there are no mount points in the hierarchy	(since
	      the  delayed  updates  will  fail	 if they can't be renamed into

	      See also the "atomic-rsync" perl script in the "support"	subdir
	      for  an  update  algorithm  that	is  even  more atomic (it uses
	      --link-dest and a	parallel hierarchy of files).

       -m, --prune-empty-dirs
	      This option tells	the receiving rsync to get rid of empty	direc-
	      tories  from  the	 file-list,  including nested directories that
	      have no non-directory children.  This is useful for avoiding the
	      creation	of  a  bunch  of  useless directories when the sending
	      rsync  is	 recursively  scanning	a  hierarchy  of  files	 using
	      include/exclude/filter rules.

	      Note  that  the  use  of	transfer rules,	such as	the --min-size
	      option, does not affect what goes	into the file list,  and  thus
	      does not leave directories empty,	even if	none of	the files in a
	      directory	match the transfer rule.

	      Because the file-list is actually	being pruned, this option also
	      affects  what  directories  get deleted when a delete is active.
	      However, keep in mind that excluded files	 and  directories  can
	      prevent existing items from being	deleted	due to an exclude both
	      hiding source files and protecting destination files.   See  the
	      perishable filter-rule option for	how to avoid this.

	      You  can	prevent	 the pruning of	certain	empty directories from
	      the file-list by using a global "protect"	filter.	 For instance,
	      this  option would ensure	that the directory "emptydir" was kept
	      in the file-list:

	      --filter 'protect	emptydir/'

	      Here's an	example	that copies all	.pdf  files  in	 a  hierarchy,
	      only  creating the necessary destination directories to hold the
	      .pdf files, and ensures that any superfluous files and  directo-
	      ries  in	the  destination  are removed (note the	hide filter of
	      non-directories being used instead of an exclude):

	      rsync -avm --del --include='*.pdf' -f 'hide,! */'	src/ dest

	      If you didn't want to remove superfluous destination files,  the
	      more  time-honored  options  of  "--include='*/'	--exclude='*'"
	      would work fine in place of the hide-filter  (if	that  is  more
	      natural to you).

	      This  option  tells  rsync  to  print  information  showing  the
	      progress of the transfer.	This gives a bored user	 something  to
	      watch.   With  a	modern	rsync  this  is	the same as specifying
	      --info=flist2,name,progress, but any user-supplied settings  for
	      those   info   flags   takes   precedence	 (e.g.	"--info=flist0

	      While rsync  is  transferring  a	regular	 file,	it  updates  a
	      progress line that looks like this:

		    782448  63%	 110.64kB/s    0:00:04

	      In  this example,	the receiver has reconstructed 782448 bytes or
	      63% of the sender's file,	which is being reconstructed at	a rate
	      of  110.64 kilobytes per second, and the transfer	will finish in
	      4	seconds	if the current rate is maintained until	the end.

	      These statistics can be  misleading  if  rsync's	delta-transfer
	      algorithm	is in use.  For	example, if the	sender's file consists
	      of the basis file	followed by additional data, the reported rate
	      will  probably  drop  dramatically when the receiver gets	to the
	      literal data, and	the transfer will probably take	much longer to
	      finish  than  the	 receiver  estimated  as  it was finishing the
	      matched part of the file.

	      When the file transfer finishes,	rsync  replaces	 the  progress
	      line with	a summary line that looks like this:

		    1,238,099 100%  146.38kB/s	  0:00:08  (xfr#5, to-chk=169/396)

	      In this example, the file	was 1,238,099 bytes long in total, the
	      average rate of transfer for the whole file was 146.38 kilobytes
	      per  second  over	the 8 seconds that it took to complete,	it was
	      the 5th transfer of a regular file during	the current rsync ses-
	      sion, and	there are 169 more files for the receiver to check (to
	      see if they are up-to-date or not)  remaining  out  of  the  396
	      total files in the file-list.

	      In  an  incremental  recursion  scan, rsync won't	know the total
	      number of	files in the file-list until it	reaches	 the  ends  of
	      the scan,	but since it starts to transfer	files during the scan,
	      it will display a	line with the text "ir-chk"  (for  incremental
	      recursion	 check)	 instead  of  "to-chk" until the point that it
	      knows the	full size of the list, at which	point it  will	switch
	      to using "to-chk".  Thus,	seeing "ir-chk"	lets you know that the
	      total count of files in the file list is still going to increase
	      (and  each  time it does,	the count of files left	to check  will
	      increase by the number of	the files added	to the list).

       -P     The -P option is equivalent to --partial --progress.   Its  pur-
	      pose  is to make it much easier to specify these two options for
	      a	long transfer that may be interrupted.

	      There is also a --info=progress2 option that outputs  statistics
	      based  on	the whole transfer, rather than	individual files.  Use
	      this flag	without	outputting a filename (e.g. avoid -v or	 spec-
	      ify  --info=name0)  if you want to see how the transfer is doing
	      without scrolling	the screen with	a lot of  names.   (You	 don't
	      need   to	  specify  the	--progress  option  in	order  to  use

	      This option allows you to	provide	a password  for	 accessing  an
	      rsync daemon via a file or via standard input if FILE is -.  The
	      file should contain just the password on	the  first  line  (all
	      other lines are ignored).	 Rsync will exit with an error if FILE
	      is world readable	 or  if	 a  root-run  rsync  command  finds  a
	      non-root-owned file.

	      This  option does	not supply a password to a remote shell	trans-
	      port such	as ssh;	to learn how to	do that,  consult  the	remote
	      shell's  documentation.	When accessing an rsync	daemon using a
	      remote shell as the  transport,  this  option  only  comes  into
	      effect  after the	remote shell finishes its authentication (i.e.
	      if you have also specified a password  in	 the  daemon's	config

	      This  option will	cause the source files to be listed instead of
	      transferred.  This option	is  inferred  if  there	 is  a	single
	      source  arg  and no destination specified, so its	main uses are:
	      (1) to turn a copy command that includes a destination arg  into
	      a	 file-listing  command,	or (2) to be able to specify more than
	      one source arg (note: be sure to include the destination).  Cau-
	      tion:  keep  in  mind  that  a  source  arg  with	a wild-card is
	      expanded by the shell into multiple args,	so it is never safe to
	      try to list such an arg without using this option.  For example:

		  rsync	-av --list-only	foo* dest/

	      Starting with rsync 3.1.0, the sizes output by  --list-only  are
	      affected	by  the	--human-readable option.  By default they will
	      contain digit separators,	but higher levels of readability  will
	      output  the sizes	with unit suffixes.  Note also that the	column
	      width for	the size output	has increased from 11 to 14 characters
	      for all human-readable levels.  Use --no-h if you	want just dig-
	      its in the sizes,	and the	old column width of 11 characters.

