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rsync(1)							      rsync(1)

       rsync - a fast, versatile, remote (and local) file-copying tool

       Local:  rsync [OPTION...] SRC...	[DEST]

       Access via remote shell:
	 Pull: rsync [OPTION...] [USER@]HOST:SRC... [DEST]
	 Push: rsync [OPTION...] SRC...	[USER@]HOST:DEST

       Access via rsync	daemon:
	 Pull: rsync [OPTION...] [USER@]HOST::SRC... [DEST]
	       rsync [OPTION...] rsync://[USER@]HOST[:PORT]/SRC... [DEST]
	 Push: rsync [OPTION...] SRC...	[USER@]HOST::DEST
	       rsync [OPTION...] SRC...	rsync://[USER@]HOST[:PORT]/DEST

       Usages with just	one SRC	arg and	no DEST	arg will list the source files
       instead of copying.

       Rsync is	a fast and extraordinarily versatile file  copying  tool.   It
       can  copy  locally,  to/from  another  host  over  any remote shell, or
       to/from a remote	rsync daemon.  It offers a  large  number  of  options
       that  control  every  aspect  of	 its behavior and permit very flexible
       specification of	the set	of files to be copied.	It is famous  for  its
       delta-transfer  algorithm,  which  reduces the amount of	data sent over
       the network by sending only the differences between  the	 source	 files
       and  the	 existing  files in the	destination.  Rsync is widely used for
       backups and mirroring and as an improved	copy command for everyday use.

       Rsync finds files that need to be transferred  using  a	"quick	check"
       algorithm  (by  default)	that looks for files that have changed in size
       or  in  last-modified  time.   Any  changes  in	the  other   preserved
       attributes  (as	requested by options) are made on the destination file
       directly	when the quick check indicates that the	file's data  does  not
       need to be updated.

       Some of the additional features of rsync	are:

       o      support  for copying links, devices, owners, groups, and permis-

       o      exclude and exclude-from options similar to GNU tar

       o      a	CVS exclude mode for ignoring the same files  that  CVS	 would

       o      can use any transparent remote shell, including ssh or rsh

       o      does not require super-user privileges

       o      pipelining of file transfers to minimize latency costs

       o      support  for anonymous or	authenticated rsync daemons (ideal for

       Rsync copies files either to or from a remote host, or locally  on  the
       current	host  (it  does	 not  support copying files between two	remote

       There are two different ways for	rsync  to  contact  a  remote  system:
       using  a	 remote-shell program as the transport (such as	ssh or rsh) or
       contacting an rsync daemon directly via TCP.  The  remote-shell	trans-
       port  is	used whenever the source or destination	path contains a	single
       colon (:) separator after a host	specification.	 Contacting  an	 rsync
       daemon  directly	happens	when the source	or destination path contains a
       double colon (::) separator after a  host  specification,  OR  when  an
       rsync://	 URL  is  specified (see also the "USING RSYNC-DAEMON FEATURES
       VIA A REMOTE-SHELL CONNECTION" section for an exception to this	latter

       As a special case, if a single source arg is specified without a	desti-
       nation, the files are listed in an output format	similar	to "ls -l".

       As expected, if neither the source or destination path specify a	remote
       host, the copy occurs locally (see also the --list-only option).

       Rsync  refers  to the local side	as the "client"	and the	remote side as
       the "server".  Don't confuse "server" with an rsync daemon -- a	daemon
       is  always  a  server,  but  a  server  can  be	either	a  daemon or a
       remote-shell spawned process.

       See the file README for installation instructions.

       Once installed, you can use rsync to any	machine	that  you  can	access
       via a remote shell (as well as some that	you can	access using the rsync
       daemon-mode protocol).  For remote transfers, a modern rsync  uses  ssh
       for  its	 communications, but it	may have been configured to use	a dif-
       ferent remote shell by default, such as rsh or remsh.

       You can also specify any	remote shell you like, either by using the  -e
       command line option, or by setting the RSYNC_RSH	environment variable.

       Note  that  rsync  must be installed on both the	source and destination

       You use rsync in	the same way you use rcp. You must  specify  a	source
       and a destination, one of which may be remote.

       Perhaps the best	way to explain the syntax is with some examples:

	      rsync -t *.c foo:src/

       This would transfer all files matching the pattern *.c from the current
       directory to the	directory src on the machine foo. If any of the	 files
       already	exist on the remote system then	the rsync remote-update	proto-
       col is used to update the file by sending only the differences  in  the
       data.   Note  that  the expansion of wildcards on the commandline (*.c)
       into a list of files is handled by the shell before it runs  rsync  and
       not  by	rsync  itself  (exactly	the same as all	other posix-style pro-

	      rsync -avz foo:src/bar /data/tmp

       This would recursively transfer all files from the directory src/bar on
       the  machine foo	into the /data/tmp/bar directory on the	local machine.
       The files are transferred in "archive" mode, which  ensures  that  sym-
       bolic  links,  devices,	attributes,  permissions, ownerships, etc. are
       preserved in the	transfer.  Additionally, compression will be  used  to
       reduce the size of data portions	of the transfer.

	      rsync -avz foo:src/bar/ /data/tmp

       A  trailing slash on the	source changes this behavior to	avoid creating
       an additional directory level at	the destination.  You can think	 of  a
       trailing	/ on a source as meaning "copy the contents of this directory"
       as opposed to "copy the directory by  name",  but  in  both  cases  the
       attributes  of the containing directory are transferred to the contain-
       ing directory on	the destination.  In other words, each of the  follow-
       ing  commands copies the	files in the same way, including their setting
       of the attributes of /dest/foo:

	      rsync -av	/src/foo /dest
	      rsync -av	/src/foo/ /dest/foo

       Note also that host and module  references  don't  require  a  trailing
       slash to	copy the contents of the default directory.  For example, both
       of these	copy the remote	directory's contents into "/dest":

	      rsync -av	host: /dest
	      rsync -av	host::module /dest

       You can also use	rsync in local-only mode, where	both  the  source  and
       destination  don't have a ':' in	the name. In this case it behaves like
       an improved copy	command.

       Finally,	you can	list all the (listable)	modules	available from a  par-
       ticular rsync daemon by leaving off the module name:


       See the following section for more details.

       The  syntax for requesting multiple files from a	remote host is done by
       specifying additional remote-host args in the same style	as the	first,
       or with the hostname omitted.  For instance, all	these work:

	      rsync -av	host:file1 :file2 host:file{3,4} /dest/
	      rsync -av	host::modname/file{1,2}	host::modname/file3 /dest/
	      rsync -av	host::modname/file1 ::modname/file{3,4}

       Older  versions	of rsync required using	quoted spaces in the SRC, like
       these examples:

	      rsync -av	host:'dir1/file1 dir2/file2' /dest
	      rsync host::'modname/dir1/file1 modname/dir2/file2' /dest

       This word-splitting still works (by default) in the latest  rsync,  but
       is not as easy to use as	the first method.

       If  you	need  to transfer a filename that contains whitespace, you can
       either specify the --protect-args (-s) option, or you'll	need to	escape
       the  whitespace	in  a  way that	the remote shell will understand.  For

	      rsync -av	host:'file\ name\ with\	spaces'	/dest

       It is also possible to use rsync	without	a remote shell as  the	trans-
       port.  In this case you will directly connect to	a remote rsync daemon,
       typically using TCP port	873.  (This obviously requires the  daemon  to
       be running on the remote	system,	so refer to the	STARTING AN RSYNC DAE-
       MON TO ACCEPT CONNECTIONS section below for information on that.)

       Using rsync in this way is the same as using it	with  a	 remote	 shell
       except that:

       o      you  either  use	a double colon :: instead of a single colon to
	      separate the hostname from the path, or you use an rsync:// URL.

       o      the first	word of	the "path" is actually a module	name.

       o      the remote daemon	may print a message of the day when  you  con-

       o      if  you  specify no path name on the remote daemon then the list
	      of accessible paths on the daemon	will be	shown.

       o      if you specify no	local destination then a listing of the	speci-
	      fied files on the	remote daemon is provided.

       o      you must not specify the --rsh (-e) option.

       An example that copies all the files in a remote	module named "src":

	   rsync -av host::src /dest

       Some  modules  on  the remote daemon may	require	authentication.	If so,
       you will	receive	a password prompt when you connect. You	can avoid  the
       password	 prompt	 by setting the	environment variable RSYNC_PASSWORD to
       the password you	want to	use or using the --password-file option.  This
       may be useful when scripting rsync.

       WARNING:	 On  some  systems  environment	 variables  are	visible	to all
       users. On those systems using --password-file is	recommended.

       You may establish the connection	via a web proxy	by setting  the	 envi-
       ronment	variable  RSYNC_PROXY to a hostname:port pair pointing to your
       web proxy.  Note	that your web proxy's configuration must support proxy
       connections to port 873.

       You  may	 also establish	a daemon connection using a program as a proxy
       by setting the environment variable RSYNC_CONNECT_PROG to the  commands
       you  wish  to  run  in place of making a	direct socket connection.  The
       string may contain the escape "%H" to represent the hostname  specified
       in  the	rsync  command	(so  use "%%" if you need a single "%" in your
       string).	 For example:

	 export	RSYNC_CONNECT_PROG='ssh	proxyhost nc %H	873'
	 rsync -av targethost1::module/src/ /dest/
	 rsync -av rsync:://targethost2/module/src/ /dest/

       The command specified above uses	ssh to run nc (netcat) on a proxyhost,
       which  forwards all data	to port	873 (the rsync daemon) on the targeth-
       ost (%H).

       It is sometimes useful to use various features of an rsync daemon (such
       as  named modules) without actually allowing any	new socket connections
       into  a	system	(other	than  what  is	already	 required   to	 allow
       remote-shell  access).	Rsync  supports	 connecting  to	a host using a
       remote shell and	 then  spawning	 a  single-use	"daemon"  server  that
       expects	to  read  its  config file in the home dir of the remote user.
       This can	be useful if you want to  encrypt  a  daemon-style  transfer's
       data,  but since	the daemon is started up fresh by the remote user, you
       may not be able to use features such as chroot or change	the  uid  used
       by the daemon.  (For another way	to encrypt a daemon transfer, consider
       using ssh to tunnel a local port	to a remote machine  and  configure  a
       normal  rsync daemon on that remote host	to only	allow connections from

       From the	user's perspective, a daemon transfer via a remote-shell  con-
       nection uses nearly the same command-line syntax	as a normal rsync-dae-
       mon transfer, with the only exception being that	 you  must  explicitly
       set the remote shell program on the command-line	with the --rsh=COMMAND
       option.	(Setting the RSYNC_RSH in the environment  will	 not  turn  on
       this functionality.)  For example:

	   rsync -av --rsh=ssh host::module /dest

       If you need to specify a	different remote-shell user, keep in mind that
       the user@ prefix	in front of the	 host  is  specifying  the  rsync-user
       value  (for  a  module  that requires user-based	authentication).  This
       means that you must give	the '-l	user' option to	 ssh  when  specifying
       the remote-shell, as in this example that uses the short	version	of the
       --rsh option:

	   rsync -av -e	"ssh -l	ssh-user" rsync-user@host::module /dest

       The "ssh-user" will be used at the ssh level; the "rsync-user" will  be
       used to log-in to the "module".

       In order	to connect to an rsync daemon, the remote system needs to have
       a daemon	already	running	(or it needs to	have configured	something like
       inetd to	spawn an rsync daemon for incoming connections on a particular
       port).  For full	information on how to start a daemon  that  will  han-
       dling  incoming	socket connections, see	the rsyncd.conf(5) man page --
       that is the config file for  the	 daemon,  and  it  contains  the  full
       details for how to run the daemon (including stand-alone	and inetd con-

       If you're using one of the remote-shell transports  for	the  transfer,
       there is	no need	to manually start an rsync daemon.

       Rsync  always  sorts the	specified filenames into its internal transfer
       list.  This handles the merging together	of the contents	of identically
       named directories, makes	it easy	to remove duplicate filenames, and may
       confuse someone when the	files are transferred  in  a  different	 order
       than what was given on the command-line.

       If  you	need  a	 particular  file  to be transferred prior to another,
       either separate the files into different	rsync calls, or	consider using
       --delay-updates	(which	doesn't	 affect	the sorted transfer order, but
       does make the final file-updating phase happen much more	rapidly).

       Here are	some examples of how I use rsync.

       To backup my wife's home	directory, which consists  of  large  MS  Word
       files and mail folders, I use a cron job	that runs

	      rsync -Cavz . arvidsjaur:backup

       each night over a PPP connection	to a duplicate directory on my machine

       To synchronize my samba source trees I use the following	Makefile  tar-

		   rsync -avuzb	--exclude '*~' samba:samba/ .
		   rsync -Cavuzb . samba:samba/
	   sync: get put

       this  allows  me	 to  sync with a CVS directory at the other end	of the
       connection. I then do CVS operations on the remote machine, which saves
       a lot of	time as	the remote CVS protocol	isn't very efficient.

       I mirror	a directory between my "old" and "new" ftp sites with the com-

       rsync -az -e ssh	--delete ~ftp/pub/samba	nimbus:"~ftp/pub/tridge"

       This is launched	from cron every	few hours.

       Here is a short summary of the options available	in rsync. Please refer
       to the detailed description below for a complete	description.

