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rsync(1)							      rsync(1)

NAME
       rsync - faster, flexible	replacement for	rcp

SYNOPSIS
       rsync [OPTION]... SRC [SRC]... DEST

       rsync [OPTION]... SRC [SRC]... [USER@]HOST:DEST

       rsync [OPTION]... SRC [SRC]... [USER@]HOST::DEST

       rsync [OPTION]... SRC [SRC]... rsync://[USER@]HOST[:PORT]/DEST

       rsync [OPTION]... SRC

       rsync [OPTION]... [USER@]HOST:SRC [DEST]

       rsync [OPTION]... [USER@]HOST::SRC [DEST]

       rsync [OPTION]... rsync://[USER@]HOST[:PORT]/SRC	[DEST]

DESCRIPTION
       rsync is	a program that behaves in much the same	way that rcp does, but
       has many	more options and uses  the  rsync  remote-update  protocol  to
       greatly	speed up file transfers	when the destination file is being up-
       dated.

       The rsync remote-update protocol	allows rsync to	transfer just the dif-
       ferences	between	two sets of files across the network connection, using
       an efficient checksum-search algorithm described	in the	technical  re-
       port that accompanies this package.

       Some of the additional features of rsync	are:

       o      support  for copying links, devices, owners, groups, and permis-
	      sions

       o      exclude and exclude-from options similar to GNU tar

       o      a	CVS exclude mode for ignoring the same files  that  CVS	 would
	      ignore

       o      can use any transparent remote shell, including ssh or rsh

       o      does not require super-user privileges

       o      pipelining of file transfers to minimize latency costs

       o      support  for anonymous or	authenticated rsync daemons (ideal for
	      mirroring)

GENERAL
       Rsync copies files either to or from a remote host, or locally  on  the
       current	host  (it  does	 not  support copying files between two	remote
       hosts).

       There are two different ways for	rsync to contact a remote system:  us-
       ing  a  remote-shell  program  as the transport (such as	ssh or rsh) or
       contacting an rsync daemon directly via TCP.  The  remote-shell	trans-
       port  is	used whenever the source or destination	path contains a	single
       colon (:) separator after a host	specification.	 Contacting  an	 rsync
       daemon  directly	happens	when the source	or destination path contains a
       double colon (::) separator after a  host  specification,  OR  when  an
       rsync://	 URL  is  specified (see also the "USING RSYNC-DAEMON FEATURES
       VIA A REMOTE-SHELL CONNECTION" section for an exception to this	latter
       rule).

       As a special case, if a single source arg is specified without a	desti-
       nation, the files are listed in an output format	similar	to "ls -l".

       As expected, if neither the source or destination path specify a	remote
       host, the copy occurs locally (see also the --list-only option).

SETUP
       See the file README for installation instructions.

       Once  installed,	 you  can use rsync to any machine that	you can	access
       via a remote shell (as well as some that	you can	access using the rsync
       daemon-mode  protocol).	 For remote transfers, a modern	rsync uses ssh
       for its communications, but it may have been configured to use  a  dif-
       ferent remote shell by default, such as rsh or remsh.

       You  can	also specify any remote	shell you like,	either by using	the -e
       command line option, or by setting the RSYNC_RSH	environment variable.

       Note that rsync must be installed on both the  source  and  destination
       machines.

USAGE
       You  use	 rsync	in the same way	you use	rcp. You must specify a	source
       and a destination, one of which may be remote.

       Perhaps the best	way to explain the syntax is with some examples:

	      rsync -t *.c foo:src/

       This would transfer all files matching the pattern *.c from the current
       directory  to the directory src on the machine foo. If any of the files
       already exist on	the remote system then the rsync remote-update	proto-
       col is used to update the file by sending only the differences. See the
       tech report for details.

	      rsync -avz foo:src/bar /data/tmp

       This would recursively transfer all files from the directory src/bar on
       the  machine foo	into the /data/tmp/bar directory on the	local machine.
       The files are transferred in "archive" mode, which  ensures  that  sym-
       bolic  links,  devices,	attributes,  permissions, ownerships, etc. are
       preserved in the	transfer.  Additionally, compression will be  used  to
       reduce the size of data portions	of the transfer.

	      rsync -avz foo:src/bar/ /data/tmp

       A  trailing slash on the	source changes this behavior to	avoid creating
       an additional directory level at	the destination.  You can think	 of  a
       trailing	/ on a source as meaning "copy the contents of this directory"
       as opposed to "copy the directory by name", but in both cases  the  at-
       tributes	 of the	containing directory are transferred to	the containing
       directory on the	destination.  In other words, each  of	the  following
       commands	 copies	 the files in the same way, including their setting of
       the attributes of /dest/foo:

	      rsync -av	/src/foo /dest
	      rsync -av	/src/foo/ /dest/foo

       Note also that host and module  references  don't  require  a  trailing
       slash to	copy the contents of the default directory.  For example, both
       of these	copy the remote	directory's contents into "/dest":

	      rsync -av	host: /dest
	      rsync -av	host::module /dest

       You can also use	rsync in local-only mode, where	both  the  source  and
       destination  don't have a ':' in	the name. In this case it behaves like
       an improved copy	command.

       Finally,	you can	list all the (listable)	modules	available from a  par-
       ticular rsync daemon by leaving off the module name:

	      rsync somehost.mydomain.com::

       See the following section for more details.

ADVANCED USAGE
       The  syntax  for	 requesting multiple files from	a remote host involves
       using quoted spaces in the SRC.	Some examples:

	      rsync host::'modname/dir1/file1 modname/dir2/file2' /dest

       This would copy file1 and file2 into /dest from an rsync	daemon.	  Each
       additional  arg	must  include  the same	"modname/" prefix as the first
       one, and	must be	preceded by a single space.  All other spaces are  as-
       sumed to	be a part of the filenames.

	      rsync -av	host:'dir1/file1 dir2/file2' /dest

       This  would copy	file1 and file2	into /dest using a remote shell.  This
       word-splitting is done by the remote shell, so if it  doesn't  work  it
       means that the remote shell isn't configured to split its args based on
       whitespace (a very rare setting,	but not	 unknown).   If	 you  need  to
       transfer	a filename that	contains whitespace, you'll need to either es-
       cape the	whitespace in a	way that the remote shell will understand,  or
       use wildcards in	place of the spaces.  Two examples of this are:

	      rsync -av	host:'file\ name\ with\	spaces'	/dest
	      rsync -av	host:file?name?with?spaces /dest

       This  latter  example  assumes that your	shell passes through unmatched
       wildcards.  If it complains about "no match", put the name in quotes.

CONNECTING TO AN RSYNC DAEMON
       It is also possible to use rsync	without	a remote shell as  the	trans-
       port.  In this case you will directly connect to	a remote rsync daemon,
       typically using TCP port	873.  (This obviously requires the  daemon  to
       be running on the remote	system,	so refer to the	STARTING AN RSYNC DAE-
       MON TO ACCEPT CONNECTIONS section below for information on that.)

       Using rsync in this way is the same as using it with a remote shell ex-
       cept that:

       o      you  either  use	a double colon :: instead of a single colon to
	      separate the hostname from the path, or you use an rsync:// URL.

       o      the first	word of	the "path" is actually a module	name.

       o      the remote daemon	may print a message of the day when  you  con-
	      nect.

       o      if  you  specify no path name on the remote daemon then the list
	      of accessible paths on the daemon	will be	shown.

       o      if you specify no	local destination then a listing of the	speci-
	      fied files on the	remote daemon is provided.

       o      you must not specify the --rsh (-e) option.

       An example that copies all the files in a remote	module named "src":

	   rsync -av host::src /dest

       Some  modules  on  the remote daemon may	require	authentication.	If so,
       you will	receive	a password prompt when you connect. You	can avoid  the
       password	 prompt	 by setting the	environment variable RSYNC_PASSWORD to
       the password you	want to	use or using the --password-file option.  This
       may be useful when scripting rsync.

       WARNING:	 On  some  systems  environment	 variables  are	visible	to all
       users. On those systems using --password-file is	recommended.

       You may establish the connection	via a web proxy	by setting  the	 envi-
       ronment	variable  RSYNC_PROXY to a hostname:port pair pointing to your
       web proxy.  Note	that your web proxy's configuration must support proxy
       connections to port 873.

USING RSYNC-DAEMON FEATURES VIA	A REMOTE-SHELL CONNECTION
       It is sometimes useful to use various features of an rsync daemon (such
       as named	modules) without actually allowing any new socket  connections
       into  a	system	(other	than what is already required to allow remote-
       shell access).  Rsync supports connecting to  a	host  using  a	remote
       shell  and  then	 spawning a single-use "daemon"	server that expects to
       read its	config file in the home	dir of the remote user.	 This  can  be
       useful if you want to encrypt a daemon-style transfer's data, but since
       the daemon is started up	fresh by the remote user, you may not be  able
       to  use	features  such as chroot or change the uid used	by the daemon.
       (For another way	to encrypt a daemon transfer, consider	using  ssh  to
       tunnel  a  local	 port to a remote machine and configure	a normal rsync
       daemon on that remote host to only allow	connections from "localhost".)

       From the	user's perspective, a daemon transfer via a remote-shell  con-
       nection uses nearly the same command-line syntax	as a normal rsync-dae-
       mon transfer, with the only exception being that	 you  must  explicitly
       set the remote shell program on the command-line	with the --rsh=COMMAND
       option.	(Setting the RSYNC_RSH in the environment  will	 not  turn  on
       this functionality.)  For example:

	   rsync -av --rsh=ssh host::module /dest

       If you need to specify a	different remote-shell user, keep in mind that
       the user@ prefix	in front of the	 host  is  specifying  the  rsync-user
       value  (for  a  module  that requires user-based	authentication).  This
       means that you must give	the '-l	user' option to	 ssh  when  specifying
       the remote-shell, as in this example that uses the short	version	of the
       --rsh option:

	   rsync -av -e	"ssh -l	ssh-user" rsync-user@host::module /dest

       The "ssh-user" will be used at the ssh level; the "rsync-user" will  be
       used to log-in to the "module".

STARTING AN RSYNC DAEMON TO ACCEPT CONNECTIONS
       In order	to connect to an rsync daemon, the remote system needs to have
       a daemon	already	running	(or it needs to	have configured	something like
       inetd to	spawn an rsync daemon for incoming connections on a particular
       port).  For full	information on how to start a daemon  that  will  han-
       dling  incoming	socket connections, see	the rsyncd.conf(5) man page --
       that is the config file for the daemon, and it contains	the  full  de-
       tails  for  how to run the daemon (including stand-alone	and inetd con-
       figurations).

       If you're using one of the remote-shell transports  for	the  transfer,
       there is	no need	to manually start an rsync daemon.

EXAMPLES
       Here are	some examples of how I use rsync.

       To  backup  my  wife's  home directory, which consists of large MS Word
       files and mail folders, I use a cron job	that runs

	      rsync -Cavz . arvidsjaur:backup

       each night over a PPP connection	to a duplicate directory on my machine
       "arvidsjaur".

       To  synchronize my samba	source trees I use the following Makefile tar-
       gets:

	   get:
		   rsync -avuzb	--exclude '*~' samba:samba/ .
	   put:
		   rsync -Cavuzb . samba:samba/
	   sync: get put

       this allows me to sync with a CVS directory at the  other  end  of  the
       connection. I then do CVS operations on the remote machine, which saves
       a lot of	time as	the remote CVS protocol	isn't very efficient.

       I mirror	a directory between my "old" and "new" ftp sites with the com-
       mand:

       rsync -az -e ssh	--delete ~ftp/pub/samba	nimbus:"~ftp/pub/tridge"

       This is launched	from cron every	few hours.

OPTIONS	SUMMARY
       Here is a short summary of the options available	in rsync. Please refer
       to the detailed description below for a complete	description.

	-v, --verbose		    increase verbosity
	-q, --quiet		    suppress non-error messages
	    --no-motd		    suppress daemon-mode MOTD (see caveat)
	-c, --checksum		    skip based on checksum, not	mod-time & size
	-a, --archive		    archive mode; same as -rlptgoD (no -H)
	    --no-OPTION		    turn off an	implied	OPTION (e.g. --no-D)
	-r, --recursive		    recurse into directories
	-R, --relative		    use	relative path names
	    --no-implied-dirs	    don't send implied dirs with --relative
	-b, --backup		    make backups (see --suffix & --backup-dir)
	    --backup-dir=DIR	    make backups into hierarchy	based in DIR
	    --suffix=SUFFIX	    backup suffix (default ~ w/o --backup-dir)
	-u, --update		    skip files that are	newer on the receiver
	    --inplace		    update destination files in-place
	    --append		    append data	onto shorter files
	-d, --dirs		    transfer directories without recursing
	-l, --links		    copy symlinks as symlinks
	-L, --copy-links	    transform symlink into referent file/dir
	    --copy-unsafe-links	    only "unsafe" symlinks are transformed
	    --safe-links	    ignore symlinks that point outside the tree
	-k, --copy-dirlinks	    transform symlink to dir into referent dir
	-K, --keep-dirlinks	    treat symlinked dir	on receiver as dir
	-H, --hard-links	    preserve hard links
	-p, --perms		    preserve permissions
	-E, --executability	    preserve executability
	    --chmod=CHMOD	    affect file	and/or directory permissions
	-o, --owner		    preserve owner (super-user only)
	-g, --group		    preserve group
	    --devices		    preserve device files (super-user only)
	    --specials		    preserve special files
	-D			    same as --devices --specials
	-t, --times		    preserve times
	-O, --omit-dir-times	    omit directories when preserving times
	    --super		    receiver attempts super-user activities
	-S, --sparse		    handle sparse files	efficiently
	-n, --dry-run		    show what would have been transferred
	-W, --whole-file	    copy files whole (without rsync algorithm)
	-x, --one-file-system	    don't cross	filesystem boundaries
	-B, --block-size=SIZE	    force a fixed checksum block-size
	-e, --rsh=COMMAND	    specify the	remote shell to	use
	    --rsync-path=PROGRAM    specify the	rsync to run on	remote machine
	    --existing		    skip creating new files on receiver
	    --ignore-existing	    skip updating files	that exist on receiver
	    --remove-source-files   sender removes synchronized	files (non-dir)
	    --del		    an alias for --delete-during
	    --delete		    delete extraneous files from dest dirs
	    --delete-before	    receiver deletes before transfer (default)
	    --delete-during	    receiver deletes during xfer, not before
	    --delete-after	    receiver deletes after transfer, not before
	    --delete-excluded	    also delete	excluded files from dest dirs
	    --ignore-errors	    delete even	if there are I/O errors
	    --force		    force deletion of dirs even	if not empty
	    --max-delete=NUM	    don't delete more than NUM files
	    --max-size=SIZE	    don't transfer any file larger than	SIZE
	    --min-size=SIZE	    don't transfer any file smaller than SIZE
	    --partial		    keep partially transferred files
	    --partial-dir=DIR	    put	a partially transferred	file into DIR
	    --delay-updates	    put	all updated files into place at	end
	-m, --prune-empty-dirs	    prune empty	directory chains from file-list
	    --numeric-ids	    don't map uid/gid values by	user/group name
	    --timeout=TIME	    set	I/O timeout in seconds
	-I, --ignore-times	    don't skip files that match	size and time
	    --size-only		    skip files that match in size
	    --modify-window=NUM	    compare mod-times with reduced accuracy
	-T, --temp-dir=DIR	    create temporary files in directory	DIR
	-y, --fuzzy		    find similar file for basis	if no dest file
	    --compare-dest=DIR	    also compare received files	relative to DIR
	    --copy-dest=DIR	    ...	and include copies of unchanged	files
	    --link-dest=DIR	    hardlink to	files in DIR when unchanged
	-z, --compress		    compress file data during the transfer
	    --compress-level=NUM    explicitly set compression level
	-C, --cvs-exclude	    auto-ignore	files in the same way CVS does
	-f, --filter=RULE	    add	a file-filtering RULE
	-F			    same as --filter='dir-merge	/.rsync-filter'
				    repeated: --filter='- .rsync-filter'
	    --exclude=PATTERN	    exclude files matching PATTERN
	    --exclude-from=FILE	    read exclude patterns from FILE
	    --include=PATTERN	    don't exclude files	matching PATTERN
	    --include-from=FILE	    read include patterns from FILE
	    --files-from=FILE	    read list of source-file names from	FILE
	-0, --from0		    all	*from/filter files are delimited by 0s
	    --address=ADDRESS	    bind address for outgoing socket to	daemon
	    --port=PORT		    specify double-colon alternate port	number
	    --sockopts=OPTIONS	    specify custom TCP options
	    --blocking-io	    use	blocking I/O for the remote shell
	    --stats		    give some file-transfer stats
	-8, --8-bit-output	    leave high-bit chars unescaped in output
	-h, --human-readable	    output numbers in a	human-readable format
	    --progress		    show progress during transfer
	-P			    same as --partial --progress
	-i, --itemize-changes	    output a change-summary for	all updates
	    --out-format=FORMAT	    output updates using the specified FORMAT
	    --log-file=FILE	    log	what we're doing to the	specified FILE
	    --log-file-format=FMT   log	updates	using the specified FMT
	    --password-file=FILE    read password from FILE
	    --list-only		    list the files instead of copying them
	    --bwlimit=KBPS	    limit I/O bandwidth; KBytes	per second
	    --stop-at=y-m-dTh:m	    Stop rsync at year-month-dayThour:minute
	    --time-limit=MINS	    Stop rsync after MINS minutes have elapsed
	    --write-batch=FILE	    write a batched update to FILE
	    --only-write-batch=FILE like --write-batch but w/o updating	dest
	    --read-batch=FILE	    read a batched update from FILE
	    --protocol=NUM	    force an older protocol version to be used
	    --checksum-seed=NUM	    set	block/file checksum seed (advanced)
	-4, --ipv4		    prefer IPv4
	-6, --ipv6		    prefer IPv6
	    --version		    print version number
       (-h) --help		    show this help (see	below for -h comment)