	      Compatibility note:  when	requesting a remote listing  of	 files
	      from  an rsync that is version 2.6.3 or older, you may encounter
	      an error if you  ask  for	 a  non-recursive  listing.   This  is
	      because  a  file	listing	implies	the --dirs option w/o --recur-
	      sive, and	older rsyncs don't have	that option.   To  avoid  this
	      problem,	either specify the --no-dirs option (if	you don't need
	      to expand	a directory's  content),  or  turn  on	recursion  and
	      exclude the content of subdirectories: -r	--exclude='/*/*'.

	      This  option allows you to specify the maximum transfer rate for
	      the data sent over the socket, specified in  units  per  second.
	      The  RATE	value can be suffixed with a string to indicate	a size
	      multiplier,   and	  may	be   a	  fractional	value	 (e.g.
	      "--bwlimit=1.5m").  If no	suffix is specified, the value will be
	      assumed to be in units of	1024 bytes (as if  "K"	or  "KiB"  had
	      been  appended).	See the	--max-size option for a	description of
	      all the available	suffixes. A value of zero specifies no	limit.

	      For  backward-compatibility  reasons,  the  rate	limit  will be
	      rounded to the nearest KiB unit, so no rate  smaller  than  1024
	      bytes per	second is possible.

	      Rsync  writes  data  over	 the socket in blocks, and this	option
	      both limits the size of the blocks that rsync writes, and	 tries
	      to  keep the average transfer rate at the	requested limit.  Some
	      "burstiness" may be seen where rsync writes out a	block of  data
	      and then sleeps to bring the average rate	into compliance.

	      Due to the internal buffering of data, the --progress option may
	      not be an	accurate reflection on how  fast  the  data  is	 being
	      sent.   This  is because some files can show up as being rapidly
	      sent when	the data is quickly buffered, while other can show  up
	      as  very	slow  when  the	 flushing of the output	buffer occurs.
	      This may be fixed	in a future version.

	      Record a file that can later be  applied	to  another  identical
	      destination  with	--read-batch. See the "BATCH MODE" section for
	      details, and also	the --only-write-batch option.

	      Works like --write-batch,	except that no updates are made	on the
	      destination  system  when	 creating  the	batch.	 This lets you
	      transport	the changes to the destination system via  some	 other
	      means and	then apply the changes via --read-batch.

	      Note  that you can feel free to write the	batch directly to some
	      portable media: if this media fills to capacity before  the  end
	      of the transfer, you can just apply that partial transfer	to the
	      destination and repeat the whole process to get the rest of  the
	      changes  (as long	as you don't mind a partially updated destina-
	      tion system while	the multi-update cycle is happening).

	      Also note	that you only save bandwidth when pushing changes to a
	      remote  system  because  this  allows  the  batched  data	 to be
	      diverted from the	sender into the	batch file without  having  to
	      flow  over the wire to the receiver (when	pulling, the sender is
	      remote, and thus can't write the batch).

	      Apply all	of the changes stored in FILE, a file previously  gen-
	      erated  by  --write-batch.  If FILE is -,	the batch data will be
	      read from	standard input.	 See  the  "BATCH  MODE"  section  for

	      Force  an	older protocol version to be used.  This is useful for
	      creating a batch file that is compatible with an	older  version
	      of  rsync.   For instance, if rsync 2.6.4	is being used with the
	      --write-batch option, but	rsync 2.6.3 is what will  be  used  to
	      run the --read-batch option, you should use "--protocol=28" when
	      creating the batch file to force the older protocol  version  to
	      be  used in the batch file (assuming you can't upgrade the rsync
	      on the reading system).

	      Rsync can	convert	filenames between character  sets  using  this
	      option.	Using a	CONVERT_SPEC of	"." tells rsync	to look	up the
	      default character-set via	the locale setting.  Alternately,  you
	      can  fully specify what conversion to do by giving a local and a
	      remote   charset	 separated   by	  a   comma   in   the	 order
	      --iconv=LOCAL,REMOTE,  e.g.   --iconv=utf8,iso88591.  This order
	      ensures that the option will stay	the same whether you're	 push-
	      ing   or	 pulling  files.   Finally,  you  can  specify	either
	      --no-iconv or a CONVERT_SPEC of "-" to turn off any  conversion.
	      The  default  setting  of	 this option is	site-specific, and can
	      also be affected via the RSYNC_ICONV environment variable.

	      For a list of what charset names your local iconv	 library  sup-
	      ports, you can run "iconv	--list".

	      If you specify the --protect-args	option (-s), rsync will	trans-
	      late the filenames you specify  on  the  command-line  that  are
	      being  sent  to  the  remote  host.   See	 also the --files-from

	      Note that	rsync does not do any conversion of  names  in	filter
	      files  (including	 include/exclude  files).   It is up to	you to
	      ensure that you're specifying matching rules that	can  match  on
	      both sides of the	transfer.  For instance, you can specify extra
	      include/exclude rules if there are filename differences  on  the
	      two sides	that need to be	accounted for.

	      When  you	 pass an --iconv option	to an rsync daemon that	allows
	      it, the daemon uses the charset specified	in its "charset"  con-
	      figuration  parameter regardless of the remote charset you actu-
	      ally pass.  Thus,	you may	feel free to specify  just  the	 local
	      charset for a daemon transfer (e.g. --iconv=utf8).

       -4, --ipv4 or -6, --ipv6
	      Tells  rsync  to	prefer	IPv4/IPv6 when creating	sockets.  This
	      only affects sockets that	rsync has direct control over, such as
	      the  outgoing  socket  when directly contacting an rsync daemon.
	      See also these options in	the --daemon mode section.

	      If rsync was complied  without  support  for  IPv6,  the	--ipv6
	      option  will have	no effect.  The	--version output will tell you
	      if this is the case.