	-v, --verbose		    increase verbosity
	    --info=FLAGS	    fine-grained informational verbosity
	    --debug=FLAGS	    fine-grained debug verbosity
	    --msgs2stderr	    special output handling for	debugging
	-q, --quiet		    suppress non-error messages
	    --no-motd		    suppress daemon-mode MOTD (see caveat)
	-c, --checksum		    skip based on checksum, not	mod-time & size
	-a, --archive		    archive mode; equals -rlptgoD (no -H,-A,-X)
	    --no-OPTION		    turn off an	implied	OPTION (e.g. --no-D)
	-r, --recursive		    recurse into directories
	-R, --relative		    use	relative path names
	    --no-implied-dirs	    don't send implied dirs with --relative
	-b, --backup		    make backups (see --suffix & --backup-dir)
	    --backup-dir=DIR	    make backups into hierarchy	based in DIR
	    --suffix=SUFFIX	    backup suffix (default ~ w/o --backup-dir)
	-u, --update		    skip files that are	newer on the receiver
	    --inplace		    update destination files in-place
	    --append		    append data	onto shorter files
	    --append-verify	    --append w/old data	in file	checksum
	-d, --dirs		    transfer directories without recursing
	-l, --links		    copy symlinks as symlinks
	-L, --copy-links	    transform symlink into referent file/dir
	    --copy-unsafe-links	    only "unsafe" symlinks are transformed
	    --safe-links	    ignore symlinks that point outside the tree
	    --munge-links	    munge symlinks to make them	safer
	-k, --copy-dirlinks	    transform symlink to dir into referent dir
	-K, --keep-dirlinks	    treat symlinked dir	on receiver as dir
	-H, --hard-links	    preserve hard links
	-p, --perms		    preserve permissions
	    --fileflags		    preserve file-flags	(aka chflags)
	-E, --executability	    preserve executability
	    --chmod=CHMOD	    affect file	and/or directory permissions
	-A, --acls		    preserve ACLs (implies -p)
	-X, --xattrs		    preserve extended attributes
	-o, --owner		    preserve owner (super-user only)
	-g, --group		    preserve group
	    --devices		    preserve device files (super-user only)
	    --specials		    preserve special files
	-D			    same as --devices --specials
	-t, --times		    preserve modification times
	-O, --omit-dir-times	    omit directories from --times
	-J, --omit-link-times	    omit symlinks from --times
	    --super		    receiver attempts super-user activities
	    --fake-super	    store/recover privileged attrs using xattrs
	-S, --sparse		    handle sparse files	efficiently
	    --preallocate	    allocate dest files	before writing
	-n, --dry-run		    perform a trial run	with no	changes	made
	-W, --whole-file	    copy files whole (w/o delta-xfer algorithm)
	-x, --one-file-system	    don't cross	filesystem boundaries
	-B, --block-size=SIZE	    force a fixed checksum block-size
	-e, --rsh=COMMAND	    specify the	remote shell to	use
	    --rsync-path=PROGRAM    specify the	rsync to run on	remote machine
	    --existing		    skip creating new files on receiver
	    --ignore-existing	    skip updating files	that exist on receiver
	    --remove-source-files   sender removes synchronized	files (non-dir)
	    --del		    an alias for --delete-during
	    --delete		    delete extraneous files from dest dirs
	    --delete-before	    receiver deletes before xfer, not during
	    --delete-during	    receiver deletes during the	transfer
	    --delete-delay	    find deletions during, delete after
	    --delete-after	    receiver deletes after transfer, not during
	    --delete-excluded	    also delete	excluded files from dest dirs
	    --ignore-missing-args   ignore missing source args without error
	    --delete-missing-args   delete missing source args from destination
	    --ignore-errors	    delete even	if there are I/O errors
	    --force-delete	    force deletion of dirs even	if not empty
	    --force-change	    affect user/system immutable files/dirs
	    --force-uchange	    affect user-immutable files/dirs
	    --force-schange	    affect system-immutable files/dirs
	    --max-delete=NUM	    don't delete more than NUM files
	    --max-size=SIZE	    don't transfer any file larger than	SIZE
	    --min-size=SIZE	    don't transfer any file smaller than SIZE
	    --partial		    keep partially transferred files
	    --partial-dir=DIR	    put	a partially transferred	file into DIR
	    --delay-updates	    put	all updated files into place at	end
	-m, --prune-empty-dirs	    prune empty	directory chains from file-list
	    --numeric-ids	    don't map uid/gid values by	user/group name
	    --usermap=STRING	    custom username mapping
	    --groupmap=STRING	    custom groupname mapping
	    --chown=USER:GROUP	    simple username/groupname mapping
	    --timeout=SECONDS	    set	I/O timeout in seconds
	    --contimeout=SECONDS    set	daemon connection timeout in seconds
	-I, --ignore-times	    don't skip files that match	size and time
	    --size-only		    skip files that match in size
	    --modify-window=NUM	    compare mod-times with reduced accuracy
	-T, --temp-dir=DIR	    create temporary files in directory	DIR
	-y, --fuzzy		    find similar file for basis	if no dest file
	    --compare-dest=DIR	    also compare received files	relative to DIR
	    --copy-dest=DIR	    ...	and include copies of unchanged	files
	    --link-dest=DIR	    hardlink to	files in DIR when unchanged
	-z, --compress		    compress file data during the transfer
	    --compress-level=NUM    explicitly set compression level
	    --skip-compress=LIST    skip compressing files with	suffix in LIST
	-C, --cvs-exclude	    auto-ignore	files in the same way CVS does
	-f, --filter=RULE	    add	a file-filtering RULE
	-F			    same as --filter='dir-merge	/.rsync-filter'
				    repeated: --filter='- .rsync-filter'
	    --exclude=PATTERN	    exclude files matching PATTERN
	    --exclude-from=FILE	    read exclude patterns from FILE
	    --include=PATTERN	    don't exclude files	matching PATTERN
	    --include-from=FILE	    read include patterns from FILE
	    --files-from=FILE	    read list of source-file names from	FILE
	-0, --from0		    all	*from/filter files are delimited by 0s
	-s, --protect-args	    no space-splitting;	wildcard chars only
	    --address=ADDRESS	    bind address for outgoing socket to	daemon
	    --port=PORT		    specify double-colon alternate port	number
	    --sockopts=OPTIONS	    specify custom TCP options
	    --blocking-io	    use	blocking I/O for the remote shell
	    --outbuf=N|L|B	    set	out buffering to None, Line, or	Block
	    --stats		    give some file-transfer stats
	-8, --8-bit-output	    leave high-bit chars unescaped in output
	-h, --human-readable	    output numbers in a	human-readable format
	    --progress		    show progress during transfer
	-P			    same as --partial --progress
	-i, --itemize-changes	    output a change-summary for	all updates
	-M, --remote-option=OPTION  send OPTION	to the remote side only
	    --out-format=FORMAT	    output updates using the specified FORMAT
	    --log-file=FILE	    log	what we're doing to the	specified FILE
	    --log-file-format=FMT   log	updates	using the specified FMT
	    --password-file=FILE    read daemon-access password	from FILE
	    --list-only		    list the files instead of copying them
	    --bwlimit=RATE	    limit socket I/O bandwidth
	    --write-batch=FILE	    write a batched update to FILE
	    --only-write-batch=FILE like --write-batch but w/o updating	dest
	    --read-batch=FILE	    read a batched update from FILE
	    --protocol=NUM	    force an older protocol version to be used
	    --iconv=CONVERT_SPEC    request charset conversion of filenames
	    --checksum-seed=NUM	    set	block/file checksum seed (advanced)
	-4, --ipv4		    prefer IPv4
	-6, --ipv6		    prefer IPv6
	    --version		    print version number
       (-h) --help		    show this help (see	below for -h comment)

       Rsync  can also be run as a daemon, in which case the following options
       are accepted:

	    --daemon		    run	as an rsync daemon
	    --address=ADDRESS	    bind to the	specified address
	    --bwlimit=RATE	    limit socket I/O bandwidth
	    --config=FILE	    specify alternate rsyncd.conf file
	-M, --dparam=OVERRIDE	    override global daemon config parameter
	    --no-detach		    do not detach from the parent
	    --port=PORT		    listen on alternate	port number
	    --log-file=FILE	    override the "log file" setting
	    --log-file-format=FMT   override the "log format" setting
	    --sockopts=OPTIONS	    specify custom TCP options
	-v, --verbose		    increase verbosity
	-4, --ipv4		    prefer IPv4
	-6, --ipv6		    prefer IPv6
	-h, --help		    show this help (if used after --daemon)

       Rsync accepts both long (double-dash + word) and	short  (single-dash  +
       letter)	options.  The full list	of the available options are described
       below.  If an option can	be specified in	more than one way, the choices
       are  comma-separated.   Some  options  only  have a long	variant, not a
       short.  If the option takes a parameter,	the parameter is  only	listed
       after  the  long	variant, even though it	must also be specified for the
       short.  When specifying a  parameter,  you  can	either	use  the  form
       --option=param  or  replace the '=' with	whitespace.  The parameter may
       need to be quoted in some manner	for it to  survive  the	 shell's  com-
       mand-line parsing.  Keep	in mind	that a leading tilde (~) in a filename
       is substituted by your shell, so	--option=~/foo	will  not  change  the
       tilde into your home directory (remove the '=' for that).

       --help Print  a	short  help  page  describing the options available in
	      rsync and	exit.  For backward-compatibility with older  versions
	      of  rsync, the help will also be output if you use the -h	option
	      without any other	args.

	      print the	rsync version number and exit.

       -v, --verbose
	      This option increases the	amount of information  you  are	 given
	      during the transfer.  By default,	rsync works silently. A	single
	      -v will give you information about what files are	 being	trans-
	      ferred  and a brief summary at the end. Two -v options will give
	      you information on what files are	 being	skipped	 and  slightly
	      more  information	 at  the  end. More than two -v	options	should
	      only be used if you are debugging	rsync.

	      In a modern rsync, the -v	option is equivalent to	the setting of
	      groups  of  --info  and  --debug options.	 You can choose	to use
	      these newer options in addition to, or in	place of using	--ver-
	      bose, as any fine-grained	settings override the implied settings
	      of -v.  Both --info and --debug have a way to ask	for help  that
	      tells  you  exactly what flags are set for each increase in ver-

	      However, do keep in mind that a daemon's "max verbosity" setting
	      will  limit how high of a	level the various individual flags can
	      be set on	the daemon side.  For instance,	if the max is 2,  then
	      any  info	 and/or	 debug flag that is set	to a higher value than
	      what would be set	by -vv will be downgraded to the -vv level  in
	      the daemon's logging.

	      This option lets you have	fine-grained control over the informa-
	      tion output you want to see.  An individual  flag	 name  may  be
	      followed	by a level number, with	0 meaning to silence that out-
	      put, 1 being  the	 default  output  level,  and  higher  numbers
	      increasing  the  output  of  that	 flag  (for those that support
	      higher levels).  Use --info=help to see all the  available  flag
	      names,  what they	output,	and what flag names are	added for each
	      increase in the verbose level.  Some examples:

		  rsync	-a --info=progress2 src/ dest/
		  rsync	-avv --info=stats2,misc1,flist0	src/ dest/

	      Note that	--info=name's output is	affected by  the  --out-format
	      and  --itemize-changes (-i) options.  See	those options for more
	      information on what is output and	when.

	      This option was added to 3.1.0, so an older rsync	on the	server
	      side  might reject your attempts at fine-grained control (if one
	      or more flags needed to be send to the server and	the server was
	      too  old	to  understand	them).	 See  also the "max verbosity"
	      caveat above when	dealing	with a daemon.

	      This option lets you have	fine-grained control  over  the	 debug
	      output you want to see.  An individual flag name may be followed
	      by a level number, with 0	meaning	 to  silence  that  output,  1
	      being  the  default  output level, and higher numbers increasing
	      the output of that flag (for those that support higher  levels).
	      Use  --debug=help	to see all the available flag names, what they
	      output, and what flag names are added for	each increase  in  the
	      verbose level.  Some examples:

		  rsync	-avvv --debug=none src/	dest/
		  rsync	-avA --del --debug=del2,acl src/ dest/

	      Note   that  some	 debug	messages  will	only  be  output  when
	      --msgs2stderr is specified, especially those pertaining  to  I/O
	      and buffer debugging.

	      This  option was added to	3.1.0, so an older rsync on the	server
	      side might reject	your attempts at fine-grained control (if  one
	      or more flags needed to be send to the server and	the server was
	      too old to understand  them).   See  also	 the  "max  verbosity"
	      caveat above when	dealing	with a daemon.

	      This  option  changes  rsync  to send all	its output directly to
	      stderr rather than to send messages to the client	side  via  the
	      protocol	(which	normally  outputs  info	 messages via stdout).
	      This is mainly intended for debugging in order to	avoid changing
	      the  data	 sent  via the protocol, since the extra protocol data
	      can change what is being tested.	The option does	not affect the
	      remote  side of a	transfer without using --remote-option -- e.g.
	      -M--msgs2stderr.	Also keep in mind  that	 a  daemon  connection
	      does  not	 have  a  stderr  channel to send messages back	to the
	      client side, so if you are doing any  daemon-transfer  debugging
	      using   this   option,  you  should  start  up  a	 daemon	 using
	      --no-detach so that you can see the stderr output	on the	daemon

	      This  option  has	 the  side-effect  of making stderr output get
	      line-buffered so that the	merging	of the output  of  3  programs
	      happens in a more	readable manner.

       -q, --quiet
	      This  option  decreases  the amount of information you are given
	      during the transfer, notably  suppressing	 information  messages
	      from  the	 remote	 server.  This	option is useful when invoking
	      rsync from cron.

