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rsync(1)                                                              rsync(1)

       rsync - faster, flexible replacement for rcp

       rsync [OPTION]... SRC [SRC]... DEST

       rsync [OPTION]... SRC [SRC]... [USER@]HOST:DEST

       rsync [OPTION]... SRC [SRC]... [USER@]HOST::DEST

       rsync [OPTION]... SRC [SRC]... rsync://[USER@]HOST[:PORT]/DEST

       rsync [OPTION]... SRC

       rsync [OPTION]... [USER@]HOST:SRC [DEST]

       rsync [OPTION]... [USER@]HOST::SRC [DEST]

       rsync [OPTION]... rsync://[USER@]HOST[:PORT]/SRC [DEST]

       rsync is a program that behaves in much the same way that rcp does, but
       has many more options and uses the rsync remote-update protocol to
       greatly speed up file transfers when the destination file is being

       The rsync remote-update protocol allows rsync to transfer just the
       differences between two sets of files across the network connection,
       using an efficient checksum-search algorithm described in the technical
       report that accompanies this package.

       Some of the additional features of rsync are:

       o      support for copying links, devices, owners, groups, and

       o      exclude and exclude-from options similar to GNU tar

       o      a CVS exclude mode for ignoring the same files that CVS would

       o      can use any transparent remote shell, including ssh or rsh

       o      does not require super-user privileges

       o      pipelining of file transfers to minimize latency costs

       o      support for anonymous or authenticated rsync daemons (ideal for

       Rsync copies files either to or from a remote host, or locally on the
       current host (it does not support copying files between two remote

       There are two different ways for rsync to contact a remote system:
       using a remote-shell program as the transport (such as ssh or rsh) or
       contacting an rsync daemon directly via TCP.  The remote-shell
       transport is used whenever the source or destination path contains a
       single colon (:) separator after a host specification.  Contacting an
       rsync daemon directly happens when the source or destination path
       contains a double colon (::) separator after a host specification, OR
       when an rsync:// URL is specified (see also the "USING RSYNC-DAEMON
       FEATURES VIA A REMOTE-SHELL CONNECTION" section for an exception to
       this latter rule).

       As a special case, if a single source arg is specified without a
       destination, the files are listed in an output format similar to "ls

       As expected, if neither the source or destination path specify a remote
       host, the copy occurs locally (see also the --list-only option).

       See the file README for installation instructions.

       Once installed, you can use rsync to any machine that you can access
       via a remote shell (as well as some that you can access using the rsync
       daemon-mode protocol).  For remote transfers, a modern rsync uses ssh
       for its communications, but it may have been configured to use a
       different remote shell by default, such as rsh or remsh.

       You can also specify any remote shell you like, either by using the -e
       command line option, or by setting the RSYNC_RSH environment variable.

       Note that rsync must be installed on both the source and destination

       You use rsync in the same way you use rcp. You must specify a source
       and a destination, one of which may be remote.

       Perhaps the best way to explain the syntax is with some examples:

              rsync -t *.c foo:src/

       This would transfer all files matching the pattern *.c from the current
       directory to the directory src on the machine foo. If any of the files
       already exist on the remote system then the rsync remote-update
       protocol is used to update the file by sending only the differences.
       See the tech report for details.

              rsync -avz foo:src/bar /data/tmp

       This would recursively transfer all files from the directory src/bar on
       the machine foo into the /data/tmp/bar directory on the local machine.
       The files are transferred in "archive" mode, which ensures that
       symbolic links, devices, attributes, permissions, ownerships, etc. are
       preserved in the transfer.  Additionally, compression will be used to
       reduce the size of data portions of the transfer.

              rsync -avz foo:src/bar/ /data/tmp

       A trailing slash on the source changes this behavior to avoid creating
       an additional directory level at the destination.  You can think of a
       trailing / on a source as meaning "copy the contents of this directory"
       as opposed to "copy the directory by name", but in both cases the
       attributes of the containing directory are transferred to the
       containing directory on the destination.  In other words, each of the
       following commands copies the files in the same way, including their
       setting of the attributes of /dest/foo:

              rsync -av /src/foo /dest
              rsync -av /src/foo/ /dest/foo

       Note also that host and module references don't require a trailing
       slash to copy the contents of the default directory.  For example, both
       of these copy the remote directory's contents into "/dest":

              rsync -av host: /dest
              rsync -av host::module /dest

       You can also use rsync in local-only mode, where both the source and
       destination don't have a ':' in the name. In this case it behaves like
       an improved copy command.

       Finally, you can list all the (listable) modules available from a
       particular rsync daemon by leaving off the module name:


       See the following section for more details.

       The syntax for requesting multiple files from a remote host involves
       using quoted spaces in the SRC.  Some examples:

              rsync host::'modname/dir1/file1 modname/dir2/file2' /dest

       This would copy file1 and file2 into /dest from an rsync daemon.  Each
       additional arg must include the same "modname/" prefix as the first
       one, and must be preceded by a single space.  All other spaces are
       assumed to be a part of the filenames.

              rsync -av host:'dir1/file1 dir2/file2' /dest

       This would copy file1 and file2 into /dest using a remote shell.  This
       word-splitting is done by the remote shell, so if it doesn't work it
       means that the remote shell isn't configured to split its args based on
       whitespace (a very rare setting, but not unknown).  If you need to
       transfer a filename that contains whitespace, you'll need to either
       escape the whitespace in a way that the remote shell will understand,
       or use wildcards in place of the spaces.  Two examples of this are:

              rsync -av host:'file\ name\ with\ spaces' /dest
              rsync -av host:file?name?with?spaces /dest

       This latter example assumes that your shell passes through unmatched
       wildcards.  If it complains about "no match", put the name in quotes.

       It is also possible to use rsync without a remote shell as the
       transport.  In this case you will directly connect to a remote rsync
       daemon, typically using TCP port 873.  (This obviously requires the
       daemon to be running on the remote system, so refer to the STARTING AN
       RSYNC DAEMON TO ACCEPT CONNECTIONS section below for information on

       Using rsync in this way is the same as using it with a remote shell
       except that:

       o      you either use a double colon :: instead of a single colon to
              separate the hostname from the path, or you use an rsync:// URL.

       o      the first word of the "path" is actually a module name.

       o      the remote daemon may print a message of the day when you

       o      if you specify no path name on the remote daemon then the list
              of accessible paths on the daemon will be shown.

       o      if you specify no local destination then a listing of the
              specified files on the remote daemon is provided.

       o      you must not specify the --rsh (-e) option.

       An example that copies all the files in a remote module named "src":

           rsync -av host::src /dest

       Some modules on the remote daemon may require authentication. If so,
       you will receive a password prompt when you connect. You can avoid the
       password prompt by setting the environment variable RSYNC_PASSWORD to
       the password you want to use or using the --password-file option. This
       may be useful when scripting rsync.

       WARNING: On some systems environment variables are visible to all
       users. On those systems using --password-file is recommended.

       You may establish the connection via a web proxy by setting the
       environment variable RSYNC_PROXY to a hostname:port pair pointing to
       your web proxy.  Note that your web proxy's configuration must support
       proxy connections to port 873.

       It is sometimes useful to use various features of an rsync daemon (such
       as named modules) without actually allowing any new socket connections
       into a system (other than what is already required to allow remote-
       shell access).  Rsync supports connecting to a host using a remote
       shell and then spawning a single-use "daemon" server that expects to
       read its config file in the home dir of the remote user.  This can be
       useful if you want to encrypt a daemon-style transfer's data, but since
       the daemon is started up fresh by the remote user, you may not be able
       to use features such as chroot or change the uid used by the daemon.
       (For another way to encrypt a daemon transfer, consider using ssh to
       tunnel a local port to a remote machine and configure a normal rsync
       daemon on that remote host to only allow connections from "localhost".)

       From the user's perspective, a daemon transfer via a remote-shell
       connection uses nearly the same command-line syntax as a normal rsync-
       daemon transfer, with the only exception being that you must explicitly
       set the remote shell program on the command-line with the --rsh=COMMAND
       option.  (Setting the RSYNC_RSH in the environment will not turn on
       this functionality.)  For example:

           rsync -av --rsh=ssh host::module /dest

       If you need to specify a different remote-shell user, keep in mind that
       the user@ prefix in front of the host is specifying the rsync-user
       value (for a module that requires user-based authentication).  This
       means that you must give the '-l user' option to ssh when specifying
       the remote-shell, as in this example that uses the short version of the
       --rsh option:

           rsync -av -e "ssh -l ssh-user" rsync-user@host::module /dest

       The "ssh-user" will be used at the ssh level; the "rsync-user" will be
       used to log-in to the "module".

       In order to connect to an rsync daemon, the remote system needs to have
       a daemon already running (or it needs to have configured something like
       inetd to spawn an rsync daemon for incoming connections on a particular
       port).  For full information on how to start a daemon that will
       handling incoming socket connections, see the rsyncd.conf(5) man page
       -- that is the config file for the daemon, and it contains the full
       details for how to run the daemon (including stand-alone and inetd

       If you're using one of the remote-shell transports for the transfer,
       there is no need to manually start an rsync daemon.

       Here are some examples of how I use rsync.

       To backup my wife's home directory, which consists of large MS Word
       files and mail folders, I use a cron job that runs

              rsync -Cavz . arvidsjaur:backup

       each night over a PPP connection to a duplicate directory on my machine

       To synchronize my samba source trees I use the following Makefile

                   rsync -avuzb --exclude '*~' samba:samba/ .
                   rsync -Cavuzb . samba:samba/
           sync: get put

       this allows me to sync with a CVS directory at the other end of the
       connection. I then do CVS operations on the remote machine, which saves
       a lot of time as the remote CVS protocol isn't very efficient.

       I mirror a directory between my "old" and "new" ftp sites with the

       rsync -az -e ssh --delete ~ftp/pub/samba nimbus:"~ftp/pub/tridge"

       This is launched from cron every few hours.

       Here is a short summary of the options available in rsync. Please refer
       to the detailed description below for a complete description.

        -v, --verbose               increase verbosity
        -q, --quiet                 suppress non-error messages
            --no-motd               suppress daemon-mode MOTD (see caveat)
        -c, --checksum              skip based on checksum, not mod-time & size
        -a, --archive               archive mode; same as -rlptgoD (no -H)
            --no-OPTION             turn off an implied OPTION (e.g. --no-D)
        -r, --recursive             recurse into directories
        -R, --relative              use relative path names
            --no-implied-dirs       don't send implied dirs with --relative
        -b, --backup                make backups (see --suffix & --backup-dir)
            --backup-dir=DIR        make backups into hierarchy based in DIR
            --suffix=SUFFIX         backup suffix (default ~ w/o --backup-dir)
        -u, --update                skip files that are newer on the receiver
            --inplace               update destination files in-place
            --append                append data onto shorter files
        -d, --dirs                  transfer directories without recursing
        -l, --links                 copy symlinks as symlinks
        -L, --copy-links            transform symlink into referent file/dir
            --copy-unsafe-links     only "unsafe" symlinks are transformed
            --safe-links            ignore symlinks that point outside the tree
        -k, --copy-dirlinks         transform symlink to dir into referent dir
        -K, --keep-dirlinks         treat symlinked dir on receiver as dir
        -H, --hard-links            preserve hard links
        -p, --perms                 preserve permissions
        -E, --executability         preserve executability
            --chmod=CHMOD           affect file and/or directory permissions
        -o, --owner                 preserve owner (super-user only)
        -g, --group                 preserve group
            --devices               preserve device files (super-user only)
            --specials              preserve special files
        -D                          same as --devices --specials
        -t, --times                 preserve times
        -O, --omit-dir-times        omit directories when preserving times
            --super                 receiver attempts super-user activities
        -S, --sparse                handle sparse files efficiently
        -n, --dry-run               show what would have been transferred
        -W, --whole-file            copy files whole (without rsync algorithm)
        -x, --one-file-system       don't cross filesystem boundaries
        -B, --block-size=SIZE       force a fixed checksum block-size
        -e, --rsh=COMMAND           specify the remote shell to use
            --rsync-path=PROGRAM    specify the rsync to run on remote machine
            --existing              skip creating new files on receiver
            --ignore-existing       skip updating files that exist on receiver
            --remove-source-files   sender removes synchronized files (non-dir)
            --del                   an alias for --delete-during
            --delete                delete extraneous files from dest dirs
            --delete-before         receiver deletes before transfer (default)
            --delete-during         receiver deletes during xfer, not before
            --delete-after          receiver deletes after transfer, not before
            --delete-excluded       also delete excluded files from dest dirs
            --ignore-errors         delete even if there are I/O errors
            --force                 force deletion of dirs even if not empty
            --max-delete=NUM        don't delete more than NUM files
            --max-size=SIZE         don't transfer any file larger than SIZE
            --min-size=SIZE         don't transfer any file smaller than SIZE
            --partial               keep partially transferred files
            --partial-dir=DIR       put a partially transferred file into DIR
            --delay-updates         put all updated files into place at end
        -m, --prune-empty-dirs      prune empty directory chains from file-list
            --numeric-ids           don't map uid/gid values by user/group name
            --timeout=TIME          set I/O timeout in seconds
        -I, --ignore-times          don't skip files that match size and time
            --size-only             skip files that match in size
            --modify-window=NUM     compare mod-times with reduced accuracy
        -T, --temp-dir=DIR          create temporary files in directory DIR
        -y, --fuzzy                 find similar file for basis if no dest file
            --compare-dest=DIR      also compare received files relative to DIR
            --copy-dest=DIR         ... and include copies of unchanged files
            --link-dest=DIR         hardlink to files in DIR when unchanged
        -z, --compress              compress file data during the transfer
            --compress-level=NUM    explicitly set compression level
        -C, --cvs-exclude           auto-ignore files in the same way CVS does
        -f, --filter=RULE           add a file-filtering RULE
        -F                          same as --filter='dir-merge /.rsync-filter'
                                    repeated: --filter='- .rsync-filter'
            --exclude=PATTERN       exclude files matching PATTERN
            --exclude-from=FILE     read exclude patterns from FILE
            --include=PATTERN       don't exclude files matching PATTERN
            --include-from=FILE     read include patterns from FILE
            --files-from=FILE       read list of source-file names from FILE
        -0, --from0                 all *from/filter files are delimited by 0s
            --address=ADDRESS       bind address for outgoing socket to daemon
            --port=PORT             specify double-colon alternate port number
            --sockopts=OPTIONS      specify custom TCP options
            --blocking-io           use blocking I/O for the remote shell
            --stats                 give some file-transfer stats
        -8, --8-bit-output          leave high-bit chars unescaped in output
        -h, --human-readable        output numbers in a human-readable format
            --progress              show progress during transfer
        -P                          same as --partial --progress
        -i, --itemize-changes       output a change-summary for all updates
            --out-format=FORMAT     output updates using the specified FORMAT
            --log-file=FILE         log what we're doing to the specified FILE
            --log-file-format=FMT   log updates using the specified FMT
            --password-file=FILE    read password from FILE
            --list-only             list the files instead of copying them
            --bwlimit=KBPS          limit I/O bandwidth; KBytes per second
            --stop-at=y-m-dTh:m     Stop rsync at year-month-dayThour:minute
            --time-limit=MINS       Stop rsync after MINS minutes have elapsed
            --write-batch=FILE      write a batched update to FILE
            --only-write-batch=FILE like --write-batch but w/o updating dest
            --read-batch=FILE       read a batched update from FILE
            --protocol=NUM          force an older protocol version to be used
            --checksum-seed=NUM     set block/file checksum seed (advanced)
        -4, --ipv4                  prefer IPv4
        -6, --ipv6                  prefer IPv6
            --version               print version number
       (-h) --help                  show this help (see below for -h comment)