	      Set the checksum seed to the integer NUM.	 This 4	byte  checksum
	      seed is included in each block and MD4 file checksum calculation
	      (the more	modern MD5 file	 checksums  don't  use	a  seed).   By
	      default  the  checksum  seed  is	generated  by  the  server and
	      defaults to the current time() .	This option is used to	set  a
	      specific	checksum  seed,	 which is useful for applications that
	      want repeatable block checksums, or in the case where  the  user
	      wants  a	more  random  checksum	seed.  Setting NUM to 0	causes
	      rsync to use the default of time() for checksum seed.

       The options allowed when	starting an rsync daemon are as	follows:

	      This tells rsync that it is to run as a daemon.  The daemon  you
	      start  running  may  be accessed using an	rsync client using the
	      host::module or rsync://host/module/ syntax.

	      If standard input	is a socket then rsync will assume that	it  is
	      being  run  via inetd, otherwise it will detach from the current
	      terminal and become a background daemon.	The daemon  will  read
	      the  config  file	(rsyncd.conf) on each connect made by a	client
	      and respond to requests accordingly.  See	the rsyncd.conf(5) man
	      page for more details.

	      By default rsync will bind to the	wildcard address when run as a
	      daemon with the --daemon option.	The  --address	option	allows
	      you  to  specify a specific IP address (or hostname) to bind to.
	      This makes virtual hosting  possible  in	conjunction  with  the
	      --config	option.	  See  also the	"address" global option	in the
	      rsyncd.conf manpage.

	      This option allows you to	specify	the maximum transfer rate  for
	      the data the daemon sends	over the socket.  The client can still
	      specify a	smaller	--bwlimit value, but no	larger value  will  be
	      allowed.	See the	client version of this option (above) for some
	      extra details.

	      This specifies an	alternate config file than the default.	  This
	      is  only	relevant  when	--daemon is specified.	The default is
	      /usr/local/etc/rsync/rsyncd.conf unless the  daemon  is  running
	      over  a  remote  shell  program  and  the	remote user is not the
	      super-user; in that case the default is rsyncd.conf in the  cur-
	      rent directory (typically	$HOME).

       -M, --dparam=OVERRIDE
	      This  option  can	 be used to set	a daemon-config	parameter when
	      starting up rsync	in daemon mode.	 It is	equivalent  to	adding
	      the  parameter  at  the  end of the global settings prior	to the
	      first module's definition.  The parameter	names can be specified
	      without spaces, if you so	desire.	 For instance:

		  rsync	--daemon -M pidfile=/path/

	      When  running  as	 a  daemon, this option	instructs rsync	to not
	      detach itself and	become a background process.  This  option  is
	      required	when  running  as a service on Cygwin, and may also be
	      useful when rsync	is supervised by a program such	as daemontools
	      or AIX's System Resource Controller.  --no-detach	is also	recom-
	      mended when rsync	is run under a debugger.  This option  has  no
	      effect if	rsync is run from inetd	or sshd.

	      This  specifies  an  alternate TCP port number for the daemon to
	      listen on	rather than the	default	of 873.	 See also  the	"port"
	      global option in the rsyncd.conf manpage.

	      This  option  tells  the	rsync daemon to	use the	given log-file
	      name instead of using the	"log file" setting in the config file.

	      This  option  tells  the	rsync  daemon  to use the given	FORMAT
	      string instead of	using the "log format" setting in  the	config
	      file.   It  also enables "transfer logging" unless the string is
	      empty, in	which case transfer logging is turned off.

	      This overrides the socket	options	 setting  in  the  rsyncd.conf
	      file and has the same syntax.

       -v, --verbose
	      This  option increases the amount	of information the daemon logs
	      during its startup phase.	 After the client connects,  the  dae-
	      mon's verbosity level will be controlled by the options that the
	      client used and the "max verbosity" setting in the module's con-
	      fig section.

       -4, --ipv4 or -6, --ipv6
	      Tells rsync to prefer IPv4/IPv6 when creating the	incoming sock-
	      ets that the rsync daemon	will use to  listen  for  connections.
	      One  of these options may	be required in older versions of Linux
	      to work around an	IPv6 bug in the	kernel (if you see an "address
	      already  in  use"	error when nothing else	is using the port, try
	      specifying --ipv6	or --ipv4 when starting	the daemon).

	      If rsync was complied  without  support  for  IPv6,  the	--ipv6
	      option  will have	no effect.  The	--version output will tell you
	      if this is the case.

       -h, --help
	      When specified after --daemon, print a short help	page  describ-
	      ing the options available	for starting an	rsync daemon.

       The  filter rules allow for flexible selection of which files to	trans-
       fer (include) and which files to	 skip  (exclude).   The	 rules	either
       directly	 specify  include/exclude  patterns  or	 they specify a	way to
       acquire more include/exclude patterns (e.g. to read them	from a	file).

       As  the	list  of  files/directories to transfer	is built, rsync	checks
       each name to be transferred against the list  of	 include/exclude  pat-
       terns in	turn, and the first matching pattern is	acted on:  if it is an
       exclude pattern,	then that file is skipped; if it is an include pattern
       then  that  filename  is	 not skipped; if no matching pattern is	found,
       then the	filename is not	skipped.

       Rsync builds an ordered list of filter rules as specified on  the  com-
       mand-line.  Filter rules	have the following syntax:


       You  have  your	choice	of  using  either short	or long	RULE names, as
       described below.	 If you	use a short-named rule,	the ','	separating the
       RULE from the MODIFIERS is optional.  The PATTERN or FILENAME that fol-
       lows (when present) must	come after either a single space or an	under-
       score (_).  Here	are the	available rule prefixes:

	      exclude, - specifies an exclude pattern.
	      include, + specifies an include pattern.
	      merge, . specifies a merge-file to read for more rules.
	      dir-merge, : specifies a per-directory merge-file.
	      hide,  H specifies a pattern for hiding files from the transfer.
	      show, S files that match the pattern are not hidden.
	      protect, P specifies a pattern for protecting files  from	 dele-
	      risk, R files that match the pattern are not protected.
	      clear, ! clears the current include/exclude list (takes no arg)

       When  rules are being read from a file, empty lines are ignored,	as are
       comment lines that start	with a "#".