	      This option affects the information that is output by the	client
	      at  the  start  of  a daemon transfer.  This suppresses the mes-
	      sage-of-the-day (MOTD) text, but it also	affects	 the  list  of
	      modules  that the	daemon sends in	response to the	"rsync host::"
	      request (due to a	limitation in the  rsync  protocol),  so  omit
	      this  option if you want to request the list of modules from the

       -I, --ignore-times
	      Normally rsync will skip any files that  are  already  the  same
	      size  and	 have  the  same  modification timestamp.  This	option
	      turns off	this "quick check" behavior, causing all files	to  be

	      This  modifies rsync's "quick check" algorithm for finding files
	      that need	to be transferred, changing it	from  the  default  of
	      transferring  files  with	 either	 a  changed  size or a changed
	      last-modified time to just looking for files that	 have  changed
	      in  size.	 This is useful	when starting to use rsync after using
	      another mirroring	 system	 which	may  not  preserve  timestamps

	      When  comparing  two  timestamps,	rsync treats the timestamps as
	      being equal if they differ by no	more  than  the	 modify-window
	      value.   This  is	 normally  0 (for an exact match), but you may
	      find it useful to	set this to a larger value in some situations.
	      In  particular,  when  transferring to or	from an	MS Windows FAT
	      filesystem (which	represents times with a	2-second  resolution),
	      --modify-window=1	is useful (allowing times to differ by up to 1

       -c, --checksum
	      This changes the way rsync checks	if the files have been changed
	      and  are in need of a transfer.  Without this option, rsync uses
	      a	"quick check" that (by default)	checks if each file's size and
	      time of last modification	match between the sender and receiver.
	      This option changes this to compare a 128-bit checksum for  each
	      file  that  has a	matching size.	Generating the checksums means
	      that both	sides will expend a lot	of disk	I/O  reading  all  the
	      data  in	the  files  in	the transfer (and this is prior	to any
	      reading that will	be done	to transfer changed  files),  so  this
	      can slow things down significantly.

	      The  sending  side generates its checksums while it is doing the
	      file-system scan that builds the list of	the  available	files.
	      The  receiver  generates	its  checksums when it is scanning for
	      changed files, and will checksum any file	that has the same size
	      as the corresponding sender's file:  files with either a changed
	      size or a	changed	checksum are selected for transfer.

	      Note that	rsync always verifies that each	transferred  file  was
	      correctly	 reconstructed	on  the	 receiving  side by checking a
	      whole-file checksum that is generated  as	 the  file  is	trans-
	      ferred,  but  that automatic after-the-transfer verification has
	      nothing to do with this option's before-the-transfer "Does  this
	      file need	to be updated?"	check.

	      For  protocol  30	 and  beyond  (first  supported	in 3.0.0), the
	      checksum used is MD5.  For older protocols, the checksum used is

       -a, --archive
	      This  is equivalent to -rlptgoD. It is a quick way of saying you
	      want recursion and want to preserve almost everything  (with  -H
	      being  a	notable	 omission).   The  only	exception to the above
	      equivalence is when --files-from is specified, in	which case  -r
	      is not implied.

	      Note that	-a does	not preserve hardlinks,	because	finding	multi-
	      ply-linked files is expensive.  You must separately specify  -H.
	      Note also	that for backward compatibility, -a currently does not
	      imply the	--fileflags option.

	      You may turn off one or more implied options  by	prefixing  the
	      option  name with	"no-".	Not all	options	may be prefixed	with a
	      "no-": only options that are  implied  by	 other	options	 (e.g.
	      --no-D,  --no-perms)  or have different defaults in various cir-
	      cumstances (e.g. --no-whole-file,	--no-blocking-io,  --no-dirs).
	      You  may	specify	either the short or the	long option name after
	      the "no-"	prefix (e.g. --no-R is the same	as --no-relative).

	      For example: if you want to use -a (--archive) but don't want -o
	      (--owner),  instead  of  converting  -a  into -rlptgD, you could
	      specify -a --no-o	(or -a --no-owner).

	      The order	of the options is important:  if  you  specify	--no-r
	      -a,  the -r option would end up being turned on, the opposite of
	      -a --no-r.  Note also that the side-effects of the  --files-from
	      option  are  NOT	positional, as it affects the default state of
	      several options and slightly changes the meaning of -a (see  the
	      --files-from option for more details).

       -r, --recursive
	      This  tells  rsync  to  copy  directories	recursively.  See also
	      --dirs (-d).

	      Beginning	with rsync 3.0.0, the recursive	algorithm used is  now
	      an  incremental  scan that uses much less	memory than before and
	      begins the transfer after	the scanning of	the first few directo-
	      ries  have  been	completed.  This incremental scan only affects
	      our recursion algorithm, and does	 not  change  a	 non-recursive
	      transfer.	 It is also only possible when both ends of the	trans-
	      fer are at least version 3.0.0.

	      Some options require rsync to know the full file list, so	 these
	      options  disable the incremental recursion mode.	These include:
	      --delete-before,	 --delete-after,    --prune-empty-dirs,	   and
	      --delay-updates.	 Because of this, the default delete mode when
	      you specify --delete is now --delete-during when	both  ends  of
	      the  connection are at least 3.0.0 (use --del or --delete-during
	      to request this improved deletion	mode  explicitly).   See  also
	      the  --delete-delay  option  that	 is a better choice than using

	      Incremental recursion can	be disabled using the  --no-inc-recur-
	      sive option or its shorter --no-i-r alias.

       -R, --relative
	      Use  relative  paths. This means that the	full path names	speci-
	      fied on the command line are sent	to the server rather than just
	      the  last	 parts	of  the	filenames. This	is particularly	useful
	      when you want to send several different directories at the  same
	      time. For	example, if you	used this command:

		 rsync -av /foo/bar/baz.c remote:/tmp/

	      ...  this	would create a file named baz.c	in /tmp/ on the	remote
	      machine. If instead you used

		 rsync -avR /foo/bar/baz.c remote:/tmp/

	      then a file named	/tmp/foo/bar/baz.c would  be  created  on  the
	      remote machine, preserving its full path.	 These extra path ele-
	      ments are	called "implied	directories" (i.e. the "foo"  and  the
	      "foo/bar"	directories in the above example).

	      Beginning	 with  rsync  3.0.0,  rsync always sends these implied
	      directories as real directories in the file list,	even if	a path
	      element  is really a symlink on the sending side.	 This prevents
	      some really unexpected behaviors when copying the	full path of a
	      file  that you didn't realize had	a symlink in its path.	If you
	      want to duplicate	a server-side symlink, include both  the  sym-
	      link via its path, and referent directory	via its	real path.  If
	      you're dealing with an older rsync on the	sending	side, you  may
	      need to use the --no-implied-dirs	option.

	      It is also possible to limit the amount of path information that
	      is sent as implied directories for each path you specify.	  With
	      a	 modern	 rsync on the sending side (beginning with 2.6.7), you
	      can insert a dot and a slash into	the source path, like this:

		 rsync -avR /foo/./bar/baz.c remote:/tmp/

	      That would create	/tmp/bar/baz.c on the remote  machine.	 (Note
	      that  the	dot must be followed by	a slash, so "/foo/." would not
	      be abbreviated.)	For older rsync	versions, you  would  need  to
	      use a chdir to limit the source path.  For example, when pushing

		 (cd /foo; rsync -avR bar/baz.c	remote:/tmp/)

	      (Note that the parens put	the two	commands into a	sub-shell,  so
	      that  the	 "cd" command doesn't remain in	effect for future com-
	      mands.)  If you're pulling files from an older rsync,  use  this
	      idiom (but only for a non-daemon transfer):

		 rsync -avR --rsync-path="cd /foo; rsync" \
		     remote:bar/baz.c /tmp/

	      This  option  affects  the  default  behavior  of	the --relative
	      option.  When it is specified, the  attributes  of  the  implied
	      directories from the source names	are not	included in the	trans-
	      fer.  This means that the	corresponding  path  elements  on  the
	      destination  system  are	left  unchanged	if they	exist, and any
	      missing implied directories are created with default attributes.
	      This even	allows these implied path elements to have big differ-
	      ences, such as being a symlink to	a directory on	the  receiving

	      For  instance,  if a command-line	arg or a files-from entry told
	      rsync to transfer	 the  file  "path/foo/file",  the  directories
	      "path"  and  "path/foo" are implied when --relative is used.  If
	      "path/foo" is a symlink to "bar" on the destination system,  the
	      receiving	 rsync would ordinarily	delete "path/foo", recreate it
	      as a directory, and receive the file  into  the  new  directory.
	      With    --no-implied-dirs,    the	   receiving   rsync   updates
	      "path/foo/file" using the	existing path  elements,  which	 means
	      that  the	file ends up being created in "path/bar".  Another way
	      to  accomplish  this   link   preservation   is	to   use   the
	      --keep-dirlinks  option  (which  will  also  affect  symlinks to
	      directories in the rest of the transfer).

	      When pulling files from an rsync older than 3.0.0, you may  need
	      to use this option if the	sending	side has a symlink in the path
	      you request and you wish the implied directories	to  be	trans-
	      ferred as	normal directories.

       -b, --backup
	      With  this  option, preexisting destination files	are renamed as
	      each file	is transferred or deleted.  You	can control where  the
	      backup  file  goes  and what (if any) suffix gets	appended using
	      the --backup-dir and --suffix options.

	      Note  that  if  you  don't   specify   --backup-dir,   (1)   the
	      --omit-dir-times	option will be implied,	and (2)	if --delete is
	      also in effect (without --delete-excluded),  rsync  will	add  a
	      "protect"	 filter-rule  for  the backup suffix to	the end	of all
	      your existing excludes (e.g. -f "P *~").	This will prevent pre-
	      viously  backed-up  files	 from being deleted.  Note that	if you
	      are supplying your own filter rules, you may  need  to  manually
	      insert  your own exclude/protect rule somewhere higher up	in the
	      list so that it has a  high  enough  priority  to	 be  effective
	      (e.g.,  if  your rules specify a trailing	inclusion/exclusion of
	      '*', the auto-added rule would never be reached).

	      In combination with the --backup option,	this  tells  rsync  to
	      store  all  backups  in the specified directory on the receiving
	      side.  This can be used for incremental backups.	You can	 addi-
	      tionally specify a backup	suffix using the --suffix option (oth-
	      erwise the files backed up in the	specified directory will  keep
	      their original filenames).

	      Note  that  if you specify a relative path, the backup directory
	      will be relative to the destination directory, so	 you  probably
	      want  to	specify	 either	an absolute path or a path that	starts
	      with "../".  If an rsync daemon is the receiver, the backup  dir
	      cannot  go  outside  the	module's path hierarchy, so take extra
	      care not to delete it or copy into it.

	      This option allows you to	override  the  default	backup	suffix
	      used with	the --backup (-b) option. The default suffix is	a ~ if
	      no --backup-dir was specified, otherwise it is an	empty string.

       -u, --update
	      This forces rsync	to skip	any files which	exist on the  destina-
	      tion  and	 have  a  modified  time that is newer than the	source
	      file.  (If an existing destination file has a modification  time
	      equal  to	the source file's, it will be updated if the sizes are

	      Note that	this does not affect the copying of dirs, symlinks, or
	      other  special files.  Also, a difference	of file	format between
	      the sender and receiver is always	 considered  to	 be  important
	      enough for an update, no matter what date	is on the objects.  In
	      other words, if the source has a directory where the destination
	      has  a  file,  the  transfer would occur regardless of the time-

	      This option is a transfer	rule, not an exclude,  so  it  doesn't
	      affect  the  data	 that  goes  into  the file-lists, and thus it
	      doesn't affect deletions.	 It just limits	 the  files  that  the
	      receiver requests	to be transferred.

	      This  option  changes  how  rsync	transfers a file when its data
	      needs to be updated: instead of the default method of creating a
	      new  copy	 of  the file and moving it into place when it is com-
	      plete, rsync instead writes the updated  data  directly  to  the
	      destination file.

	      This has several effects:

	      o	     Hard  links are not broken.  This means the new data will
		     be	visible	through	other hard links  to  the  destination
		     file.   Moreover, attempts	to copy	differing source files
		     onto a multiply-linked destination	file will result in  a
		     "tug  of war" with	the destination	data changing back and

	      o	     In-use binaries cannot be updated	(either	 the  OS  will
		     prevent  this from	happening, or binaries that attempt to
		     swap-in their data	will misbehave or crash).

	      o	     The file's	data will be in	an inconsistent	 state	during
		     the transfer and will be left that	way if the transfer is
		     interrupted or if an update fails.

	      o	     A file that rsync cannot  write  to  cannot  be  updated.
		     While  a  super  user  can	update any file, a normal user
		     needs to be granted write permission for the open of  the
		     file for writing to be successful.

	      o	     The efficiency of rsync's delta-transfer algorithm	may be
		     reduced if	some data in the destination file is overwrit-
		     ten  before  it  can be copied to a position later	in the
		     file.  This does not apply	if  you	 use  --backup,	 since
		     rsync is smart enough to use the backup file as the basis
		     file for the transfer.

	      WARNING: you should not use this option to update	files that are
	      being  accessed  by  others,  so be careful when choosing	to use
	      this for a copy.

	      This  option  is	useful	for  transferring  large  files	  with
	      block-based  changes  or appended	data, and also on systems that
	      are disk bound, not network bound.  It  can  also	 help  keep  a
	      copy-on-write filesystem snapshot	from diverging the entire con-
	      tents of a file that only	has minor changes.

	      The option implies --partial (since an interrupted transfer does
	      not  delete  the	file),	but  conflicts	with --partial-dir and
	      --delay-updates.	Prior to rsync 2.6.4 --inplace was also	incom-
	      patible with --compare-dest and --link-dest.

	      This  causes  rsync  to update a file by appending data onto the
	      end of the file, which  presumes	that  the  data	 that  already
	      exists  on the receiving side is identical with the start	of the
	      file on the sending side.	 If a file needs to be transferred and
	      its  size	on the receiver	is the same or longer than the size on
	      the sender, the file is skipped.	This does not  interfere  with
	      the  updating  of	 a file's non-content attributes (e.g. permis-
	      sions, ownership,	etc.) when the file does not need to be	trans-
	      ferred,  nor  does  it  affect  the  updating of any non-regular
	      files.  Implies --inplace, but does not conflict	with  --sparse
	      (since it	is always extending a file's length).