       Rsync can also be run as a daemon, in which case the following options
       are accepted:

            --daemon                run as an rsync daemon
            --address=ADDRESS       bind to the specified address
            --bwlimit=KBPS          limit I/O bandwidth; KBytes per second
            --config=FILE           specify alternate rsyncd.conf file
            --no-detach             do not detach from the parent
            --port=PORT             listen on alternate port number
            --log-file=FILE         override the "log file" setting
            --log-file-format=FMT   override the "log format" setting
            --sockopts=OPTIONS      specify custom TCP options
        -v, --verbose               increase verbosity
        -4, --ipv4                  prefer IPv4
        -6, --ipv6                  prefer IPv6
        -h, --help                  show this help (if used after --daemon)

       rsync uses the GNU long options package. Many of the command line
       options have two variants, one short and one long.  These are shown
       below, separated by commas. Some options only have a long variant.  The
       '=' for options that take a parameter is optional; whitespace can be
       used instead.

       --help Print a short help page describing the options available in
              rsync and exit.  For backward-compatibility with older versions
              of rsync, the help will also be output if you use the -h option
              without any other args.

              print the rsync version number and exit.

       -v, --verbose
              This option increases the amount of information you are given
              during the transfer.  By default, rsync works silently. A single
              -v will give you information about what files are being
              transferred and a brief summary at the end. Two -v flags will
              give you information on what files are being skipped and
              slightly more information at the end. More than two -v flags
              should only be used if you are debugging rsync.

              Note that the names of the transferred files that are output are
              done using a default --out-format of "%n%L", which tells you
              just the name of the file and, if the item is a link, where it
              points.  At the single -v level of verbosity, this does not
              mention when a file gets its attributes changed.  If you ask for
              an itemized list of changed attributes (either --itemize-changes
              or adding "%i" to the --out-format setting), the output (on the
              client) increases to mention all items that are changed in any
              way.  See the --out-format option for more details.

       -q, --quiet
              This option decreases the amount of information you are given
              during the transfer, notably suppressing information messages
              from the remote server. This flag is useful when invoking rsync
              from cron.

              This option affects the information that is output by the client
              at the start of a daemon transfer.  This suppresses the message-
              of-the-day (MOTD) text, but it also affects the list of modules
              that the daemon sends in response to the "rsync host::" request
              (due to a limitation in the rsync protocol), so omit this option
              if you want to request the list of modules from the deamon.

       -I, --ignore-times
              Normally rsync will skip any files that are already the same
              size and have the same modification time-stamp.  This option
              turns off this "quick check" behavior, causing all files to be

              Normally rsync will not transfer any files that are already the
              same size and have the same modification time-stamp. With the
              --size-only option, files will not be transferred if they have
              the same size, regardless of timestamp. This is useful when
              starting to use rsync after using another mirroring system which
              may not preserve timestamps exactly.

              When comparing two timestamps, rsync treats the timestamps as
              being equal if they differ by no more than the modify-window
              value.  This is normally 0 (for an exact match), but you may
              find it useful to set this to a larger value in some situations.
              In particular, when transferring to or from an MS Windows FAT
              filesystem (which represents times with a 2-second resolution),
              --modify-window=1 is useful (allowing times to differ by up to 1

       -c, --checksum
              This forces the sender to checksum every regular file using a
              128-bit MD4 checksum.  It does this during the initial file-
              system scan as it builds the list of all available files. The
              receiver then checksums its version of each file (if it exists
              and it has the same size as its sender-side counterpart) in
              order to decide which files need to be updated: files with
              either a changed size or a changed checksum are selected for
              transfer.  Since this whole-file checksumming of all files on
              both sides of the connection occurs in addition to the automatic
              checksum verifications that occur during a file's transfer, this
              option can be quite slow.

              Note that rsync always verifies that each transferred file was
              correctly reconstructed on the receiving side by checking its
              whole-file checksum, but that automatic after-the-transfer
              verification has nothing to do with this option's before-the-
              transfer "Does this file need to be updated?" check.

       -a, --archive
              This is equivalent to -rlptgoD. It is a quick way of saying you
              want recursion and want to preserve almost everything (with -H
              being a notable omission).  The only exception to the above
              equivalence is when --files-from is specified, in which case -r
              is not implied.

              Note that -a does not preserve hardlinks, because finding
              multiply-linked files is expensive.  You must separately specify

              You may turn off one or more implied options by prefixing the
              option name with "no-".  Not all options may be prefixed with a
              "no-": only options that are implied by other options (e.g.
              --no-D, --no-perms) or have different defaults in various
              circumstances (e.g. --no-whole-file, --no-blocking-io,
              --no-dirs).  You may specify either the short or the long option
              name after the "no-" prefix (e.g. --no-R is the same as

              For example: if you want to use -a (--archive) but don't want -o
              (--owner), instead of converting -a into -rlptgD, you could
              specify -a --no-o (or -a --no-owner).

              The order of the options is important:  if you specify --no-r
              -a, the -r option would end up being turned on, the opposite of
              -a --no-r.  Note also that the side-effects of the --files-from
              option are NOT positional, as it affects the default state of
              several options and slightly changes the meaning of -a (see the
              --files-from option for more details).

       -r, --recursive
              This tells rsync to copy directories recursively.  See also
              --dirs (-d).

       -R, --relative
              Use relative paths. This means that the full path names
              specified on the command line are sent to the server rather than
              just the last parts of the filenames. This is particularly
              useful when you want to send several different directories at
              the same time. For example, if you used this command:
                 rsync -av /foo/bar/baz.c remote:/tmp/

              ... this would create a file named baz.c in /tmp/ on the remote
              machine. If instead you used
                 rsync -avR /foo/bar/baz.c remote:/tmp/

              then a file named /tmp/foo/bar/baz.c would be created on the
              remote machine -- the full path name is preserved.  To limit the
              amount of path information that is sent, you have a couple
              options:  (1) With a modern rsync on the sending side (beginning
              with 2.6.7), you can insert a dot and a slash into the source
              path, like this:
                 rsync -avR /foo/./bar/baz.c remote:/tmp/

              That would create /tmp/bar/baz.c on the remote machine.  (Note
              that the dot must be followed by a slash, so "/foo/." would not
              be abbreviated.) (2) For older rsync versions, you would need to
              use a chdir to limit the source path.  For example, when pushing
                 (cd /foo; rsync -avR bar/baz.c remote:/tmp/)

              (Note that the parens put the two commands into a sub-shell, so
              that the "cd" command doesn't remain in effect for future
              commands.) If you're pulling files, use this idiom (which
              doesn't work with an rsync daemon):
                 rsync -avR --rsync-path="cd /foo; rsync" \
                     remote:bar/baz.c /tmp/

              This option affects the default behavior of the --relative
              option.  When it is specified, the attributes of the implied
              directories from the source names are not included in the
              transfer.  This means that the corresponding path elements on
              the destination system are left unchanged if they exist, and any
              missing implied directories are created with default attributes.
              This even allows these implied path elements to have big
              differences, such as being a symlink to a directory on one side
              of the transfer, and a real directory on the other side.

              For instance, if a command-line arg or a files-from entry told
              rsync to transfer the file "path/foo/file", the directories
              "path" and "path/foo" are implied when --relative is used.  If
              "path/foo" is a symlink to "bar" on the destination system, the
              receiving rsync would ordinarily delete "path/foo", recreate it
              as a directory, and receive the file into the new directory.
              With --no-implied-dirs, the receiving rsync updates
              "path/foo/file" using the existing path elements, which means
              that the file ends up being created in "path/bar".  Another way
              to accomplish this link preservation is to use the
              --keep-dirlinks option (which will also affect symlinks to
              directories in the rest of the transfer).

              In a similar but opposite scenario, if the transfer of
              "path/foo/file" is requested and "path/foo" is a symlink on the
              sending side, running without --no-implied-dirs would cause
              rsync to transform "path/foo" on the receiving side into an
              identical symlink, and then attempt to transfer "path/foo/file",
              which might fail if the duplicated symlink did not point to a
              directory on the receiving side.  Another way to avoid this
              sending of a symlink as an implied directory is to use
              --copy-unsafe-links, or --copy-dirlinks (both of which also
              affect symlinks in the rest of the transfer -- see their
              descriptions for full details).

       -b, --backup
              With this option, preexisting destination files are renamed as
              each file is transferred or deleted.  You can control where the
              backup file goes and what (if any) suffix gets appended using
              the --backup-dir and --suffix options.

              Note that if you don't specify --backup-dir, (1) the
              --omit-dir-times option will be implied, and (2) if --delete is
              also in effect (without --delete-excluded), rsync will add a
              "protect" filter-rule for the backup suffix to the end of all
              your existing excludes (e.g. -f "P *~").  This will prevent
              previously backed-up files from being deleted.  Note that if you
              are supplying your own filter rules, you may need to manually
              insert your own exclude/protect rule somewhere higher up in the
              list so that it has a high enough priority to be effective
              (e.g., if your rules specify a trailing inclusion/exclusion of
              '*', the auto-added rule would never be reached).

              In combination with the --backup option, this tells rsync to
              store all backups in the specified directory on the receiving
              side.  This can be used for incremental backups.  You can
              additionally specify a backup suffix using the --suffix option
              (otherwise the files backed up in the specified directory will
              keep their original filenames).

              This option allows you to override the default backup suffix
              used with the --backup (-b) option. The default suffix is a ~ if
              no --backup-dir was specified, otherwise it is an empty string.

       -u, --update
              This forces rsync to skip any files which exist on the
              destination and have a modified time that is newer than the
              source file.  (If an existing destination file has a modify time
              equal to the source file's, it will be updated if the sizes are

              In the current implementation of --update, a difference of file
              format between the sender and receiver is always considered to
              be important enough for an update, no matter what date is on the
              objects.  In other words, if the source has a directory or a
              symlink where the destination has a file, the transfer would
              occur regardless of the timestamps.  This might change in the
              future (feel free to comment on this on the mailing list if you
              have an opinion).