       Rsync can also be run as	a daemon, in which case	the following  options
       are accepted:

	    --daemon		    run	as an rsync daemon
	    --address=ADDRESS	    bind to the	specified address
	    --bwlimit=KBPS	    limit I/O bandwidth; KBytes	per second
	    --config=FILE	    specify alternate rsyncd.conf file
	    --no-detach		    do not detach from the parent
	    --port=PORT		    listen on alternate	port number
	    --log-file=FILE	    override the "log file" setting
	    --log-file-format=FMT   override the "log format" setting
	    --sockopts=OPTIONS	    specify custom TCP options
	-v, --verbose		    increase verbosity
	-4, --ipv4		    prefer IPv4
	-6, --ipv6		    prefer IPv6
	-h, --help		    show this help (if used after --daemon)

OPTIONS
       rsync  uses  the	GNU long options package. Many of the command line op-
       tions have two variants,	one short and one long.	 These are  shown  be-
       low,  separated	by commas. Some	options	only have a long variant.  The
       '=' for options that take a parameter is	optional;  whitespace  can  be
       used instead.

       --help Print  a	short  help  page  describing the options available in
	      rsync and	exit.  For backward-compatibility with older  versions
	      of  rsync, the help will also be output if you use the -h	option
	      without any other	args.

       --version
	      print the	rsync version number and exit.

       -v, --verbose
	      This option increases the	amount of information  you  are	 given
	      during the transfer.  By default,	rsync works silently. A	single
	      -v will give you information about what files are	 being	trans-
	      ferred  and  a  brief summary at the end.	Two -v flags will give
	      you information on what files are	 being	skipped	 and  slightly
	      more  information	at the end. More than two -v flags should only
	      be used if you are debugging rsync.

	      Note that	the names of the transferred files that	are output are
	      done  using  a  default  --out-format of "%n%L", which tells you
	      just the name of the file	and, if	the item is a link,  where  it
	      points.  At the single -v	level of verbosity, this does not men-
	      tion when	a file gets its	attributes changed.  If	you ask	for an
	      itemized list of changed attributes (either --itemize-changes or
	      adding "%i" to the --out-format setting),	 the  output  (on  the
	      client)  increases  to mention all items that are	changed	in any
	      way.  See	the --out-format option	for more details.

       -q, --quiet
	      This option decreases the	amount of information  you  are	 given
	      during  the  transfer,  notably suppressing information messages
	      from the remote server. This flag	is useful when invoking	 rsync
	      from cron.

       --no-motd
	      This option affects the information that is output by the	client
	      at the start of a	daemon transfer.  This suppresses the message-
	      of-the-day  (MOTD) text, but it also affects the list of modules
	      that the daemon sends in response	to the "rsync host::"  request
	      (due to a	limitation in the rsync	protocol), so omit this	option
	      if you want to request the list of modules from the deamon.

       -I, --ignore-times
	      Normally rsync will skip any files that  are  already  the  same
	      size  and	 have  the  same modification time-stamp.  This	option
	      turns off	this "quick check" behavior, causing all files	to  be
	      updated.

       --size-only
	      Normally	rsync will not transfer	any files that are already the
	      same size	and have the same modification	time-stamp.  With  the
	      --size-only  option,  files will not be transferred if they have
	      the same size, regardless	of  timestamp.	This  is  useful  when
	      starting to use rsync after using	another	mirroring system which
	      may not preserve timestamps exactly.

       --modify-window
	      When comparing two timestamps, rsync treats  the	timestamps  as
	      being  equal  if	they  differ by	no more	than the modify-window
	      value.  This is normally 0 (for an exact	match),	 but  you  may
	      find it useful to	set this to a larger value in some situations.
	      In particular, when transferring to or from an  MS  Windows  FAT
	      filesystem  (which represents times with a 2-second resolution),
	      --modify-window=1	is useful (allowing times to differ by up to 1
	      second).

       -c, --checksum
	      This  forces  the	 sender	to checksum every regular file using a
	      128-bit MD4 checksum.  It	does this during the initial file-sys-
	      tem  scan	 as it builds the list of all available	files. The re-
	      ceiver then checksums its	version	of each	file (if it exists and
	      it has the same size as its sender-side counterpart) in order to
	      decide which files need to  be  updated:	files  with  either  a
	      changed  size  or	 a changed checksum are	selected for transfer.
	      Since this whole-file checksumming of all	files on both sides of
	      the connection occurs in addition	to the automatic checksum ver-
	      ifications that occur during a file's transfer, this option  can
	      be quite slow.

	      Note  that  rsync	always verifies	that each transferred file was
	      correctly	reconstructed on the receiving side  by	 checking  its
	      whole-file checksum, but that automatic after-the-transfer veri-
	      fication has nothing to do with this option's  before-the-trans-
	      fer "Does	this file need to be updated?" check.

       -a, --archive
	      This  is equivalent to -rlptgoD. It is a quick way of saying you
	      want recursion and want to preserve almost everything  (with  -H
	      being  a	notable	 omission).   The  only	exception to the above
	      equivalence is when --files-from is specified, in	which case  -r
	      is not implied.

	      Note that	-a does	not preserve hardlinks,	because	finding	multi-
	      ply-linked files is expensive.  You must separately specify -H.

       --no-OPTION
	      You may turn off one or more implied options  by	prefixing  the
	      option  name with	"no-".	Not all	options	may be prefixed	with a
	      "no-": only options that are  implied  by	 other	options	 (e.g.
	      --no-D,  --no-perms)  or have different defaults in various cir-
	      cumstances (e.g. --no-whole-file,	--no-blocking-io,  --no-dirs).
	      You  may	specify	either the short or the	long option name after
	      the "no-"	prefix (e.g. --no-R is the same	as --no-relative).

	      For example: if you want to use -a (--archive) but don't want -o
	      (--owner),  instead  of  converting  -a  into -rlptgD, you could
	      specify -a --no-o	(or -a --no-owner).

	      The order	of the options is important:  if  you  specify	--no-r
	      -a,  the -r option would end up being turned on, the opposite of
	      -a --no-r.  Note also that the side-effects of the  --files-from
	      option  are  NOT	positional, as it affects the default state of
	      several options and slightly changes the meaning of -a (see  the
	      --files-from option for more details).

       -r, --recursive
	      This  tells  rsync  to  copy  directories	recursively.  See also
	      --dirs (-d).

       -R, --relative
	      Use relative paths. This means that the full path	 names	speci-
	      fied on the command line are sent	to the server rather than just
	      the last parts of	the filenames.	This  is  particularly	useful
	      when  you	want to	send several different directories at the same
	      time. For	example, if you	used this command:

		 rsync -av /foo/bar/baz.c remote:/tmp/

	      ... this would create a file named baz.c in /tmp/	on the	remote
	      machine. If instead you used

		 rsync -avR /foo/bar/baz.c remote:/tmp/

	      then a file named	/tmp/foo/bar/baz.c would be created on the re-
	      mote machine -- the full path name is preserved.	To  limit  the
	      amount  of  path information that	is sent, you have a couple op-
	      tions:  (1) With a modern	rsync on the sending  side  (beginning
	      with  2.6.7),  you  can insert a dot and a slash into the	source
	      path, like this:

		 rsync -avR /foo/./bar/baz.c remote:/tmp/

	      That would create	/tmp/bar/baz.c on the remote  machine.	 (Note
	      that  the	dot must be followed by	a slash, so "/foo/." would not
	      be abbreviated.)	(2) For	older rsync versions, you  would  need
	      to  use  a  chdir	 to  limit the source path.  For example, when
	      pushing files:

		 (cd /foo; rsync -avR bar/baz.c	remote:/tmp/)

	      (Note that the parens put	the two	commands into a	sub-shell,  so
	      that  the	 "cd" command doesn't remain in	effect for future com-
	      mands.)  If you're pulling files,	use this idiom (which  doesn't
	      work with	an rsync daemon):

		 rsync -avR --rsync-path="cd /foo; rsync" \
		     remote:bar/baz.c /tmp/

       --no-implied-dirs
	      This  option  affects the	default	behavior of the	--relative op-
	      tion.  When it is	specified, the attributes of the  implied  di-
	      rectories	 from  the source names	are not	included in the	trans-
	      fer.  This means that the	corresponding  path  elements  on  the
	      destination  system  are	left  unchanged	if they	exist, and any
	      missing implied directories are created with default attributes.
	      This even	allows these implied path elements to have big differ-
	      ences, such as being a symlink to	a directory on one side	of the
	      transfer,	and a real directory on	the other side.

	      For  instance,  if a command-line	arg or a files-from entry told
	      rsync to transfer	 the  file  "path/foo/file",  the  directories
	      "path"  and  "path/foo" are implied when --relative is used.  If
	      "path/foo" is a symlink to "bar" on the destination system,  the
	      receiving	 rsync would ordinarily	delete "path/foo", recreate it
	      as a directory, and receive the file  into  the  new  directory.
	      With    --no-implied-dirs,    the	   receiving   rsync   updates
	      "path/foo/file" using the	existing path  elements,  which	 means
	      that  the	file ends up being created in "path/bar".  Another way
	      to  accomplish  this   link   preservation   is	to   use   the
	      --keep-dirlinks  option  (which will also	affect symlinks	to di-
	      rectories	in the rest of the transfer).

	      In  a  similar  but  opposite  scenario,	if  the	 transfer   of
	      "path/foo/file"  is requested and	"path/foo" is a	symlink	on the
	      sending side,  running  without  --no-implied-dirs  would	 cause
	      rsync  to	 transform  "path/foo"	on  the	receiving side into an
	      identical	symlink, and then attempt to transfer "path/foo/file",
	      which  might  fail  if the duplicated symlink did	not point to a
	      directory	on the receiving side.	 Another  way  to  avoid  this
	      sending  of  a  symlink  as  an  implied	directory  is  to  use
	      --copy-unsafe-links, or --copy-dirlinks (both of which also  af-
	      fect  symlinks in	the rest of the	transfer -- see	their descrip-
	      tions for	full details).

       -b, --backup
	      With this	option,	preexisting destination	files are  renamed  as
	      each  file is transferred	or deleted.  You can control where the
	      backup file goes and what	(if any) suffix	 gets  appended	 using
	      the --backup-dir and --suffix options.

	      Note   that   if	 you   don't  specify  --backup-dir,  (1)  the
	      --omit-dir-times option will be implied, and (2) if --delete  is
	      also  in	effect	(without  --delete-excluded), rsync will add a
	      "protect"	filter-rule for	the backup suffix to the  end  of  all
	      your existing excludes (e.g. -f "P *~").	This will prevent pre-
	      viously backed-up	files from being deleted.  Note	 that  if  you
	      are  supplying  your  own	filter rules, you may need to manually
	      insert your own exclude/protect rule somewhere higher up in  the
	      list  so	that  it  has  a  high enough priority to be effective
	      (e.g., if	your rules specify a trailing  inclusion/exclusion  of
	      '*', the auto-added rule would never be reached).

       --backup-dir=DIR
	      In  combination  with  the  --backup option, this	tells rsync to
	      store all	backups	in the specified directory  on	the  receiving
	      side.   This can be used for incremental backups.	 You can addi-
	      tionally specify a backup	suffix using the --suffix option (oth-
	      erwise  the files	backed up in the specified directory will keep
	      their original filenames).

       --suffix=SUFFIX
	      This option allows you to	override  the  default	backup	suffix
	      used with	the --backup (-b) option. The default suffix is	a ~ if
	      no --backup-dir was specified, otherwise it is an	empty string.

       -u, --update
	      This forces rsync	to skip	any files which	exist on the  destina-
	      tion  and	 have  a  modified  time that is newer than the	source
	      file.  (If an existing destination file has a modify time	 equal
	      to  the  source file's, it will be updated if the	sizes are dif-
	      ferent.)

	      In the current implementation of --update, a difference of  file
	      format  between  the sender and receiver is always considered to
	      be important enough for an update, no matter what	date is	on the
	      objects.	 In  other  words,  if the source has a	directory or a
	      symlink where the	destination has	a file,	the transfer would oc-
	      cur  regardless of the timestamps.  This might change in the fu-
	      ture (feel free to comment on this on the	mailing	 list  if  you
	      have an opinion).

       --inplace
	      This  causes rsync not to	create a new copy of the file and then
	      move it into place.  Instead rsync will overwrite	 the  existing
	      file, meaning that the rsync algorithm can't accomplish the full
	      amount of	network	reduction it might be able to otherwise	(since
	      it  does	not  yet  try to sort data matches).  One exception to
	      this is if you combine the option	with --backup, since rsync  is
	      smart  enough  to	 use the backup	file as	the basis file for the
	      transfer.

	      This option is useful for	transfer of large  files  with	block-
	      based  changes  or  appended  data, and also on systems that are
	      disk bound, not network bound.

	      The option implies --partial (since an interrupted transfer does
	      not delete the file), but	conflicts with --partial-dir and --de-
	      lay-updates.  Prior to rsync 2.6.4 --inplace was also incompati-
	      ble with --compare-dest and --link-dest.

	      WARNING: The file's data will be in an inconsistent state	during
	      the transfer (and	possibly afterward if the transfer gets	inter-
	      rupted),	so you should not use this option to update files that
	      are in use.  Also	note that rsync	will be	 unable	 to  update  a
	      file in-place that is not	writable by the	receiving user.