	      The  use	of  --append  can be dangerous if you aren't 100% sure
	      that the files that are longer have only grown by	the  appending
	      of  data onto the	end.  You should thus use include/exclude/fil-
	      ter rules	to ensure that such a transfer is only affecting files
	      that you know to be growing via appended data.

	      This  works just like the	--append option, but the existing data
	      on the receiving side is included	in the full-file checksum ver-
	      ification	 step,	which  will  cause  a file to be resent	if the
	      final verification step fails (rsync uses	a normal,  non-append-
	      ing --inplace transfer for the resend).

	      Note:  prior  to	rsync  3.0.0,  the --append option worked like
	      --append-verify, so if you are interacting with an  older	 rsync
	      (or  the	transfer  is using a protocol prior to 30), specifying
	      either append option will	initiate an --append-verify transfer.

       -d, --dirs
	      Tell the sending	side  to  include  any	directories  that  are
	      encountered.  Unlike --recursive,	a directory's contents are not
	      copied unless the	directory name specified is "."	or ends	with a
	      trailing	slash (e.g. ".", "dir/.", "dir/", etc.).  Without this
	      option or	the --recursive	option,	rsync will skip	 all  directo-
	      ries it encounters (and output a message to that effect for each
	      one).  If	you specify both --dirs	and  --recursive,  --recursive
	      takes precedence.

	      The  --dirs  option is implied by	the --files-from option	or the
	      --list-only option (including an implied --list-only  usage)  if
	      --recursive  wasn't  specified  (so that directories are seen in
	      the listing).  Specify --no-dirs (or --no-d) if you want to turn
	      this off.

	      There is also a backward-compatibility helper option, --old-dirs
	      (or  --old-d)  that  tells  rsync	 to  use   a   hack   of   "-r
	      --exclude='/*/*'"	 to get	an older rsync to list a single	direc-
	      tory without recursing.

       -l, --links
	      When symlinks are	encountered, recreate the symlink on the  des-

       -L, --copy-links
	      When  symlinks are encountered, the item that they point to (the
	      referent)	is copied, rather than the symlink.  In	older versions
	      of  rsync,  this	option also had	the side-effect	of telling the
	      receiving	side to	follow symlinks, such as symlinks to  directo-
	      ries.   In a modern rsync	such as	this one, you'll need to spec-
	      ify --keep-dirlinks (-K) to get this extra behavior.   The  only
	      exception	 is  when sending files	to an rsync that is too	old to
	      understand -K -- in that case, the -L option will	still have the
	      side-effect of -K	on that	older receiving	rsync.

	      This  tells  rsync  to  copy the referent	of symbolic links that
	      point outside the	 copied	 tree.	 Absolute  symlinks  are  also
	      treated  like  ordinary  files,  and  so are any symlinks	in the
	      source path itself when --relative is used.  This	option has  no
	      additional effect	if --copy-links	was also specified.

	      This  tells  rsync to ignore any symbolic	links which point out-
	      side the copied tree. All	absolute symlinks  are	also  ignored.
	      Using  this option in conjunction	with --relative	may give unex-
	      pected results.

	      This option tells	rsync  to  (1)	modify	all  symlinks  on  the
	      receiving	side in	a way that makes them unusable but recoverable
	      (see below), or (2) to unmunge symlinks on the sending side that
	      had  been	stored in a munged state.  This	is useful if you don't
	      quite trust the source of	the data to not	try to slip in a  sym-
	      link to a	unexpected place.

	      The way rsync disables the use of	symlinks is to prefix each one
	      with the string "/rsyncd-munged/".  This prevents	the links from
	      being  used as long as that directory does not exist.  When this
	      option is	enabled, rsync will refuse to run if that  path	 is  a
	      directory	or a symlink to	a directory.

	      The  option  only	affects	the client side	of the transfer, so if
	      you  need	 it   to   affect   the	  server,   specify   it   via
	      --remote-option.	 (Note	that  in  a local transfer, the	client
	      side is the sender.)

	      This option has no affect	on a daemon, since the daemon  config-
	      ures  whether  it	wants munged symlinks via its "munge symlinks"
	      parameter.  See also the "munge-symlinks"	 perl  script  in  the
	      support directory	of the source code.

       -k, --copy-dirlinks
	      This  option  causes  the	 sending  side to treat	a symlink to a
	      directory	as though it were a real directory.  This is useful if
	      you  don't  want	symlinks to non-directories to be affected, as
	      they would be using --copy-links.

	      Without this option, if the sending side has replaced  a	direc-
	      tory  with  a  symlink  to  a directory, the receiving side will
	      delete anything that is in the way of the	new symlink, including
	      a	 directory hierarchy (as long as --force-delete	or --delete is
	      in effect).

	      See also --keep-dirlinks for an analogous	option for the receiv-
	      ing side.

	      --copy-dirlinks  applies	to  all	symlinks to directories	in the
	      source.  If you want to follow only a few	specified symlinks,  a
	      trick you	can use	is to pass them	as additional source args with
	      a	trailing slash,	using --relative to make the  paths  match  up
	      right.  For example:

	      rsync -r --relative src/./ src/./follow-me/ dest/

	      This  works  because  rsync  calls lstat(2) on the source	arg as
	      given, and the trailing slash makes lstat(2) follow the symlink,
	      giving  rise to a	directory in the file-list which overrides the
	      symlink found during the scan of "src/./".

       -K, --keep-dirlinks
	      This option causes the receiving side to treat a	symlink	 to  a
	      directory	 as  though  it	 were a	real directory,	but only if it
	      matches a	real directory from the	sender.	 Without this  option,
	      the receiver's symlink would be deleted and replaced with	a real

	      For example, suppose you transfer	a directory  "foo"  that  con-
	      tains  a	file "file", but "foo" is a symlink to directory "bar"
	      on the receiver.	Without	--keep-dirlinks, the receiver  deletes
	      symlink  "foo",  recreates  it  as a directory, and receives the
	      file into	the new	directory.  With --keep-dirlinks, the receiver
	      keeps the	symlink	and "file" ends	up in "bar".

	      One note of caution:  if you use --keep-dirlinks,	you must trust
	      all the symlinks	in  the	 copy!	 If  it	 is  possible  for  an
	      untrusted	user to	create their own symlink to any	directory, the
	      user could then (on a subsequent copy) replace the symlink  with
	      a	 real  directory  and affect the content of whatever directory
	      the symlink references.  For backup copies, you are  better  off
	      using something like a bind mount	instead	of a symlink to	modify
	      your receiving hierarchy.

	      See also --copy-dirlinks for an analogous	option for the sending

       -H, --hard-links
	      This tells rsync to look for hard-linked files in	the source and
	      link together the	corresponding files on the destination.	 With-
	      out  this	option,	hard-linked files in the source	are treated as
	      though they were separate	files.

	      This option does NOT necessarily ensure that the pattern of hard
	      links  on	 the  destination  exactly matches that	on the source.
	      Cases in which the destination may end up	with extra hard	 links
	      include the following:

	      o	     If	 the  destination contains extraneous hard-links (more
		     linking than what is present in the  source  file	list),
		     the  copying  algorithm  will  not	break them explicitly.
		     However, if one or	more of	the paths have content differ-
		     ences,  the  normal  file-update process will break those
		     extra links (unless you are using the --inplace option).

	      o	     If	you specify a --link-dest directory that contains hard
		     links,  the  linking of the destination files against the
		     --link-dest files can cause some paths in the destination
		     to	become linked together due to the --link-dest associa-

	      Note that	rsync can only detect hard links  between  files  that
	      are  inside  the transfer	set.  If rsync updates a file that has
	      extra hard-link connections to files outside the transfer,  that
	      linkage will be broken.  If you are tempted to use the --inplace
	      option to	avoid this breakage, be	very careful that you know how
	      your  files  are	being  updated so that you are certain that no
	      unintended changes happen	due to lingering hard links  (and  see
	      the --inplace option for more caveats).

	      If  incremental recursion	is active (see --recursive), rsync may
	      transfer a missing hard-linked file before it finds that another
	      link  for	that contents exists elsewhere in the hierarchy.  This
	      does not affect the accuracy of the transfer (i.e.  which	 files
	      are hard-linked together), just its efficiency (i.e. copying the
	      data for a new, early copy of a hard-linked file that could have
	      been  found  later  in  the  transfer  in	 another member	of the
	      hard-linked set of files).  One way to avoid  this  inefficiency
	      is to disable incremental	recursion using	the --no-inc-recursive

       -p, --perms
	      This option causes the receiving rsync to	 set  the  destination
	      permissions to be	the same as the	source permissions.  (See also
	      the --chmod option for a way to modify what rsync	 considers  to
	      be the source permissions.)

	      When this	option is off, permissions are set as follows:

	      o	     Existing  files  (including  updated  files) retain their
		     existing permissions, though the  --executability	option
		     might change just the execute permission for the file.

	      o	     New  files	 get their "normal" permission bits set	to the
		     source  file's  permissions  masked  with	the  receiving
		     directory's  default  permissions	(either	 the receiving
		     process's umask, or the  permissions  specified  via  the
		     destination  directory's  default ACL), and their special
		     permission	bits disabled except in	the case where	a  new
		     directory	inherits  a  setgid bit	from its parent	direc-

	      Thus,  when  --perms  and	 --executability  are  both  disabled,
	      rsync's  behavior	 is the	same as	that of	other file-copy	utili-
	      ties, such as cp(1) and tar(1).

	      In summary: to give destination files (both  old	and  new)  the
	      source permissions, use --perms.	To give	new files the destina-
	      tion-default   permissions   (while   leaving   existing	 files
	      unchanged),  make	 sure  that  the --perms option	is off and use
	      --chmod=ugo=rwX (which ensures  that  all	 non-masked  bits  get
	      enabled).	  If you'd care	to make	this latter behavior easier to
	      type, you	could define a popt alias for it, such as putting this
	      line  in	the file ~/.popt (the following	defines	the -Z option,
	      and includes --no-g to use the default group of the  destination

		 rsync alias -Z	--no-p --no-g --chmod=ugo=rwX

	      You  could  then	use  this new option in	a command such as this

		 rsync -avZ src/ dest/

	      (Caveat: make sure that -a  does	not  follow  -Z,  or  it  will
	      re-enable	the two	"--no-*" options mentioned above.)

	      The  preservation	 of the	destination's setgid bit on newly-cre-
	      ated directories when --perms is off was added in	 rsync	2.6.7.
	      Older  rsync  versions  erroneously  preserved the three special
	      permission bits for newly-created	files when  --perms  was  off,
	      while  overriding	 the  destination's  setgid  bit  setting on a
	      newly-created directory.	Default	ACL observance	was  added  to
	      the  ACL	patch  for  rsync 2.6.7, so older (or non-ACL-enabled)
	      rsyncs use the umask even	if default ACLs	are present.  (Keep in
	      mind  that it is the version of the receiving rsync that affects
	      these behaviors.)

       -E, --executability
	      This option causes  rsync	 to  preserve  the  executability  (or
	      non-executability) of regular files when --perms is not enabled.
	      A	regular	file is	considered to be executable if	at  least  one
	      'x'  is turned on	in its permissions.  When an existing destina-
	      tion file's executability	differs	from that of the corresponding
	      source  file,  rsync modifies the	destination file's permissions
	      as follows:

	      o	     To	make a file non-executable, rsync turns	 off  all  its
		     'x' permissions.

	      o	     To	 make  a file executable, rsync	turns on each 'x' per-
		     mission that has a	corresponding 'r' permission enabled.

	      If --perms is enabled, this option is ignored.

       -A, --acls
	      This option causes rsync to update the destination  ACLs	to  be
	      the same as the source ACLs.  The	option also implies --perms.

	      The  source  and	destination  systems  must have	compatible ACL
	      entries for this option to work properly.	 See the  --fake-super
	      option for a way to backup and restore ACLs that are not compat-

       -X, --xattrs
	      This option causes rsync	to  update  the	 destination  extended
	      attributes to be the same	as the source ones.

	      For  systems  that support extended-attribute namespaces,	a copy
	      being done by a super-user copies	 all  namespaces  except  sys-
	      tem.*.   A  normal user only copies the user.* namespace.	 To be
	      able to backup and restore non-user namespaces as	a normal user,
	      see the --fake-super option.

	      Note  that this option does not copy rsyncs special xattr	values
	      (e.g. those used by --fake-super)	unless you repeat  the	option
	      (e.g.  -XX).   This  "copy  all xattrs" mode cannot be used with

	      This option causes rsync to update the file-flags	to be the same
	      as  the  source  files  and directories (if your OS supports the
	      chflags(2) system	call).	 Some flags can	only be	altered	by the
	      super-user  and  some  might  only  be  unset  below  a  certain
	      secure-level (usually single-user	mode). It will not make	 files
	      alterable	 that  are  set	 to  immutable on the receiver.	 To do
	      that, see	--force-change,	--force-uchange, and --force-schange.

	      This option causes rsync to disable both user-immutable and sys-
	      tem-immutable  flags  on	files  and  directories	that are being
	      updated or deleted on the	receiving side.	 This option overrides
	      --force-uchange and --force-schange.

	      This  option  causes  rsync  to  disable user-immutable flags on
	      files and	directories that are being updated or deleted  on  the
	      receiving	 side.	 It does not try to affect system flags.  This
	      option overrides --force-change and --force-schange.

	      This option causes rsync to disable  system-immutable  flags  on
	      files  and  directories that are being updated or	deleted	on the
	      receiving	side.  It does not try to  affect  user	 flags.	  This
	      option overrides --force-change and --force-uchange.

	      This  option  tells  rsync  to apply one or more comma-separated
	      "chmod" modes to the permission of the files  in	the  transfer.
	      The resulting value is treated as	though it were the permissions
	      that the sending side supplied for the file,  which  means  that
	      this  option  can	 seem  to  have	no effect on existing files if
	      --perms is not enabled.