              This causes rsync not to create a new copy of the file and then
              move it into place.  Instead rsync will overwrite the existing
              file, meaning that the rsync algorithm can't accomplish the full
              amount of network reduction it might be able to otherwise (since
              it does not yet try to sort data matches).  One exception to
              this is if you combine the option with --backup, since rsync is
              smart enough to use the backup file as the basis file for the

              This option is useful for transfer of large files with block-
              based changes or appended data, and also on systems that are
              disk bound, not network bound.

              The option implies --partial (since an interrupted transfer does
              not delete the file), but conflicts with --partial-dir and
              --delay-updates.  Prior to rsync 2.6.4 --inplace was also
              incompatible with --compare-dest and --link-dest.

              WARNING: The file's data will be in an inconsistent state during
              the transfer (and possibly afterward if the transfer gets
              interrupted), so you should not use this option to update files
              that are in use.  Also note that rsync will be unable to update
              a file in-place that is not writable by the receiving user.

              This causes rsync to update a file by appending data onto the
              end of the file, which presumes that the data that already
              exists on the receiving side is identical with the start of the
              file on the sending side.  If that is not true, the file will
              fail the checksum test, and the resend will do a normal
              --inplace update to correct the mismatched data.  Only files on
              the receiving side that are shorter than the corresponding file
              on the sending side (as well as new files) are sent.  Implies
              --inplace, but does not conflict with --sparse (though the
              --sparse option will be auto-disabled if a resend of the
              already-existing data is required).

       -d, --dirs
              Tell the sending side to include any directories that are
              encountered.  Unlike --recursive, a directory's contents are not
              copied unless the directory name specified is "." or ends with a
              trailing slash (e.g. ".", "dir/.", "dir/", etc.).  Without this
              option or the --recursive option, rsync will skip all
              directories it encounters (and output a message to that effect
              for each one).  If you specify both --dirs and --recursive,
              --recursive takes precedence.

       -l, --links
              When symlinks are encountered, recreate the symlink on the

       -L, --copy-links
              When symlinks are encountered, the item that they point to (the
              referent) is copied, rather than the symlink.  In older versions
              of rsync, this option also had the side-effect of telling the
              receiving side to follow symlinks, such as symlinks to
              directories.  In a modern rsync such as this one, you'll need to
              specify --keep-dirlinks (-K) to get this extra behavior.  The
              only exception is when sending files to an rsync that is too old
              to understand -K -- in that case, the -L option will still have
              the side-effect of -K on that older receiving rsync.

              This tells rsync to copy the referent of symbolic links that
              point outside the copied tree.  Absolute symlinks are also
              treated like ordinary files, and so are any symlinks in the
              source path itself when --relative is used.  This option has no
              additional effect if --copy-links was also specified.

              This tells rsync to ignore any symbolic links which point
              outside the copied tree. All absolute symlinks are also ignored.
              Using this option in conjunction with --relative may give
              unexpected results.

       -K, --copy-dirlinks
              This option causes the sending side to treat a symlink to a
              directory as though it were a real directory.  This is useful if
              you don't want symlinks to non-directories to be affected, as
              they would be using --copy-links.

              Without this option, if the sending side has replaced a
              directory with a symlink to a directory, the receiving side will
              delete anything that is in the way of the new symlink, including
              a directory hierarchy (as long as --force or --delete is in

              See also --keep-dirlinks for an analogous option for the
              receiving side.

       -K, --keep-dirlinks
              This option causes the receiving side to treat a symlink to a
              directory as though it were a real directory, but only if it
              matches a real directory from the sender.  Without this option,
              the receiver's symlink would be deleted and replaced with a real

              For example, suppose you transfer a directory "foo" that
              contains a file "file", but "foo" is a symlink to directory
              "bar" on the receiver.  Without --keep-dirlinks, the receiver
              deletes symlink "foo", recreates it as a directory, and receives
              the file into the new directory.  With --keep-dirlinks, the
              receiver keeps the symlink and "file" ends up in "bar".

              See also --copy-dirlinks for an analogous option for the sending

       -H, --hard-links
              This tells rsync to look for hard-linked files in the transfer
              and link together the corresponding files on the receiving side.
              Without this option, hard-linked files in the transfer are
              treated as though they were separate files.

              Note that rsync can only detect hard links if both parts of the
              link are in the list of files being sent.

       -p, --perms
              This option causes the receiving rsync to set the destination
              permissions to be the same as the source permissions.  (See also
              the --chmod option for a way to modify what rsync considers to
              be the source permissions.)

              When this option is off, permissions are set as follows:

              o      Existing files (including updated files) retain their
                     existing permissions, though the --executability option
                     might change just the execute permission for the file.

              o      New files get their "normal" permission bits set to the
                     source file's permissions masked with the receiving end's
                     umask setting, and their special permission bits disabled
                     except in the case where a new directory inherits a
                     setgid bit from its parent directory.

              Thus, when --perms and --executability are both disabled,
              rsync's behavior is the same as that of other file-copy
              utilities, such as cp(1) and tar(1).

              In summary: to give destination files (both old and new) the
              source permissions, use --perms.  To give new files the
              destination-default permissions (while leaving existing files
              unchanged), make sure that the --perms option is off and use
              --chmod=ugo=rwX (which ensures that all non-masked bits get
              enabled).  If you'd care to make this latter behavior easier to
              type, you could define a popt alias for it, such as putting this
              line in the file ~/.popt (this defines the -s option, and
              includes --no-g to use the default group of the destination
                 rsync alias -s --no-p --no-g --chmod=ugo=rwX

              You could then use this new option in a command such as this
                 rsync -asv src/ dest/

              (Caveat: make sure that -a does not follow -s, or it will re-
              enable the "--no-*" options.)

              The preservation of the destination's setgid bit on newly-
              created directories when --perms is off was added in rsync
              2.6.7.  Older rsync versions erroneously preserved the three
              special permission bits for newly-created files when --perms was
              off, while overriding the destination's setgid bit setting on a
              newly-created directory.  (Keep in mind that it is the version
              of the receiving rsync that affects this behavior.)

       -E, --executability
              This option causes rsync to preserve the executability (or non-
              executability) of regular files when --perms is not enabled.  A
              regular file is considered to be executable if at least one 'x'
              is turned on in its permissions.  When an existing destination
              file's executability differs from that of the corresponding
              source file, rsync modifies the destination file's permissions
              as follows:

              o      To make a file non-executable, rsync turns off all its
                     'x' permissions.

              o      To make a file executable, rsync turns on each 'x'
                     permission that has a corresponding 'r' permission

              If --perms is enabled, this option is ignored.

              This option tells rsync to apply one or more comma-separated
              "chmod" strings to the permission of the files in the transfer.
              The resulting value is treated as though it was the permissions
              that the sending side supplied for the file, which means that
              this option can seem to have no effect on existing files if
              --perms is not enabled.

              In addition to the normal parsing rules specified in the
              chmod(1) manpage, you can specify an item that should only apply
              to a directory by prefixing it with a 'D', or specify an item
              that should only apply to a file by prefixing it with a 'F'.
              For example:

              It is also legal to specify multiple --chmod options, as each
              additional option is just appended to the list of changes to

              See the --perms and --executability options for how the
              resulting permission value can be applied to the files in the

       -o, --owner
              This option causes rsync to set the owner of the destination
              file to be the same as the source file, but only if the
              receiving rsync is being run as the super-user (see also the
              --super option to force rsync to attempt super-user activities).
              Without this option, the owner is set to the invoking user on
              the receiving side.

              The preservation of ownership will associate matching names by
              default, but may fall back to using the ID number in some
              circumstances (see also the --numeric-ids option for a full

       -g, --group
              This option causes rsync to set the group of the destination
              file to be the same as the source file.  If the receiving
              program is not running as the super-user (or if --no-super was
              specified), only groups that the invoking user on the receiving
              side is a member of will be preserved.  Without this option, the
              group is set to the default group of the invoking user on the
              receiving side.

              The preservation of group information will associate matching
              names by default, but may fall back to using the ID number in
              some circumstances (see also the --numeric-ids option for a full

              This option causes rsync to transfer character and block device
              files to the remote system to recreate these devices.  This
              option has no effect if the receiving rsync is not run as the
              super-user and --super is not specified.

              This option causes rsync to transfer special files such as named
              sockets and fifos.

       -D     The -D option is equivalent to --devices --specials.

       -t, --times
              This tells rsync to transfer modification times along with the
              files and update them on the remote system.  Note that if this
              option is not used, the optimization that excludes files that
              have not been modified cannot be effective; in other words, a
              missing -t or -a will cause the next transfer to behave as if it
              used -I, causing all files to be updated (though the rsync
              algorithm will make the update fairly efficient if the files
              haven't actually changed, you're much better off using -t).

       -O, --omit-dir-times
              This tells rsync to omit directories when it is preserving
              modification times (see --times).  If NFS is sharing the
              directories on the receiving side, it is a good idea to use -O.
              This option is inferred if you use --backup without

              This tells the receiving side to attempt super-user activities
              even if the receiving rsync wasn't run by the super-user.  These
              activities include: preserving users via the --owner option,
              preserving all groups (not just the current user's groups) via
              the --groups option, and copying devices via the --devices
              option.  This is useful for systems that allow such activities
              without being the super-user, and also for ensuring that you
              will get errors if the receiving side isn't being running as the
              super-user.  To turn off super-user activities, the super-user
              can use --no-super.

       -S, --sparse
              Try to handle sparse files efficiently so they take up less
              space on the destination.  Conflicts with --inplace because it's
              not possible to overwrite data in a sparse fashion.

              NOTE: Don't use this option when the destination is a Solaris
              "tmpfs" filesystem. It doesn't seem to handle seeks over null
              regions correctly and ends up corrupting the files.

       -n, --dry-run
              This tells rsync to not do any file transfers, instead it will
              just report the actions it would have taken.

       -W, --whole-file
              With this option the incremental rsync algorithm is not used and
              the whole file is sent as-is instead.  The transfer may be
              faster if this option is used when the bandwidth between the
              source and destination machines is higher than the bandwidth to
              disk (especially when the "disk" is actually a networked
              filesystem).  This is the default when both the source and
              destination are specified as local paths.

       -x, --one-file-system
              This tells rsync to avoid crossing a filesystem boundary when
              recursing.  This does not limit the user's ability to specify
              items to copy from multiple filesystems, just rsync's recursion
              through the hierarchy of each directory that the user specified,
              and also the analogous recursion on the receiving side during
              deletion.  Also keep in mind that rsync treats a "bind" mount to
              the same device as being on the same filesystem.

              If this option is repeated, rsync omits all mount-point
              directories from the copy.  Otherwise, it includes an empty
              directory at each mount-point it encounters (using the
              attributes of the mounted directory because those of the
              underlying mount-point directory are inaccessible).

              If rsync has been told to collapse symlinks (via --copy-links or
              --copy-unsafe-links), a symlink to a directory on another device
              is treated like a mount-point.  Symlinks to non-directories are
              unaffected by this option.

       --existing, --ignore-non-existing
              This tells rsync to skip creating files (including directories)
              that do not exist yet on the destination.  If this option is
              combined with the --ignore-existing option, no files will be
              updated (which can be useful if all you want to do is to delete
              extraneous files).

              This tells rsync to skip updating files that already exist on
              the destination (this does not ignore existing directores, or
              nothing would get done).  See also --existing.

              This tells rsync to remove from the sending side the files
              (meaning non-directories) that are a part of the transfer and
              have been successfully duplicated on the receiving side.

              This tells rsync to delete extraneous files from the receiving
              side (ones that aren't on the sending side), but only for the
              directories that are being synchronized.  You must have asked
              rsync to send the whole directory (e.g. "dir" or "dir/") without
              using a wildcard for the directory's contents (e.g. "dir/*")
              since the wildcard is expanded by the shell and rsync thus gets
              a request to transfer individual files, not the files' parent
              directory.  Files that are excluded from transfer are also
              excluded from being deleted unless you use the --delete-excluded
              option or mark the rules as only matching on the sending side
              (see the include/exclude modifiers in the FILTER RULES section).

              Prior to rsync 2.6.7, this option would have no effect unless
              --recursive was in effect.  Beginning with 2.6.7, deletions will
              also occur when --dirs (-d) is in effect, but only for
              directories whose contents are being copied.

              This option can be dangerous if used incorrectly!  It is a very
              good idea to run first using the --dry-run option (-n) to see
              what files would be deleted to make sure important files aren't

              If the sending side detects any I/O errors, then the deletion of
              any files at the destination will be automatically disabled.
              This is to prevent temporary filesystem failures (such as NFS
              errors) on the sending side causing a massive deletion of files
              on the destination.  You can override this with the
              --ignore-errors option.

              The --delete option may be combined with one of the
              --delete-WHEN options without conflict, as well as
              --delete-excluded.  However, if none of the --delete-WHEN
              options are specified, rsync will currently choose the
              --delete-before algorithm.  A future version may change this to
              choose the --delete-during algorithm.  See also --delete-after.