       --append
	      This  causes  rsync  to update a file by appending data onto the
	      end of the file, which presumes that the data that  already  ex-
	      ists  on	the  receiving side is identical with the start	of the
	      file on the sending side.	 If that is not	true,  the  file  will
	      fail  the	 checksum  test, and the resend	will do	a normal --in-
	      place update to correct the mismatched data.  Only files on  the
	      receiving	 side  that are	shorter	than the corresponding file on
	      the sending side (as well	as new files) are sent.	 Implies --in-
	      place,  but does not conflict with --sparse (though the --sparse
	      option will be auto-disabled if a	resend of the already-existing
	      data is required).

       -d, --dirs
	      Tell  the	 sending  side to include any directories that are en-
	      countered.  Unlike --recursive, a	directory's contents  are  not
	      copied unless the	directory name specified is "."	or ends	with a
	      trailing slash (e.g. ".",	"dir/.", "dir/", etc.).	 Without  this
	      option  or  the --recursive option, rsync	will skip all directo-
	      ries it encounters (and output a message to that effect for each
	      one).   If  you specify both --dirs and --recursive, --recursive
	      takes precedence.

       -l, --links
	      When symlinks are	encountered, recreate the symlink on the  des-
	      tination.

       -L, --copy-links
	      When  symlinks are encountered, the item that they point to (the
	      referent)	is copied, rather than the symlink.  In	older versions
	      of  rsync,  this	option also had	the side-effect	of telling the
	      receiving	side to	follow symlinks, such as symlinks to  directo-
	      ries.   In a modern rsync	such as	this one, you'll need to spec-
	      ify --keep-dirlinks (-K) to get this extra behavior.   The  only
	      exception	 is  when sending files	to an rsync that is too	old to
	      understand -K -- in that case, the -L option will	still have the
	      side-effect of -K	on that	older receiving	rsync.

       --copy-unsafe-links
	      This  tells  rsync  to  copy the referent	of symbolic links that
	      point outside the	 copied	 tree.	 Absolute  symlinks  are  also
	      treated  like  ordinary  files,  and  so are any symlinks	in the
	      source path itself when --relative is used.  This	option has  no
	      additional effect	if --copy-links	was also specified.

       --safe-links
	      This  tells  rsync to ignore any symbolic	links which point out-
	      side the copied tree. All	absolute symlinks  are	also  ignored.
	      Using  this option in conjunction	with --relative	may give unex-
	      pected results.

       -K, --copy-dirlinks
	      This option causes the sending side to treat a symlink to	a  di-
	      rectory  as  though it were a real directory.  This is useful if
	      you don't	want symlinks to non-directories to  be	 affected,  as
	      they would be using --copy-links.

	      Without  this  option, if	the sending side has replaced a	direc-
	      tory with	a symlink to a	directory,  the	 receiving  side  will
	      delete anything that is in the way of the	new symlink, including
	      a	directory hierarchy (as	long as	--force	or --delete is in  ef-
	      fect).

	      See also --keep-dirlinks for an analogous	option for the receiv-
	      ing side.

       -K, --keep-dirlinks
	      This option causes the receiving side to treat a	symlink	 to  a
	      directory	 as  though  it	 were a	real directory,	but only if it
	      matches a	real directory from the	sender.	 Without this  option,
	      the receiver's symlink would be deleted and replaced with	a real
	      directory.

	      For example, suppose you transfer	a directory  "foo"  that  con-
	      tains  a	file "file", but "foo" is a symlink to directory "bar"
	      on the receiver.	Without	--keep-dirlinks, the receiver  deletes
	      symlink  "foo",  recreates  it  as a directory, and receives the
	      file into	the new	directory.  With --keep-dirlinks, the receiver
	      keeps the	symlink	and "file" ends	up in "bar".

	      See also --copy-dirlinks for an analogous	option for the sending
	      side.

       -H, --hard-links
	      This tells rsync to look for hard-linked files in	 the  transfer
	      and link together	the corresponding files	on the receiving side.
	      Without this option,  hard-linked	 files	in  the	 transfer  are
	      treated as though	they were separate files.

	      Note  that rsync can only	detect hard links if both parts	of the
	      link are in the list of files being sent.

       -p, --perms
	      This option causes the receiving rsync to	 set  the  destination
	      permissions to be	the same as the	source permissions.  (See also
	      the --chmod option for a way to modify what rsync	 considers  to
	      be the source permissions.)

	      When this	option is off, permissions are set as follows:

	      o	     Existing files (including updated files) retain their ex-
		     isting permissions,  though  the  --executability	option
		     might change just the execute permission for the file.

	      o	     New  files	 get their "normal" permission bits set	to the
		     source file's permissions masked with the receiving end's
		     umask setting, and	their special permission bits disabled
		     except in the case	where a	new directory inherits a  set-
		     gid bit from its parent directory.

	      Thus,  when  --perms  and	 --executability  are  both  disabled,
	      rsync's behavior is the same as that of other  file-copy	utili-
	      ties, such as cp(1) and tar(1).

	      In  summary:  to	give  destination files	(both old and new) the
	      source permissions, use --perms.	To give	new files the destina-
	      tion-default  permissions	 (while	 leaving  existing  files  un-
	      changed),	make sure that the  --perms  option  is	 off  and  use
	      --chmod=ugo=rwX  (which ensures that all non-masked bits get en-
	      abled).  If you'd	care to	make this latter  behavior  easier  to
	      type, you	could define a popt alias for it, such as putting this
	      line in the file ~/.popt (this defines the -s  option,  and  in-
	      cludes --no-g to use the default group of	the destination	dir):

		 rsync alias -s	--no-p --no-g --chmod=ugo=rwX

	      You  could  then	use  this new option in	a command such as this
	      one:

		 rsync -asv src/ dest/

	      (Caveat: make sure that -a does not follow -s, or	it will	re-en-
	      able the "--no-*"	options.)

	      The  preservation	 of the	destination's setgid bit on newly-cre-
	      ated directories when --perms is off was added in	 rsync	2.6.7.
	      Older  rsync  versions  erroneously  preserved the three special
	      permission bits for newly-created	files when  --perms  was  off,
	      while  overriding	 the  destination's  setgid  bit  setting on a
	      newly-created directory.	(Keep in mind that it is  the  version
	      of the receiving rsync that affects this behavior.)

       -E, --executability
	      This  option causes rsync	to preserve the	executability (or non-
	      executability) of	regular	files when --perms is not enabled.   A
	      regular  file is considered to be	executable if at least one 'x'
	      is turned	on in its permissions.	When an	 existing  destination
	      file's  executability  differs  from  that  of the corresponding
	      source file, rsync modifies the destination  file's  permissions
	      as follows:

	      o	     To	 make  a  file non-executable, rsync turns off all its
		     'x' permissions.

	      o	     To	make a file executable,	rsync turns on each  'x'  per-
		     mission that has a	corresponding 'r' permission enabled.

	      If --perms is enabled, this option is ignored.

       --chmod
	      This  option  tells  rsync  to apply one or more comma-separated
	      "chmod" strings to the permission	of the files in	the  transfer.
	      The  resulting value is treated as though	it was the permissions
	      that the sending side supplied for the file,  which  means  that
	      this  option  can	 seem  to  have	no effect on existing files if
	      --perms is not enabled.

	      In addition  to  the  normal  parsing  rules  specified  in  the
	      chmod(1) manpage,	you can	specify	an item	that should only apply
	      to a directory by	prefixing it with a 'D', or  specify  an  item
	      that  should  only  apply	 to a file by prefixing	it with	a 'F'.
	      For example:

	      --chmod=Dg+s,ug+w,Fo-w,+X

	      It is also legal to specify multiple --chmod  options,  as  each
	      additional  option  is  just  appended to	the list of changes to
	      make.

	      See the --perms and --executability options for how the  result-
	      ing  permission  value can be applied to the files in the	trans-
	      fer.

       -o, --owner
	      This option causes rsync to set the  owner  of  the  destination
	      file  to be the same as the source file, but only	if the receiv-
	      ing rsync	is being run as	the super-user (see also  the  --super
	      option  to force rsync to	attempt	super-user activities).	 With-
	      out this option, the owner is set	to the invoking	 user  on  the
	      receiving	side.

	      The  preservation	 of ownership will associate matching names by
	      default, but may fall back to using the ID number	in  some  cir-
	      cumstances (see also the --numeric-ids option for	a full discus-
	      sion).

       -g, --group
	      This option causes rsync to set the  group  of  the  destination
	      file  to	be the same as the source file.	 If the	receiving pro-
	      gram is not running as the  super-user  (or  if  --no-super  was
	      specified),  only	groups that the	invoking user on the receiving
	      side is a	member of will be preserved.  Without this option, the
	      group  is	 set  to the default group of the invoking user	on the
	      receiving	side.

	      The preservation of group	information  will  associate  matching
	      names  by	 default,  but may fall	back to	using the ID number in
	      some circumstances (see also the --numeric-ids option for	a full
	      discussion).

       --devices
	      This  option causes rsync	to transfer character and block	device
	      files to the remote system to recreate these devices.  This  op-
	      tion  has	no effect if the receiving rsync is not	run as the su-
	      per-user and --super is not specified.

       --specials
	      This option causes rsync to transfer special files such as named
	      sockets and fifos.

       -D     The -D option is equivalent to --devices --specials.

       -t, --times
	      This  tells  rsync to transfer modification times	along with the
	      files and	update them on the remote system.  Note	that  if  this
	      option  is  not  used, the optimization that excludes files that
	      have not been modified cannot be effective; in  other  words,  a
	      missing -t or -a will cause the next transfer to behave as if it
	      used -I, causing all files to be updated (though the rsync algo-
	      rithm will make the update fairly	efficient if the files haven't
	      actually changed,	you're much better off using -t).

       -O, --omit-dir-times
	      This tells rsync to omit directories when	it is preserving modi-
	      fication times (see --times).  If	NFS is sharing the directories
	      on the receiving side, it	is a good idea to use -O.  This	option
	      is inferred if you use --backup without --backup-dir.

       --super
	      This  tells  the receiving side to attempt super-user activities
	      even if the receiving rsync wasn't run by	the super-user.	 These
	      activities  include:  preserving	users  via the --owner option,
	      preserving all groups (not just the current user's  groups)  via
	      the  --groups  option, and copying devices via the --devices op-
	      tion.  This is useful for	systems	 that  allow  such  activities
	      without  being  the  super-user,	and also for ensuring that you
	      will get errors if the receiving side isn't being	running	as the
	      super-user.   To	turn off super-user activities,	the super-user
	      can use --no-super.

       -S, --sparse
	      Try to handle sparse files efficiently  so  they	take  up  less
	      space on the destination.	 Conflicts with	--inplace because it's
	      not possible to overwrite	data in	a sparse fashion.

	      NOTE: Don't use this option when the destination	is  a  Solaris
	      "tmpfs"  filesystem.  It	doesn't	seem to	handle seeks over null
	      regions correctly	and ends up corrupting the files.

       -n, --dry-run
	      This tells rsync to not do any file transfers, instead  it  will
	      just report the actions it would have taken.

       -W, --whole-file
	      With this	option the incremental rsync algorithm is not used and
	      the whole	file is	sent  as-is  instead.	The  transfer  may  be
	      faster  if  this	option	is used	when the bandwidth between the
	      source and destination machines is higher	than the bandwidth  to
	      disk  (especially	 when  the  "disk"  is	actually  a  networked
	      filesystem).  This is the	default	when both the source and  des-
	      tination are specified as	local paths.

       -x, --one-file-system
	      This  tells  rsync  to avoid crossing a filesystem boundary when
	      recursing.  This does not	limit the user's  ability  to  specify
	      items  to	copy from multiple filesystems,	just rsync's recursion
	      through the hierarchy of each directory that the user specified,
	      and  also	 the  analogous	recursion on the receiving side	during
	      deletion.	 Also keep in mind that	rsync treats a "bind" mount to
	      the same device as being on the same filesystem.

	      If this option is	repeated, rsync	omits all mount-point directo-
	      ries from	the copy.  Otherwise, it includes an  empty  directory
	      at  each	mount-point it encounters (using the attributes	of the
	      mounted directory	because	those of  the  underlying  mount-point
	      directory	are inaccessible).

	      If rsync has been	told to	collapse symlinks (via --copy-links or
	      --copy-unsafe-links), a symlink to a directory on	another	device
	      is  treated like a mount-point.  Symlinks	to non-directories are
	      unaffected by this option.

       --existing, --ignore-non-existing
	      This tells rsync to skip creating	files (including  directories)
	      that  do	not  exist  yet	on the destination.  If	this option is
	      combined with the	--ignore-existing option, no files will	be up-
	      dated  (which  can  be useful if all you want to do is to	delete
	      extraneous files).

       --ignore-existing
	      This tells rsync to skip updating	files that  already  exist  on
	      the  destination	(this  does not	ignore existing	directores, or
	      nothing would get	done).	See also --existing.

       --remove-source-files
	      This tells rsync to remove  from	the  sending  side  the	 files
	      (meaning	non-directories)  that	are a part of the transfer and
	      have been	successfully duplicated	on the receiving side.

       --delete
	      This tells rsync to delete extraneous files from	the  receiving
	      side  (ones  that	 aren't	on the sending side), but only for the
	      directories that are being synchronized.	You  must  have	 asked
	      rsync to send the	whole directory	(e.g. "dir" or "dir/") without
	      using a wildcard for the	directory's  contents  (e.g.  "dir/*")
	      since  the wildcard is expanded by the shell and rsync thus gets
	      a	request	to transfer individual files, not  the	files'	parent
	      directory.   Files  that are excluded from transfer are also ex-
	      cluded from being	deleted	unless you use	the  --delete-excluded
	      option  or  mark	the rules as only matching on the sending side
	      (see the include/exclude modifiers in the	FILTER RULES section).

	      Prior to rsync 2.6.7, this option	would have  no	effect	unless
	      --recursive was in effect.  Beginning with 2.6.7,	deletions will
	      also occur when --dirs (-d) is in	effect,	but only for  directo-
	      ries whose contents are being copied.

	      This  option can be dangerous if used incorrectly!  It is	a very
	      good idea	to run first using the --dry-run option	 (-n)  to  see
	      what  files would	be deleted to make sure	important files	aren't
	      listed.

	      If the sending side detects any I/O errors, then the deletion of
	      any  files  at  the  destination will be automatically disabled.
	      This is to prevent temporary filesystem failures	(such  as  NFS
	      errors)  on the sending side causing a massive deletion of files
	      on the destination.  You can override this with the --ignore-er-
	      rors option.

	      The   --delete   option	may   be  combined  with  one  of  the
	      --delete-WHEN options without conflict, as well as  --delete-ex-
	      cluded.  However,	if none	of the --delete-WHEN options are spec-
	      ified, rsync will	currently  choose  the	--delete-before	 algo-
	      rithm.	A  future  version  may	 change	 this  to  choose  the
	      --delete-during algorithm.  See also --delete-after.

       --delete-before
	      Request that the file-deletions on the receiving	side  be  done
	      before  the transfer starts.  This is the	default	if --delete or
	      --delete-excluded	is specified without one of the	 --delete-WHEN
	      options.	 See  --delete	(which is implied) for more details on
	      file-deletion.

	      Deleting before the transfer is helpful  if  the	filesystem  is
	      tight for	space and removing extraneous files would help to make
	      the transfer possible.  However, it does introduce a  delay  be-
	      fore  the	 start of the transfer,	and this delay might cause the
	      transfer to timeout (if --timeout	was specified).

       --delete-during,	--del
	      Request that the file-deletions on the receiving	side  be  done
	      incrementally  as	the transfer happens.  This is a faster	method
	      than choosing the	before-	or after-transfer algorithm, but it is
	      only supported beginning with rsync version 2.6.4.  See --delete
	      (which is	implied) for more details on file-deletion.