	      In addition  to  the  normal  parsing  rules  specified  in  the
	      chmod(1) manpage,	you can	specify	an item	that should only apply
	      to a directory by	prefixing it with a 'D', or  specify  an  item
	      that  should  only  apply	 to a file by prefixing	it with	a 'F'.
	      For example, the following will ensure that all directories  get
	      marked  set-gid, that no files are other-writable, that both are
	      user-writable and	group-writable,	and that both have  consistent
	      executability across all bits:


	      Using octal mode numbers is also allowed:


	      It  is  also  legal to specify multiple --chmod options, as each
	      additional option	is just	appended to the	 list  of  changes  to

	      See  the --perms and --executability options for how the result-
	      ing permission value can be applied to the files in  the	trans-

       -o, --owner
	      This  option  causes  rsync  to set the owner of the destination
	      file to be the same as the source	file, but only if the  receiv-
	      ing  rsync  is being run as the super-user (see also the --super
	      and --fake-super options).  Without this option,	the  owner  of
	      new and/or transferred files are set to the invoking user	on the
	      receiving	side.

	      The preservation of ownership will associate matching  names  by
	      default,	but  may fall back to using the	ID number in some cir-
	      cumstances (see also the --numeric-ids option for	a full discus-

       -g, --group
	      This  option  causes  rsync  to set the group of the destination
	      file to be the same as the source	file.  If the  receiving  pro-
	      gram  is	not  running  as  the super-user (or if	--no-super was
	      specified), only groups that the invoking	user on	the  receiving
	      side is a	member of will be preserved.  Without this option, the
	      group is set to the default group	of the invoking	 user  on  the
	      receiving	side.

	      The  preservation	 of  group information will associate matching
	      names by default,	but may	fall back to using the	ID  number  in
	      some circumstances (see also the --numeric-ids option for	a full

	      This option causes rsync to transfer character and block	device
	      files  to	 the  remote  system  to recreate these	devices.  This
	      option has no effect if the receiving rsync is not  run  as  the
	      super-user (see also the --super and --fake-super	options).

	      This option causes rsync to transfer special files such as named
	      sockets and fifos.

       -D     The -D option is equivalent to --devices --specials.

       -t, --times
	      This tells rsync to transfer modification	times along  with  the
	      files  and  update them on the remote system.  Note that if this
	      option is	not used, the optimization that	 excludes  files  that
	      have  not	 been  modified	cannot be effective; in	other words, a
	      missing -t or -a will cause the next transfer to behave as if it
	      used  -I,	 causing  all  files  to  be  updated  (though rsync's
	      delta-transfer algorithm will make the update  fairly  efficient
	      if  the  files  haven't actually changed,	you're much better off
	      using -t).

       -O, --omit-dir-times
	      This tells rsync to omit directories when	it is preserving modi-
	      fication times (see --times).  If	NFS is sharing the directories
	      on the receiving side, it	is a good idea to use -O.  This	option
	      is inferred if you use --backup without --backup-dir.

	      This  option also	has the	side-effect of avoiding	early creation
	      of directories in	incremental  recursion	copies.	  The  default
	      --inc-recursive  copying	normally  does an early-create pass of
	      all the sub-directories in a parent directory in order for it to
	      be  able	to  then  set  the modify time of the parent directory
	      right away (without having to delay that until a bunch of	recur-
	      sive copying has finished).  This	early-create idiom is not nec-
	      essary if	directory modify times are not being preserved,	so  it
	      is  skipped.  Since early-create directories don't have accurate
	      mode, mtime, or ownership, the use of this option	can help  when
	      someone wants to avoid these partially-finished directories.

       -J, --omit-link-times
	      This  tells rsync	to omit	symlinks when it is preserving modifi-
	      cation times (see	--times).

	      This tells the receiving side to attempt	super-user  activities
	      even if the receiving rsync wasn't run by	the super-user.	 These
	      activities include: preserving users  via	 the  --owner  option,
	      preserving  all  groups (not just	the current user's groups) via
	      the --groups option,  and	 copying  devices  via	the  --devices
	      option.	This  is useful	for systems that allow such activities
	      without being the	super-user, and	also  for  ensuring  that  you
	      will  get	 errors	 if  the receiving side	isn't being run	as the
	      super-user.  To turn off super-user activities,  the  super-user
	      can use --no-super.

	      When  this option	is enabled, rsync simulates super-user activi-
	      ties by saving/restoring the privileged attributes  via  special
	      extended	attributes that	are attached to	each file (as needed).
	      This includes the	file's owner and  group	 (if  it  is  not  the
	      default),	 the  file's  device  info (device & special files are
	      created as empty text files), and	any permission	bits  that  we
	      won't allow to be	set on the real	file (e.g.  the	real file gets
	      u-s,g-s,o-t for safety) or that would limit the  owner's	access
	      (since  the real super-user can always access/change a file, the
	      files we create can always be accessed/changed by	 the  creating
	      user).   This option also	handles	ACLs (if --acls	was specified)
	      and non-user extended attributes (if --xattrs was	specified).

	      This is a	good way to backup data	without	 using	a  super-user,
	      and to store ACLs	from incompatible systems.

	      The  --fake-super	 option	only affects the side where the	option
	      is used.	To affect the remote side of  a	 remote-shell  connec-
	      tion, use	the --remote-option (-M) option:

		rsync -av -M--fake-super /src/ host:/dest/

	      For  a  local  copy, this	option affects both the	source and the
	      destination.  If you wish	a local	copy  to  enable  this	option
	      just  for	the destination	files, specify -M--fake-super.	If you
	      wish a local copy	to enable this	option	just  for  the	source
	      files, combine --fake-super with -M--super.

	      This option is overridden	by both	--super	and --no-super.

	      See  also	 the  "fake super" setting in the daemon's rsyncd.conf

       -S, --sparse
	      Try to handle sparse files efficiently  so  they	take  up  less
	      space on the destination.	 Conflicts with	--inplace because it's
	      not possible to overwrite	data in	a sparse fashion.

	      This tells the receiver to allocate each destination file	to its
	      eventual	size before writing data to the	file.  Rsync will only
	      use the real filesystem-level preallocation support provided  by
	      Linux's fallocate(2) system call or Cygwin's posix_fallocate(3),
	      not the slow glibc implementation	that writes a zero  byte  into
	      each block.

	      Without this option, larger files	may not	be entirely contiguous
	      on the filesystem, but with this option rsync will probably copy
	      more  slowly.   If  the  destination is not an extent-supporting
	      filesystem (such as ext4,	xfs, NTFS, etc.), this option may have
	      no positive effect at all.

       -n, --dry-run
	      This  makes  rsync  perform  a  trial  run that doesn't make any
	      changes (and produces mostly the same output as a	real run).  It
	      is  most	commonly  used	in  combination	with the -v, --verbose
	      and/or -i, --itemize-changes options to see what an  rsync  com-
	      mand is going to do before one actually runs it.

	      The  output  of  --itemize-changes is supposed to	be exactly the
	      same on a	dry run	and a subsequent real run (barring intentional
	      trickery	and  system call failures); if it isn't, that's	a bug.
	      Other output should be mostly unchanged, but may differ in  some
	      areas.   Notably,	 a  dry	 run does not send the actual data for
	      file transfers, so --progress has	no effect, the	"bytes	sent",
	      "bytes  received", "literal data", and "matched data" statistics
	      are too small, and the "speedup" value is	equivalent  to	a  run
	      where no file transfers were needed.

       -W, --whole-file
	      With  this  option  rsync's delta-transfer algorithm is not used
	      and the whole file is sent as-is instead.	 The transfer  may  be
	      faster  if  this	option	is used	when the bandwidth between the
	      source and destination machines is higher	than the bandwidth  to
	      disk  (especially	 when  the  "disk"  is	actually  a  networked
	      filesystem).  This is the	default	when both the source and  des-
	      tination	 are   specified  as  local  paths,  but  only	if  no
	      batch-writing option is in effect.

       -x, --one-file-system
	      This tells rsync to avoid	crossing a  filesystem	boundary  when
	      recursing.   This	 does  not limit the user's ability to specify
	      items to copy from multiple filesystems, just rsync's  recursion
	      through the hierarchy of each directory that the user specified,
	      and also the analogous recursion on the  receiving  side	during
	      deletion.	 Also keep in mind that	rsync treats a "bind" mount to
	      the same device as being on the same filesystem.

	      If this option is	repeated, rsync	omits all mount-point directo-
	      ries  from  the copy.  Otherwise,	it includes an empty directory
	      at each mount-point it encounters	(using the attributes  of  the
	      mounted  directory  because  those of the	underlying mount-point
	      directory	are inaccessible).

	      If rsync has been	told to	collapse symlinks (via --copy-links or
	      --copy-unsafe-links), a symlink to a directory on	another	device
	      is treated like a	mount-point.  Symlinks to non-directories  are
	      unaffected by this option.

       --existing, --ignore-non-existing
	      This  tells rsync	to skip	creating files (including directories)
	      that do not exist	yet on the destination.	  If  this  option  is
	      combined	with  the  --ignore-existing  option, no files will be
	      updated (which can be useful if all you want  to	do  is	delete
	      extraneous files).

	      This  option  is	a transfer rule, not an	exclude, so it doesn't
	      affect the data that goes	 into  the  file-lists,	 and  thus  it
	      doesn't  affect  deletions.   It	just limits the	files that the
	      receiver requests	to be transferred.

	      This tells rsync to skip updating	files that  already  exist  on
	      the  destination	(this does not ignore existing directories, or
	      nothing would get	done).	See also --existing.

	      This option is a transfer	rule, not an exclude,  so  it  doesn't
	      affect  the  data	 that  goes  into  the file-lists, and thus it
	      doesn't affect deletions.	 It just limits	 the  files  that  the
	      receiver requests	to be transferred.

	      This  option  can	 be  useful  for those doing backups using the
	      --link-dest option when they need	to continue a backup run  that
	      got  interrupted.	  Since	a --link-dest run is copied into a new
	      directory	hierarchy (when	it is used properly),  using  --ignore
	      existing	will  ensure  that the already-handled files don't get
	      tweaked (which avoids a change in	permissions on the hard-linked
	      files).	This does mean that this option	is only	looking	at the
	      existing files in	the destination	hierarchy itself.

	      This tells rsync to remove  from	the  sending  side  the	 files
	      (meaning	non-directories)  that	are a part of the transfer and
	      have been	successfully duplicated	on the receiving side.

	      Note that	you should only	use this option	on source  files  that
	      are quiescent.  If you are using this to move files that show up
	      in a particular directory	over to	another	host, make  sure  that
	      the  finished  files  get	renamed	into the source	directory, not
	      directly written into it,	so that	rsync can't possibly  transfer
	      a	 file that is not yet fully written.  If you can't first write
	      the files	into a different directory, you	should	use  a	naming
	      idiom  that lets rsync avoid transferring	files that are not yet
	      finished (e.g. name the  file  ""	when  it  is  written,
	      rename  it  to  "foo"  when  it is done, and then	use the	option
	      --exclude='*.new'	for the	rsync transfer).

	      Starting with 3.1.0, rsync will  skip  the  sender-side  removal
	      (and  output an error) if	the file's size	or modify time has not
	      stayed unchanged.

	      This tells rsync to delete extraneous files from	the  receiving
	      side  (ones  that	 aren't	on the sending side), but only for the
	      directories that are being synchronized.	You  must  have	 asked
	      rsync to send the	whole directory	(e.g. "dir" or "dir/") without
	      using a wildcard for the	directory's  contents  (e.g.  "dir/*")
	      since  the wildcard is expanded by the shell and rsync thus gets
	      a	request	to transfer individual files, not  the	files'	parent
	      directory.   Files  that are excluded from the transfer are also
	      excluded from being deleted unless you use the --delete-excluded
	      option  or  mark	the rules as only matching on the sending side
	      (see the include/exclude modifiers in the	FILTER RULES section).

	      Prior to rsync 2.6.7, this option	would have  no	effect	unless
	      --recursive  was	enabled.  Beginning with 2.6.7,	deletions will
	      also occur when --dirs (-d) is enabled, but only for directories
	      whose contents are being copied.

	      This  option can be dangerous if used incorrectly!  It is	a very
	      good idea	to first try a run using the --dry-run option (-n)  to
	      see what files are going to be deleted.

	      If the sending side detects any I/O errors, then the deletion of
	      any files	at the destination  will  be  automatically  disabled.
	      This  is	to  prevent temporary filesystem failures (such	as NFS
	      errors) on the sending side from causing a massive  deletion  of
	      files  on	 the  destination.   You  can  override	 this with the
	      --ignore-errors option.

	      The  --delete  option  may  be  combined	 with	one   of   the
	      --delete-WHEN    options	  without   conflict,	as   well   as
	      --delete-excluded.   However,  if	 none  of  the	 --delete-WHEN
	      options  are  specified,	rsync  will choose the --delete-during
	      algorithm	 when  talking	to  rsync  3.0.0  or  newer,  and  the
	      --delete-before  algorithm  when talking to an older rsync.  See
	      also --delete-delay and --delete-after.

	      Request that the file-deletions on the receiving	side  be  done
	      before the transfer starts.  See --delete	(which is implied) for
	      more details on file-deletion.

	      Deleting before the transfer is helpful  if  the	filesystem  is
	      tight for	space and removing extraneous files would help to make
	      the transfer possible.   However,	 it  does  introduce  a	 delay
	      before the start of the transfer,	and this delay might cause the
	      transfer to timeout  (if	--timeout  was	specified).   It  also
	      forces rsync to use the old, non-incremental recursion algorithm
	      that requires rsync to scan all the files	in the	transfer  into
	      memory at	once (see --recursive).