              Request that the file-deletions on the receiving side be done
              before the transfer starts.  This is the default if --delete or
              --delete-excluded is specified without one of the --delete-WHEN
              options.  See --delete (which is implied) for more details on

              Deleting before the transfer is helpful if the filesystem is
              tight for space and removing extraneous files would help to make
              the transfer possible.  However, it does introduce a delay
              before the start of the transfer, and this delay might cause the
              transfer to timeout (if --timeout was specified).

       --delete-during, --del
              Request that the file-deletions on the receiving side be done
              incrementally as the transfer happens.  This is a faster method
              than choosing the before- or after-transfer algorithm, but it is
              only supported beginning with rsync version 2.6.4.  See --delete
              (which is implied) for more details on file-deletion.

              Request that the file-deletions on the receiving side be done
              after the transfer has completed.  This is useful if you are
              sending new per-directory merge files as a part of the transfer
              and you want their exclusions to take effect for the delete
              phase of the current transfer.  See --delete (which is implied)
              for more details on file-deletion.

              In addition to deleting the files on the receiving side that are
              not on the sending side, this tells rsync to also delete any
              files on the receiving side that are excluded (see --exclude).
              See the FILTER RULES section for a way to make individual
              exclusions behave this way on the receiver, and for a way to
              protect files from --delete-excluded.  See --delete (which is
              implied) for more details on file-deletion.

              Tells --delete to go ahead and delete files even when there are
              I/O errors.

              This option tells rsync to delete a non-empty directory when it
              is to be replaced by a non-directory.  This is only relevant if
              deletions are not active (see --delete for details).

              Note for older rsync versions: --force used to still be required
              when using --delete-after, and it used to be non-functional
              unless the --recursive option was also enabled.

              This tells rsync not to delete more than NUM files or
              directories (NUM must be non-zero).  This is useful when
              mirroring very large trees to prevent disasters.

              This tells rsync to avoid transferring any file that is larger
              than the specified SIZE. The SIZE value can be suffixed with a
              string to indicate a size multiplier, and may be a fractional
              value (e.g. "--max-size=1.5m").

              The suffixes are as follows: "K" (or "KiB") is a kibibyte
              (1024), "M" (or "MiB") is a mebibyte (1024*1024), and "G" (or
              "GiB") is a gibibyte (1024*1024*1024).  If you want the
              multiplier to be 1000 instead of 1024, use "KB", "MB", or "GB".
              (Note: lower-case is also accepted for all values.) Finally, if
              the suffix ends in either "+1" or "-1", the value will be offset
              by one byte in the indicated direction.

              Examples: --max-size=1.5mb-1 is 1499999 bytes, and
              --max-size=2g+1 is 2147483649 bytes.

              This tells rsync to avoid transferring any file that is smaller
              than the specified SIZE, which can help in not transferring
              small, junk files.  See the --max-size option for a description
              of SIZE.

       -B, --block-size=BLOCKSIZE
              This forces the block size used in the rsync algorithm to a
              fixed value.  It is normally selected based on the size of each
              file being updated.  See the technical report for details.

       -e, --rsh=COMMAND
              This option allows you to choose an alternative remote shell
              program to use for communication between the local and remote
              copies of rsync. Typically, rsync is configured to use ssh by
              default, but you may prefer to use rsh on a local network.

              If this option is used with [user@]host::module/path, then the
              remote shell COMMAND will be used to run an rsync daemon on the
              remote host, and all data will be transmitted through that
              remote shell connection, rather than through a direct socket
              connection to a running rsync daemon on the remote host.  See
              CONNECTION" above.

              Command-line arguments are permitted in COMMAND provided that
              COMMAND is presented to rsync as a single argument.  You must
              use spaces (not tabs or other whitespace) to separate the
              command and args from each other, and you can use single- and/or
              double-quotes to preserve spaces in an argument (but not
              backslashes).  Note that doubling a single-quote inside a
              single-quoted string gives you a single-quote; likewise for
              double-quotes (though you need to pay attention to which quotes
              your shell is parsing and which quotes rsync is parsing).  Some
                  -e 'ssh -p 2234'
                  -e 'ssh -o "ProxyCommand nohup ssh firewall nc -w1 %h %p"'

              (Note that ssh users can alternately customize site-specific
              connect options in their .ssh/config file.)

              You can also choose the remote shell program using the RSYNC_RSH
              environment variable, which accepts the same range of values as

              See also the --blocking-io option which is affected by this

              Use this to specify what program is to be run on the remote
              machine to start-up rsync.  Often used when rsync is not in the
              default remote-shell's path (e.g.
              --rsync-path=/usr/local/bin/rsync).  Note that PROGRAM is run
              with the help of a shell, so it can be any program, script, or
              command sequence you'd care to run, so long as it does not
              corrupt the standard-in & standard-out that rsync is using to

              One tricky example is to set a different default directory on
              the remote machine for use with the --relative option.  For
                  rsync -avR --rsync-path="cd /a/b && rsync" hst:c/d /e/

       -C, --cvs-exclude
              This is a useful shorthand for excluding a broad range of files
              that you often don't want to transfer between systems. It uses
              the same algorithm that CVS uses to determine if a file should
              be ignored.

              The exclude list is initialized to:
                     RCS SCCS CVS CVS.adm RCSLOG cvslog.* tags TAGS
                     .make.state .nse_depinfo *~ #* .#* ,* _$* *$ *.old *.bak
                     *.BAK *.orig *.rej .del-* *.a *.olb *.o *.obj *.so *.exe
                     *.Z *.elc *.ln core .svn/

              then files listed in a $HOME/.cvsignore are added to the list
              and any files listed in the CVSIGNORE environment variable (all
              cvsignore names are delimited by whitespace).

              Finally, any file is ignored if it is in the same directory as a
              .cvsignore file and matches one of the patterns listed therein.
              Unlike rsync's filter/exclude files, these patterns are split on
              whitespace.  See the cvs(1) manual for more information.

              If you're combining -C with your own --filter rules, you should
              note that these CVS excludes are appended at the end of your own
              rules, regardless of where the -C was placed on the command-
              line.  This makes them a lower priority than any rules you
              specified explicitly.  If you want to control where these CVS
              excludes get inserted into your filter rules, you should omit
              the -C as a command-line option and use a combination of
              --filter=:C and --filter=-C (either on your command-line or by
              putting the ":C" and "-C" rules into a filter file with your
              other rules).  The first option turns on the per-directory
              scanning for the .cvsignore file.  The second option does a one-
              time import of the CVS excludes mentioned above.

       -f, --filter=RULE
              This option allows you to add rules to selectively exclude
              certain files from the list of files to be transferred. This is
              most useful in combination with a recursive transfer.

              You may use as many --filter options on the command line as you
              like to build up the list of files to exclude.

              See the FILTER RULES section for detailed information on this

       -F     The -F option is a shorthand for adding two --filter rules to
              your command.  The first time it is used is a shorthand for this
                 --filter='dir-merge /.rsync-filter'

              This tells rsync to look for per-directory .rsync-filter files
              that have been sprinkled through the hierarchy and use their
              rules to filter the files in the transfer.  If -F is repeated,
              it is a shorthand for this rule:
                 --filter='exclude .rsync-filter'

              This filters out the .rsync-filter files themselves from the

              See the FILTER RULES section for detailed information on how
              these options work.

              This option is a simplified form of the --filter option that
              defaults to an exclude rule and does not allow the full rule-
              parsing syntax of normal filter rules.

              See the FILTER RULES section for detailed information on this

              This option is related to the --exclude option, but it specifies
              a FILE that contains exclude patterns (one per line).  Blank
              lines in the file and lines starting with ';' or '#' are
              ignored.  If FILE is -, the list will be read from standard

              This option is a simplified form of the --filter option that
              defaults to an include rule and does not allow the full rule-
              parsing syntax of normal filter rules.

              See the FILTER RULES section for detailed information on this

              This option is related to the --include option, but it specifies
              a FILE that contains include patterns (one per line).  Blank
              lines in the file and lines starting with ';' or '#' are
              ignored.  If FILE is -, the list will be read from standard

              Using this option allows you to specify the exact list of files
              to transfer (as read from the specified FILE or - for standard
              input).  It also tweaks the default behavior of rsync to make
              transferring just the specified files and directories easier:

              o      The --relative (-R) option is implied, which preserves
                     the path information that is specified for each item in
                     the file (use --no-relative or --no-R if you want to turn
                     that off).

              o      The --dirs (-d) option is implied, which will create
                     directories specified in the list on the destination
                     rather than noisily skipping them (use --no-dirs or
                     --no-d if you want to turn that off).

              o      The --archive (-a) option's behavior does not imply
                     --recursive (-r), so specify it explicitly, if you want

              o      These side-effects change the default state of rsync, so
                     the position of the --files-from option on the command-
                     line has no bearing on how other options are parsed (e.g.
                     -a works the same before or after --files-from, as does
                     --no-R and all other options).

              The file names that are read from the FILE are all relative to
              the source dir -- any leading slashes are removed and no ".."
              references are allowed to go higher than the source dir.  For
              example, take this command:
                 rsync -a --files-from=/tmp/foo /usr remote:/backup

              If /tmp/foo contains the string "bin" (or even "/bin"), the
              /usr/bin directory will be created as /backup/bin on the remote
              host.  If it contains "bin/" (note the trailing slash), the
              immediate contents of the directory would also be sent (without
              needing to be explicitly mentioned in the file -- this began in
              version 2.6.4).  In both cases, if the -r option was enabled,
              that dir's entire hierarchy would also be transferred (keep in
              mind that -r needs to be specified explicitly with --files-from,
              since it is not implied by -a).  Also note that the effect of
              the (enabled by default) --relative option is to duplicate only
              the path info that is read from the file -- it does not force
              the duplication of the source-spec path (/usr in this case).

              In addition, the --files-from file can be read from the remote
              host instead of the local host if you specify a "host:" in front
              of the file (the host must match one end of the transfer).  As a
              short-cut, you can specify just a prefix of ":" to mean "use the
              remote end of the transfer".  For example:
                 rsync -a --files-from=:/path/file-list src:/ /tmp/copy

              This would copy all the files specified in the /path/file-list
              file that was located on the remote "src" host.

       -0, --from0
              This tells rsync that the rules/filenames it reads from a file
              are terminated by a null ('\0') character, not a NL, CR, or
              CR+LF.  This affects --exclude-from, --include-from,
              --files-from, and any merged files specified in a --filter rule.
              It does not affect --cvs-exclude (since all names read from a
              .cvsignore file are split on whitespace).

       -T, --temp-dir=DIR
              This option instructs rsync to use DIR as a scratch directory
              when creating temporary copies of the files transferred on the
              receiving side.  The default behavior is to create each
              temporary file in the same directory as the associated
              destination file.

              This option is most often used when the receiving disk partition
              does not have enough free space to hold a copy of the largest
              file in the transfer.  In this case (i.e. when the scratch
              directory in on a different disk partition), rsync will not be
              able to rename each received temporary file over the top of the
              associated destination file, but instead must copy it into
              place.  Rsync does this by copying the file over the top of the
              destination file, which means that the destination file will
              contain truncated data during this copy.  If this were not done
              this way (even if the destination file were first removed, the
              data locally copied to a temporary file in the destination
              directory, and then renamed into place) it would be possible for
              the old file to continue taking up disk space (if someone had it
              open), and thus there might not be enough room to fit the new
              version on the disk at the same time.

              If you are using this option for reasons other than a shortage
              of disk space, you may wish to combine it with the
              --delay-updates option, which will ensure that all copied files
              get put into subdirectories in the destination hierarchy,
              awaiting the end of the transfer.  If you don't have enough room
              to duplicate all the arriving files on the destination
              partition, another way to tell rsync that you aren't overly
              concerned about disk space is to use the --partial-dir option
              with a relative path; because this tells rsync that it is OK to
              stash off a copy of a single file in a subdir in the destination
              hierarchy, rsync will use the partial-dir as a staging area to
              bring over the copied file, and then rename it into place from
              there. (Specifying a --partial-dir with an absolute path does
              not have this side-effect.)

       -y, --fuzzy
              This option tells rsync that it should look for a basis file for
              any destination file that is missing.  The current algorithm
              looks in the same directory as the destination file for either a
              file that has an identical size and modified-time, or a
              similarly-named file.  If found, rsync uses the fuzzy basis file
              to try to speed up the transfer.

              Note that the use of the --delete option might get rid of any
              potential fuzzy-match files, so either use --delete-after or
              specify some filename exclusions if you need to prevent this.

              This option instructs rsync to use DIR on the destination
              machine as an additional hierarchy to compare destination files
              against doing transfers (if the files are missing in the
              destination directory).  If a file is found in DIR that is
              identical to the sender's file, the file will NOT be transferred
              to the destination directory.  This is useful for creating a
              sparse backup of just files that have changed from an earlier

              Beginning in version 2.6.4, multiple --compare-dest directories
              may be provided, which will cause rsync to search the list in
              the order specified for an exact match.  If a match is found
              that differs only in attributes, a local copy is made and the
              attributes updated.  If a match is not found, a basis file from
              one of the DIRs will be selected to try to speed up the

              If DIR is a relative path, it is relative to the destination
              directory.  See also --copy-dest and --link-dest.