       --delete-after
	      Request that the file-deletions on the receiving	side  be  done
	      after  the  transfer  has	 completed.  This is useful if you are
	      sending new per-directory	merge files as a part of the  transfer
	      and  you	want  their  exclusions	 to take effect	for the	delete
	      phase of the current transfer.  See --delete (which is  implied)
	      for more details on file-deletion.

       --delete-excluded
	      In addition to deleting the files	on the receiving side that are
	      not on the sending side, this tells rsync	 to  also  delete  any
	      files  on	 the receiving side that are excluded (see --exclude).
	      See the FILTER RULES section for a way to	make individual	exclu-
	      sions  behave this way on	the receiver, and for a	way to protect
	      files from --delete-excluded.  See --delete (which  is  implied)
	      for more details on file-deletion.

       --ignore-errors
	      Tells  --delete to go ahead and delete files even	when there are
	      I/O errors.

       --force
	      This option tells	rsync to delete	a non-empty directory when  it
	      is  to be	replaced by a non-directory.  This is only relevant if
	      deletions	are not	active (see --delete for details).

	      Note for older rsync versions: --force used to still be required
	      when  using --delete-after, and it used to be non-functional un-
	      less the --recursive option was also enabled.

       --max-delete=NUM
	      This tells rsync not to delete more than NUM files  or  directo-
	      ries (NUM	must be	non-zero).  This is useful when	mirroring very
	      large trees to prevent disasters.

       --max-size=SIZE
	      This tells rsync to avoid	transferring any file that  is	larger
	      than  the	 specified SIZE. The SIZE value	can be suffixed	with a
	      string to	indicate a size	multiplier, and	may  be	 a  fractional
	      value (e.g. "--max-size=1.5m").

	      The  suffixes  are  as  follows:	"K"  (or  "KiB") is a kibibyte
	      (1024), "M" (or "MiB") is	a mebibyte (1024*1024),	 and  "G"  (or
	      "GiB")  is  a gibibyte (1024*1024*1024).	If you want the	multi-
	      plier to be 1000 instead of  1024,  use  "KB",  "MB",  or	 "GB".
	      (Note: lower-case	is also	accepted for all values.)  Finally, if
	      the suffix ends in either	"+1" or	"-1", the value	will be	offset
	      by one byte in the indicated direction.

	      Examples:	   --max-size=1.5mb-1	 is    1499999	  bytes,   and
	      --max-size=2g+1 is 2147483649 bytes.

       --min-size=SIZE
	      This tells rsync to avoid	transferring any file that is  smaller
	      than  the	 specified  SIZE,  which  can help in not transferring
	      small, junk files.  See the --max-size option for	a  description
	      of SIZE.

       -B, --block-size=BLOCKSIZE
	      This  forces  the	 block	size  used in the rsync	algorithm to a
	      fixed value.  It is normally selected based on the size of  each
	      file being updated.  See the technical report for	details.

       -e, --rsh=COMMAND
	      This  option  allows  you	 to choose an alternative remote shell
	      program to use for communication between the  local  and	remote
	      copies  of  rsync.  Typically, rsync is configured to use	ssh by
	      default, but you may prefer to use rsh on	a local	network.

	      If this option is	used with [user@]host::module/path,  then  the
	      remote  shell COMMAND will be used to run	an rsync daemon	on the
	      remote host, and all data	will be	transmitted through  that  re-
	      mote  shell connection, rather than through a direct socket con-
	      nection to a running rsync daemon	on the remote host.   See  the
	      section  "USING RSYNC-DAEMON FEATURES VIA	A REMOTE-SHELL CONNEC-
	      TION" above.

	      Command-line arguments are permitted in  COMMAND	provided  that
	      COMMAND  is  presented  to rsync as a single argument.  You must
	      use spaces (not tabs or other whitespace)	to separate  the  com-
	      mand  and	 args  from each other,	and you	can use	single-	and/or
	      double-quotes to preserve	spaces in an argument (but  not	 back-
	      slashes).	  Note	that  doubling a single-quote inside a single-
	      quoted string gives you a	 single-quote;	likewise  for  double-
	      quotes  (though  you  need to pay	attention to which quotes your
	      shell is parsing and which quotes	rsync is parsing).  Some exam-
	      ples:

		  -e 'ssh -p 2234'
		  -e 'ssh -o "ProxyCommand nohup ssh firewall nc -w1 %h	%p"'

	      (Note  that  ssh	users  can alternately customize site-specific
	      connect options in their .ssh/config file.)

	      You can also choose the remote shell program using the RSYNC_RSH
	      environment  variable, which accepts the same range of values as
	      -e.

	      See also the --blocking-io option	which is affected by this  op-
	      tion.

       --rsync-path=PROGRAM
	      Use  this	to specify what	program	is to be run on	the remote ma-
	      chine to start-up	rsync.	Often used when	rsync is  not  in  the
	      default	 remote-shell's	  path	 (e.g.	 --rsync-path=/usr/lo-
	      cal/bin/rsync).  Note that PROGRAM is run	with  the  help	 of  a
	      shell,  so  it  can  be any program, script, or command sequence
	      you'd care to run, so long as it does not	corrupt	the  standard-
	      in & standard-out	that rsync is using to communicate.

	      One  tricky  example  is to set a	different default directory on
	      the remote machine for use with the --relative option.  For  in-
	      stance:

		  rsync	-avR --rsync-path="cd /a/b && rsync" hst:c/d /e/

       -C, --cvs-exclude
	      This  is a useful	shorthand for excluding	a broad	range of files
	      that you often don't want	to transfer between systems.  It  uses
	      the  same	 algorithm that	CVS uses to determine if a file	should
	      be ignored.

	      The exclude list is initialized to:

		     RCS  SCCS	CVS  CVS.adm   RCSLOG	cvslog.*   tags	  TAGS
		     .make.state  .nse_depinfo *~ #* .#* ,* _$*	*$ *.old *.bak
		     *.BAK *.orig *.rej	.del-* *.a *.olb *.o *.obj *.so	 *.exe
		     *.Z *.elc *.ln core .svn/

	      then  files  listed  in a	$HOME/.cvsignore are added to the list
	      and any files listed in the CVSIGNORE environment	variable  (all
	      cvsignore	names are delimited by whitespace).

	      Finally, any file	is ignored if it is in the same	directory as a
	      .cvsignore file and matches one of the patterns listed  therein.
	      Unlike rsync's filter/exclude files, these patterns are split on
	      whitespace.  See the cvs(1) manual for more information.

	      If you're	combining -C with your own --filter rules, you	should
	      note that	these CVS excludes are appended	at the end of your own
	      rules, regardless	of where the -C	was  placed  on	 the  command-
	      line.  This makes	them a lower priority than any rules you spec-
	      ified explicitly.	 If you	want to	control	where  these  CVS  ex-
	      cludes  get inserted into	your filter rules, you should omit the
	      -C as a command-line option and use a combination	of --filter=:C
	      and  --filter=-C	(either	on your	command-line or	by putting the
	      ":C" and "-C" rules into a filter	file with your	other  rules).
	      The  first  option  turns	 on the	per-directory scanning for the
	      .cvsignore file.	The second option does a  one-time  import  of
	      the CVS excludes mentioned above.

       -f, --filter=RULE
	      This  option allows you to add rules to selectively exclude cer-
	      tain files from the list of files	to  be	transferred.  This  is
	      most useful in combination with a	recursive transfer.

	      You  may use as many --filter options on the command line	as you
	      like to build up the list	of files to exclude.

	      See the FILTER RULES section for detailed	 information  on  this
	      option.

       -F     The  -F  option  is a shorthand for adding two --filter rules to
	      your command.  The first time it is used is a shorthand for this
	      rule:

		 --filter='dir-merge /.rsync-filter'

	      This  tells  rsync to look for per-directory .rsync-filter files
	      that have	been sprinkled through the  hierarchy  and  use	 their
	      rules  to	 filter	the files in the transfer.  If -F is repeated,
	      it is a shorthand	for this rule:

		 --filter='exclude .rsync-filter'

	      This filters out the .rsync-filter  files	 themselves  from  the
	      transfer.

	      See  the	FILTER	RULES  section for detailed information	on how
	      these options work.

       --exclude=PATTERN
	      This option is a simplified form of the --filter option that de-
	      faults to	an exclude rule	and does not allow the full rule-pars-
	      ing syntax of normal filter rules.

	      See the FILTER RULES section for detailed	 information  on  this
	      option.

       --exclude-from=FILE
	      This option is related to	the --exclude option, but it specifies
	      a	FILE that contains exclude patterns  (one  per	line).	 Blank
	      lines  in	 the  file  and	lines starting with ';'	or '#' are ig-
	      nored.  If FILE is -, the	list will be read from standard	input.

       --include=PATTERN
	      This option is a simplified form of the --filter option that de-
	      faults to	an include rule	and does not allow the full rule-pars-
	      ing syntax of normal filter rules.

	      See the FILTER RULES section for detailed	 information  on  this
	      option.

       --include-from=FILE
	      This option is related to	the --include option, but it specifies
	      a	FILE that contains include patterns  (one  per	line).	 Blank
	      lines  in	 the  file  and	lines starting with ';'	or '#' are ig-
	      nored.  If FILE is -, the	list will be read from standard	input.

       --files-from=FILE
	      Using this option	allows you to specify the exact	list of	 files
	      to  transfer  (as	read from the specified	FILE or	- for standard
	      input).  It also tweaks the default behavior of  rsync  to  make
	      transferring just	the specified files and	directories easier:

	      o	     The  --relative  (-R)  option is implied, which preserves
		     the path information that is specified for	each  item  in
		     the file (use --no-relative or --no-R if you want to turn
		     that off).

	      o	     The --dirs	(-d) option is implied,	which will create  di-
		     rectories specified in the	list on	the destination	rather
		     than noisily skipping them	(use --no-dirs	or  --no-d  if
		     you want to turn that off).

	      o	     The --archive (-a)	option's behavior does not imply --re-
		     cursive (-r), so specify it explicitly, if	you want it.

	      o	     These side-effects	change the default state of rsync,  so
		     the  position  of the --files-from	option on the command-
		     line has no bearing on how	other options are parsed (e.g.
		     -a	 works	the same before	or after --files-from, as does
		     --no-R and	all other options).

	      The file names that are read from	the FILE are all  relative  to
	      the  source  dir	-- any leading slashes are removed and no ".."
	      references are allowed to	go higher than the  source  dir.   For
	      example, take this command:

		 rsync -a --files-from=/tmp/foo	/usr remote:/backup

	      If  /tmp/foo  contains  the  string  "bin" (or even "/bin"), the
	      /usr/bin directory will be created as /backup/bin	on the	remote
	      host.   If it contains "bin/" (note the trailing slash), the im-
	      mediate contents of the directory	would also  be	sent  (without
	      needing  to be explicitly	mentioned in the file -- this began in
	      version 2.6.4).  In both cases, if the -r	 option	 was  enabled,
	      that  dir's  entire hierarchy would also be transferred (keep in
	      mind that	-r needs to be specified explicitly with --files-from,
	      since  it	 is  not implied by -a).  Also note that the effect of
	      the (enabled by default) --relative option is to duplicate  only
	      the  path	 info  that is read from the file -- it	does not force
	      the duplication of the source-spec path (/usr in this case).

	      In addition, the --files-from file can be	read from  the	remote
	      host instead of the local	host if	you specify a "host:" in front
	      of the file (the host must match one end of the transfer).  As a
	      short-cut, you can specify just a	prefix of ":" to mean "use the
	      remote end of the	transfer".  For	example:

		 rsync -a --files-from=:/path/file-list	src:/ /tmp/copy

	      This would copy all the files specified in  the  /path/file-list
	      file that	was located on the remote "src"	host.

       -0, --from0
	      This  tells  rsync that the rules/filenames it reads from	a file
	      are terminated by	a null ('\0') character,  not  a  NL,  CR,  or
	      CR+LF.	 This	 affects    --exclude-from,    --include-from,
	      --files-from, and	any merged files specified in a	--filter rule.
	      It  does	not  affect --cvs-exclude (since all names read	from a
	      .cvsignore file are split	on whitespace).

       -T, --temp-dir=DIR
	      This option instructs rsync to use DIR as	 a  scratch  directory
	      when  creating  temporary	copies of the files transferred	on the
	      receiving	side.  The default behavior is to create  each	tempo-
	      rary  file  in  the same directory as the	associated destination
	      file.

	      This option is most often	used when the receiving	disk partition
	      does  not	 have  enough free space to hold a copy	of the largest
	      file in the transfer.  In	this case (i.e.	when the  scratch  di-
	      rectory  in  on  a  different disk partition), rsync will	not be
	      able to rename each received temporary file over the top of  the
	      associated  destination  file,  but  instead  must  copy it into
	      place.  Rsync does this by copying the file over the top of  the
	      destination  file,  which	 means	that the destination file will
	      contain truncated	data during this copy.	If this	were not  done
	      this  way	 (even if the destination file were first removed, the
	      data locally copied to a temporary file in the  destination  di-
	      rectory,	and  then renamed into place) it would be possible for
	      the old file to continue taking up disk space (if	someone	had it
	      open),  and  thus	 there might not be enough room	to fit the new
	      version on the disk at the same time.

	      If you are using this option for reasons other than  a  shortage
	      of  disk	space, you may wish to combine it with the --delay-up-
	      dates option, which will ensure that all copied  files  get  put
	      into  subdirectories  in the destination hierarchy, awaiting the
	      end of the transfer.  If you don't have enough room to duplicate
	      all the arriving files on	the destination	partition, another way
	      to tell rsync that you aren't overly concerned about disk	 space
	      is to use	the --partial-dir option with a	relative path; because
	      this tells rsync that it is OK to	stash off a copy of  a	single
	      file  in	a  subdir in the destination hierarchy,	rsync will use
	      the partial-dir as a staging area	to bring over the copied file,
	      and  then	 rename	it into	place from there. (Specifying a	--par-
	      tial-dir with an absolute	path does not have this	side-effect.)

       -y, --fuzzy
	      This option tells	rsync that it should look for a	basis file for
	      any  destination	file  that  is missing.	 The current algorithm
	      looks in the same	directory as the destination file for either a
	      file  that  has  an identical size and modified-time, or a simi-
	      larly-named file.	 If found, rsync uses the fuzzy	basis file  to
	      try to speed up the transfer.

	      Note  that  the  use of the --delete option might	get rid	of any
	      potential	fuzzy-match files, so  either  use  --delete-after  or
	      specify some filename exclusions if you need to prevent this.

       --compare-dest=DIR
	      This  option  instructs  rsync to	use DIR	on the destination ma-
	      chine as an additional hierarchy to  compare  destination	 files
	      against  doing transfers (if the files are missing in the	desti-
	      nation directory).  If a file is found in	DIR that is  identical
	      to  the  sender's	 file, the file	will NOT be transferred	to the
	      destination directory.  This is useful  for  creating  a	sparse
	      backup of	just files that	have changed from an earlier backup.

	      Beginning	 in version 2.6.4, multiple --compare-dest directories
	      may be provided, which will cause	rsync to search	 the  list  in
	      the  order  specified  for  an exact match.  If a	match is found
	      that differs only	in attributes, a local copy is	made  and  the
	      attributes  updated.  If a match is not found, a basis file from
	      one of the DIRs will be selected to try to speed up  the	trans-
	      fer.

	      If DIR is	a relative path, it is relative	to the destination di-
	      rectory.	See also --copy-dest and --link-dest.

       --copy-dest=DIR
	      This option behaves like --compare-dest,	but  rsync  will  also
	      copy  unchanged  files found in DIR to the destination directory
	      using a local copy.  This	is useful for doing transfers to a new
	      destination  while leaving existing files	intact,	and then doing
	      a	flash-cutover when all files  have  been  successfully	trans-
	      ferred.