       --delete-during,	--del
	      Request  that  the  file-deletions on the	receiving side be done
	      incrementally as the transfer happens.  The per-directory	delete
	      scan is done right before	each directory is checked for updates,
	      so it behaves like a more	efficient  --delete-before,  including
	      doing  the  deletions  prior  to	any per-directory filter files
	      being updated.  This option was first  added  in	rsync  version
	      2.6.4.   See  --delete  (which  is  implied) for more details on

	      Request that the file-deletions on the receiving	side  be  com-
	      puted  during  the  transfer  (like  --delete-during),  and then
	      removed after the	transfer completes.  This is useful when  com-
	      bined with --delay-updates and/or	--fuzzy, and is	more efficient
	      than using --delete-after	(but  can  behave  differently,	 since
	      --delete-after  computes	the deletions in a separate pass after
	      all updates are done).  If the number of removed files overflows
	      an  internal  buffer,  a	temporary  file	will be	created	on the
	      receiving	side to	hold the names (it is removed while  open,  so
	      you  shouldn't  see it during the	transfer).  If the creation of
	      the temporary file fails,	rsync will try to fall back  to	 using
	      --delete-after  (which  it  cannot do if --recursive is doing an
	      incremental scan).  See --delete (which  is  implied)  for  more
	      details on file-deletion.

	      Request  that  the  file-deletions on the	receiving side be done
	      after the	transfer has completed.	 This is  useful  if  you  are
	      sending  new per-directory merge files as	a part of the transfer
	      and you want their exclusions to	take  effect  for  the	delete
	      phase  of	the current transfer.  It also forces rsync to use the
	      old, non-incremental recursion algorithm that requires rsync  to
	      scan  all	 the  files  in	 the transfer into memory at once (see
	      --recursive).  See --delete (which is implied) for more  details
	      on file-deletion.

	      In addition to deleting the files	on the receiving side that are
	      not on the sending side, this tells rsync	 to  also  delete  any
	      files  on	 the receiving side that are excluded (see --exclude).
	      See the FILTER RULES section for a way to	make individual	exclu-
	      sions  behave this way on	the receiver, and for a	way to protect
	      files from --delete-excluded.  See --delete (which  is  implied)
	      for more details on file-deletion.

	      When  rsync  is first processing the explicitly requested	source
	      files (e.g. command-line arguments or --files-from entries),  it
	      is  normally  an error if	the file cannot	be found.  This	option
	      suppresses that error, and does not try to  transfer  the	 file.
	      This  does  not affect subsequent	vanished-file errors if	a file
	      was initially found to be	present	and later is no	longer there.

	      This option takes	the behavior of	(the  implied)	--ignore-miss-
	      ing-args	option a step farther:	each missing arg will become a
	      deletion request of the corresponding destination	 file  on  the
	      receiving	 side (should it exist).  If the destination file is a
	      non-empty	directory, it will only	 be  successfully  deleted  if
	      --force or --delete are in effect.  Other	than that, this	option
	      is independent of	any other type of delete processing.

	      The missing source files are represented	by  special  file-list
	      entries  which  display as a "*missing" entry in the --list-only

	      Tells --delete to	go ahead and delete files even when there  are
	      I/O errors.

	      This  option tells rsync to delete a non-empty directory when it
	      is to be replaced	by a non-directory.  This is only relevant  if
	      deletions	are not	active (see --delete for details).

	      This  option can be abbreviated --force for backward compatibil-
	      ity.  Note that some older rsync versions	used to	still  require
	      --force  when  using --delete-after, and it used to be non-func-
	      tional unless the	--recursive option was also enabled.

	      This tells rsync not to delete more than NUM files  or  directo-
	      ries.   If  that	limit  is  exceeded, all further deletions are
	      skipped through the end of the transfer.	At the end, rsync out-
	      puts  a warning (including a count of the	skipped	deletions) and
	      exits with an error code of 25 (unless some more important error
	      condition	also occurred).

	      Beginning	 with version 3.0.0, you may specify --max-delete=0 to
	      be warned	about any extraneous files in the destination  without
	      removing any of them.  Older clients interpreted this as "unlim-
	      ited", so	if you don't know what version the client is, you  can
	      use  the	less  obvious --max-delete=-1 as a backward-compatible
	      way to specify that no deletions be allowed (though  really  old
	      versions didn't warn when	the limit was exceeded).

	      This  tells  rsync to avoid transferring any file	that is	larger
	      than the specified SIZE. The SIZE	value can be suffixed  with  a
	      string  to  indicate  a size multiplier, and may be a fractional
	      value (e.g. "--max-size=1.5m").

	      This option is a transfer	rule, not an exclude,  so  it  doesn't
	      affect  the  data	 that  goes  into  the file-lists, and thus it
	      doesn't affect deletions.	 It just limits	 the  files  that  the
	      receiver requests	to be transferred.

	      The  suffixes  are  as  follows:	"K"  (or  "KiB") is a kibibyte
	      (1024), "M" (or "MiB") is	a mebibyte (1024*1024),	 and  "G"  (or
	      "GiB")  is  a gibibyte (1024*1024*1024).	If you want the	multi-
	      plier to be 1000 instead of  1024,  use  "KB",  "MB",  or	 "GB".
	      (Note: lower-case	is also	accepted for all values.)  Finally, if
	      the suffix ends in either	"+1" or	"-1", the value	will be	offset
	      by one byte in the indicated direction.

	      Examples:	   --max-size=1.5mb-1	 is    1499999	  bytes,   and
	      --max-size=2g+1 is 2147483649 bytes.

	      Note  that  rsync	 versions  prior  to  3.1.0  did   not	 allow

	      This  tells rsync	to avoid transferring any file that is smaller
	      than the specified SIZE, which  can  help	 in  not  transferring
	      small,  junk files.  See the --max-size option for a description
	      of SIZE and other	information.

	      Note  that  rsync	 versions  prior  to  3.1.0  did   not	 allow

       -B, --block-size=BLOCKSIZE
	      This  forces the block size used in rsync's delta-transfer algo-
	      rithm to a fixed value.  It is normally selected	based  on  the
	      size  of	each file being	updated.  See the technical report for

       -e, --rsh=COMMAND
	      This option allows you to	choose	an  alternative	 remote	 shell
	      program  to  use	for communication between the local and	remote
	      copies of	rsync. Typically, rsync	is configured to  use  ssh  by
	      default, but you may prefer to use rsh on	a local	network.

	      If  this	option is used with [user@]host::module/path, then the
	      remote shell COMMAND will	be used	to run an rsync	daemon on  the
	      remote  host,  and  all  data  will  be transmitted through that
	      remote shell connection, rather than  through  a	direct	socket
	      connection  to  a	 running rsync daemon on the remote host.  See
	      NECTION" above.

	      Command-line  arguments  are  permitted in COMMAND provided that
	      COMMAND is presented to rsync as a single	 argument.   You  must
	      use  spaces  (not	tabs or	other whitespace) to separate the com-
	      mand and args from each other, and you can  use  single-	and/or
	      double-quotes  to	 preserve spaces in an argument	(but not back-
	      slashes).	 Note that  doubling  a	 single-quote  inside  a  sin-
	      gle-quoted  string  gives	 you a single-quote; likewise for dou-
	      ble-quotes (though you need to pay  attention  to	 which	quotes
	      your  shell is parsing and which quotes rsync is parsing).  Some

		  -e 'ssh -p 2234'
		  -e 'ssh -o "ProxyCommand nohup ssh firewall nc -w1 %h	%p"'

	      (Note that ssh users  can	 alternately  customize	 site-specific
	      connect options in their .ssh/config file.)

	      You can also choose the remote shell program using the RSYNC_RSH
	      environment variable, which accepts the same range of values  as

	      See  also	 the  --blocking-io  option  which is affected by this

	      Use this to specify what program is to  be  run  on  the	remote
	      machine  to start-up rsync.  Often used when rsync is not	in the
	      default		remote-shell's		 path		 (e.g.
	      --rsync-path=/usr/local/bin/rsync).   Note  that	PROGRAM	is run
	      with the help of a shell,	so it can be any program,  script,  or
	      command  sequence	you'd care to run, so long as it does not cor-
	      rupt the standard-in & standard-out that rsync is	using to  com-

	      One  tricky  example  is to set a	different default directory on
	      the remote machine for use  with	the  --relative	 option.   For

		  rsync	-avR --rsync-path="cd /a/b && rsync" host:c/d /e/

       -M, --remote-option=OPTION
	      This  option is used for more advanced situations	where you want
	      certain effects to be limited to one side	of the transfer	 only.
	      For   instance,	if   you  want	to  pass  --log-file=FILE  and
	      --fake-super to the remote system, specify it like this:

		  rsync	-av -M --log-file=foo -M--fake-super src/ dest/

	      If you want to have an option affect only	the local  side	 of  a
	      transfer	when it	normally affects both sides, send its negation
	      to the remote side.  Like	this:

		  rsync	-av -x -M--no-x	src/ dest/

	      Be cautious using	this, as it is possible	to  toggle  an	option
	      that  will  cause	rsync to have a	different idea about what data
	      to expect	next over the socket, and that will make it fail in  a
	      cryptic fashion.

	      Note  that it is best to use a separate --remote-option for each
	      option you want to pass.	This makes your	useage compatible with
	      the --protect-args option.  If that option is off, any spaces in
	      your remote options will be split	by the remote shell unless you
	      take steps to protect them.

	      When performing a	local transfer,	the "local" side is the	sender
	      and the "remote" side is the receiver.

	      Note some	versions of the	popt option-parsing library have a bug
	      in  them	that  prevents	you from using an adjacent arg with an
	      equal  in	  it   next   to   a   short   option	letter	 (e.g.
	      -M--log-file=/tmp/foo.   If  this	 bug  affects  your version of
	      popt, you	can use	the version of	popt  that  is	included  with

       -C, --cvs-exclude
	      This  is a useful	shorthand for excluding	a broad	range of files
	      that you often don't want	to transfer between systems. It	uses a
	      similar  algorithm  to  CVS  to  determine  if  a	file should be

	      The exclude list is initialized to exclude the  following	 items
	      (these  initial items are	marked as perishable --	see the	FILTER
	      RULES section):

		     RCS  SCCS	CVS  CVS.adm   RCSLOG	cvslog.*   tags	  TAGS
		     .make.state  .nse_depinfo *~ #* .#* ,* _$*	*$ *.old *.bak
		     *.BAK *.orig *.rej	.del-* *.a *.olb *.o *.obj *.so	 *.exe
		     *.Z *.elc *.ln core .svn/ .git/ .hg/ .bzr/

	      then,  files  listed in a	$HOME/.cvsignore are added to the list
	      and any files listed in the CVSIGNORE environment	variable  (all
	      cvsignore	names are delimited by whitespace).

	      Finally, any file	is ignored if it is in the same	directory as a
	      .cvsignore file and matches one of the patterns listed  therein.
	      Unlike rsync's filter/exclude files, these patterns are split on
	      whitespace.  See the cvs(1) manual for more information.

	      If you're	combining -C with your own --filter rules, you	should
	      note that	these CVS excludes are appended	at the end of your own
	      rules, regardless	of  where  the	-C  was	 placed	 on  the  com-
	      mand-line.   This	makes them a lower priority than any rules you
	      specified	explicitly.  If	you want to control  where  these  CVS
	      excludes	get  inserted  into your filter	rules, you should omit
	      the -C as	a command-line option and use a	combination of	--fil-
	      ter=:C  and  --filter=-C	(either	 on  your  command-line	 or by
	      putting the ":C" and "-C"	rules into a  filter  file  with  your
	      other rules).  The first option turns on the per-directory scan-
	      ning for the .cvsignore file.  The second	option does a one-time
	      import of	the CVS	excludes mentioned above.

       -f, --filter=RULE
	      This  option allows you to add rules to selectively exclude cer-
	      tain files from the list of files	to  be	transferred.  This  is
	      most useful in combination with a	recursive transfer.

	      You  may use as many --filter options on the command line	as you
	      like to build up the list	of files to exclude.   If  the	filter
	      contains whitespace, be sure to quote it so that the shell gives
	      the rule to rsync	as a single argument.	The  text  below  also
	      mentions	that  you  can	use an underscore to replace the space
	      that separates a rule from its arg.

	      See the FILTER RULES section for detailed	 information  on  this

       -F     The  -F  option  is a shorthand for adding two --filter rules to
	      your command.  The first time it is used is a shorthand for this

		 --filter='dir-merge /.rsync-filter'

	      This  tells  rsync to look for per-directory .rsync-filter files
	      that have	been sprinkled through the  hierarchy  and  use	 their
	      rules  to	 filter	the files in the transfer.  If -F is repeated,
	      it is a shorthand	for this rule:

		 --filter='exclude .rsync-filter'

	      This filters out the .rsync-filter  files	 themselves  from  the

	      See  the	FILTER	RULES  section for detailed information	on how
	      these options work.

	      This option is a simplified form of  the	--filter  option  that
	      defaults	to  an	exclude	 rule  and  does  not  allow  the full
	      rule-parsing syntax of normal filter rules.

	      See the FILTER RULES section for detailed	 information  on  this

	      This option is related to	the --exclude option, but it specifies
	      a	FILE that contains exclude patterns  (one  per	line).	 Blank
	      lines  in	 the  file  and	 lines	starting  with	';' or '#' are
	      ignored.	If FILE	is -, the list	will  be  read	from  standard

	      This  option  is	a  simplified form of the --filter option that
	      defaults to  an  include	rule  and  does	 not  allow  the  full
	      rule-parsing syntax of normal filter rules.