       Note that the --include/--exclude command-line options do not allow the
       full  range  of	rule parsing as	described above	-- they	only allow the
       specification of	include/exclude	patterns plus a	"!" token to clear the
       list  (and the normal comment parsing when rules	are read from a	file).
       If a pattern does not begin with	"- " (dash,  space)  or	 "+  "	(plus,
       space),	then  the  rule	will be	interpreted as if "+ " (for an include
       option) or "- " (for an exclude option) were prefixed to	the string.  A
       --filter	 option, on the	other hand, must always	contain	either a short
       or long rule name at the	start of the rule.

       Note also that the --filter, --include, and --exclude options take  one
       rule/pattern  each. To add multiple ones, you can repeat	the options on
       the command-line, use the merge-file syntax of the --filter option,  or
       the --include-from/--exclude-from options.

       You can include and exclude files by specifying patterns	using the "+",
       "-", etc. filter	rules (as  introduced  in  the	FILTER	RULES  section
       above).	 The  include/exclude  rules  each  specify  a pattern that is
       matched against the names of the	files that  are	 going	to  be	trans-
       ferred.	These patterns can take	several	forms:

       o      if the pattern starts with a / then it is	anchored to a particu-
	      lar spot in the hierarchy	of  files,  otherwise  it  is  matched
	      against the end of the pathname.	This is	similar	to a leading ^
	      in regular expressions.  Thus "/foo" would match a name of "foo"
	      at  either  the "root of the transfer" (for a global rule) or in
	      the merge-file's	directory  (for	 a  per-directory  rule).   An
	      unqualified  "foo"  would	 match a name of "foo" anywhere	in the
	      tree because the algorithm is applied recursively	from  the  top
	      down;  it	behaves	as if each path	component gets a turn at being
	      the end of the filename.	Even the  unanchored  "sub/foo"	 would
	      match  at	 any  point  in	 the hierarchy where a "foo" was found
	      within a directory named "sub".  See the	section	 on  ANCHORING
	      INCLUDE/EXCLUDE PATTERNS for a full discussion of	how to specify
	      a	pattern	that matches at	the root of the	transfer.

       o      if the pattern ends with a / then	it will	only  match  a	direc-
	      tory, not	a regular file,	symlink, or device.

       o      rsync  chooses  between doing a simple string match and wildcard
	      matching by checking if the pattern contains one of these	 three
	      wildcard characters: '*',	'?', and '[' .

       o      a	'*' matches any	path component,	but it stops at	slashes.

       o      use '**' to match	anything, including slashes.

       o      a	'?' matches any	character except a slash (/).

       o      a	  '['	introduces   a	character  class,  such	 as  [a-z]  or

       o      in a wildcard pattern, a backslash can be	used to	escape a wild-
	      card  character,	but  it	is matched literally when no wildcards
	      are present.  This means that there is an	extra level  of	 back-
	      slash  removal  when a pattern contains wildcard characters com-
	      pared to a pattern that has none.	 e.g. if you add a wildcard to
	      "foo\bar"	 (which	 matches  the backslash) you would need	to use
	      "foo\\bar*" to avoid the "\b" becoming just "b".

       o      if the pattern contains a	/ (not counting	a  trailing  /)	 or  a
	      "**",  then  it  is matched against the full pathname, including
	      any leading directories. If the pattern doesn't contain a	/ or a
	      "**", then it is matched only against the	final component	of the
	      filename.	 (Remember that	the algorithm is  applied  recursively
	      so  "full	 filename"  can	actually be any	portion	of a path from
	      the starting directory on	down.)

       o      a	trailing "dir_name/***"	will match both	the directory  (as  if
	      "dir_name/"  had been specified) and everything in the directory
	      (as if "dir_name/**" had been  specified).   This	 behavior  was
	      added in version 2.6.7.

       Note  that, when	using the --recursive (-r) option (which is implied by
       -a), every subcomponent of every	path is	visited	from the top down,  so
       include/exclude patterns	get applied recursively	to each	subcomponent's
       full name (e.g. to include "/foo/bar/baz" the subcomponents "/foo"  and
       "/foo/bar"  must	 not  be  excluded).   The  exclude  patterns actually
       short-circuit the directory traversal stage when	rsync finds the	 files
       to  send.   If a	pattern	excludes a particular parent directory,	it can
       render a	deeper include	pattern	 ineffectual  because  rsync  did  not
       descend	through	 that excluded section of the hierarchy.  This is par-
       ticularly important when	using a	trailing '*' rule.  For	instance, this
       won't work:

	      +	/some/path/this-file-will-not-be-found
	      +	/file-is-included
	      -	*

       This  fails  because the	parent directory "some"	is excluded by the '*'
       rule, so	rsync  never  visits  any  of  the  files  in  the  "some"  or
       "some/path" directories.	 One solution is to ask	for all	directories in
       the hierarchy to	be included by using a single rule:  "+	 */"  (put  it
       somewhere   before   the	  "-   *"   rule),   and   perhaps   use   the
       --prune-empty-dirs option.  Another solution is to add specific include
       rules  for  all the parent dirs that need to be visited.	 For instance,
       this set	of rules works fine:

	      +	/some/
	      +	/some/path/
	      +	/some/path/this-file-is-found
	      +	/file-also-included
	      -	*

       Here are	some examples of exclude/include matching:

       o      "- *.o" would exclude all	names matching *.o

       o      "- /foo" would exclude a file (or	directory) named  foo  in  the
	      transfer-root directory

       o      "- foo/" would exclude any directory named foo

       o      "-  /foo/*/bar" would exclude any	file named bar which is	at two
	      levels below a directory named foo in the	 transfer-root	direc-

       o      "-  /foo/**/bar"	would  exclude	any file named bar two or more
	      levels below a directory named foo in the	 transfer-root	direc-

       o      The  combination of "+ */", "+ *.c", and "- *" would include all
	      directories and C	source files but nothing else  (see  also  the
	      --prune-empty-dirs option)

       o      The  combination	of  "+	foo/",	"+ foo/bar.c", and "- *" would
	      include only the foo directory and foo/bar.c (the	foo  directory
	      must be explicitly included or it	would be excluded by the "*")

       The following modifiers are accepted after a "+"	or "-":

       o      A	 /  specifies  that the	include/exclude	rule should be matched
	      against the absolute pathname of the current item.  For example,
	      "-/  /usr/local/etc/rsync/passwd"	 would exclude the passwd file
	      any time the transfer was	sending	files from the	"/etc"	direc-
	      tory,  and "-/ subdir/foo" would always exclude "foo" when it is
	      in a dir named "subdir", even if "foo" is	at  the	 root  of  the
	      current transfer.