	      Multiple	--copy-dest  directories  may  be provided, which will
	      cause rsync to search the	list in	the order specified for	an un-
	      changed file.  If	a match	is not found, a	basis file from	one of
	      the DIRs will be selected	to try to speed	up the transfer.

	      If DIR is	a relative path, it is relative	to the destination di-
	      rectory.	See also --compare-dest	and --link-dest.

       --link-dest=DIR
	      This  option  behaves  like --copy-dest, but unchanged files are
	      hard linked from DIR to the destination  directory.   The	 files
	      must be identical	in all preserved attributes (e.g. permissions,
	      possibly ownership) in order for the  files  to  be  linked  to-
	      gether.  An example:

		rsync -av --link-dest=$PWD/prior_dir host:src_dir/ new_dir/

	      Beginning	in version 2.6.4, multiple --link-dest directories may
	      be provided, which will cause rsync to search the	 list  in  the
	      order  specified	for  an	exact match.  If a match is found that
	      differs only in attributes, a local copy is  made	 and  the  at-
	      tributes	updated.   If  a match is not found, a basis file from
	      one of the DIRs will be selected to try to speed up  the	trans-
	      fer.

	      Note  that if you	combine	this option with --ignore-times, rsync
	      will not link any	files together because it only links identical
	      files  together as a substitute for transferring the file, never
	      as an additional check after the file is updated.

	      If DIR is	a relative path, it is relative	to the destination di-
	      rectory.	See also --compare-dest	and --copy-dest.

	      Note  that  rsync	 versions  prior to 2.6.1 had a	bug that could
	      prevent --link-dest from working properly	for  a	non-super-user
	      when  -o	was specified (or implied by -a).  You can work-around
	      this bug by avoiding the -o option when sending to an old	rsync.

       -z, --compress
	      With this	option,	rsync compresses the file data as it  is  sent
	      to the destination machine, which	reduces	the amount of data be-
	      ing transmitted -- something that	is useful over a slow  connec-
	      tion.

	      Note  that this option typically achieves	better compression ra-
	      tios than	can be achieved	by using a compressing remote shell or
	      a	 compressing  transport	 because it takes advantage of the im-
	      plicit information in the	matching data blocks that are not  ex-
	      plicitly sent over the connection.

       --compress-level=NUM
	      Explicitly set the compression level to use (see --compress) in-
	      stead of letting it default.  If NUM is non-zero,	the --compress
	      option is	implied.

       --numeric-ids
	      With  this option	rsync will transfer numeric group and user IDs
	      rather than using	user and group names and mapping them at  both
	      ends.

	      By  default  rsync will use the username and groupname to	deter-
	      mine what	ownership to give files. The special  uid  0  and  the
	      special  group  0	 are never mapped via user/group names even if
	      the --numeric-ids	option is not specified.

	      If a user	or group has no	name on	the source system or it	has no
	      match  on	 the  destination system, then the numeric ID from the
	      source system is used instead.  See also	the  comments  on  the
	      "use  chroot" setting in the rsyncd.conf manpage for information
	      on how the chroot	setting	affects	rsync's	ability	to look	up the
	      names of the users and groups and	what you can do	about it.

       --timeout=TIMEOUT
	      This  option allows you to set a maximum I/O timeout in seconds.
	      If no data is transferred	for the	specified time then rsync will
	      exit. The	default	is 0, which means no timeout.

       --address
	      By default rsync will bind to the	wildcard address when connect-
	      ing to an	rsync daemon.  The  --address  option  allows  you  to
	      specify  a  specific  IP	address	(or hostname) to bind to.  See
	      also this	option in the --daemon mode section.

       --port=PORT
	      This specifies an	alternate TCP port number to use  rather  than
	      the  default  of	873.  This is only needed if you are using the
	      double-colon (::)	syntax to connect with an rsync	daemon	(since
	      the  URL	syntax	has a way to specify the port as a part	of the
	      URL).  See also this option in the --daemon mode section.

       --sockopts
	      This option can provide endless fun for people who like to  tune
	      their  systems  to  the  utmost degree. You can set all sorts of
	      socket options which may make  transfers	faster	(or  slower!).
	      Read  the	 man page for the setsockopt() system call for details
	      on some of the options you may be	able to	 set.  By  default  no
	      special  socket options are set. This only affects direct	socket
	      connections to a remote rsync daemon.  This option  also	exists
	      in the --daemon mode section.

       --blocking-io
	      This  tells  rsync  to  use blocking I/O when launching a	remote
	      shell transport.	If the remote shell is either  rsh  or	remsh,
	      rsync  defaults  to using	blocking I/O, otherwise	it defaults to
	      using non-blocking I/O.  (Note  that  ssh	 prefers  non-blocking
	      I/O.)

       -i, --itemize-changes
	      Requests	a  simple  itemized list of the	changes	that are being
	      made to each file, including attribute changes.  This is exactly
	      the  same	 as  specifying	--out-format='%i %n%L'.	 If you	repeat
	      the option, unchanged files will also be output, but only	if the
	      receiving	 rsync is at least version 2.6.7 (you can use -vv with
	      older versions of	rsync, but that	also turns on  the  output  of
	      other verbose messages).

	      The  "%i"	 escape	 has  a	cryptic	output that is 9 letters long.
	      The general format is like the string YXcstpogz, where Y is  re-
	      placed  by  the  type of update being done, X is replaced	by the
	      file-type, and the other letters represent attributes  that  may
	      be output	if they	are being modified.

	      The update types that replace the	Y are as follows:

	      o	     A	< means	that a file is being transferred to the	remote
		     host (sent).

	      o	     A > means that a file is being transferred	to  the	 local
		     host (received).

	      o	     A	c  means that a	local change/creation is occurring for
		     the item (such as the creation  of	 a  directory  or  the
		     changing of a symlink, etc.).

	      o	     A	h  means  that the item	is a hard link to another item
		     (requires --hard-links).

	      o	     A . means that the	item is	not being updated  (though  it
		     might have	attributes that	are being modified).

	      The  file-types  that replace the	X are: f for a file, a d for a
	      directory, an L for a symlink, a D for a device, and a S	for  a
	      special file (e.g. named sockets and fifos).

	      The  other  letters  in  the string above	are the	actual letters
	      that will	be output if the associated attribute for the item  is
	      being  updated or	a "." for no change.  Three exceptions to this
	      are: (1) a newly created item replaces each letter with  a  "+",
	      (2)  an identical	item replaces the dots with spaces, and	(3) an
	      unknown attribute	replaces each letter with a "?"	(this can hap-
	      pen when talking to an older rsync).

	      The attribute that is associated with each letter	is as follows:

	      o	     A	c means	the checksum of	the file is different and will
		     be	updated	by the file transfer (requires --checksum).

	      o	     A s means the size	of the file is different and  will  be
		     updated by	the file transfer.

	      o	     A t means the modification	time is	different and is being
		     updated to	the sender's value (requires --times).	An al-
		     ternate value of T	means that the time will be set	to the
		     transfer time, which happens anytime a symlink is	trans-
		     ferred,  or  when a file or device	is transferred without
		     --times.

	      o	     A p means the permissions are different and are being up-
		     dated to the sender's value (requires --perms).

	      o	     An	o means	the owner is different and is being updated to
		     the sender's value	(requires --owner and super-user priv-
		     ileges).

	      o	     A	g means	the group is different and is being updated to
		     the sender's value	(requires --group and the authority to
		     set the group).

	      o	     The z slot	is reserved for	future use.

	      One  other  output  is  possible:	 when deleting files, the "%i"
	      will output the string "*deleting" for each item that  is	 being
	      removed  (assuming that you are talking to a recent enough rsync
	      that it logs deletions instead of	outputting them	as  a  verbose
	      message).

       --out-format=FORMAT
	      This allows you to specify exactly what the rsync	client outputs
	      to the user on a per-update basis.  The format is	a text	string
	      containing  embedded  single-character escape sequences prefixed
	      with a percent (%) character.  For a list	of the possible	escape
	      characters, see the "log format" setting in the rsyncd.conf man-
	      page.

	      Specifying this option will mention each file,  dir,  etc.  that
	      gets  updated in a significant way (a transferred	file, a	recre-
	      ated symlink/device, or a	touched	directory).  In	 addition,  if
	      the  itemize-changes  escape (%i)	is included in the string, the
	      logging of names increases to mention any	item that  is  changed
	      in  any  way  (as	long as	the receiving side is at least 2.6.4).
	      See the --itemize-changes	option for a description of the	output
	      of "%i".

	      The --verbose option implies a format of "%n%L", but you can use
	      --out-format without --verbose if	you like, or you can  override
	      the format of its	per-file output	using this option.

	      Rsync will output	the out-format string prior to a file's	trans-
	      fer unless one of	the transfer-statistic escapes	is  requested,
	      in  which	 case  the  logging  is	 done at the end of the	file's
	      transfer.	 When this late	logging	is in effect and --progress is
	      also  specified, rsync will also output the name of the file be-
	      ing transferred prior to its progress information	(followed,  of
	      course, by the out-format	output).

       --log-file=FILE
	      This  option  causes  rsync  to  log what	it is doing to a file.
	      This is similar to the logging that a daemon does,  but  can  be
	      requested	 for  the client side and/or the server	side of	a non-
	      daemon transfer.	If specified as	a client option, transfer log-
	      ging  will  be  enabled with a default format of "%i %n%L".  See
	      the --log-file-format option if you wish to override this.

	      Here's a example command that requests the remote	 side  to  log
	      what is happening:

		rsync -av --rsync-path="rsync --log-file=/tmp/rlog" src/ dest/

	      This  is	very  useful  if you need to debug why a connection is
	      closing unexpectedly.

       --log-file-format=FORMAT
	      This allows you to specify exactly what  per-update  logging  is
	      put into the file	specified by the --log-file option (which must
	      also be specified	for this option	to have	any effect).   If  you
	      specify  an empty	string,	updated	files will not be mentioned in
	      the log file.  For a list	of the possible	escape characters, see
	      the "log format" setting in the rsyncd.conf manpage.

       --stats
	      This  tells  rsync  to  print a verbose set of statistics	on the
	      file transfer, allowing you to tell how effective	the rsync  al-
	      gorithm is for your data.

	      The current statistics are as follows:

	      o	     Number  of	 files	is  the	 count	of all "files" (in the
		     generic sense),  which  includes  directories,  symlinks,
		     etc.

	      o	     Number  of	files transferred is the count of normal files
		     that were updated via the rsync algorithm,	which does not
		     include created dirs, symlinks, etc.

	      o	     Total file	size is	the total sum of all file sizes	in the
		     transfer.	This does not count any	size  for  directories
		     or	special	files, but does	include	the size of symlinks.

	      o	     Total transferred file size is the	total sum of all files
		     sizes for just the	transferred files.

	      o	     Literal data is how much unmatched	 file-update  data  we
		     had  to  send  to the receiver for	it to recreate the up-
		     dated files.

	      o	     Matched data is how much data the	receiver  got  locally
		     when recreating the updated files.

	      o	     File list size is how big the file-list data was when the
		     sender sent it to the receiver.  This is smaller than the
		     in-memory	size for the file list due to some compressing
		     of	duplicated data	when rsync sends the list.

	      o	     File list generation time is the number of	 seconds  that
		     the sender	spent creating the file	list.  This requires a
		     modern rsync on the sending side for this to be present.

	      o	     File list transfer	time is	the number of seconds that the
		     sender spent sending the file list	to the receiver.

	      o	     Total bytes sent is the count of all the bytes that rsync
		     sent from the client side to the server side.

	      o	     Total bytes received is  the  count  of  all  non-message
		     bytes  that  rsync	 received  by the client side from the
		     server side.  "Non-message" bytes	means  that  we	 don't
		     count  the	 bytes	for  a verbose message that the	server
		     sent to us, which makes the stats more consistent.

       -8, --8-bit-output
	      This tells rsync to leave	all high-bit characters	 unescaped  in
	      the  output  instead  of	trying	to test	them to	see if they're
	      valid in the current locale and escaping the invalid ones.   All
	      control  characters (but never tabs) are always escaped, regard-
	      less of this option's setting.

	      The escape idiom that started in 2.6.7 is	to  output  a  literal
	      backslash	 (\)  and a hash (#), followed by exactly 3 octal dig-
	      its.  For	example, a newline would output	as "\#012".  A literal
	      backslash	that is	in a filename is not escaped unless it is fol-
	      lowed by a hash and 3 digits (0-9).

       -h, --human-readable
	      Output numbers in	a more human-readable format.  This makes  big
	      numbers output using larger units, with a	K, M, or G suffix.  If
	      this option was specified	once, these  units  are	 K  (1000),  M
	      (1000*1000),  and	G (1000*1000*1000); if the option is repeated,
	      the units	are powers of 1024 instead of 1000.

       --partial
	      By default, rsync	will delete any	partially transferred file  if
	      the  transfer  is	 interrupted. In some circumstances it is more
	      desirable	to keep	partially transferred files. Using the	--par-
	      tial  option  tells  rsync to keep the partial file which	should
	      make a subsequent	transfer of the	rest of	the file much faster.

       --partial-dir=DIR
	      A	better way to keep partial files than the --partial option  is
	      to specify a DIR that will be used to hold the partial data (in-
	      stead of writing it out to the destination file).	 On  the  next
	      transfer,	 rsync	will  use  a file found	in this	dir as data to
	      speed up the resumption of the transfer and then delete it after
	      it has served its	purpose.

	      Note  that  if  --whole-file is specified	(or implied), any par-
	      tial-dir file that is found for a	file  that  is	being  updated
	      will simply be removed (since rsync is sending files without us-
	      ing the incremental rsync	algorithm).

	      Rsync will create	the DIR	if it is missing (just the last	dir --
	      not  the whole path).  This makes	it easy	to use a relative path
	      (such as "--partial-dir=.rsync-partial") to  have	 rsync	create
	      the  partial-directory  in the destination file's	directory when
	      needed, and then remove  it  again  when	the  partial  file  is
	      deleted.

	      If the partial-dir value is not an absolute path,	rsync will add
	      an exclude rule at the end of all	your existing excludes.	  This
	      will prevent the sending of any partial-dir files	that may exist
	      on the sending side, and will also prevent the untimely deletion
	      of  partial-dir  items  on  the receiving	side.  An example: the
	      above --partial-dir option would add the	equivalent  of	"--ex-
	      clude=.rsync-partial/" at	the end	of any other filter rules.

	      If you are supplying your	own exclude rules, you may need	to add
	      your own exclude/hide/protect rule for the  partial-dir  because
	      (1)  the	auto-added  rule may be	ineffective at the end of your
	      other rules, or (2) you may wish	to  override  rsync's  exclude
	      choice.	For  instance,	if you want to make rsync clean-up any
	      left-over	partial-dirs that may  be  lying  around,  you	should
	      specify --delete-after and add a "risk" filter rule, e.g.	 -f 'R
	      .rsync-partial/'.	 (Avoid	using --delete-before or --delete-dur-
	      ing unless you don't need	rsync to use any of the	left-over par-
	      tial-dir data during the current run.)

	      IMPORTANT: the --partial-dir should not  be  writable  by	 other
	      users or it is a security	risk.  E.g. AVOID "/tmp".

	      You can also set the partial-dir value the RSYNC_PARTIAL_DIR en-
	      vironment	variable.  Setting this	in the	environment  does  not
	      force  --partial to be enabled, but rather it affects where par-
	      tial files go when --partial is specified.   For	instance,  in-
	      stead  of	 using --partial-dir=.rsync-tmp	along with --progress,
	      you could	set RSYNC_PARTIAL_DIR=.rsync-tmp in  your  environment
	      and  then	 just  use  the	 -P  option  to	turn on	the use	of the
	      .rsync-tmp dir for partial transfers.  The only times  that  the
	      --partial	 option	 does  not look	for this environment value are
	      (1) when --inplace was specified (since --inplace	conflicts with
	      --partial-dir),  and (2) when --delay-updates was	specified (see
	      below).