	      See  the	FILTER	RULES section for detailed information on this

	      This option is related to	the --include option, but it specifies
	      a	 FILE  that  contains  include patterns	(one per line).	 Blank
	      lines in the file	 and  lines  starting  with  ';'  or  '#'  are
	      ignored.	 If  FILE  is  -,  the list will be read from standard

	      Using this option	allows you to specify the exact	list of	 files
	      to  transfer  (as	read from the specified	FILE or	- for standard
	      input).  It also tweaks the default behavior of  rsync  to  make
	      transferring just	the specified files and	directories easier:

	      o	     The  --relative  (-R)  option is implied, which preserves
		     the path information that is specified for	each  item  in
		     the file (use --no-relative or --no-R if you want to turn
		     that off).

	      o	     The --dirs	(-d) option  is	 implied,  which  will	create
		     directories  specified  in	 the  list  on the destination
		     rather than  noisily  skipping  them  (use	 --no-dirs  or
		     --no-d if you want	to turn	that off).

	      o	     The  --archive  (-a)  option's  behavior  does  not imply
		     --recursive (-r), so specify it explicitly, if  you  want

	      o	     These  side-effects change	the default state of rsync, so
		     the position of  the  --files-from	 option	 on  the  com-
		     mand-line	has no bearing on how other options are	parsed
		     (e.g. -a works the	same before or after --files-from,  as
		     does --no-R and all other options).

	      The  filenames  that  are	read from the FILE are all relative to
	      the source dir --	any leading slashes are	removed	 and  no  ".."
	      references  are  allowed	to go higher than the source dir.  For
	      example, take this command:

		 rsync -a --files-from=/tmp/foo	/usr remote:/backup

	      If /tmp/foo contains the string  "bin"  (or  even	 "/bin"),  the
	      /usr/bin	directory will be created as /backup/bin on the	remote
	      host.  If	it contains "bin/"  (note  the	trailing  slash),  the
	      immediate	 contents of the directory would also be sent (without
	      needing to be explicitly mentioned in the	file --	this began  in
	      version  2.6.4).	 In  both cases, if the	-r option was enabled,
	      that dir's entire	hierarchy would	also be	transferred  (keep  in
	      mind that	-r needs to be specified explicitly with --files-from,
	      since it is not implied by -a).  Also note that  the  effect  of
	      the  (enabled by default)	--relative option is to	duplicate only
	      the path info that is read from the file -- it  does  not	 force
	      the duplication of the source-spec path (/usr in this case).

	      In  addition,  the --files-from file can be read from the	remote
	      host instead of the local	host if	you specify a "host:" in front
	      of the file (the host must match one end of the transfer).  As a
	      short-cut, you can specify just a	prefix of ":" to mean "use the
	      remote end of the	transfer".  For	example:

		 rsync -a --files-from=:/path/file-list	src:/ /tmp/copy

	      This  would  copy	all the	files specified	in the /path/file-list
	      file that	was located on the remote "src"	host.

	      If the --iconv and --protect-args	options	are specified and  the
	      --files-from  filenames are being	sent from one host to another,
	      the filenames will be translated from the	sending	host's charset
	      to the receiving host's charset.

	      NOTE:  sorting the list of files in the --files-from input helps
	      rsync to be more efficient, as it	 will  avoid  re-visiting  the
	      path  elements that are shared between adjacent entries.	If the
	      input is not sorted, some	path  elements	(implied  directories)
	      may  end up being	scanned	multiple times,	and rsync will eventu-
	      ally unduplicate them after they get turned into file-list  ele-

       -0, --from0
	      This  tells  rsync that the rules/filenames it reads from	a file
	      are terminated by	a null ('\0') character,  not  a  NL,  CR,  or
	      CR+LF.	 This	 affects    --exclude-from,    --include-from,
	      --files-from, and	any merged files specified in a	--filter rule.
	      It  does	not  affect --cvs-exclude (since all names read	from a
	      .cvsignore file are split	on whitespace).

       -s, --protect-args
	      This option sends	all filenames and most options to  the	remote
	      rsync without allowing the remote	shell to interpret them.  This
	      means that spaces	are not	split in names,	and  any  non-wildcard
	      special  characters  are	not  translated	 (such	as ~, $, ;, &,
	      etc.).  Wildcards	are expanded  on  the  remote  host  by	 rsync
	      (instead of the shell doing it).

	      If  you  use  this  option with --iconv, the args	related	to the
	      remote side will also be translated from the local to the	remote
	      character-set.   The  translation	 happens before	wild-cards are
	      expanded.	 See also the --files-from option.

	      You may also control  this  option  via  the  RSYNC_PROTECT_ARGS
	      environment  variable.   If  this	variable has a non-zero	value,
	      this option will be enabled by default,  otherwise  it  will  be
	      disabled	by  default.  Either state is overridden by a manually
	      specified	positive or negative version of	this option (note that
	      --no-s  and --no-protect-args are	the negative versions).	 Since
	      this option was first introduced in 3.0.0, you'll	need  to  make
	      sure  it's  disabled  if you ever	need to	interact with a	remote
	      rsync that is older than that.

	      Rsync can	also be	configured (at build time) to have this	option
	      enabled  by  default (with is overridden by both the environment
	      and the command-line).  This option will eventually become a new
	      default setting at some as-yet-undetermined point	in the future.

       -T, --temp-dir=DIR
	      This  option  instructs  rsync to	use DIR	as a scratch directory
	      when creating temporary copies of	the files transferred  on  the
	      receiving	 side.	 The default behavior is to create each	tempo-
	      rary file	in the same directory as  the  associated  destination
	      file.   Beginning	 with  rsync 3.1.1, the	temp-file names	inside
	      the specified DIR	will not be prefixed with an extra dot (though
	      they will	still have a random suffix added).

	      This option is most often	used when the receiving	disk partition
	      does not have enough free	space to hold a	copy  of  the  largest
	      file  in	the  transfer.	 In  this  case	(i.e. when the scratch
	      directory	is on a	different disk partition), rsync will  not  be
	      able  to rename each received temporary file over	the top	of the
	      associated destination file,  but	 instead  must	copy  it  into
	      place.   Rsync does this by copying the file over	the top	of the
	      destination file,	which means that  the  destination  file  will
	      contain  truncated data during this copy.	 If this were not done
	      this way (even if	the destination	file were first	 removed,  the
	      data  locally  copied  to	 a  temporary  file in the destination
	      directory, and then renamed into place) it would be possible for
	      the old file to continue taking up disk space (if	someone	had it
	      open), and thus there might not be enough	room to	 fit  the  new
	      version on the disk at the same time.

	      If  you  are using this option for reasons other than a shortage
	      of  disk	space,	you  may  wish	to   combine   it   with   the
	      --delay-updates  option, which will ensure that all copied files
	      get put into subdirectories in the destination hierarchy,	await-
	      ing  the	end of the transfer.  If you don't have	enough room to
	      duplicate	all the	arriving files on the  destination  partition,
	      another way to tell rsync	that you aren't	overly concerned about
	      disk space is to use the --partial-dir option  with  a  relative
	      path; because this tells rsync that it is	OK to stash off	a copy
	      of a single file in a subdir in the destination hierarchy, rsync
	      will  use	 the  partial-dir  as a	staging	area to	bring over the
	      copied file, and then rename it into place from there. (Specify-
	      ing  a  --partial-dir  with  an absolute path does not have this

       -y, --fuzzy
	      This option tells	rsync that it should look for a	basis file for
	      any  destination	file  that  is missing.	 The current algorithm
	      looks in the same	directory as the destination file for either a
	      file  that  has  an identical size and modified-time, or a simi-
	      larly-named file.	 If found, rsync uses the fuzzy	basis file  to
	      try to speed up the transfer.

	      If  the  option is repeated, the fuzzy scan will also be done in
	      any matching alternate destination directories that  are	speci-
	      fied via --compare-dest, --copy-dest, or --link-dest.

	      Note  that  the  use of the --delete option might	get rid	of any
	      potential	fuzzy-match files, so  either  use  --delete-after  or
	      specify some filename exclusions if you need to prevent this.

	      This  option  instructs  rsync  to  use  DIR  on the destination
	      machine as an additional hierarchy to compare destination	 files
	      against  doing transfers (if the files are missing in the	desti-
	      nation directory).  If a file is found in	DIR that is  identical
	      to  the  sender's	 file, the file	will NOT be transferred	to the
	      destination directory.  This is useful  for  creating  a	sparse
	      backup  of  just files that have changed from an earlier backup.
	      This option is typically used to copy into an  empty  (or	 newly
	      created) directory.

	      Beginning	 in version 2.6.4, multiple --compare-dest directories
	      may be provided, which will cause	rsync to search	 the  list  in
	      the  order  specified  for  an exact match.  If a	match is found
	      that differs only	in attributes, a local copy is	made  and  the
	      attributes  updated.  If a match is not found, a basis file from
	      one of the DIRs will be selected to try to speed up  the	trans-

	      If  DIR  is  a  relative path, it	is relative to the destination
	      directory.  See also --copy-dest and --link-dest.

	      NOTE: beginning with version 3.1.0, rsync	 will  remove  a  file
	      from  a  non-empty  destination  hierarchy  if an	exact match is
	      found in one of the compare-dest	hierarchies  (making  the  end
	      result more closely match	a fresh	copy).

	      This  option  behaves  like  --compare-dest, but rsync will also
	      copy unchanged files found in DIR	to the	destination  directory
	      using a local copy.  This	is useful for doing transfers to a new
	      destination while	leaving	existing files intact, and then	 doing
	      a	 flash-cutover	when  all  files have been successfully	trans-

	      Multiple --copy-dest directories may  be	provided,  which  will
	      cause  rsync  to	search	the list in the	order specified	for an
	      unchanged	file.  If a match is not found,	a basis	file from  one
	      of the DIRs will be selected to try to speed up the transfer.

	      If  DIR  is  a  relative path, it	is relative to the destination
	      directory.  See also --compare-dest and --link-dest.

	      This option behaves like --copy-dest, but	 unchanged  files  are
	      hard  linked  from  DIR to the destination directory.  The files
	      must be identical	in all preserved attributes (e.g. permissions,
	      possibly	ownership)  in	order  for  the	 files	to  be	linked
	      together.	 An example:

		rsync -av --link-dest=$PWD/prior_dir host:src_dir/ new_dir/

	      If file's	aren't linking,	double-check their  attributes.	  Also
	      check  if	 some attributes are getting forced outside of rsync's
	      control, such a mount option that	 squishes  root	 to  a	single
	      user,  or	 mounts	a removable drive with generic ownership (such
	      as OS X's	"Ignore	ownership on this volume" option).

	      Beginning	in version 2.6.4, multiple --link-dest directories may
	      be  provided,  which  will cause rsync to	search the list	in the
	      order specified for an exact match.  If a	match  is  found  that
	      differs  only  in	 attributes,  a	 local	copy  is  made and the
	      attributes updated.  If a	match is not found, a basis file  from
	      one  of  the DIRs	will be	selected to try	to speed up the	trans-

	      This option works	best when copying into	an  empty  destination
	      hierarchy,  as  existing files may get their attributes tweaked,
	      and that can affect alternate destination	files via  hard-links.
	      Also,  itemizing	of  changes  can get a bit muddled.  Note that
	      prior to version 3.1.0, an alternate-directory exact match would
	      never be found (nor linked into the destination) when a destina-
	      tion file	already	exists.

	      Note that	if you combine this option with	--ignore-times,	 rsync
	      will not link any	files together because it only links identical
	      files together as	a substitute for transferring the file,	 never
	      as an additional check after the file is updated.

	      If  DIR  is  a  relative path, it	is relative to the destination
	      directory.  See also --compare-dest and --copy-dest.

	      Note that	rsync versions prior to	2.6.1 had  a  bug  that	 could
	      prevent  --link-dest  from working properly for a	non-super-user
	      when -o was specified (or	implied	by -a).	 You  can  work-around
	      this bug by avoiding the -o option when sending to an old	rsync.

       -z, --compress
	      With  this  option, rsync	compresses the file data as it is sent
	      to the destination machine, which	reduces	 the  amount  of  data
	      being  transmitted  -- something that is useful over a slow con-

	      Note that	this  option  typically	 achieves  better  compression
	      ratios  than can be achieved by using a compressing remote shell
	      or a compressing transport because it  takes  advantage  of  the
	      implicit	information  in	 the matching data blocks that are not
	      explicitly sent over the connection.   This  matching-data  com-
	      pression	comes at a cost	of CPU,	though,	and can	be disabled by
	      repeating	the -z option, but only	if both	 sides	are  at	 least
	      version 3.1.1.

	      Note that	if your	version	of rsync was compiled with an external
	      zlib (instead of the zlib	that comes packaged with  rsync)  then
	      it   will	 not  support  the  old-style  compression,  only  the
	      new-style	(repeated-option) compression.	 In  the  future  this
	      new-style	compression will likely	become the default.

	      The  client  rsync  requests new-style compression on the	server
	      via the  --new-compress  option,	so  if	you  see  that	option
	      rejected	it  means that the server is not new enough to support
	      -zz.  Rsync also accepts the --old-compress option for a	future
	      time when	new-style compression becomes the default.

	      See the --skip-compress option for the default list of file suf-
	      fixes that will not be compressed.

	      Explicitly set the compression level  to	use  (see  --compress)
	      instead  of  letting it default.	If NUM is non-zero, the	--com-
	      press option is implied.

	      Override the list	of file	suffixes that will not be  compressed.
	      The  LIST	 should	be one or more file suffixes (without the dot)
	      separated	by slashes (/).

	      You may specify an empty string to indicate that no file	should
	      be skipped.

	      Simple  character-class matching is supported: each must consist
	      of a list	of letters inside the square brackets (e.g. no special
	      classes, such as "[:alpha:]", are	supported, and '-' has no spe-
	      cial meaning).

	      The characters asterisk (*) and question-mark (?)	have  no  spe-
	      cial meaning.