       o      A	! specifies that the include/exclude should take effect	if the
	      pattern fails to match.  For instance, "-! */" would exclude all

       o      A	 C  is	used to	indicate that all the global CVS-exclude rules
	      should be	inserted as excludes in	place of  the  "-C".   No  arg
	      should follow.

       o      An  s  is	 used to indicate that the rule	applies	to the sending
	      side.  When a rule affects the sending side, it  prevents	 files
	      from  being  transferred.	  The  default is for a	rule to	affect
	      both sides unless	--delete-excluded was specified, in which case
	      default  rules  become  sender-side only.	 See also the hide (H)
	      and show (S) rules, which	are an alternate way to	specify	 send-
	      ing-side includes/excludes.

       o      An  r is used to indicate	that the rule applies to the receiving
	      side.  When a rule affects the receiving side, it	prevents files
	      from being deleted.  See the s modifier for more info.  See also
	      the protect (P) and risk (R) rules, which	are an	alternate  way
	      to specify receiver-side includes/excludes.

       o      A	 p  indicates  that  a	rule is	perishable, meaning that it is
	      ignored in directories that are being  deleted.	For  instance,
	      the -C option's default rules that exclude things	like "CVS" and
	      "*.o" are	marked as perishable, and will not prevent a directory
	      that  was	removed	on the source from being deleted on the	desti-

       You can merge whole files into your filter rules	by specifying either a
       merge  (.)  or a	dir-merge (:) filter rule (as introduced in the	FILTER
       RULES section above).

       There are two kinds  of	merged	files  --  single-instance  ('.')  and
       per-directory  (':').   A  single-instance merge	file is	read one time,
       and its rules are incorporated into the filter list in the place	of the
       "."  rule.  For per-directory merge files, rsync	will scan every	direc-
       tory that it traverses for the named file, merging  its	contents  when
       the  file  exists  into	the  current  list  of inherited rules.	 These
       per-directory rule files	must be	created	on the sending side because it
       is  the	sending	 side that is being scanned for	the available files to
       transfer.  These	rule files may also need  to  be  transferred  to  the
       receiving  side if you want them	to affect what files don't get deleted

       Some examples:

	      merge /usr/local/etc/rsync/rsync/default.rules
	      .	/usr/local/etc/rsync/rsync/default.rules
	      dir-merge	.per-dir-filter
	      dir-merge,n- .non-inherited-per-dir-excludes
	      :n- .non-inherited-per-dir-excludes

       The following modifiers are accepted after a merge or dir-merge rule:

       o      A	- specifies that the file should consist of only exclude  pat-
	      terns, with no other rule-parsing	except for in-file comments.

       o      A	 + specifies that the file should consist of only include pat-
	      terns, with no other rule-parsing	except for in-file comments.

       o      A	C is a way to specify that  the	 file  should  be  read	 in  a
	      CVS-compatible  manner.	This  turns  on	'n', 'w', and '-', but
	      also allows the list-clearing token (!) to be specified.	If  no
	      filename is provided, ".cvsignore" is assumed.

       o      A	 e  will  exclude  the merge-file name from the	transfer; e.g.
	      "dir-merge,e .rules" is like "dir-merge .rules" and "-  .rules".

       o      An  n  specifies that the	rules are not inherited	by subdirecto-

       o      A	w specifies  that  the	rules  are  word-split	on  whitespace
	      instead  of the normal line-splitting.  This also	turns off com-
	      ments.  Note: the	space that separates the prefix	from the  rule
	      is  treated  specially,  so "- foo + bar"	is parsed as two rules
	      (assuming	that prefix-parsing wasn't also	disabled).

       o      You may also specify any of the modifiers	for  the  "+"  or  "-"
	      rules  (above)  in order to have the rules that are read in from
	      the file default to having that modifier set (except for	the  !
	      modifier,	 which	would not be useful).  For instance, "merge,-/
	      .excl" would  treat  the	contents  of  .excl  as	 absolute-path
	      excludes,	 while	"dir-merge,s  .filt" and ":sC" would each make
	      all their	per-directory rules apply only on  the	sending	 side.
	      If the merge rule	specifies sides	to affect (via the s or	r mod-
	      ifier or both), then the rules in	 the  file  must  not  specify
	      sides (via a modifier or a rule prefix such as hide).

       Per-directory  rules  are inherited in all subdirectories of the	direc-
       tory where the merge-file was found unless the 'n' modifier  was	 used.
       Each  subdirectory's  rules are prefixed	to the inherited per-directory
       rules from its parents, which gives the newest rules a higher  priority
       than  the  inherited  rules.   The  entire  set	of dir-merge rules are
       grouped together	in the spot where the merge-file was specified,	so  it
       is  possible  to	override dir-merge rules via a rule that got specified
       earlier in the list of global rules.  When the list-clearing rule ("!")
       is  read	 from a	per-directory file, it only clears the inherited rules
       for the current merge file.

       Another way to prevent a	single rule from a dir-merge file  from	 being
       inherited  is  to  anchor it with a leading slash.  Anchored rules in a
       per-directory merge-file	are relative to	the merge-file's directory, so
       a pattern "/foo"	would only match the file "foo"	in the directory where
       the dir-merge filter file was found.

       Here's an example filter	 file  which  you'd  specify  via  --filter=".

	      merge /home/user/.global-filter
	      -	*.gz
	      dir-merge	.rules
	      +	*.[ch]
	      -	*.o

       This  will  merge the contents of the /home/user/.global-filter file at
       the start of the	list and also  turns  the  ".rules"  filename  into  a
       per-directory filter file.  All rules read in prior to the start	of the
       directory scan follow the global	anchoring rules	(i.e. a	leading	 slash
       matches at the root of the transfer).

       If a per-directory merge-file is	specified with a path that is a	parent
       directory of the	first transfer directory, rsync	will scan all the par-
       ent  dirs  from	that  starting point to	the transfer directory for the
       indicated per-directory file.  For instance, here is  a	common	filter
       (see -F):

	      --filter=': /.rsync-filter'

       That  rule tells	rsync to scan for the file .rsync-filter in all	direc-
       tories from the root down through the parent directory of the  transfer
       prior  to  the  start  of  the normal directory scan of the file	in the
       directories that	are sent as a part of the  transfer.   (Note:  for  an
       rsync daemon, the root is always	the same as the	module's "path".)