	      For the purposes of the daemon-config's  "refuse	options"  set-
	      ting, --partial-dir does not imply --partial.  This is so	that a
	      refusal of the --partial option can  be  used  to	 disallow  the
	      overwriting  of destination files	with a partial transfer, while
	      still allowing the safer idiom provided by --partial-dir.

       --delay-updates
	      This option puts the temporary file from each updated file  into
	      a	holding	directory until	the end	of the transfer, at which time
	      all the files are	renamed	into place in rapid succession.	  This
	      attempts to make the updating of the files a little more atomic.
	      By default the files are placed into a directory named  ".~tmp~"
	      in  each	file's	destination directory, but if you've specified
	      the --partial-dir	option,	that directory will be	used  instead.
	      See  the	comments in the	--partial-dir section for a discussion
	      of how this ".~tmp~" dir will be excluded	from the transfer, and
	      what  you	 can do	if you wnat rsync to cleanup old ".~tmp~" dirs
	      that might be lying around.  Conflicts with --inplace and	 --ap-
	      pend.

	      This  option uses	more memory on the receiving side (one bit per
	      file transferred)	and also requires enough free  disk  space  on
	      the receiving side to hold an additional copy of all the updated
	      files.  Note also	that you should	not use	an  absolute  path  to
	      --partial-dir  unless (1)	there is no chance of any of the files
	      in the transfer having the same  name  (since  all  the  updated
	      files  will  be put into a single	directory if the path is abso-
	      lute) and	(2) there are no mount points in the hierarchy	(since
	      the  delayed  updates  will  fail	 if they can't be renamed into
	      place).

	      See also the "atomic-rsync" perl script in the "support"	subdir
	      for  an  update  algorithm  that	is  even  more atomic (it uses
	      --link-dest and a	parallel hierarchy of files).

       -m, --prune-empty-dirs
	      This option tells	the receiving rsync to get rid of empty	direc-
	      tories  from  the	 file-list,  including nested directories that
	      have no non-directory children.  This is useful for avoiding the
	      creation	of  a  bunch  of  useless directories when the sending
	      rsync is recursively scanning a hierarchy	 of  files  using  in-
	      clude/exclude/filter rules.

	      Because the file-list is actually	being pruned, this option also
	      affects what directories get deleted when	a  delete  is  active.
	      However,	keep  in  mind that excluded files and directories can
	      prevent existing items from being	deleted	 (because  an  exclude
	      hides source files and protects destination files).

	      You  can	prevent	 the pruning of	certain	empty directories from
	      the file-list by using a global "protect"	filter.	 For instance,
	      this  option would ensure	that the directory "emptydir" was kept
	      in the file-list:

	      --filter 'protect	emptydir/'

	      Here's an	example	that copies all	.pdf  files  in	 a  hierarchy,
	      only  creating the necessary destination directories to hold the
	      .pdf files, and ensures that any superfluous files and  directo-
	      ries  in	the  destination  are removed (note the	hide filter of
	      non-directories being used instead of an exclude):

	      rsync -avm --del --include='*.pdf' -f 'hide,! */'	src/ dest

	      If you didn't want to remove superfluous destination files,  the
	      more  time-honored  options  of  "--include='*/'	--exclude='*'"
	      would work fine in place of the hide-filter  (if	that  is  more
	      natural to you).

       --progress
	      This  option  tells  rsync  to  print  information  showing  the
	      progress of the transfer.	This gives a bored user	 something  to
	      watch.  Implies --verbose	if it wasn't already specified.

	      While  rsync  is	transferring  a	 regular  file,	 it  updates a
	      progress line that looks like this:

		    782448  63%	 110.64kB/s    0:00:04

	      In this example, the receiver has	reconstructed 782448 bytes  or
	      63% of the sender's file,	which is being reconstructed at	a rate
	      of 110.64	kilobytes per second, and the transfer will finish  in
	      4	seconds	if the current rate is maintained until	the end.

	      These  statistics	 can be	misleading if the incremental transfer
	      algorithm	is in use.  For	example, if the	sender's file consists
	      of the basis file	followed by additional data, the reported rate
	      will probably drop dramatically when the receiver	 gets  to  the
	      literal data, and	the transfer will probably take	much longer to
	      finish than the receiver	estimated  as  it  was	finishing  the
	      matched part of the file.

	      When  the	 file  transfer	 finishes, rsync replaces the progress
	      line with	a summary line that looks like this:

		   1238099 100%	 146.38kB/s    0:00:08	(xfer#5, to-check=169/396)

	      In this example, the file	was 1238099 bytes long in  total,  the
	      average rate of transfer for the whole file was 146.38 kilobytes
	      per second over the 8 seconds that it took to complete,  it  was
	      the 5th transfer of a regular file during	the current rsync ses-
	      sion, and	there are 169 more files for the receiver to check (to
	      see  if they are up-to-date or not) remaining out	of the 396 to-
	      tal files	in the file-list.

       -P     The -P option is equivalent to --partial --progress.   Its  pur-
	      pose  is to make it much easier to specify these two options for
	      a	long transfer that may be interrupted.

       --password-file
	      This option allows you to	provide	a password in a	file  for  ac-
	      cessing  a  remote  rsync	 daemon. Note that this	option is only
	      useful when accessing an rsync daemon using the built in	trans-
	      port,  not  when using a remote shell as the transport. The file
	      must not be world	readable. It should contain just the  password
	      as a single line.

       --list-only
	      This  option will	cause the source files to be listed instead of
	      transferred.  This option	is  inferred  if  there	 is  a	single
	      source  arg  and no destination specified, so its	main uses are:
	      (1) to turn a copy command that includes a destination arg  into
	      a	 file-listing command, (2) to be able to specify more than one
	      local source arg (note: be sure to include the destination),  or
	      (3)  to  avoid the automatically added "-r --exclude='/*/*'" op-
	      tions that rsync usually uses as a compatibility kluge when gen-
	      erating  a  non-recursive	listing.  Caution: keep	in mind	that a
	      source arg with a	wild-card is expanded by the shell into	multi-
	      ple args,	so it is never safe to try to list such	an arg without
	      using this option.  For example:

		  rsync	-av --list-only	foo* dest/

       --bwlimit=KBPS
	      This option allows you to	specify	a  maximum  transfer  rate  in
	      kilobytes	 per  second. This option is most effective when using
	      rsync with large files (several megabytes	and up).  Due  to  the
	      nature  of  rsync	 transfers,  blocks  of	data are sent, then if
	      rsync determines the transfer was	too fast, it will wait	before
	      sending  the  next data block. The result	is an average transfer
	      rate equaling the	specified limit. A value of zero specifies  no
	      limit.

       --stop-at=y-m-dTh:m
	      This option allows you to	specify	at what	time to	stop rsync, in
	      year-month-dayThour:minute      numeric	    format	 (e.g.
	      2004-12-31T23:59).   You	can  specify a 2 or 4-digit year.  You
	      can also leave off various items and the result will be the next
	      possible	time  that  matches  the specified data.  For example,
	      "1-30" specifies the next	January	30th  (at  midnight),  "04:00"
	      specifies	 the next 4am, "1" specifies the next 1st of the month
	      at midnight, and ":59" specifies the next	59th minute after  the
	      hour.   If  you  prefer, you may separate	the date numbers using
	      slashes instead of dashes.

       --time-limit=MINS
	      This option allows you to	specify	the maximum number of  minutes
	      rsync will run for.

       --write-batch=FILE
	      Record  a	 file  that  can later be applied to another identical
	      destination with --read-batch. See the "BATCH MODE" section  for
	      details, and also	the --only-write-batch option.

       --only-write-batch=FILE
	      Works like --write-batch,	except that no updates are made	on the
	      destination system when  creating	 the  batch.   This  lets  you
	      transport	 the  changes to the destination system	via some other
	      means and	then apply the changes via --read-batch.

	      Note that	you can	feel free to write the batch directly to  some
	      portable	media:	if this	media fills to capacity	before the end
	      of the transfer, you can just apply that partial transfer	to the
	      destination  and repeat the whole	process	to get the rest	of the
	      changes (as long as you don't mind a partially updated  destina-
	      tion system while	the multi-update cycle is happening).

	      Also note	that you only save bandwidth when pushing changes to a
	      remote system because this allows	the batched  data  to  be  di-
	      verted  from  the	 sender	 into the batch	file without having to
	      flow over	the wire to the	receiver (when pulling,	the sender  is
	      remote, and thus can't write the batch).

       --read-batch=FILE
	      Apply  all of the	changes	stored in FILE,	a file previously gen-
	      erated by	--write-batch.	If FILE	is -, the batch	data  will  be
	      read  from standard input.  See the "BATCH MODE" section for de-
	      tails.

       --protocol=NUM
	      Force an older protocol version to be used.  This	is useful  for
	      creating	a  batch file that is compatible with an older version
	      of rsync.	 For instance, if rsync	2.6.4 is being used  with  the
	      --write-batch  option,  but  rsync 2.6.3 is what will be used to
	      run the --read-batch option, you should use "--protocol=28" when
	      creating	the  batch file	to force the older protocol version to
	      be used in the batch file	(assuming you can't upgrade the	 rsync
	      on the reading system).

       -4, --ipv4 or -6, --ipv6
	      Tells  rsync  to	prefer	IPv4/IPv6 when creating	sockets.  This
	      only affects sockets that	rsync has direct control over, such as
	      the  outgoing  socket  when directly contacting an rsync daemon.
	      See also these options in	the --daemon mode section.

       --checksum-seed=NUM
	      Set the MD4 checksum seed	to  the	 integer  NUM.	 This  4  byte
	      checksum	seed  is  included in each block and file MD4 checksum
	      calculation.  By default the checksum seed is generated  by  the
	      server and defaults to the current time()	.  This	option is used
	      to set a specific	checksum seed, which is	 useful	 for  applica-
	      tions  that  want	repeatable block and file checksums, or	in the
	      case where the user wants	a more	random	checksum  seed.	  Note
	      that  setting NUM	to 0 causes rsync to use the default of	time()
	      for checksum seed.

DAEMON OPTIONS
       The options allowed when	starting an rsync daemon are as	follows:

       --daemon
	      This tells rsync that it is to run as a daemon.  The daemon  you
	      start  running  may  be accessed using an	rsync client using the
	      host::module or rsync://host/module/ syntax.

	      If standard input	is a socket then rsync will assume that	it  is
	      being  run  via inetd, otherwise it will detach from the current
	      terminal and become a background daemon.	The daemon  will  read
	      the  config  file	(rsyncd.conf) on each connect made by a	client
	      and respond to requests accordingly.  See	the rsyncd.conf(5) man
	      page for more details.

       --address
	      By default rsync will bind to the	wildcard address when run as a
	      daemon with the --daemon option.	The  --address	option	allows
	      you  to  specify a specific IP address (or hostname) to bind to.
	      This makes virtual hosting  possible  in	conjunction  with  the
	      --config	option.	  See  also the	"address" global option	in the
	      rsyncd.conf manpage.

       --bwlimit=KBPS
	      This option allows you to	specify	a  maximum  transfer  rate  in
	      kilobytes	 per second for	the data the daemon sends.  The	client
	      can still	specify	a smaller --bwlimit value, but their requested
	      value  will  be  rounded down if they try	to exceed it.  See the
	      client version of	this option (above) for	some extra details.

       --config=FILE
	      This specifies an	alternate config file than the default.	  This
	      is  only	relevant  when	--daemon is specified.	The default is
	      /usr/local/etc/rsyncd.conf unless	the daemon is running  over  a
	      remote  shell program and	the remote user	is not the super-user;
	      in that case the default is rsyncd.conf in the current directory
	      (typically $HOME).

       --no-detach
	      When running as a	daemon,	this option instructs rsync to not de-
	      tach itself and become a background process.  This option	is re-
	      quired when running as a service on Cygwin, and may also be use-
	      ful when rsync is	supervised by a	program	such as	daemontools or
	      AIX's  System  Resource  Controller.  --no-detach	is also	recom-
	      mended when rsync	is run under a debugger.  This option  has  no
	      effect if	rsync is run from inetd	or sshd.

       --port=PORT
	      This  specifies  an  alternate TCP port number for the daemon to
	      listen on	rather than the	default	of 873.	 See also  the	"port"
	      global option in the rsyncd.conf manpage.

       --log-file=FILE
	      This  option  tells  the	rsync daemon to	use the	given log-file
	      name instead of using the	"log file" setting in the config file.

       --log-file-format=FORMAT
	      This option tells	the rsync  daemon  to  use  the	 given	FORMAT
	      string  instead  of using	the "log format" setting in the	config
	      file.  It	also enables "transfer logging"	unless the  string  is
	      empty, in	which case transfer logging is turned off.

       --sockopts
	      This  overrides  the  socket  options setting in the rsyncd.conf
	      file and has the same syntax.

       -v, --verbose
	      This option increases the	amount of information the daemon  logs
	      during  its  startup phase.  After the client connects, the dae-
	      mon's verbosity level will be controlled by the options that the
	      client used and the "max verbosity" setting in the module's con-
	      fig section.

       -4, --ipv4 or -6, --ipv6
	      Tells rsync to prefer IPv4/IPv6 when creating the	incoming sock-
	      ets  that	 the  rsync daemon will	use to listen for connections.
	      One of these options may be required in older versions of	 Linux
	      to work around an	IPv6 bug in the	kernel (if you see an "address
	      already in use" error when nothing else is using the  port,  try
	      specifying --ipv6	or --ipv4 when starting	the daemon).

       -h, --help
	      When  specified after --daemon, print a short help page describ-
	      ing the options available	for starting an	rsync daemon.

FILTER RULES
       The filter rules	allow for flexible selection of	which files to	trans-
       fer  (include) and which	files to skip (exclude).  The rules either di-
       rectly specify include/exclude patterns or they specify a  way  to  ac-
       quire more include/exclude patterns (e.g. to read them from a file).

       As  the	list  of  files/directories to transfer	is built, rsync	checks
       each name to be transferred against the list  of	 include/exclude  pat-
       terns in	turn, and the first matching pattern is	acted on:  if it is an
       exclude pattern,	then that file is skipped; if it is an include pattern
       then  that  filename  is	 not skipped; if no matching pattern is	found,
       then the	filename is not	skipped.

       Rsync builds an ordered list of filter rules as specified on  the  com-
       mand-line.  Filter rules	have the following syntax:

	      RULE [PATTERN_OR_FILENAME]
	      RULE,MODIFIERS [PATTERN_OR_FILENAME]

       You  have  your choice of using either short or long RULE names,	as de-
       scribed below.  If you use a short-named	rule, the ','  separating  the
       RULE from the MODIFIERS is optional.  The PATTERN or FILENAME that fol-
       lows (when present) must	come after either a single space or an	under-
       score (_).  Here	are the	available rule prefixes:

	      exclude, - specifies an exclude pattern.
	      include, + specifies an include pattern.
	      merge, . specifies a merge-file to read for more rules.
	      dir-merge, : specifies a per-directory merge-file.
	      hide, H specifies	a pattern for hiding files from	the transfer.
	      show, S files that match the pattern are not hidden.
	      protect,	P  specifies a pattern for protecting files from dele-
	      tion.
	      risk, R files that match the pattern are not protected.
	      clear, ! clears the current include/exclude list (takes no arg)

       When rules are being read from a	file, empty lines are ignored, as  are
       comment lines that start	with a "#".