              This option behaves like --compare-dest, but rsync will also
              copy unchanged files found in DIR to the destination directory
              using a local copy.  This is useful for doing transfers to a new
              destination while leaving existing files intact, and then doing
              a flash-cutover when all files have been successfully

              Multiple --copy-dest directories may be provided, which will
              cause rsync to search the list in the order specified for an
              unchanged file.  If a match is not found, a basis file from one
              of the DIRs will be selected to try to speed up the transfer.

              If DIR is a relative path, it is relative to the destination
              directory.  See also --compare-dest and --link-dest.

              This option behaves like --copy-dest, but unchanged files are
              hard linked from DIR to the destination directory.  The files
              must be identical in all preserved attributes (e.g. permissions,
              possibly ownership) in order for the files to be linked
              together.  An example:
                rsync -av --link-dest=$PWD/prior_dir host:src_dir/ new_dir/

              Beginning in version 2.6.4, multiple --link-dest directories may
              be provided, which will cause rsync to search the list in the
              order specified for an exact match.  If a match is found that
              differs only in attributes, a local copy is made and the
              attributes updated.  If a match is not found, a basis file from
              one of the DIRs will be selected to try to speed up the

              Note that if you combine this option with --ignore-times, rsync
              will not link any files together because it only links identical
              files together as a substitute for transferring the file, never
              as an additional check after the file is updated.

              If DIR is a relative path, it is relative to the destination
              directory.  See also --compare-dest and --copy-dest.

              Note that rsync versions prior to 2.6.1 had a bug that could
              prevent --link-dest from working properly for a non-super-user
              when -o was specified (or implied by -a).  You can work-around
              this bug by avoiding the -o option when sending to an old rsync.

       -z, --compress
              With this option, rsync compresses the file data as it is sent
              to the destination machine, which reduces the amount of data
              being transmitted -- something that is useful over a slow

              Note that this option typically achieves better compression
              ratios than can be achieved by using a compressing remote shell
              or a compressing transport because it takes advantage of the
              implicit information in the matching data blocks that are not
              explicitly sent over the connection.

              Explicitly set the compression level to use (see --compress)
              instead of letting it default.  If NUM is non-zero, the
              --compress option is implied.

              With this option rsync will transfer numeric group and user IDs
              rather than using user and group names and mapping them at both

              By default rsync will use the username and groupname to
              determine what ownership to give files. The special uid 0 and
              the special group 0 are never mapped via user/group names even
              if the --numeric-ids option is not specified.

              If a user or group has no name on the source system or it has no
              match on the destination system, then the numeric ID from the
              source system is used instead.  See also the comments on the
              "use chroot" setting in the rsyncd.conf manpage for information
              on how the chroot setting affects rsync's ability to look up the
              names of the users and groups and what you can do about it.

              This option allows you to set a maximum I/O timeout in seconds.
              If no data is transferred for the specified time then rsync will
              exit. The default is 0, which means no timeout.

              By default rsync will bind to the wildcard address when
              connecting to an rsync daemon.  The --address option allows you
              to specify a specific IP address (or hostname) to bind to.  See
              also this option in the --daemon mode section.

              This specifies an alternate TCP port number to use rather than
              the default of 873.  This is only needed if you are using the
              double-colon (::) syntax to connect with an rsync daemon (since
              the URL syntax has a way to specify the port as a part of the
              URL).  See also this option in the --daemon mode section.

              This option can provide endless fun for people who like to tune
              their systems to the utmost degree. You can set all sorts of
              socket options which may make transfers faster (or slower!).
              Read the man page for the setsockopt() system call for details
              on some of the options you may be able to set. By default no
              special socket options are set. This only affects direct socket
              connections to a remote rsync daemon.  This option also exists
              in the --daemon mode section.

              This tells rsync to use blocking I/O when launching a remote
              shell transport.  If the remote shell is either rsh or remsh,
              rsync defaults to using blocking I/O, otherwise it defaults to
              using non-blocking I/O.  (Note that ssh prefers non-blocking

       -i, --itemize-changes
              Requests a simple itemized list of the changes that are being
              made to each file, including attribute changes.  This is exactly
              the same as specifying --out-format='%i %n%L'.  If you repeat
              the option, unchanged files will also be output, but only if the
              receiving rsync is at least version 2.6.7 (you can use -vv with
              older versions of rsync, but that also turns on the output of
              other verbose messages).

              The "%i" escape has a cryptic output that is 9 letters long.
              The general format is like the string YXcstpogz, where Y is
              replaced by the type of update being done, X is replaced by the
              file-type, and the other letters represent attributes that may
              be output if they are being modified.

              The update types that replace the Y are as follows:

              o      A < means that a file is being transferred to the remote
                     host (sent).

              o      A > means that a file is being transferred to the local
                     host (received).

              o      A c means that a local change/creation is occurring for
                     the item (such as the creation of a directory or the
                     changing of a symlink, etc.).

              o      A h means that the item is a hard link to another item
                     (requires --hard-links).

              o      A . means that the item is not being updated (though it
                     might have attributes that are being modified).

              The file-types that replace the X are: f for a file, a d for a
              directory, an L for a symlink, a D for a device, and a S for a
              special file (e.g. named sockets and fifos).

              The other letters in the string above are the actual letters
              that will be output if the associated attribute for the item is
              being updated or a "." for no change.  Three exceptions to this
              are: (1) a newly created item replaces each letter with a "+",
              (2) an identical item replaces the dots with spaces, and (3) an
              unknown attribute replaces each letter with a "?" (this can
              happen when talking to an older rsync).

              The attribute that is associated with each letter is as follows:

              o      A c means the checksum of the file is different and will
                     be updated by the file transfer (requires --checksum).

              o      A s means the size of the file is different and will be
                     updated by the file transfer.

              o      A t means the modification time is different and is being
                     updated to the sender's value (requires --times).  An
                     alternate value of T means that the time will be set to
                     the transfer time, which happens anytime a symlink is
                     transferred, or when a file or device is transferred
                     without --times.

              o      A p means the permissions are different and are being
                     updated to the sender's value (requires --perms).

              o      An o means the owner is different and is being updated to
                     the sender's value (requires --owner and super-user

              o      A g means the group is different and is being updated to
                     the sender's value (requires --group and the authority to
                     set the group).

              o      The z slot is reserved for future use.

              One other output is possible:  when deleting files, the "%i"
              will output the string "*deleting" for each item that is being
              removed (assuming that you are talking to a recent enough rsync
              that it logs deletions instead of outputting them as a verbose

              This allows you to specify exactly what the rsync client outputs
              to the user on a per-update basis.  The format is a text string
              containing embedded single-character escape sequences prefixed
              with a percent (%) character.  For a list of the possible escape
              characters, see the "log format" setting in the rsyncd.conf

              Specifying this option will mention each file, dir, etc. that
              gets updated in a significant way (a transferred file, a
              recreated symlink/device, or a touched directory).  In addition,
              if the itemize-changes escape (%i) is included in the string,
              the logging of names increases to mention any item that is
              changed in any way (as long as the receiving side is at least
              2.6.4).  See the --itemize-changes option for a description of
              the output of "%i".

              The --verbose option implies a format of "%n%L", but you can use
              --out-format without --verbose if you like, or you can override
              the format of its per-file output using this option.

              Rsync will output the out-format string prior to a file's
              transfer unless one of the transfer-statistic escapes is
              requested, in which case the logging is done at the end of the
              file's transfer.  When this late logging is in effect and
              --progress is also specified, rsync will also output the name of
              the file being transferred prior to its progress information
              (followed, of course, by the out-format output).

              This option causes rsync to log what it is doing to a file.
              This is similar to the logging that a daemon does, but can be
              requested for the client side and/or the server side of a non-
              daemon transfer.  If specified as a client option, transfer
              logging will be enabled with a default format of "%i %n%L".  See
              the --log-file-format option if you wish to override this.

              Here's a example command that requests the remote side to log
              what is happening:

                rsync -av --rsync-path="rsync --log-file=/tmp/rlog" src/ dest/

              This is very useful if you need to debug why a connection is
              closing unexpectedly.

              This allows you to specify exactly what per-update logging is
              put into the file specified by the --log-file option (which must
              also be specified for this option to have any effect).  If you
              specify an empty string, updated files will not be mentioned in
              the log file.  For a list of the possible escape characters, see
              the "log format" setting in the rsyncd.conf manpage.

              This tells rsync to print a verbose set of statistics on the
              file transfer, allowing you to tell how effective the rsync
              algorithm is for your data.

              The current statistics are as follows:

              o      Number of files is the count of all "files" (in the
                     generic sense), which includes directories, symlinks,

              o      Number of files transferred is the count of normal files
                     that were updated via the rsync algorithm, which does not
                     include created dirs, symlinks, etc.

              o      Total file size is the total sum of all file sizes in the
                     transfer.  This does not count any size for directories
                     or special files, but does include the size of symlinks.

              o      Total transferred file size is the total sum of all files
                     sizes for just the transferred files.

              o      Literal data is how much unmatched file-update data we
                     had to send to the receiver for it to recreate the
                     updated files.

              o      Matched data is how much data the receiver got locally
                     when recreating the updated files.

              o      File list size is how big the file-list data was when the
                     sender sent it to the receiver.  This is smaller than the
                     in-memory size for the file list due to some compressing
                     of duplicated data when rsync sends the list.

              o      File list generation time is the number of seconds that
                     the sender spent creating the file list.  This requires a
                     modern rsync on the sending side for this to be present.

              o      File list transfer time is the number of seconds that the
                     sender spent sending the file list to the receiver.

              o      Total bytes sent is the count of all the bytes that rsync
                     sent from the client side to the server side.

              o      Total bytes received is the count of all non-message
                     bytes that rsync received by the client side from the
                     server side.  "Non-message" bytes means that we don't
                     count the bytes for a verbose message that the server
                     sent to us, which makes the stats more consistent.

       -8, --8-bit-output
              This tells rsync to leave all high-bit characters unescaped in
              the output instead of trying to test them to see if they're
              valid in the current locale and escaping the invalid ones.  All
              control characters (but never tabs) are always escaped,
              regardless of this option's setting.

              The escape idiom that started in 2.6.7 is to output a literal
              backslash (\) and a hash (#), followed by exactly 3 octal
              digits.  For example, a newline would output as "\#012".  A
              literal backslash that is in a filename is not escaped unless it
              is followed by a hash and 3 digits (0-9).

       -h, --human-readable
              Output numbers in a more human-readable format.  This makes big
              numbers output using larger units, with a K, M, or G suffix.  If
              this option was specified once, these units are K (1000), M
              (1000*1000), and G (1000*1000*1000); if the option is repeated,
              the units are powers of 1024 instead of 1000.

              By default, rsync will delete any partially transferred file if
              the transfer is interrupted. In some circumstances it is more
              desirable to keep partially transferred files. Using the
              --partial option tells rsync to keep the partial file which
              should make a subsequent transfer of the rest of the file much

              A better way to keep partial files than the --partial option is
              to specify a DIR that will be used to hold the partial data
              (instead of writing it out to the destination file).  On the
              next transfer, rsync will use a file found in this dir as data
              to speed up the resumption of the transfer and then delete it
              after it has served its purpose.

              Note that if --whole-file is specified (or implied), any
              partial-dir file that is found for a file that is being updated
              will simply be removed (since rsync is sending files without
              using the incremental rsync algorithm).

              Rsync will create the DIR if it is missing (just the last dir --
              not the whole path).  This makes it easy to use a relative path
              (such as "--partial-dir=.rsync-partial") to have rsync create
              the partial-directory in the destination file's directory when
              needed, and then remove it again when the partial file is

              If the partial-dir value is not an absolute path, rsync will add
              an exclude rule at the end of all your existing excludes.  This
              will prevent the sending of any partial-dir files that may exist
              on the sending side, and will also prevent the untimely deletion
              of partial-dir items on the receiving side.  An example: the
              above --partial-dir option would add the equivalent of
              "--exclude=.rsync-partial/" at the end of any other filter

              If you are supplying your own exclude rules, you may need to add
              your own exclude/hide/protect rule for the partial-dir because
              (1) the auto-added rule may be ineffective at the end of your
              other rules, or (2) you may wish to override rsync's exclude
              choice.  For instance, if you want to make rsync clean-up any
              left-over partial-dirs that may be lying around, you should
              specify --delete-after and add a "risk" filter rule, e.g.  -f 'R
              .rsync-partial/'.  (Avoid using --delete-before or
              --delete-during unless you don't need rsync to use any of the
              left-over partial-dir data during the current run.)

              IMPORTANT: the --partial-dir should not be writable by other
              users or it is a security risk.  E.g. AVOID "/tmp".