       Some examples of	this pre-scanning for per-directory files:

	      rsync -avF /src/path/ /dest/dir
	      rsync -av	--filter=': ../../.rsync-filter' /src/path/ /dest/dir
	      rsync -av	--filter=': .rsync-filter' /src/path/ /dest/dir

       The  first  two commands	above will look	for ".rsync-filter" in "/" and
       "/src"  before  the  normal  scan  begins  looking  for	the  file   in
       "/src/path"  and	 its subdirectories.  The last command avoids the par-
       ent-dir scan and	only looks  for	 the  ".rsync-filter"  files  in  each
       directory that is a part	of the transfer.

       If you want to include the contents of a	".cvsignore" in	your patterns,
       you should use the rule ":C", which creates a dir-merge of the  .cvsig-
       nore  file, but parsed in a CVS-compatible manner.  You can use this to
       affect  where  the  --cvs-exclude  (-C)	option's  inclusion   of   the
       per-directory  .cvsignore  file	gets placed into your rules by putting
       the ":C"	wherever you like in your filter rules.	 Without  this,	 rsync
       would  add the dir-merge	rule for the .cvsignore	file at	the end	of all
       your other rules	(giving	it a lower  priority  than  your  command-line
       rules).	For example:

	      cat <<EOT	| rsync	-avC --filter='. -' a/ b
	      +	foo.o
	      -	*.old
	      rsync -avC --include=foo.o -f :C --exclude='*.old' a/ b

       Both  of	 the  above rsync commands are identical.  Each	one will merge
       all the per-directory .cvsignore	rules in the middle of the list	rather
       than at the end.	 This allows their dir-specific	rules to supersede the
       rules that follow the :C	instead	 of  being  subservient	 to  all  your
       rules.  To affect the other CVS exclude rules (i.e. the default list of
       exclusions, the contents	of $HOME/.cvsignore, and the value of  $CVSIG-
       NORE)  you  should omit the -C command-line option and instead insert a
       "-C" rule into your filter rules; e.g. "--filter=-C".

       You can clear the current include/exclude list by using the "!"	filter
       rule  (as introduced in the FILTER RULES	section	above).	 The "current"
       list is either the global list of rules (if  the	 rule  is  encountered
       while  parsing  the  filter  options)  or  a set	of per-directory rules
       (which are inherited in their own sub-list, so a	subdirectory  can  use
       this to clear out the parent's rules).

       As  mentioned  earlier, global include/exclude patterns are anchored at
       the "root of the	transfer" (as opposed to per-directory patterns, which
       are  anchored  at  the  merge-file's  directory).   If you think	of the
       transfer	as a subtree of	names that  are	 being	sent  from  sender  to
       receiver,  the  transfer-root is	where the tree starts to be duplicated
       in the destination directory.  This root	governs	 where	patterns  that
       start with a / match.

       Because	the  matching  is  relative to the transfer-root, changing the
       trailing	slash on a source path or changing your	use of the  --relative
       option  affects	the path you need to use in your matching (in addition
       to changing how much of the file	tree is	duplicated on the  destination
       host).  The following examples demonstrate this.

       Let's  say that we want to match	two source files, one with an absolute
       path of "/home/me/foo/bar", and one with	a path of "/home/you/bar/baz".
       Here is how the various command choices differ for a 2-source transfer:

	      Example cmd: rsync -a /home/me /home/you /dest
	      +/- pattern: /me/foo/bar
	      +/- pattern: /you/bar/baz
	      Target file: /dest/me/foo/bar
	      Target file: /dest/you/bar/baz

	      Example cmd: rsync -a /home/me/ /home/you/ /dest
	      +/- pattern: /foo/bar		  (note	missing	"me")
	      +/- pattern: /bar/baz		  (note	missing	"you")
	      Target file: /dest/foo/bar
	      Target file: /dest/bar/baz

	      Example cmd: rsync -a --relative /home/me/ /home/you /dest
	      +/- pattern: /home/me/foo/bar	  (note	full path)
	      +/- pattern: /home/you/bar/baz	  (ditto)
	      Target file: /dest/home/me/foo/bar
	      Target file: /dest/home/you/bar/baz

	      Example cmd: cd /home; rsync -a --relative me/foo	you/ /dest
	      +/- pattern: /me/foo/bar	    (starts at specified path)
	      +/- pattern: /you/bar/baz	    (ditto)
	      Target file: /dest/me/foo/bar
	      Target file: /dest/you/bar/baz

       The easiest way to see what name	you should filter is to	just  look  at
       the  output  when using --verbose and put a / in	front of the name (use
       the --dry-run option if you're not yet ready to copy any	files).

       Without a delete	option,	per-directory rules are	only relevant  on  the
       sending	side,  so  you	can feel free to exclude the merge files them-
       selves without affecting	the transfer.  To make this easy, the 'e' mod-
       ifier  adds  this exclude for you, as seen in these two equivalent com-

	      rsync -av	--filter=': .excl' --exclude=.excl host:src/dir	/dest
	      rsync -av	--filter=':e .excl' host:src/dir /dest

       However,	if you want to do a delete on the receiving side AND you  want
       some  files  to	be excluded from being deleted,	you'll need to be sure
       that the	receiving side knows what files	to exclude.  The  easiest  way
       is  to  include	the  per-directory merge files in the transfer and use
       --delete-after, because this ensures that the receiving side  gets  all
       the  same  exclude  rules as the	sending	side before it tries to	delete

	      rsync -avF --delete-after	host:src/dir /dest

       However,	if the merge files are not a part of the transfer, you'll need
       to either specify some global exclude rules (i.e. specified on the com-
       mand line), or you'll need to maintain  your  own  per-directory	 merge
       files  on  the receiving	side.  An example of the first is this (assume
       that the	remote .rules files exclude themselves):

       rsync -av --filter=': .rules' --filter='. /my/extra.rules'
	  --delete host:src/dir	/dest

       In the above example the	extra.rules file can affect both sides of  the
       transfer,  but  (on  the	sending	side) the rules	are subservient	to the
       rules merged from the .rules files because they	were  specified	 after
       the per-directory merge rule.