       Note that the --include/--exclude command-line options do not allow the
       full range of rule parsing as described above --	they  only  allow  the
       specification of	include/exclude	patterns plus a	"!" token to clear the
       list (and the normal comment parsing when rules are read	from a	file).
       If  a  pattern  does  not  begin	with "-	" (dash, space)	or "+ "	(plus,
       space), then the	rule will be interpreted as if "+ "  (for  an  include
       option) or "- " (for an exclude option) were prefixed to	the string.  A
       --filter	option,	on the other hand, must	always contain either a	 short
       or long rule name at the	start of the rule.

       Note  also that the --filter, --include,	and --exclude options take one
       rule/pattern each. To add multiple ones,	you can	repeat the options  on
       the  command-line, use the merge-file syntax of the --filter option, or
       the --include-from/--exclude-from options.

INCLUDE/EXCLUDE	PATTERN	RULES
       You can include and exclude files by specifying patterns	using the "+",
       "-",  etc.  filter  rules  (as  introduced  in the FILTER RULES section
       above).	The include/exclude rules  each	 specify  a  pattern  that  is
       matched	against	 the  names  of	 the files that	are going to be	trans-
       ferred.	These patterns can take	several	forms:

       o      if the pattern starts with a / then it is	anchored to a particu-
	      lar  spot	 in  the  hierarchy  of	files, otherwise it is matched
	      against the end of the pathname.	This is	similar	to a leading ^
	      in  regular  expressions.	  Thus "/foo" would match a file named
	      "foo" at either the "root	of the transfer" (for a	 global	 rule)
	      or in the	merge-file's directory (for a per-directory rule).  An
	      unqualified "foo"	would match any	file or	directory named	 "foo"
	      anywhere	in  the	 tree  because the algorithm is	applied	recur-
	      sively from the top down;	it behaves as if each  path  component
	      gets  a  turn at being the end of	the file name.	Even the unan-
	      chored "sub/foo" would match at any point	in the hierarchy where
	      a	 "foo" was found within	a directory named "sub".  See the sec-
	      tion on ANCHORING	INCLUDE/EXCLUDE	PATTERNS for a full discussion
	      of  how  to  specify  a  pattern that matches at the root	of the
	      transfer.

       o      if the pattern ends with a / then	it will	only  match  a	direc-
	      tory, not	a file,	link, or device.

       o      rsync  chooses  between doing a simple string match and wildcard
	      matching by checking if the pattern contains one of these	 three
	      wildcard characters: '*',	'?', and '[' .

       o      a	 '*'  matches  any  non-empty  path  component	(it  stops  at
	      slashes).

       o      use '**' to match	anything, including slashes.

       o      a	'?' matches any	character except a slash (/).

       o      a	'[' introduces a character class,  such	 as  [a-z]  or	[[:al-
	      pha:]].

       o      in a wildcard pattern, a backslash can be	used to	escape a wild-
	      card character, but it is	matched	literally  when	 no  wildcards
	      are present.

       o      if  the  pattern	contains  a / (not counting a trailing /) or a
	      "**", then it is matched against the  full  pathname,  including
	      any leading directories. If the pattern doesn't contain a	/ or a
	      "**", then it is matched only against the	final component	of the
	      filename.	  (Remember  that the algorithm	is applied recursively
	      so "full filename" can actually be any portion of	 a  path  from
	      the starting directory on	down.)

       o      a	 trailing  "dir_name/***" will match both the directory	(as if
	      "dir_name/" had been specified) and all the files	in the	direc-
	      tory  (as	 if "dir_name/**" had been specified).	(This behavior
	      is new for version 2.6.7.)

       Note that, when using the --recursive (-r) option (which	is implied  by
       -a),  every subcomponent	of every path is visited from the top down, so
       include/exclude patterns	get applied recursively	to each	subcomponent's
       full  name (e.g.	to include "/foo/bar/baz" the subcomponents "/foo" and
       "/foo/bar" must not be excluded).  The exclude patterns actually	short-
       circuit	the  directory	traversal  stage when rsync finds the files to
       send.  If a pattern excludes a particular parent	directory, it can ren-
       der  a deeper include pattern ineffectual because rsync did not descend
       through that excluded section of	the hierarchy.	This  is  particularly
       important  when	using  a  trailing '*' rule.  For instance, this won't
       work:

	      +	/some/path/this-file-will-not-be-found
	      +	/file-is-included
	      -	*

       This fails because the parent directory "some" is excluded by  the  '*'
       rule,  so  rsync	 never	visits	any  of	 the  files  in	 the "some" or
       "some/path" directories.	 One solution is to ask	for all	directories in
       the  hierarchy  to  be  included	by using a single rule:	"+ */" (put it
       somewhere   before   the	  "-   *"   rule),   and   perhaps   use   the
       --prune-empty-dirs option.  Another solution is to add specific include
       rules for all the parent	dirs that need to be visited.	For  instance,
       this set	of rules works fine:

	      +	/some/
	      +	/some/path/
	      +	/some/path/this-file-is-found
	      +	/file-also-included
	      -	*

       Here are	some examples of exclude/include matching:

       o      "- *.o" would exclude all	filenames matching *.o

       o      "-  /foo"	 would	exclude	a file (or directory) named foo	in the
	      transfer-root directory

       o      "- foo/" would exclude any directory named foo

       o      "- /foo/*/bar" would exclude any file named bar which is at  two
	      levels  below  a directory named foo in the transfer-root	direc-
	      tory

       o      "- /foo/**/bar" would exclude any	file named  bar	 two  or  more
	      levels  below  a directory named foo in the transfer-root	direc-
	      tory

       o      The combination of "+ */", "+ *.c", and "- *" would include  all
	      directories  and	C  source files	but nothing else (see also the
	      --prune-empty-dirs option)

       o      The combination of "+ foo/", "+ foo/bar.c", and "- *" would  in-
	      clude  only  the	foo directory and foo/bar.c (the foo directory
	      must be explicitly included or it	would be excluded by the "*")

MERGE-FILE FILTER RULES
       You can merge whole files into your filter rules	by specifying either a
       merge  (.)  or a	dir-merge (:) filter rule (as introduced in the	FILTER
       RULES section above).

       There are two kinds of merged files -- single-instance ('.')  and  per-
       directory  (':').   A  single-instance merge file is read one time, and
       its rules are incorporated into the filter list in the place of the "."
       rule.   For  per-directory merge	files, rsync will scan every directory
       that it traverses for the named file, merging  its  contents  when  the
       file exists into	the current list of inherited rules.  These per-direc-
       tory rule files must be created on the sending side because it  is  the
       sending side that is being scanned for the available files to transfer.
       These rule files	may also need to be transferred	to the receiving  side
       if you want them	to affect what files don't get deleted (see PER-DIREC-
       TORY RULES AND DELETE below).

       Some examples:

	      merge /usr/local/etc/rsync/default.rules
	      .	/usr/local/etc/rsync/default.rules
	      dir-merge	.per-dir-filter
	      dir-merge,n- .non-inherited-per-dir-excludes
	      :n- .non-inherited-per-dir-excludes

       The following modifiers are accepted after a merge or dir-merge rule:

       o      A	- specifies that the file should consist of only exclude  pat-
	      terns, with no other rule-parsing	except for in-file comments.

       o      A	 + specifies that the file should consist of only include pat-
	      terns, with no other rule-parsing	except for in-file comments.

       o      A	C is a way to specify that the file should be read in  a  CVS-
	      compatible  manner.   This  turns	on 'n',	'w', and '-', but also
	      allows the list-clearing token (!) to be specified.  If no file-
	      name is provided,	".cvsignore" is	assumed.

       o      A	 e  will  exclude  the merge-file name from the	transfer; e.g.
	      "dir-merge,e .rules" is like "dir-merge .rules" and "- .rules".

       o      An n specifies that the rules are	not inherited  by  subdirecto-
	      ries.

       o      A	 w  specifies  that the	rules are word-split on	whitespace in-
	      stead of the normal line-splitting.  This	also  turns  off  com-
	      ments.   Note: the space that separates the prefix from the rule
	      is treated specially, so "- foo +	bar" is	parsed	as  two	 rules
	      (assuming	that prefix-parsing wasn't also	disabled).

       o      You  may	also  specify  any of the modifiers for	the "+"	or "-"
	      rules (below) in order to	have the rules that are	read  in  from
	      the  file	 default  to  having that modifier set.	 For instance,
	      "merge,-/	.excl" would treat the contents	of .excl as  absolute-
	      path  excludes,  while  "dir-merge,s .filt" and ":sC" would each
	      make all their per-directory rules apply	only  on  the  sending
	      side.

       The following modifiers are accepted after a "+"	or "-":

       o      A	 "/" specifies that the	include/exclude	rule should be matched
	      against the absolute pathname of the current item.  For example,
	      "-/  /usr/local/etc/passwd"  would  exclude  the passwd file any
	      time the transfer	was sending files from the  "/etc"  directory,
	      and  "-/	subdir/foo" would always exclude "foo" when it is in a
	      dir named	"subdir", even if "foo"	is at the root of the  current
	      transfer.

       o      A	 "!"  specifies	that the include/exclude should	take effect if
	      the pattern fails	to match.  For instance, "-! */" would exclude
	      all non-directories.

       o      A	 C  is	used to	indicate that all the global CVS-exclude rules
	      should be	inserted as excludes in	place of  the  "-C".   No  arg
	      should follow.

       o      An  s  is	 used to indicate that the rule	applies	to the sending
	      side.  When a rule affects the sending side, it  prevents	 files
	      from  being  transferred.	  The  default is for a	rule to	affect
	      both sides unless	--delete-excluded was specified, in which case
	      default  rules  become  sender-side only.	 See also the hide (H)
	      and show (S) rules, which	are an alternate way to	specify	 send-
	      ing-side includes/excludes.

       o      An  r is used to indicate	that the rule applies to the receiving
	      side.  When a rule affects the receiving side, it	prevents files
	      from being deleted.  See the s modifier for more info.  See also
	      the protect (P) and risk (R) rules, which	are an	alternate  way
	      to specify receiver-side includes/excludes.

       Per-directory  rules  are inherited in all subdirectories of the	direc-
       tory where the merge-file was found unless the 'n' modifier  was	 used.
       Each  subdirectory's  rules are prefixed	to the inherited per-directory
       rules from its parents, which gives the newest rules a higher  priority
       than  the  inherited  rules.   The  entire  set	of dir-merge rules are
       grouped together	in the spot where the merge-file was specified,	so  it
       is  possible  to	override dir-merge rules via a rule that got specified
       earlier in the list of global rules.  When the list-clearing rule ("!")
       is  read	 from a	per-directory file, it only clears the inherited rules
       for the current merge file.

       Another way to prevent a	single rule from a dir-merge file  from	 being
       inherited  is  to  anchor it with a leading slash.  Anchored rules in a
       per-directory merge-file	are relative to	the merge-file's directory, so
       a pattern "/foo"	would only match the file "foo"	in the directory where
       the dir-merge filter file was found.

       Here's an example filter	 file  which  you'd  specify  via  --filter=".
       file":

	      merge /home/user/.global-filter
	      -	*.gz
	      dir-merge	.rules
	      +	*.[ch]
	      -	*.o

       This  will  merge the contents of the /home/user/.global-filter file at
       the start of the	list and also turns the	".rules" filename into a  per-
       directory filter	file.  All rules read in prior to the start of the di-
       rectory scan follow the global anchoring	rules (i.e.  a	leading	 slash
       matches at the root of the transfer).

       If a per-directory merge-file is	specified with a path that is a	parent
       directory of the	first transfer directory, rsync	will scan all the par-
       ent dirs	from that starting point to the	transfer directory for the in-
       dicated per-directory file.  For	instance, here is a common filter (see
       -F):

	      --filter=': /.rsync-filter'

       That  rule tells	rsync to scan for the file .rsync-filter in all	direc-
       tories from the root down through the parent directory of the  transfer
       prior  to the start of the normal directory scan	of the file in the di-
       rectories that are sent as a part of the	transfer.  (Note: for an rsync
       daemon, the root	is always the same as the module's "path".)

       Some examples of	this pre-scanning for per-directory files:

	      rsync -avF /src/path/ /dest/dir
	      rsync -av	--filter=': ../../.rsync-filter' /src/path/ /dest/dir
	      rsync -av	--filter=': .rsync-filter' /src/path/ /dest/dir

       The  first  two commands	above will look	for ".rsync-filter" in "/" and
       "/src"  before  the  normal  scan  begins  looking  for	the  file   in
       "/src/path"  and	 its subdirectories.  The last command avoids the par-
       ent-dir scan and	only looks for the ".rsync-filter" files in  each  di-
       rectory that is a part of the transfer.

       If you want to include the contents of a	".cvsignore" in	your patterns,
       you should use the rule ":C", which creates a dir-merge of the  .cvsig-
       nore  file, but parsed in a CVS-compatible manner.  You can use this to
       affect where the	--cvs-exclude (-C) option's inclusion of  the  per-di-
       rectory .cvsignore file gets placed into	your rules by putting the ":C"
       wherever	you like in your filter	rules.	Without	this, rsync would  add
       the dir-merge rule for the .cvsignore file at the end of	all your other
       rules (giving it	a lower	priority than your command-line	 rules).   For
       example:

	      cat <<EOT	| rsync	-avC --filter='. -' a/ b
	      +	foo.o
	      :C
	      -	*.old
	      EOT
	      rsync -avC --include=foo.o -f :C --exclude='*.old' a/ b

       Both  of	 the  above rsync commands are identical.  Each	one will merge
       all the per-directory .cvsignore	rules in the middle of the list	rather
       than at the end.	 This allows their dir-specific	rules to supersede the
       rules that follow the :C	instead	 of  being  subservient	 to  all  your
       rules.  To affect the other CVS exclude rules (i.e. the default list of
       exclusions, the contents	of $HOME/.cvsignore, and the value of  $CVSIG-
       NORE)  you  should omit the -C command-line option and instead insert a
       "-C" rule into your filter rules; e.g. "--filter=-C".

LIST-CLEARING FILTER RULE
       You can clear the current include/exclude list by using the "!"	filter
       rule  (as introduced in the FILTER RULES	section	above).	 The "current"
       list is either the global list of rules (if  the	 rule  is  encountered
       while  parsing  the  filter  options)  or  a set	of per-directory rules
       (which are inherited in their own sub-list, so a	subdirectory  can  use
       this to clear out the parent's rules).

ANCHORING INCLUDE/EXCLUDE PATTERNS
       As  mentioned  earlier, global include/exclude patterns are anchored at
       the "root of the	transfer" (as opposed to per-directory patterns, which
       are  anchored  at  the  merge-file's  directory).   If you think	of the
       transfer	as a subtree of	names that are being sent from sender  to  re-
       ceiver,	the transfer-root is where the tree starts to be duplicated in
       the destination directory.  This	root governs where patterns that start
       with a /	match.

       Because	the  matching  is  relative to the transfer-root, changing the
       trailing	slash on a source path or changing your	use of the  --relative
       option  affects	the path you need to use in your matching (in addition
       to changing how much of the file	tree is	duplicated on the  destination
       host).  The following examples demonstrate this.

       Let's  say that we want to match	two source files, one with an absolute
       path of "/home/me/foo/bar", and one with	a path of "/home/you/bar/baz".
       Here is how the various command choices differ for a 2-source transfer:

	      Example cmd: rsync -a /home/me /home/you /dest
	      +/- pattern: /me/foo/bar
	      +/- pattern: /you/bar/baz
	      Target file: /dest/me/foo/bar
	      Target file: /dest/you/bar/baz

	      Example cmd: rsync -a /home/me/ /home/you/ /dest
	      +/- pattern: /foo/bar		  (note	missing	"me")
	      +/- pattern: /bar/baz		  (note	missing	"you")
	      Target file: /dest/foo/bar
	      Target file: /dest/bar/baz

	      Example cmd: rsync -a --relative /home/me/ /home/you /dest
	      +/- pattern: /home/me/foo/bar	  (note	full path)
	      +/- pattern: /home/you/bar/baz	  (ditto)
	      Target file: /dest/home/me/foo/bar
	      Target file: /dest/home/you/bar/baz

	      Example cmd: cd /home; rsync -a --relative me/foo	you/ /dest
	      +/- pattern: /me/foo/bar	    (starts at specified path)
	      +/- pattern: /you/bar/baz	    (ditto)
	      Target file: /dest/me/foo/bar
	      Target file: /dest/you/bar/baz

       The  easiest  way to see	what name you should filter is to just look at
       the output when using --verbose and put a / in front of the  name  (use
       the --dry-run option if you're not yet ready to copy any	files).