              You can also set the partial-dir value the RSYNC_PARTIAL_DIR
              environment variable.  Setting this in the environment does not
              force --partial to be enabled, but rather it affects where
              partial files go when --partial is specified.  For instance,
              instead of using --partial-dir=.rsync-tmp along with --progress,
              you could set RSYNC_PARTIAL_DIR=.rsync-tmp in your environment
              and then just use the -P option to turn on the use of the
              .rsync-tmp dir for partial transfers.  The only times that the
              --partial option does not look for this environment value are
              (1) when --inplace was specified (since --inplace conflicts with
              --partial-dir), and (2) when --delay-updates was specified (see

              For the purposes of the daemon-config's "refuse options"
              setting, --partial-dir does not imply --partial.  This is so
              that a refusal of the --partial option can be used to disallow
              the overwriting of destination files with a partial transfer,
              while still allowing the safer idiom provided by --partial-dir.

              This option puts the temporary file from each updated file into
              a holding directory until the end of the transfer, at which time
              all the files are renamed into place in rapid succession.  This
              attempts to make the updating of the files a little more atomic.
              By default the files are placed into a directory named ".~tmp~"
              in each file's destination directory, but if you've specified
              the --partial-dir option, that directory will be used instead.
              See the comments in the --partial-dir section for a discussion
              of how this ".~tmp~" dir will be excluded from the transfer, and
              what you can do if you wnat rsync to cleanup old ".~tmp~" dirs
              that might be lying around.  Conflicts with --inplace and

              This option uses more memory on the receiving side (one bit per
              file transferred) and also requires enough free disk space on
              the receiving side to hold an additional copy of all the updated
              files.  Note also that you should not use an absolute path to
              --partial-dir unless (1) there is no chance of any of the files
              in the transfer having the same name (since all the updated
              files will be put into a single directory if the path is
              absolute) and (2) there are no mount points in the hierarchy
              (since the delayed updates will fail if they can't be renamed
              into place).

              See also the "atomic-rsync" perl script in the "support" subdir
              for an update algorithm that is even more atomic (it uses
              --link-dest and a parallel hierarchy of files).

       -m, --prune-empty-dirs
              This option tells the receiving rsync to get rid of empty
              directories from the file-list, including nested directories
              that have no non-directory children.  This is useful for
              avoiding the creation of a bunch of useless directories when the
              sending rsync is recursively scanning a hierarchy of files using
              include/exclude/filter rules.

              Because the file-list is actually being pruned, this option also
              affects what directories get deleted when a delete is active.
              However, keep in mind that excluded files and directories can
              prevent existing items from being deleted (because an exclude
              hides source files and protects destination files).

              You can prevent the pruning of certain empty directories from
              the file-list by using a global "protect" filter.  For instance,
              this option would ensure that the directory "emptydir" was kept
              in the file-list:
              --filter 'protect emptydir/'

              Here's an example that copies all .pdf files in a hierarchy,
              only creating the necessary destination directories to hold the
              .pdf files, and ensures that any superfluous files and
              directories in the destination are removed (note the hide filter
              of non-directories being used instead of an exclude):
              rsync -avm --del --include='*.pdf' -f 'hide,! */' src/ dest

              If you didn't want to remove superfluous destination files, the
              more time-honored options of "--include='*/' --exclude='*'"
              would work fine in place of the hide-filter (if that is more
              natural to you).

              This option tells rsync to print information showing the
              progress of the transfer. This gives a bored user something to
              watch.  Implies --verbose if it wasn't already specified.

              While rsync is transferring a regular file, it updates a
              progress line that looks like this:

                    782448  63%  110.64kB/s    0:00:04

              In this example, the receiver has reconstructed 782448 bytes or
              63% of the sender's file, which is being reconstructed at a rate
              of 110.64 kilobytes per second, and the transfer will finish in
              4 seconds if the current rate is maintained until the end.

              These statistics can be misleading if the incremental transfer
              algorithm is in use.  For example, if the sender's file consists
              of the basis file followed by additional data, the reported rate
              will probably drop dramatically when the receiver gets to the
              literal data, and the transfer will probably take much longer to
              finish than the receiver estimated as it was finishing the
              matched part of the file.

              When the file transfer finishes, rsync replaces the progress
              line with a summary line that looks like this:

                   1238099 100%  146.38kB/s    0:00:08  (xfer#5, to-check=169/396)

              In this example, the file was 1238099 bytes long in total, the
              average rate of transfer for the whole file was 146.38 kilobytes
              per second over the 8 seconds that it took to complete, it was
              the 5th transfer of a regular file during the current rsync
              session, and there are 169 more files for the receiver to check
              (to see if they are up-to-date or not) remaining out of the 396
              total files in the file-list.

       -P     The -P option is equivalent to --partial --progress.  Its
              purpose is to make it much easier to specify these two options
              for a long transfer that may be interrupted.

              This option allows you to provide a password in a file for
              accessing a remote rsync daemon. Note that this option is only
              useful when accessing an rsync daemon using the built in
              transport, not when using a remote shell as the transport. The
              file must not be world readable. It should contain just the
              password as a single line.

              This option will cause the source files to be listed instead of
              transferred.  This option is inferred if there is a single
              source arg and no destination specified, so its main uses are:
              (1) to turn a copy command that includes a destination arg into
              a file-listing command, (2) to be able to specify more than one
              local source arg (note: be sure to include the destination), or
              (3) to avoid the automatically added "-r --exclude='/*/*'"
              options that rsync usually uses as a compatibility kluge when
              generating a non-recursive listing.  Caution: keep in mind that
              a source arg with a wild-card is expanded by the shell into
              multiple args, so it is never safe to try to list such an arg
              without using this option.  For example:

                  rsync -av --list-only foo* dest/

              This option allows you to specify a maximum transfer rate in
              kilobytes per second. This option is most effective when using
              rsync with large files (several megabytes and up). Due to the
              nature of rsync transfers, blocks of data are sent, then if
              rsync determines the transfer was too fast, it will wait before
              sending the next data block. The result is an average transfer
              rate equaling the specified limit. A value of zero specifies no

              This option allows you to specify at what time to stop rsync, in
              year-month-dayThour:minute numeric format (e.g.
              2004-12-31T23:59).  You can specify a 2 or 4-digit year.  You
              can also leave off various items and the result will be the next
              possible time that matches the specified data.  For example,
              "1-30" specifies the next January 30th (at midnight), "04:00"
              specifies the next 4am, "1" specifies the next 1st of the month
              at midnight, and ":59" specifies the next 59th minute after the
              hour.  If you prefer, you may separate the date numbers using
              slashes instead of dashes.

              This option allows you to specify the maximum number of minutes
              rsync will run for.

              Record a file that can later be applied to another identical
              destination with --read-batch. See the "BATCH MODE" section for
              details, and also the --only-write-batch option.

              Works like --write-batch, except that no updates are made on the
              destination system when creating the batch.  This lets you
              transport the changes to the destination system via some other
              means and then apply the changes via --read-batch.

              Note that you can feel free to write the batch directly to some
              portable media: if this media fills to capacity before the end
              of the transfer, you can just apply that partial transfer to the
              destination and repeat the whole process to get the rest of the
              changes (as long as you don't mind a partially updated
              destination system while the multi-update cycle is happening).

              Also note that you only save bandwidth when pushing changes to a
              remote system because this allows the batched data to be
              diverted from the sender into the batch file without having to
              flow over the wire to the receiver (when pulling, the sender is
              remote, and thus can't write the batch).

              Apply all of the changes stored in FILE, a file previously
              generated by --write-batch.  If FILE is -, the batch data will
              be read from standard input.  See the "BATCH MODE" section for

              Force an older protocol version to be used.  This is useful for
              creating a batch file that is compatible with an older version
              of rsync.  For instance, if rsync 2.6.4 is being used with the
              --write-batch option, but rsync 2.6.3 is what will be used to
              run the --read-batch option, you should use "--protocol=28" when
              creating the batch file to force the older protocol version to
              be used in the batch file (assuming you can't upgrade the rsync
              on the reading system).

       -4, --ipv4 or -6, --ipv6
              Tells rsync to prefer IPv4/IPv6 when creating sockets.  This
              only affects sockets that rsync has direct control over, such as
              the outgoing socket when directly contacting an rsync daemon.
              See also these options in the --daemon mode section.

              Set the MD4 checksum seed to the integer NUM.  This 4 byte
              checksum seed is included in each block and file MD4 checksum
              calculation.  By default the checksum seed is generated by the
              server and defaults to the current time() .  This option is used
              to set a specific checksum seed, which is useful for
              applications that want repeatable block and file checksums, or
              in the case where the user wants a more random checksum seed.
              Note that setting NUM to 0 causes rsync to use the default of
              time() for checksum seed.

       The options allowed when starting an rsync daemon are as follows:

              This tells rsync that it is to run as a daemon.  The daemon you
              start running may be accessed using an rsync client using the
              host::module or rsync://host/module/ syntax.

              If standard input is a socket then rsync will assume that it is
              being run via inetd, otherwise it will detach from the current
              terminal and become a background daemon.  The daemon will read
              the config file (rsyncd.conf) on each connect made by a client
              and respond to requests accordingly.  See the rsyncd.conf(5) man
              page for more details.

              By default rsync will bind to the wildcard address when run as a
              daemon with the --daemon option.  The --address option allows
              you to specify a specific IP address (or hostname) to bind to.
              This makes virtual hosting possible in conjunction with the
              --config option.  See also the "address" global option in the
              rsyncd.conf manpage.

              This option allows you to specify a maximum transfer rate in
              kilobytes per second for the data the daemon sends.  The client
              can still specify a smaller --bwlimit value, but their requested
              value will be rounded down if they try to exceed it.  See the
              client version of this option (above) for some extra details.

              This specifies an alternate config file than the default.  This
              is only relevant when --daemon is specified.  The default is
              /usr/local/etc/rsyncd.conf unless the daemon is running over a
              remote shell program and the remote user is not the super-user;
              in that case the default is rsyncd.conf in the current directory
              (typically $HOME).

              When running as a daemon, this option instructs rsync to not
              detach itself and become a background process.  This option is
              required when running as a service on Cygwin, and may also be
              useful when rsync is supervised by a program such as daemontools
              or AIX's System Resource Controller.  --no-detach is also
              recommended when rsync is run under a debugger.  This option has
              no effect if rsync is run from inetd or sshd.

              This specifies an alternate TCP port number for the daemon to
              listen on rather than the default of 873.  See also the "port"
              global option in the rsyncd.conf manpage.

              This option tells the rsync daemon to use the given log-file
              name instead of using the "log file" setting in the config file.

              This option tells the rsync daemon to use the given FORMAT
              string instead of using the "log format" setting in the config
              file.  It also enables "transfer logging" unless the string is
              empty, in which case transfer logging is turned off.

              This overrides the socket options setting in the rsyncd.conf
              file and has the same syntax.

       -v, --verbose
              This option increases the amount of information the daemon logs
              during its startup phase.  After the client connects, the
              daemon's verbosity level will be controlled by the options that
              the client used and the "max verbosity" setting in the module's
              config section.

       -4, --ipv4 or -6, --ipv6
              Tells rsync to prefer IPv4/IPv6 when creating the incoming
              sockets that the rsync daemon will use to listen for
              connections.  One of these options may be required in older
              versions of Linux to work around an IPv6 bug in the kernel (if
              you see an "address already in use" error when nothing else is
              using the port, try specifying --ipv6 or --ipv4 when starting
              the daemon).

       -h, --help
              When specified after --daemon, print a short help page
              describing the options available for starting an rsync daemon.

       The filter rules allow for flexible selection of which files to
       transfer (include) and which files to skip (exclude).  The rules either
       directly specify include/exclude patterns or they specify a way to
       acquire more include/exclude patterns (e.g. to read them from a file).

       As the list of files/directories to transfer is built, rsync checks
       each name to be transferred against the list of include/exclude
       patterns in turn, and the first matching pattern is acted on:  if it is
       an exclude pattern, then that file is skipped; if it is an include
       pattern then that filename is not skipped; if no matching pattern is
       found, then the filename is not skipped.

       Rsync builds an ordered list of filter rules as specified on the
       command-line.  Filter rules have the following syntax:


       You have your choice of using either short or long RULE names, as
       described below.  If you use a short-named rule, the ',' separating the
       RULE from the MODIFIERS is optional.  The PATTERN or FILENAME that
       follows (when present) must come after either a single space or an
       underscore (_).  Here are the available rule prefixes:

              exclude, - specifies an exclude pattern.
              include, + specifies an include pattern.
              merge, . specifies a merge-file to read for more rules.
              dir-merge, : specifies a per-directory merge-file.
              hide, H specifies a pattern for hiding files from the transfer.
              show, S files that match the pattern are not hidden.
              protect, P specifies a pattern for protecting files from
              risk, R files that match the pattern are not protected.
              clear, ! clears the current include/exclude list (takes no arg)

       When rules are being read from a file, empty lines are ignored, as are
       comment lines that start with a "#".