       In  one	final  example,	the remote side	is excluding the .rsync-filter
       files from the transfer,	but we want to use our own .rsync-filter files
       to control what gets deleted on the receiving side.  To do this we must
       specifically exclude the	per-directory merge files (so that they	 don't
       get  deleted)  and  then	put rules into the local files to control what
       else should not get deleted.  Like one of these commands:

	   rsync -av --filter=':e /.rsync-filter' --delete \
	       host:src/dir /dest
	   rsync -avFF --delete	host:src/dir /dest

       Batch mode can be used to apply the same	set of updates to many identi-
       cal  systems. Suppose one has a tree which is replicated	on a number of
       hosts.  Now suppose some	changes	have been made to this source tree and
       those  changes need to be propagated to the other hosts.	In order to do
       this using batch	mode, rsync is run  with  the  write-batch  option  to
       apply  the  changes  made  to the source	tree to	one of the destination
       trees.  The write-batch option causes the rsync client to  store	 in  a
       "batch  file"  all  the	information  needed  to	 repeat	this operation
       against other, identical	destination trees.

       Generating the batch file once saves having to perform the file status,
       checksum, and data block	generation more	than once when updating	multi-
       ple destination trees. Multicast	transport protocols  can  be  used  to
       transfer	 the  batch  update  files  in parallel	to many	hosts at once,
       instead of sending the same data	to every host individually.

       To apply	the recorded changes to	another	destination  tree,  run	 rsync
       with the	read-batch option, specifying the name of the same batch file,
       and the destination tree.  Rsync	updates	the destination	tree using the
       information stored in the batch file.

       For   your  convenience,	 a  script  file  is  also  created  when  the
       write-batch option is used:  it will be named the  same	as  the	 batch
       file  with  ".sh"  appended.   This script file contains	a command-line
       suitable	for updating a destination tree	 using	the  associated	 batch
       file. It	can be executed	using a	Bourne (or Bourne-like)	shell, option-
       ally passing in an alternate destination	tree pathname  which  is  then
       used instead of the original destination	path.  This is useful when the
       destination tree	path on	the current host differs from the one used  to
       create the batch	file.


	      $	rsync --write-batch=foo	-a host:/source/dir/ /adest/dir/
	      $	scp foo* remote:
	      $	ssh remote ./ /bdest/dir/

	      $	rsync --write-batch=foo	-a /source/dir/	/adest/dir/
	      $	ssh remote rsync --read-batch=-	-a /bdest/dir/ <foo

       In   these   examples,	rsync  is  used	 to  update  /adest/dir/  from
       /source/dir/ and	the information	to repeat this operation is stored  in
       "foo" and "".  The	host "remote" is then updated with the batched
       data going into the directory /bdest/dir.  The differences between  the
       two  examples  reveals some of the flexibility you have in how you deal
       with batches:

       o      The first	example	shows that the initial copy doesn't have to be
	      local  --	 you can push or pull data to/from a remote host using
	      either the  remote-shell	syntax	or  rsync  daemon  syntax,  as

       o      The  first  example  uses	 the  created "" file to get the
	      right rsync options when running the read-batch command  on  the
	      remote host.

       o      The  second  example  reads the batch data via standard input so
	      that the batch file doesn't need to  be  copied  to  the	remote
	      machine first.  This example avoids the script because it
	      needed to	use a modified --read-batch option, but	you could edit
	      the  script  file	 if you	wished to make use of it (just be sure
	      that no other option is trying to	use standard  input,  such  as
	      the "--exclude-from=-" option).


       The  read-batch option expects the destination tree that	it is updating
       to be identical to the destination tree that was	 used  to  create  the
       batch  update fileset.  When a difference between the destination trees
       is encountered the update might be discarded with  a  warning  (if  the
       file  appears  to  be  up-to-date  already)  or	the file-update	may be
       attempted and then, if the file fails to	verify,	the  update  discarded
       with  an	 error.	  This	means  that  it	 should	 be  safe  to re-run a
       read-batch operation if the command got interrupted.  If	 you  wish  to
       force  the  batched-update  to  always  be  attempted regardless	of the
       file's size and date, use the -I	option (when reading the  batch).   If
       an  error  occurs, the destination tree will probably be	in a partially
       updated state.  In  that	 case,	rsync  can  be	used  in  its  regular
       (non-batch) mode	of operation to	fix up the destination tree.

       The  rsync  version used	on all destinations must be at least as	new as
       the one used to generate	the batch file.	 Rsync will die	with an	 error
       if  the	protocol  version  in  the  batch  file	 is  too  new  for the
       batch-reading rsync to handle.  See also	the --protocol	option	for  a
       way  to	have  the  creating  rsync generate a batch file that an older
       rsync can understand.  (Note that batch files changed format in version
       2.6.3,  so mixing versions older	than that with newer versions will not

       When reading a batch file,  rsync  will	force  the  value  of  certain
       options	to  match the data in the batch	file if	you didn't set them to
       the same	as the batch-writing command.  Other options can (and  should)
       be  changed.   For  instance  --write-batch  changes  to	 --read-batch,
       --files-from is dropped,	and the	 --filter/--include/--exclude  options
       are not needed unless one of the	--delete options is specified.

       The   code   that   creates  the  file	 transforms  any  fil-
       ter/include/exclude options into	a single list that is  appended	 as  a
       "here"  document	 to  the  shell	script file.  An advanced user can use
       this to modify the exclude list if a change in  what  gets  deleted  by
       --delete	is desired.  A normal user can ignore this detail and just use
       the shell script	as an easy way to  run	the  appropriate  --read-batch
       command for the batched data.

       The  original batch mode	in rsync was based on "rsync+",	but the	latest
       version uses a new implementation.

       Three basic behaviors are possible when	rsync  encounters  a  symbolic
       link in the source directory.

       By  default,  symbolic  links  are  not	transferred at all.  A message
       "skipping non-regular" file is emitted for any symlinks that exist.

       If --links is specified,	then symlinks are recreated with the same tar-
       get on the destination.	Note that --archive implies --links.

       If  --copy-links	is specified, then symlinks are	"collapsed" by copying
       their referent, rather than the symlink.

       Rsync can also distinguish "safe"  and  "unsafe"	 symbolic  links.   An
       example	where  this  might be used is a	web site mirror	that wishes to
       ensure that the rsync module that is copied does	not  include  symbolic
       links to	/usr/local/etc/rsync/passwd in the public section of the site.
       Using --copy-unsafe-links will cause any	links to be copied as the file
       they point to on	the destination.  Using	--safe-links will cause	unsafe
       links to	be omitted altogether.	(Note that you	must  specify  --links
       for --safe-links	to have	any effect.)