PER-DIRECTORY RULES AND	DELETE
       Without	a  delete option, per-directory	rules are only relevant	on the
       sending side, so	you can	feel free to exclude  the  merge  files	 them-
       selves without affecting	the transfer.  To make this easy, the 'e' mod-
       ifier adds this exclude for you,	as seen	in these two  equivalent  com-
       mands:

	      rsync -av	--filter=': .excl' --exclude=.excl host:src/dir	/dest
	      rsync -av	--filter=':e .excl' host:src/dir /dest

       However,	 if you	want to	do a delete on the receiving side AND you want
       some files to be	excluded from being deleted, you'll need  to  be  sure
       that  the  receiving side knows what files to exclude.  The easiest way
       is to include the per-directory merge files in  the  transfer  and  use
       --delete-after,	because	 this ensures that the receiving side gets all
       the same	exclude	rules as the sending side before it  tries  to	delete
       anything:

	      rsync -avF --delete-after	host:src/dir /dest

       However,	if the merge files are not a part of the transfer, you'll need
       to either specify some global exclude rules (i.e. specified on the com-
       mand  line),  or	 you'll	 need to maintain your own per-directory merge
       files on	the receiving side.  An	example	of the first is	 this  (assume
       that the	remote .rules files exclude themselves):

       rsync -av --filter=': .rules' --filter='. /my/extra.rules'
	  --delete host:src/dir	/dest

       In  the above example the extra.rules file can affect both sides	of the
       transfer, but (on the sending side) the rules are  subservient  to  the
       rules  merged  from  the	.rules files because they were specified after
       the per-directory merge rule.

       In one final example, the remote	side is	 excluding  the	 .rsync-filter
       files from the transfer,	but we want to use our own .rsync-filter files
       to control what gets deleted on the receiving side.  To do this we must
       specifically  exclude the per-directory merge files (so that they don't
       get deleted) and	then put rules into the	local files  to	 control  what
       else should not get deleted.  Like one of these commands:

	   rsync -av --filter=':e /.rsync-filter' --delete \
	       host:src/dir /dest
	   rsync -avFF --delete	host:src/dir /dest

BATCH MODE
       Batch mode can be used to apply the same	set of updates to many identi-
       cal systems. Suppose one	has a tree which is replicated on a number  of
       hosts.  Now suppose some	changes	have been made to this source tree and
       those changes need to be	propagated to the other	hosts. In order	to  do
       this  using batch mode, rsync is	run with the write-batch option	to ap-
       ply the changes made to the source  tree	 to  one  of  the  destination
       trees.	The  write-batch  option causes	the rsync client to store in a
       "batch file" all	 the  information  needed  to  repeat  this  operation
       against other, identical	destination trees.

       To  apply  the  recorded	changes	to another destination tree, run rsync
       with the	read-batch option, specifying the name of the same batch file,
       and the destination tree.  Rsync	updates	the destination	tree using the
       information stored in the batch file.

       For convenience,	one additional file is creating	when  the  write-batch
       option  is used.	 This file's name is created by	appending ".sh"	to the
       batch filename.	The .sh	file contains a	command-line suitable for  up-
       dating a	destination tree using that batch file.	It can be executed us-
       ing a Bourne (or	Bourne-like) shell, optionally passing in an alternate
       destination  tree  pathname  which is then used instead of the original
       path. This is useful when the destination tree path  differs  from  the
       original	destination tree path.

       Generating the batch file once saves having to perform the file status,
       checksum, and data block	generation more	than once when updating	multi-
       ple  destination	 trees.	 Multicast  transport protocols	can be used to
       transfer	the batch update files in parallel to many hosts at once,  in-
       stead of	sending	the same data to every host individually.

       Examples:

	      $	rsync --write-batch=foo	-a host:/source/dir/ /adest/dir/
	      $	scp foo* remote:
	      $	ssh remote ./foo.sh /bdest/dir/

	      $	rsync --write-batch=foo	-a /source/dir/	/adest/dir/
	      $	ssh remote rsync --read-batch=-	-a /bdest/dir/ <foo

       In   these   examples,	rsync  is  used	 to  update  /adest/dir/  from
       /source/dir/ and	the information	to repeat this operation is stored  in
       "foo" and "foo.sh".  The	host "remote" is then updated with the batched
       data going into the directory /bdest/dir.  The differences between  the
       two  examples  reveals some of the flexibility you have in how you deal
       with batches:

       o      The first	example	shows that the initial copy doesn't have to be
	      local  --	 you can push or pull data to/from a remote host using
	      either the remote-shell syntax or	rsync daemon  syntax,  as  de-
	      sired.

       o      The  first  example  uses	 the  created "foo.sh" file to get the
	      right rsync options when running the read-batch command  on  the
	      remote host.

       o      The  second  example  reads the batch data via standard input so
	      that the batch file doesn't need to be copied to the remote  ma-
	      chine  first.   This example avoids the foo.sh script because it
	      needed to	use a modified --read-batch option, but	you could edit
	      the  script  file	 if you	wished to make use of it (just be sure
	      that no other option is trying to	use standard  input,  such  as
	      the "--exclude-from=-" option).

       Caveats:

       The  read-batch option expects the destination tree that	it is updating
       to be identical to the destination tree that was	 used  to  create  the
       batch  update fileset.  When a difference between the destination trees
       is encountered the update might be discarded with  a  warning  (if  the
       file  appears  to  be up-to-date	already) or the	file-update may	be at-
       tempted and then, if the	file fails to  verify,	the  update  discarded
       with  an	 error.	  This	means that it should be	safe to	re-run a read-
       batch operation if the command got interrupted.	If you wish  to	 force
       the batched-update to always be attempted regardless of the file's size
       and date, use the -I option (when reading the batch).  If an error  oc-
       curs,  the  destination	tree  will  probably be	in a partially updated
       state. In that case, rsync can be used in its regular (non-batch)  mode
       of operation to fix up the destination tree.

       The  rsync  version used	on all destinations must be at least as	new as
       the one used to generate	the batch file.	 Rsync will die	with an	 error
       if  the	protocol  version  in the batch	file is	too new	for the	batch-
       reading rsync to	handle.	 See also the --protocol option	for a  way  to
       have  the  creating rsync generate a batch file that an older rsync can
       understand.  (Note that batch files changed format in version 2.6.3, so
       mixing versions older than that with newer versions will	not work.)

       When  reading  a	 batch file, rsync will	force the value	of certain op-
       tions to	match the data in the batch file if you	didn't set them	to the
       same  as	 the batch-writing command.  Other options can (and should) be
       changed.	  For  instance	  --write-batch	  changes   to	 --read-batch,
       --files-from  is	 dropped, and the --filter/--include/--exclude options
       are not needed unless one of the	--delete options is specified.

       The code	that creates  the  BATCH.sh  file  transforms  any  filter/in-
       clude/exclude  options  into a single list that is appended as a	"here"
       document	to the shell script file.  An advanced user can	 use  this  to
       modify the exclude list if a change in what gets	deleted	by --delete is
       desired.	 A normal user can ignore this detail and just use  the	 shell
       script  as  an easy way to run the appropriate --read-batch command for
       the batched data.

       The original batch mode in rsync	was based on "rsync+", but the	latest
       version uses a new implementation.

SYMBOLIC LINKS
       Three  basic  behaviors	are  possible when rsync encounters a symbolic
       link in the source directory.

       By default, symbolic links are  not  transferred	 at  all.   A  message
       "skipping non-regular" file is emitted for any symlinks that exist.

       If --links is specified,	then symlinks are recreated with the same tar-
       get on the destination.	Note that --archive implies --links.

       If --copy-links is specified, then symlinks are "collapsed" by  copying
       their referent, rather than the symlink.

       rsync  also distinguishes "safe"	and "unsafe" symbolic links.  An exam-
       ple where this might be used is a web site mirror  that	wishes	ensure
       the  rsync module they copy does	not include symbolic links to /usr/lo-
       cal/etc/passwd in the public section of	the  site.   Using  --copy-un-
       safe-links  will	cause any links	to be copied as	the file they point to
       on the destination.  Using --safe-links will cause unsafe links	to  be
       omitted	 altogether.	(Note	that  you  must	 specify  --links  for
       --safe-links to have any	effect.)

       Symbolic	links are considered unsafe  if	 they  are  absolute  symlinks
       (start  with  /),  empty, or if they contain enough ".."	 components to
       ascend from the directory being copied.

       Here's a	summary	of how the symlink options are interpreted.  The  list
       is in order of precedence, so if	your combination of options isn't men-
       tioned, use the first line that is a complete subset of your options:

       --copy-links
	      Turn all symlinks	into normal files (leaving no symlinks for any
	      other options to affect).

       --links --copy-unsafe-links
	      Turn  all	unsafe symlinks	into files and duplicate all safe sym-
	      links.

       --copy-unsafe-links
	      Turn all unsafe symlinks into files, noisily skip	all safe  sym-
	      links.

       --links --safe-links
	      Duplicate	safe symlinks and skip unsafe ones.

       --links
	      Duplicate	all symlinks.

DIAGNOSTICS
       rsync occasionally produces error messages that may seem	a little cryp-
       tic. The	one that seems to cause	the most confusion is  "protocol  ver-
       sion mismatch --	is your	shell clean?".

       This  message is	usually	caused by your startup scripts or remote shell
       facility	producing unwanted garbage on the stream that rsync  is	 using
       for  its	transport. The way to diagnose this problem is to run your re-
       mote shell like this:

	      ssh remotehost /bin/true > out.dat

       then look at out.dat. If	everything is working correctly	 then  out.dat
       should  be  a zero length file. If you are getting the above error from
       rsync then you will probably find that out.dat contains	some  text  or
       data.  Look  at	the contents and try to	work out what is producing it.
       The most	common cause is	incorrectly configured shell  startup  scripts
       (such as	.cshrc or .profile) that contain output	statements for non-in-
       teractive logins.

       If you are having trouble debugging filter patterns, then try  specify-
       ing  the	 -vv  option.	At this	level of verbosity rsync will show why
       each individual file is included	or excluded.

EXIT VALUES
       0      Success

       1      Syntax or	usage error

       2      Protocol incompatibility

       3      Errors selecting input/output files, dirs

       4      Requested	action not supported: an attempt was made  to  manipu-
	      late  64-bit files on a platform that cannot support them; or an
	      option was specified that	is supported by	the client and not  by
	      the server.

       5      Error starting client-server protocol

       6      Daemon unable to append to log-file

       10     Error in socket I/O

       11     Error in file I/O

       12     Error in rsync protocol data stream

       13     Errors with program diagnostics

       14     Error in IPC code

       20     Received SIGUSR1 or SIGINT

       21     Some error returned by waitpid()

       22     Error allocating core memory buffers

       23     Partial transfer due to error

       24     Partial transfer due to vanished source files

       25     The --max-delete limit stopped deletions

       30     Timeout in data send/receive

ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES
       CVSIGNORE
	      The  CVSIGNORE  environment variable supplements any ignore pat-
	      terns in .cvsignore files. See the --cvs-exclude option for more
	      details.

       RSYNC_RSH
	      The  RSYNC_RSH  environment  variable allows you to override the
	      default shell used as the	transport for rsync.  Command line op-
	      tions  are  permitted  after the command name, just as in	the -e
	      option.

       RSYNC_PROXY
	      The RSYNC_PROXY environment variable allows you to redirect your
	      rsync  client to use a web proxy when connecting to a rsync dae-
	      mon. You should set RSYNC_PROXY to a hostname:port pair.

       RSYNC_PASSWORD
	      Setting RSYNC_PASSWORD to	the required password  allows  you  to
	      run  authenticated  rsync	connections to an rsync	daemon without
	      user intervention. Note that this	does not supply	a password  to
	      a	shell transport	such as	ssh.

       USER or LOGNAME
	      The  USER	or LOGNAME environment variables are used to determine
	      the default username sent	to an rsync  daemon.   If  neither  is
	      set, the username	defaults to "nobody".

       HOME   The HOME environment variable is used to find the	user's default
	      .cvsignore file.

FILES
       /usr/local/etc/rsyncd.conf or rsyncd.conf

SEE ALSO
       rsyncd.conf(5)

BUGS
       times are transferred as	*nix time_t values

       When transferring to  FAT  filesystems  rsync  may  re-sync  unmodified
       files.  See the comments	on the --modify-window option.

       file  permissions,  devices,  etc.  are transferred as native numerical
       values

       see also	the comments on	the --delete option

       Please report bugs! See the website at http://rsync.samba.org/

VERSION
       This man	page is	current	for version 2.6.9 of rsync.

INTERNAL OPTIONS
       The options --server and	--sender are used  internally  by  rsync,  and
       should  never  be  typed	 by  a	user under normal circumstances.  Some
       awareness of these options may be needed	in certain scenarios, such  as
       when  setting  up  a login that can only	run an rsync command.  For in-
       stance, the support directory of	the rsync distribution has an  example
       script  named rrsync (for restricted rsync) that	can be used with a re-
       stricted	ssh login.

CREDITS
       rsync is	distributed under the GNU public license.  See the file	 COPY-
       ING for details.

       A  WEB site is available	at http://rsync.samba.org/.  The site includes
       an FAQ-O-Matic which may	cover  questions  unanswered  by  this	manual
       page.

       The primary ftp site for	rsync is ftp://rsync.samba.org/pub/rsync.

       We would	be delighted to	hear from you if you like this program.

       This  program  uses  the	 excellent zlib	compression library written by
       Jean-loup Gailly	and Mark Adler.

THANKS
       Thanks to Richard Brent,	Brendan	Mackay,	Bill Waite,  Stephen  Rothwell
       and  David  Bell	for helpful suggestions, patches and testing of	rsync.
       I've probably missed some people, my apologies if I have.

       Especial	thanks also to:	David Dykstra, Jos Backus, Sebastian  Krahmer,
       Martin Pool, Wayne Davison, J.W.	Schultz.

AUTHOR
       rsync  was  originally  written	by Andrew Tridgell and Paul Mackerras.
       Many people have	later contributed to it.

       Mailing	lists  for  support   and   development	  are	available   at
       http://lists.samba.org

				  6 Nov	2006			      rsync(1)

NAME | SYNOPSIS | DESCRIPTION | GENERAL | SETUP | USAGE | ADVANCED USAGE | CONNECTING TO AN RSYNC DAEMON | USING RSYNC-DAEMON FEATURES VIA A REMOTE-SHELL CONNECTION | STARTING AN RSYNC DAEMON TO ACCEPT CONNECTIONS | EXAMPLES | OPTIONS SUMMARY | OPTIONS | DAEMON OPTIONS | FILTER RULES | INCLUDE/EXCLUDE PATTERN RULES | MERGE-FILE FILTER RULES | LIST-CLEARING FILTER RULE | ANCHORING INCLUDE/EXCLUDE PATTERNS | PER-DIRECTORY RULES AND DELETE | BATCH MODE | SYMBOLIC LINKS | DIAGNOSTICS | EXIT VALUES | ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES | FILES | SEE ALSO | BUGS | VERSION | INTERNAL OPTIONS | CREDITS | THANKS | AUTHOR

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