       Note that the --include/--exclude command-line options do not allow the
       full range of rule parsing as described above -- they only allow the
       specification of include/exclude patterns plus a "!" token to clear the
       list (and the normal comment parsing when rules are read from a file).
       If a pattern does not begin with "- " (dash, space) or "+ " (plus,
       space), then the rule will be interpreted as if "+ " (for an include
       option) or "- " (for an exclude option) were prefixed to the string.  A
       --filter option, on the other hand, must always contain either a short
       or long rule name at the start of the rule.

       Note also that the --filter, --include, and --exclude options take one
       rule/pattern each. To add multiple ones, you can repeat the options on
       the command-line, use the merge-file syntax of the --filter option, or
       the --include-from/--exclude-from options.

       You can include and exclude files by specifying patterns using the "+",
       "-", etc. filter rules (as introduced in the FILTER RULES section
       above).  The include/exclude rules each specify a pattern that is
       matched against the names of the files that are going to be
       transferred.  These patterns can take several forms:

       o      if the pattern starts with a / then it is anchored to a
              particular spot in the hierarchy of files, otherwise it is
              matched against the end of the pathname.  This is similar to a
              leading ^ in regular expressions.  Thus "/foo" would match a
              file named "foo" at either the "root of the transfer" (for a
              global rule) or in the merge-file's directory (for a per-
              directory rule).  An unqualified "foo" would match any file or
              directory named "foo" anywhere in the tree because the algorithm
              is applied recursively from the top down; it behaves as if each
              path component gets a turn at being the end of the file name.
              Even the unanchored "sub/foo" would match at any point in the
              hierarchy where a "foo" was found within a directory named
              "sub".  See the section on ANCHORING INCLUDE/EXCLUDE PATTERNS
              for a full discussion of how to specify a pattern that matches
              at the root of the transfer.

       o      if the pattern ends with a / then it will only match a
              directory, not a file, link, or device.

       o      rsync chooses between doing a simple string match and wildcard
              matching by checking if the pattern contains one of these three
              wildcard characters: '*', '?', and '[' .

       o      a '*' matches any non-empty path component (it stops at

       o      use '**' to match anything, including slashes.

       o      a '?' matches any character except a slash (/).

       o      a '[' introduces a character class, such as [a-z] or

       o      in a wildcard pattern, a backslash can be used to escape a
              wildcard character, but it is matched literally when no
              wildcards are present.

       o      if the pattern contains a / (not counting a trailing /) or a
              "**", then it is matched against the full pathname, including
              any leading directories. If the pattern doesn't contain a / or a
              "**", then it is matched only against the final component of the
              filename.  (Remember that the algorithm is applied recursively
              so "full filename" can actually be any portion of a path from
              the starting directory on down.)

       o      a trailing "dir_name/***" will match both the directory (as if
              "dir_name/" had been specified) and all the files in the
              directory (as if "dir_name/**" had been specified).  (This
              behavior is new for version 2.6.7.)

       Note that, when using the --recursive (-r) option (which is implied by
       -a), every subcomponent of every path is visited from the top down, so
       include/exclude patterns get applied recursively to each subcomponent's
       full name (e.g. to include "/foo/bar/baz" the subcomponents "/foo" and
       "/foo/bar" must not be excluded).  The exclude patterns actually short-
       circuit the directory traversal stage when rsync finds the files to
       send.  If a pattern excludes a particular parent directory, it can
       render a deeper include pattern ineffectual because rsync did not
       descend through that excluded section of the hierarchy.  This is
       particularly important when using a trailing '*' rule.  For instance,
       this won't work:

              + /some/path/this-file-will-not-be-found
              + /file-is-included
              - *

       This fails because the parent directory "some" is excluded by the '*'
       rule, so rsync never visits any of the files in the "some" or
       "some/path" directories.  One solution is to ask for all directories in
       the hierarchy to be included by using a single rule: "+ */" (put it
       somewhere before the "- *" rule), and perhaps use the
       --prune-empty-dirs option.  Another solution is to add specific include
       rules for all the parent dirs that need to be visited.  For instance,
       this set of rules works fine:

              + /some/
              + /some/path/
              + /some/path/this-file-is-found
              + /file-also-included
              - *

       Here are some examples of exclude/include matching:

       o      "- *.o" would exclude all filenames matching *.o

       o      "- /foo" would exclude a file (or directory) named foo in the
              transfer-root directory

       o      "- foo/" would exclude any directory named foo

       o      "- /foo/*/bar" would exclude any file named bar which is at two
              levels below a directory named foo in the transfer-root

       o      "- /foo/**/bar" would exclude any file named bar two or more
              levels below a directory named foo in the transfer-root

       o      The combination of "+ */", "+ *.c", and "- *" would include all
              directories and C source files but nothing else (see also the
              --prune-empty-dirs option)

       o      The combination of "+ foo/", "+ foo/bar.c", and "- *" would
              include only the foo directory and foo/bar.c (the foo directory
              must be explicitly included or it would be excluded by the "*")

       You can merge whole files into your filter rules by specifying either a
       merge (.) or a dir-merge (:) filter rule (as introduced in the FILTER
       RULES section above).

       There are two kinds of merged files -- single-instance ('.') and per-
       directory (':').  A single-instance merge file is read one time, and
       its rules are incorporated into the filter list in the place of the "."
       rule.  For per-directory merge files, rsync will scan every directory
       that it traverses for the named file, merging its contents when the
       file exists into the current list of inherited rules.  These per-
       directory rule files must be created on the sending side because it is
       the sending side that is being scanned for the available files to
       transfer.  These rule files may also need to be transferred to the
       receiving side if you want them to affect what files don't get deleted

       Some examples:

              merge /usr/local/etc/rsync/default.rules
              . /usr/local/etc/rsync/default.rules
              dir-merge .per-dir-filter
              dir-merge,n- .non-inherited-per-dir-excludes
              :n- .non-inherited-per-dir-excludes

       The following modifiers are accepted after a merge or dir-merge rule:

       o      A - specifies that the file should consist of only exclude
              patterns, with no other rule-parsing except for in-file

       o      A + specifies that the file should consist of only include
              patterns, with no other rule-parsing except for in-file

       o      A C is a way to specify that the file should be read in a CVS-
              compatible manner.  This turns on 'n', 'w', and '-', but also
              allows the list-clearing token (!) to be specified.  If no
              filename is provided, ".cvsignore" is assumed.

       o      A e will exclude the merge-file name from the transfer; e.g.
              "dir-merge,e .rules" is like "dir-merge .rules" and "- .rules".

       o      An n specifies that the rules are not inherited by

       o      A w specifies that the rules are word-split on whitespace
              instead of the normal line-splitting.  This also turns off
              comments.  Note: the space that separates the prefix from the
              rule is treated specially, so "- foo + bar" is parsed as two
              rules (assuming that prefix-parsing wasn't also disabled).

       o      You may also specify any of the modifiers for the "+" or "-"
              rules (below) in order to have the rules that are read in from
              the file default to having that modifier set.  For instance,
              "merge,-/ .excl" would treat the contents of .excl as absolute-
              path excludes, while "dir-merge,s .filt" and ":sC" would each
              make all their per-directory rules apply only on the sending

       The following modifiers are accepted after a "+" or "-":

       o      A "/" specifies that the include/exclude rule should be matched
              against the absolute pathname of the current item.  For example,
              "-/ /usr/local/etc/passwd" would exclude the passwd file any
              time the transfer was sending files from the "/etc" directory,
              and "-/ subdir/foo" would always exclude "foo" when it is in a
              dir named "subdir", even if "foo" is at the root of the current

       o      A "!" specifies that the include/exclude should take effect if
              the pattern fails to match.  For instance, "-! */" would exclude
              all non-directories.

       o      A C is used to indicate that all the global CVS-exclude rules
              should be inserted as excludes in place of the "-C".  No arg
              should follow.

       o      An s is used to indicate that the rule applies to the sending
              side.  When a rule affects the sending side, it prevents files
              from being transferred.  The default is for a rule to affect
              both sides unless --delete-excluded was specified, in which case
              default rules become sender-side only.  See also the hide (H)
              and show (S) rules, which are an alternate way to specify
              sending-side includes/excludes.

       o      An r is used to indicate that the rule applies to the receiving
              side.  When a rule affects the receiving side, it prevents files
              from being deleted.  See the s modifier for more info.  See also
              the protect (P) and risk (R) rules, which are an alternate way
              to specify receiver-side includes/excludes.

       Per-directory rules are inherited in all subdirectories of the
       directory where the merge-file was found unless the 'n' modifier was
       used.  Each subdirectory's rules are prefixed to the inherited per-
       directory rules from its parents, which gives the newest rules a higher
       priority than the inherited rules.  The entire set of dir-merge rules
       are grouped together in the spot where the merge-file was specified, so
       it is possible to override dir-merge rules via a rule that got
       specified earlier in the list of global rules.  When the list-clearing
       rule ("!") is read from a per-directory file, it only clears the
       inherited rules for the current merge file.

       Another way to prevent a single rule from a dir-merge file from being
       inherited is to anchor it with a leading slash.  Anchored rules in a
       per-directory merge-file are relative to the merge-file's directory, so
       a pattern "/foo" would only match the file "foo" in the directory where
       the dir-merge filter file was found.

       Here's an example filter file which you'd specify via --filter=".

              merge /home/user/.global-filter
              - *.gz
              dir-merge .rules
              + *.[ch]
              - *.o

       This will merge the contents of the /home/user/.global-filter file at
       the start of the list and also turns the ".rules" filename into a per-
       directory filter file.  All rules read in prior to the start of the
       directory scan follow the global anchoring rules (i.e. a leading slash
       matches at the root of the transfer).

       If a per-directory merge-file is specified with a path that is a parent
       directory of the first transfer directory, rsync will scan all the
       parent dirs from that starting point to the transfer directory for the
       indicated per-directory file.  For instance, here is a common filter
       (see -F):

              --filter=': /.rsync-filter'

       That rule tells rsync to scan for the file .rsync-filter in all
       directories from the root down through the parent directory of the
       transfer prior to the start of the normal directory scan of the file in
       the directories that are sent as a part of the transfer.  (Note: for an
       rsync daemon, the root is always the same as the module's "path".)

       Some examples of this pre-scanning for per-directory files:

              rsync -avF /src/path/ /dest/dir
              rsync -av --filter=': ../../.rsync-filter' /src/path/ /dest/dir
              rsync -av --filter=': .rsync-filter' /src/path/ /dest/dir

       The first two commands above will look for ".rsync-filter" in "/" and
       "/src" before the normal scan begins looking for the file in
       "/src/path" and its subdirectories.  The last command avoids the
       parent-dir scan and only looks for the ".rsync-filter" files in each
       directory that is a part of the transfer.

       If you want to include the contents of a ".cvsignore" in your patterns,
       you should use the rule ":C", which creates a dir-merge of the
       .cvsignore file, but parsed in a CVS-compatible manner.  You can use
       this to affect where the --cvs-exclude (-C) option's inclusion of the
       per-directory .cvsignore file gets placed into your rules by putting
       the ":C" wherever you like in your filter rules.  Without this, rsync
       would add the dir-merge rule for the .cvsignore file at the end of all
       your other rules (giving it a lower priority than your command-line
       rules).  For example:

              cat <<EOT | rsync -avC --filter='. -' a/ b
              + foo.o
              - *.old
              rsync -avC --include=foo.o -f :C --exclude='*.old' a/ b

       Both of the above rsync commands are identical.  Each one will merge
       all the per-directory .cvsignore rules in the middle of the list rather
       than at the end.  This allows their dir-specific rules to supersede the
       rules that follow the :C instead of being subservient to all your
       rules.  To affect the other CVS exclude rules (i.e. the default list of
       exclusions, the contents of $HOME/.cvsignore, and the value of
       $CVSIGNORE) you should omit the -C command-line option and instead
       insert a "-C" rule into your filter rules; e.g. "--filter=-C".

       You can clear the current include/exclude list by using the "!" filter
       rule (as introduced in the FILTER RULES section above).  The "current"
       list is either the global list of rules (if the rule is encountered
       while parsing the filter options) or a set of per-directory rules
       (which are inherited in their own sub-list, so a subdirectory can use
       this to clear out the parent's rules).

       As mentioned earlier, global include/exclude patterns are anchored at
       the "root of the transfer" (as opposed to per-directory patterns, which
       are anchored at the merge-file's directory).  If you think of the
       transfer as a subtree of names that are being sent from sender to
       receiver, the transfer-root is where the tree starts to be duplicated
       in the destination directory.  This root governs where patterns that
       start with a / match.

       Because the matching is relative to the transfer-root, changing the
       trailing slash on a source path or changing your use of the --relative
       option affects the path you need to use in your matching (in addition
       to changing how much of the file tree is duplicated on the destination
       host).  The following examples demonstrate this.