       Symbolic	 links	are  considered	 unsafe	 if they are absolute symlinks
       (start with /), empty, or if they contain  enough  ".."	components  to
       ascend from the directory being copied.

       Here's  a summary of how	the symlink options are	interpreted.  The list
       is in order of precedence, so if	your combination of options isn't men-
       tioned, use the first line that is a complete subset of your options:

	      Turn all symlinks	into normal files (leaving no symlinks for any
	      other options to affect).

       --links --copy-unsafe-links
	      Turn all unsafe symlinks into files and duplicate	all safe  sym-

	      Turn  all	unsafe symlinks	into files, noisily skip all safe sym-

       --links --safe-links
	      Duplicate	safe symlinks and skip unsafe ones.

	      Duplicate	all symlinks.

       rsync occasionally produces error messages that may seem	a little cryp-
       tic.  The  one that seems to cause the most confusion is	"protocol ver-
       sion mismatch --	is your	shell clean?".

       This message is usually caused by your startup scripts or remote	 shell
       facility	 producing  unwanted garbage on	the stream that	rsync is using
       for its transport. The way to diagnose this  problem  is	 to  run  your
       remote shell like this:

	      ssh remotehost /bin/true > out.dat

       then  look  at out.dat. If everything is	working	correctly then out.dat
       should be a zero	length file. If	you are	getting	the above  error  from
       rsync  then  you	 will probably find that out.dat contains some text or
       data. Look at the contents and try to work out what  is	producing  it.
       The  most  common cause is incorrectly configured shell startup scripts
       (such as	 .cshrc	 or  .profile)	that  contain  output  statements  for
       non-interactive logins.

       If  you are having trouble debugging filter patterns, then try specify-
       ing the -vv option.  At this level of verbosity	rsync  will  show  why
       each individual file is included	or excluded.

       0      Success

       1      Syntax or	usage error

       2      Protocol incompatibility

       3      Errors selecting input/output files, dirs

       4      Requested	 action	 not supported:	an attempt was made to manipu-
	      late 64-bit files	on a platform that cannot support them;	or  an
	      option  was specified that is supported by the client and	not by
	      the server.

       5      Error starting client-server protocol

       6      Daemon unable to append to log-file

       10     Error in socket I/O

       11     Error in file I/O

       12     Error in rsync protocol data stream

       13     Errors with program diagnostics

       14     Error in IPC code

       20     Received SIGUSR1 or SIGINT

       21     Some error returned by waitpid()

       22     Error allocating core memory buffers

       23     Partial transfer due to error

       24     Partial transfer due to vanished source files

       25     The --max-delete limit stopped deletions

       30     Timeout in data send/receive

       35     Timeout waiting for daemon connection

	      The CVSIGNORE environment	variable supplements any  ignore  pat-
	      terns in .cvsignore files. See the --cvs-exclude option for more

	      Specify a	default	--iconv	setting	using this  environment	 vari-
	      able. (First supported in	3.0.0.)

	      Specify  a non-zero numeric value	if you want the	--protect-args
	      option to	be enabled by default, or a zero value	to  make  sure
	      that it is disabled by default. (First supported in 3.1.0.)

	      The  RSYNC_RSH  environment  variable allows you to override the
	      default shell used as the	transport  for	rsync.	 Command  line
	      options  are permitted after the command name, just as in	the -e

	      The RSYNC_PROXY environment variable allows you to redirect your
	      rsync  client to use a web proxy when connecting to a rsync dae-
	      mon. You should set RSYNC_PROXY to a hostname:port pair.

	      Setting RSYNC_PASSWORD to	the required password  allows  you  to
	      run  authenticated  rsync	connections to an rsync	daemon without
	      user intervention. Note that this	does not supply	a password  to
	      a	 remote	 shell transport such as ssh; to learn how to do that,
	      consult the remote shell's documentation.

       USER or LOGNAME
	      The USER or LOGNAME environment variables	are used to  determine
	      the  default  username  sent  to an rsync	daemon.	 If neither is
	      set, the username	defaults to "nobody".

       HOME   The HOME environment variable is used to find the	user's default
	      .cvsignore file.

       /usr/local/etc/rsync/rsyncd.conf	or rsyncd.conf


       times are transferred as	*nix time_t values

       When  transferring  to  FAT  filesystems	 rsync	may re-sync unmodified
       files.  See the comments	on the --modify-window option.

       file permissions, devices, etc. are  transferred	 as  native  numerical

       see also	the comments on	the --delete option

       Please report bugs! See the web site at

       This man	page is	current	for version 3.1.2 of rsync.

       The  options  --server  and  --sender are used internally by rsync, and
       should never be typed by	 a  user  under	 normal	 circumstances.	  Some
       awareness  of these options may be needed in certain scenarios, such as
       when setting up a login that  can  only	run  an	 rsync	command.   For
       instance,  the support directory	of the rsync distribution has an exam-
       ple script named	rrsync (for restricted rsync) that can be used with  a
       restricted ssh login.

       rsync  is  distributed  under  the GNU General Public License.  See the
       file COPYING for	details.

       A WEB site is available at  The	site  includes
       an  FAQ-O-Matic	which  may  cover  questions unanswered	by this	manual

       The primary ftp site for	rsync is

       We would	be delighted to	hear  from  you	 if  you  like	this  program.
       Please contact the mailing-list at

       This  program  uses  the	 excellent zlib	compression library written by
       Jean-loup Gailly	and Mark Adler.

       Special thanks go out to: John Van Essen,  Matt	McCutchen,  Wesley  W.
       Terpstra,  David	 Dykstra,  Jos Backus, Sebastian Krahmer, Martin Pool,
       and our gone-but-not-forgotten compadre,	J.W. Schultz.

       Thanks also to Richard Brent, Brendan Mackay, Bill Waite, Stephen Roth-
       well and	David Bell.  I've probably missed some people, my apologies if
       I have.

       rsync was originally written by Andrew  Tridgell	 and  Paul  Mackerras.
       Many  people  have later	contributed to it.  It is currently maintained
       by Wayne	Davison.

       Mailing	lists  for  support   and   development	  are	available   at

				  21 Dec 2015			      rsync(1)


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