       Let's say that we want to match two source files, one with an absolute
       path of "/home/me/foo/bar", and one with a path of "/home/you/bar/baz".
       Here is how the various command choices differ for a 2-source transfer:

              Example cmd: rsync -a /home/me /home/you /dest
              +/- pattern: /me/foo/bar
              +/- pattern: /you/bar/baz
              Target file: /dest/me/foo/bar
              Target file: /dest/you/bar/baz

              Example cmd: rsync -a /home/me/ /home/you/ /dest
              +/- pattern: /foo/bar               (note missing "me")
              +/- pattern: /bar/baz               (note missing "you")
              Target file: /dest/foo/bar
              Target file: /dest/bar/baz

              Example cmd: rsync -a --relative /home/me/ /home/you /dest
              +/- pattern: /home/me/foo/bar       (note full path)
              +/- pattern: /home/you/bar/baz      (ditto)
              Target file: /dest/home/me/foo/bar
              Target file: /dest/home/you/bar/baz

              Example cmd: cd /home; rsync -a --relative me/foo you/ /dest
              +/- pattern: /me/foo/bar      (starts at specified path)
              +/- pattern: /you/bar/baz     (ditto)
              Target file: /dest/me/foo/bar
              Target file: /dest/you/bar/baz

       The easiest way to see what name you should filter is to just look at
       the output when using --verbose and put a / in front of the name (use
       the --dry-run option if you're not yet ready to copy any files).

       Without a delete option, per-directory rules are only relevant on the
       sending side, so you can feel free to exclude the merge files
       themselves without affecting the transfer.  To make this easy, the 'e'
       modifier adds this exclude for you, as seen in these two equivalent

              rsync -av --filter=': .excl' --exclude=.excl host:src/dir /dest
              rsync -av --filter=':e .excl' host:src/dir /dest

       However, if you want to do a delete on the receiving side AND you want
       some files to be excluded from being deleted, you'll need to be sure
       that the receiving side knows what files to exclude.  The easiest way
       is to include the per-directory merge files in the transfer and use
       --delete-after, because this ensures that the receiving side gets all
       the same exclude rules as the sending side before it tries to delete

              rsync -avF --delete-after host:src/dir /dest

       However, if the merge files are not a part of the transfer, you'll need
       to either specify some global exclude rules (i.e. specified on the
       command line), or you'll need to maintain your own per-directory merge
       files on the receiving side.  An example of the first is this (assume
       that the remote .rules files exclude themselves):

       rsync -av --filter=': .rules' --filter='. /my/extra.rules'
          --delete host:src/dir /dest

       In the above example the extra.rules file can affect both sides of the
       transfer, but (on the sending side) the rules are subservient to the
       rules merged from the .rules files because they were specified after
       the per-directory merge rule.

       In one final example, the remote side is excluding the .rsync-filter
       files from the transfer, but we want to use our own .rsync-filter files
       to control what gets deleted on the receiving side.  To do this we must
       specifically exclude the per-directory merge files (so that they don't
       get deleted) and then put rules into the local files to control what
       else should not get deleted.  Like one of these commands:

           rsync -av --filter=':e /.rsync-filter' --delete \
               host:src/dir /dest
           rsync -avFF --delete host:src/dir /dest

       Batch mode can be used to apply the same set of updates to many
       identical systems. Suppose one has a tree which is replicated on a
       number of hosts.  Now suppose some changes have been made to this
       source tree and those changes need to be propagated to the other hosts.
       In order to do this using batch mode, rsync is run with the write-batch
       option to apply the changes made to the source tree to one of the
       destination trees.  The write-batch option causes the rsync client to
       store in a "batch file" all the information needed to repeat this
       operation against other, identical destination trees.

       To apply the recorded changes to another destination tree, run rsync
       with the read-batch option, specifying the name of the same batch file,
       and the destination tree.  Rsync updates the destination tree using the
       information stored in the batch file.

       For convenience, one additional file is creating when the write-batch
       option is used.  This file's name is created by appending ".sh" to the
       batch filename.  The .sh file contains a command-line suitable for
       updating a destination tree using that batch file. It can be executed
       using a Bourne (or Bourne-like) shell, optionally passing in an
       alternate destination tree pathname which is then used instead of the
       original path. This is useful when the destination tree path differs
       from the original destination tree path.

       Generating the batch file once saves having to perform the file status,
       checksum, and data block generation more than once when updating
       multiple destination trees. Multicast transport protocols can be used
       to transfer the batch update files in parallel to many hosts at once,
       instead of sending the same data to every host individually.


              $ rsync --write-batch=foo -a host:/source/dir/ /adest/dir/
              $ scp foo* remote:
              $ ssh remote ./ /bdest/dir/

              $ rsync --write-batch=foo -a /source/dir/ /adest/dir/
              $ ssh remote rsync --read-batch=- -a /bdest/dir/ <foo

       In these examples, rsync is used to update /adest/dir/ from
       /source/dir/ and the information to repeat this operation is stored in
       "foo" and "".  The host "remote" is then updated with the batched
       data going into the directory /bdest/dir.  The differences between the
       two examples reveals some of the flexibility you have in how you deal
       with batches:

       o      The first example shows that the initial copy doesn't have to be
              local -- you can push or pull data to/from a remote host using
              either the remote-shell syntax or rsync daemon syntax, as

       o      The first example uses the created "" file to get the
              right rsync options when running the read-batch command on the
              remote host.

       o      The second example reads the batch data via standard input so
              that the batch file doesn't need to be copied to the remote
              machine first.  This example avoids the script because it
              needed to use a modified --read-batch option, but you could edit
              the script file if you wished to make use of it (just be sure
              that no other option is trying to use standard input, such as
              the "--exclude-from=-" option).


       The read-batch option expects the destination tree that it is updating
       to be identical to the destination tree that was used to create the
       batch update fileset.  When a difference between the destination trees
       is encountered the update might be discarded with a warning (if the
       file appears to be up-to-date already) or the file-update may be
       attempted and then, if the file fails to verify, the update discarded
       with an error.  This means that it should be safe to re-run a read-
       batch operation if the command got interrupted.  If you wish to force
       the batched-update to always be attempted regardless of the file's size
       and date, use the -I option (when reading the batch).  If an error
       occurs, the destination tree will probably be in a partially updated
       state. In that case, rsync can be used in its regular (non-batch) mode
       of operation to fix up the destination tree.

       The rsync version used on all destinations must be at least as new as
       the one used to generate the batch file.  Rsync will die with an error
       if the protocol version in the batch file is too new for the batch-
       reading rsync to handle.  See also the --protocol option for a way to
       have the creating rsync generate a batch file that an older rsync can
       understand.  (Note that batch files changed format in version 2.6.3, so
       mixing versions older than that with newer versions will not work.)

       When reading a batch file, rsync will force the value of certain
       options to match the data in the batch file if you didn't set them to
       the same as the batch-writing command.  Other options can (and should)
       be changed.  For instance --write-batch changes to --read-batch,
       --files-from is dropped, and the --filter/--include/--exclude options
       are not needed unless one of the --delete options is specified.

       The code that creates the file transforms any
       filter/include/exclude options into a single list that is appended as a
       "here" document to the shell script file.  An advanced user can use
       this to modify the exclude list if a change in what gets deleted by
       --delete is desired.  A normal user can ignore this detail and just use
       the shell script as an easy way to run the appropriate --read-batch
       command for the batched data.

       The original batch mode in rsync was based on "rsync+", but the latest
       version uses a new implementation.

       Three basic behaviors are possible when rsync encounters a symbolic
       link in the source directory.

       By default, symbolic links are not transferred at all.  A message
       "skipping non-regular" file is emitted for any symlinks that exist.

       If --links is specified, then symlinks are recreated with the same
       target on the destination.  Note that --archive implies --links.

       If --copy-links is specified, then symlinks are "collapsed" by copying
       their referent, rather than the symlink.

       rsync also distinguishes "safe" and "unsafe" symbolic links.  An
       example where this might be used is a web site mirror that wishes
       ensure the rsync module they copy does not include symbolic links to
       /usr/local/etc/passwd in the public section of the site.  Using
       --copy-unsafe-links will cause any links to be copied as the file they
       point to on the destination.  Using --safe-links will cause unsafe
       links to be omitted altogether.  (Note that you must specify --links
       for --safe-links to have any effect.)

       Symbolic links are considered unsafe if they are absolute symlinks
       (start with /), empty, or if they contain enough ".." components to
       ascend from the directory being copied.

       Here's a summary of how the symlink options are interpreted.  The list
       is in order of precedence, so if your combination of options isn't
       mentioned, use the first line that is a complete subset of your

              Turn all symlinks into normal files (leaving no symlinks for any
              other options to affect).

       --links --copy-unsafe-links
              Turn all unsafe symlinks into files and duplicate all safe

              Turn all unsafe symlinks into files, noisily skip all safe

       --links --safe-links
              Duplicate safe symlinks and skip unsafe ones.

              Duplicate all symlinks.

       rsync occasionally produces error messages that may seem a little
       cryptic. The one that seems to cause the most confusion is "protocol
       version mismatch -- is your shell clean?".

       This message is usually caused by your startup scripts or remote shell
       facility producing unwanted garbage on the stream that rsync is using
       for its transport. The way to diagnose this problem is to run your
       remote shell like this:

              ssh remotehost /bin/true > out.dat

       then look at out.dat. If everything is working correctly then out.dat
       should be a zero length file. If you are getting the above error from
       rsync then you will probably find that out.dat contains some text or
       data. Look at the contents and try to work out what is producing it.
       The most common cause is incorrectly configured shell startup scripts
       (such as .cshrc or .profile) that contain output statements for non-
       interactive logins.

       If you are having trouble debugging filter patterns, then try
       specifying the -vv option.  At this level of verbosity rsync will show
       why each individual file is included or excluded.

       0      Success

       1      Syntax or usage error

       2      Protocol incompatibility

       3      Errors selecting input/output files, dirs

       4      Requested action not supported: an attempt was made to
              manipulate 64-bit files on a platform that cannot support them;
              or an option was specified that is supported by the client and
              not by the server.

       5      Error starting client-server protocol

       6      Daemon unable to append to log-file

       10     Error in socket I/O

       11     Error in file I/O

       12     Error in rsync protocol data stream

       13     Errors with program diagnostics

       14     Error in IPC code

       20     Received SIGUSR1 or SIGINT

       21     Some error returned by waitpid()

       22     Error allocating core memory buffers

       23     Partial transfer due to error

       24     Partial transfer due to vanished source files

       25     The --max-delete limit stopped deletions

       30     Timeout in data send/receive

              The CVSIGNORE environment variable supplements any ignore
              patterns in .cvsignore files. See the --cvs-exclude option for
              more details.

              The RSYNC_RSH environment variable allows you to override the
              default shell used as the transport for rsync.  Command line
              options are permitted after the command name, just as in the -e

              The RSYNC_PROXY environment variable allows you to redirect your
              rsync client to use a web proxy when connecting to a rsync
              daemon. You should set RSYNC_PROXY to a hostname:port pair.

              Setting RSYNC_PASSWORD to the required password allows you to
              run authenticated rsync connections to an rsync daemon without
              user intervention. Note that this does not supply a password to
              a shell transport such as ssh.

       USER or LOGNAME
              The USER or LOGNAME environment variables are used to determine
              the default username sent to an rsync daemon.  If neither is
              set, the username defaults to "nobody".

       HOME   The HOME environment variable is used to find the user's default
              .cvsignore file.

       /usr/local/etc/rsyncd.conf or rsyncd.conf


       times are transferred as *nix time_t values

       When transferring to FAT filesystems rsync may re-sync unmodified
       files.  See the comments on the --modify-window option.

       file permissions, devices, etc. are transferred as native numerical

       see also the comments on the --delete option

       Please report bugs! See the website at

       This man page is current for version 2.6.9 of rsync.

       The options --server and --sender are used internally by rsync, and
       should never be typed by a user under normal circumstances.  Some
       awareness of these options may be needed in certain scenarios, such as
       when setting up a login that can only run an rsync command.  For
       instance, the support directory of the rsync distribution has an
       example script named rrsync (for restricted rsync) that can be used
       with a restricted ssh login.

       rsync is distributed under the GNU public license.  See the file
       COPYING for details.

       A WEB site is available at  The site includes
       an FAQ-O-Matic which may cover questions unanswered by this manual

       The primary ftp site for rsync is

       We would be delighted to hear from you if you like this program.

       This program uses the excellent zlib compression library written by
       Jean-loup Gailly and Mark Adler.

       Thanks to Richard Brent, Brendan Mackay, Bill Waite, Stephen Rothwell
       and David Bell for helpful suggestions, patches and testing of rsync.
       I've probably missed some people, my apologies if I have.

       Especial thanks also to: David Dykstra, Jos Backus, Sebastian Krahmer,
       Martin Pool, Wayne Davison, J.W. Schultz.

       rsync was originally written by Andrew Tridgell and Paul Mackerras.
       Many people have later contributed to it.

       Mailing lists for support and development are available at

                                  6 Nov 2006                          rsync(1)


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