	      Here's  an example that specifies	6 suffixes to skip (since 1 of
	      the 5 rules matches 2 suffixes):


	      The default list of suffixes that	will not be compressed is this
	      (in this version of rsync):

	      7z  ace  avi bz2 deb gpg gz iso jpeg jpg lz lzma lzo mov mp3 mp4
	      ogg png rar rpm rzip tbz tgz tlz txz xz z	zip

	      This list	will be	replaced by your --skip-compress list  in  all
	      but  one	situation:  a  copy  from a daemon rsync will add your
	      skipped suffixes to its list of non-compressing files  (and  its
	      list may be configured to	a different default).

	      With  this option	rsync will transfer numeric group and user IDs
	      rather than using	user and group names and mapping them at  both

	      By  default  rsync will use the username and groupname to	deter-
	      mine what	ownership to give files. The special  uid  0  and  the
	      special  group  0	 are never mapped via user/group names even if
	      the --numeric-ids	option is not specified.

	      If a user	or group has no	name on	the source system or it	has no
	      match  on	 the  destination system, then the numeric ID from the
	      source system is used instead.  See also	the  comments  on  the
	      "use  chroot" setting in the rsyncd.conf manpage for information
	      on how the chroot	setting	affects	rsync's	ability	to look	up the
	      names of the users and groups and	what you can do	about it.

       --usermap=STRING, --groupmap=STRING
	      These  options allow you to specify users	and groups that	should
	      be mapped	to other values	by the receiving side.	The STRING  is
	      one  or  more  FROM:TO pairs of values separated by commas.  Any
	      matching FROM value from the sender is replaced with a TO	 value
	      from  the	 receiver.   You may specify usernames or user IDs for
	      the FROM and TO values,  and  the	 FROM  value  may  also	 be  a
	      wild-card	 string,  which	 will  be matched against the sender's
	      names (wild-cards	do NOT match against ID	 numbers,  though  see
	      below  for why a '*' matches everything).	 You may instead spec-
	      ify a range of ID	numbers	via an inclusive range:	LOW-HIGH.  For

		--usermap=0-99:nobody,wayne:admin,*:normal --groupmap=usr:1,1:usr

	      The first	match in the list is the one that is used.  You	should
	      specify all your user mappings using a single --usermap  option,
	      and/or all your group mappings using a single --groupmap option.

	      Note  that  the  sender's	 name for the 0	user and group are not
	      transmitted to the receiver, so you should  either  match	 these
	      values  using  a	0, or use the names in effect on the receiving
	      side (typically "root").	All other FROM names  match  those  in
	      use on the sending side.	All TO names match those in use	on the
	      receiving	side.

	      Any IDs that do not have a name on the sending side are  treated
	      as  having  an  empty  name  for	the purpose of matching.  This
	      allows them to be	matched	via a "*" or using an empty name.  For

		--usermap=:nobody --groupmap=*:nobody

	      When  the	--numeric-ids option is	used, the sender does not send
	      any names, so all	the IDs	are treated as having an  empty	 name.
	      This  means that you will	need to	specify	numeric	FROM values if
	      you want to map these nameless IDs to different values.

	      For the --usermap	option to have any effect,  the	 -o  (--owner)
	      option  must be used (or implied), and the receiver will need to
	      be running as a super-user (see also the	--fake-super  option).
	      For  the --groupmap option to have any effect, the -g (--groups)
	      option must be used (or implied),	and the	receiver will need  to
	      have permissions to set that group.

	      This  option  forces  all	 files	to be owned by USER with group
	      GROUP.  This is a	simpler	interface  than	 using	--usermap  and
	      --groupmap  directly,  but it is implemented using those options
	      internally, so you cannot	mix them.  If either the USER or GROUP
	      is  empty, no mapping for	the omitted user/group will occur.  If
	      GROUP is empty, the trailing colon may be	omitted, but  if  USER
	      is empty,	a leading colon	must be	supplied.

	      If  you  specify	"--chown=foo:bar,  this	is exactly the same as
	      specifying "--usermap=*:foo --groupmap=*:bar", only easier.

	      This option allows you to	set a maximum I/O timeout in  seconds.
	      If no data is transferred	for the	specified time then rsync will
	      exit. The	default	is 0, which means no timeout.

	      This option allows you to	set the	amount of time that rsync will
	      wait  for	 its connection	to an rsync daemon to succeed.	If the
	      timeout is reached, rsync	exits with an error.

	      By default rsync will bind to the	wildcard address when connect-
	      ing  to  an  rsync  daemon.   The	--address option allows	you to
	      specify a	specific IP address (or	hostname)  to  bind  to.   See
	      also this	option in the --daemon mode section.

	      This  specifies  an alternate TCP	port number to use rather than
	      the default of 873.  This	is only	needed if you  are  using  the
	      double-colon  (::) syntax	to connect with	an rsync daemon	(since
	      the URL syntax has a way to specify the port as a	 part  of  the
	      URL).  See also this option in the --daemon mode section.

	      This  option can provide endless fun for people who like to tune
	      their systems to the utmost degree. You can  set	all  sorts  of
	      socket  options  which  may  make	transfers faster (or slower!).
	      Read the man page	for the	setsockopt() system call  for  details
	      on  some	of  the	 options you may be able to set. By default no
	      special socket options are set. This only	affects	direct	socket
	      connections  to  a remote	rsync daemon.  This option also	exists
	      in the --daemon mode section.

	      This tells rsync to use blocking I/O  when  launching  a	remote
	      shell  transport.	  If  the remote shell is either rsh or	remsh,
	      rsync defaults to	using blocking I/O, otherwise it  defaults  to
	      using  non-blocking  I/O.	  (Note	 that ssh prefers non-blocking

	      This sets	the output buffering mode.  The	mode can be None  (aka
	      Unbuffered), Line, or Block (aka Full).  You may specify as lit-
	      tle as a single letter for the mode,  and	 use  upper  or	 lower

	      The  main	use of this option is to change	Full buffering to Line
	      buffering	when rsync's output is going to	a file or pipe.

       -i, --itemize-changes
	      Requests a simple	itemized list of the changes  that  are	 being
	      made to each file, including attribute changes.  This is exactly
	      the same as specifying --out-format='%i %n%L'.   If  you	repeat
	      the option, unchanged files will also be output, but only	if the
	      receiving	rsync is at least version 2.6.7	(you can use -vv  with
	      older  versions  of  rsync, but that also	turns on the output of
	      other verbose messages).

	      The "%i" escape has a cryptic output that	is  11	letters	 long.
	      The  general  format  is like the	string YXcstpogfax, where Y is
	      replaced by the type of update being done, X is replaced by  the
	      file-type,  and  the other letters represent attributes that may
	      be output	if they	are being modified.

	      The update types that replace the	Y are as follows:

	      o	     A < means that a file is being transferred	to the	remote
		     host (sent).

	      o	     A	>  means that a	file is	being transferred to the local
		     host (received).

	      o	     A c means that a local change/creation is	occurring  for
		     the  item	(such  as  the	creation of a directory	or the
		     changing of a symlink, etc.).

	      o	     A h means that the	item is	a hard link  to	 another  item
		     (requires --hard-links).

	      o	     A	.  means that the item is not being updated (though it
		     might have	attributes that	are being modified).

	      o	     A * means that the	rest of	the itemized-output area  con-
		     tains a message (e.g. "deleting").

	      The  file-types  that replace the	X are: f for a file, a d for a
	      directory, an L for a symlink, a D for a device, and a S	for  a
	      special file (e.g. named sockets and fifos).

	      The  other  letters  in  the string above	are the	actual letters
	      that will	be output if the associated attribute for the item  is
	      being  updated or	a "." for no change.  Three exceptions to this
	      are: (1) a newly created item replaces each letter with  a  "+",
	      (2)  an identical	item replaces the dots with spaces, and	(3) an
	      unknown attribute	replaces each letter with a "?"	(this can hap-
	      pen when talking to an older rsync).

	      The attribute that is associated with each letter	is as follows:

	      o	     A	c  means  either  that	a regular file has a different
		     checksum (requires	--checksum) or that a symlink, device,
		     or	 special  file	has a changed value.  Note that	if you
		     are sending files to an rsync prior to 3.0.1, this	change
		     flag  will	be present only	for checksum-differing regular

	      o	     A s means the size	of a regular  file  is	different  and
		     will be updated by	the file transfer.

	      o	     A t means the modification	time is	different and is being
		     updated to	the sender's  value  (requires	--times).   An
		     alternate	value  of  T  means that the modification time
		     will be set to the	transfer time, which  happens  when  a
		     file/symlink/device is updated without --times and	when a
		     symlink is	changed	and the	receiver can't set  its	 time.
		     (Note:  when  using  an rsync 3.0.0 client, you might see
		     the s flag	combined with t	instead	of the proper  T  flag
		     for this time-setting failure.)

	      o	     A	p  means  the  permissions are different and are being
		     updated to	the sender's value (requires --perms).

	      o	     An	o means	the owner is different and is being updated to
		     the sender's value	(requires --owner and super-user priv-

	      o	     A g means the group is different and is being updated  to
		     the sender's value	(requires --group and the authority to
		     set the group).

	      o	     The f means that the fileflags information	changed.

	      o	     The a means that the ACL information changed.

	      o	     The x  means  that	 the  extended	attribute  information

	      One  other  output  is  possible:	 when deleting files, the "%i"
	      will output the string "*deleting" for each item that  is	 being
	      removed  (assuming that you are talking to a recent enough rsync
	      that it logs deletions instead of	outputting them	as  a  verbose

	      This allows you to specify exactly what the rsync	client outputs
	      to the user on a per-update basis.  The format is	a text	string
	      containing  embedded  single-character escape sequences prefixed
	      with a percent (%) character.   A	default	format	of  "%n%L"  is
	      assumed if either	--info=name or -v is specified (this tells you
	      just the name of the file	and, if	the item is a link,  where  it
	      points).	For a full list	of the possible	escape characters, see
	      the "log format" setting in the rsyncd.conf manpage.

	      Specifying  the  --out-format  option  implies  the  --info=name
	      option,  which  will  mention  each  file,  dir,	etc. that gets
	      updated in a significant way (a transferred  file,  a  recreated
	      symlink/device,  or  a  touched directory).  In addition,	if the
	      itemize-changes escape (%i) is included in the string  (e.g.  if
	      the  --itemize-changes  option  was  used), the logging of names
	      increases	to mention any item that is changed  in	 any  way  (as
	      long  as the receiving side is at	least 2.6.4).  See the --item-
	      ize-changes option for a description of the output of "%i".

	      Rsync will output	the out-format string prior to a file's	trans-
	      fer  unless  one of the transfer-statistic escapes is requested,
	      in which case the	logging	is done	 at  the  end  of  the	file's
	      transfer.	 When this late	logging	is in effect and --progress is
	      also specified, rsync will also output  the  name	 of  the  file
	      being  transferred  prior	to its progress	information (followed,
	      of course, by the	out-format output).

	      This option causes rsync to log what it  is  doing  to  a	 file.
	      This  is	similar	 to the	logging	that a daemon does, but	can be
	      requested	for the	client	side  and/or  the  server  side	 of  a
	      non-daemon  transfer.  If	specified as a client option, transfer
	      logging will be enabled with a default format of "%i %n%L".  See
	      the --log-file-format option if you wish to override this.

	      Here's  a	 example  command that requests	the remote side	to log
	      what is happening:

		rsync -av --remote-option=--log-file=/tmp/rlog src/ dest/

	      This is very useful if you need to debug	why  a	connection  is
	      closing unexpectedly.

	      This  allows  you	 to specify exactly what per-update logging is
	      put into the file	specified by the --log-file option (which must
	      also  be	specified for this option to have any effect).	If you
	      specify an empty string, updated files will not be mentioned  in
	      the log file.  For a list	of the possible	escape characters, see
	      the "log format" setting in the rsyncd.conf manpage.

	      The default FORMAT used if  --log-file  is  specified  and  this
	      option is	not is '%i %n%L'.

	      This  tells  rsync  to  print a verbose set of statistics	on the
	      file transfer,  allowing	you  to	 tell  how  effective  rsync's
	      delta-transfer  algorithm	 is  for  your	data.	This option is
	      equivalent to --info=stats2 if combined with 0 or	1 -v  options,
	      or --info=stats3 if combined with	2 or more -v options.

	      The current statistics are as follows:

	      o	     Number  of	 files	is  the	 count	of all "files" (in the
		     generic sense),  which  includes  directories,  symlinks,
		     etc.   The	 total	count  will  be	 followed by a list of
		     counts by filetype	(if the	total is non-zero).  For exam-
		     ple:  "(reg:  5,  dir:  3,	 link: 2, dev: 1, special: 1)"
		     lists the totals for  regular  files,  directories,  sym-
		     links, devices, and special files.	 If any	of value is 0,
		     it	is completely omitted from the list.

	      o	     Number of created files is	the count of how many  "files"
		     (generic  sense)  were  created  (as opposed to updated).
		     The total count will be followed by a list	of  counts  by
		     filetype (if the total is non-zero).

	      o	     Number  of	deleted	files is the count of how many "files"
		     (generic sense) were created  (as	opposed	 to  updated).
		     The  total	 count will be followed	by a list of counts by
		     filetype (if the total is non-zero).  Note	that this line
		     is	 only  output  if deletions are	in effect, and only if
		     protocol 31 is being used (the default for	rsync 3.1.x).

	      o	     Number of regular files transferred is the	count of  nor-
		     mal  files	 that  were updated via	rsync's	delta-transfer
		     algorithm,	which does not include	dirs,  symlinks,  etc.
		     Note  that	rsync 3.1.0 added the word "regular" into this

	      o	     Total file	size is	the total sum of all file sizes	in the
		     transfer.	 This  does not	count any size for directories
		     or	special	files, but does	include	the size of symlinks.

	      o	     Total transferred file size is the	total sum of all files
		     sizes for just the	transferred files.

	      o	     Literal  data  is	how much unmatched file-update data we
		     had to send to  the  receiver  for	 it  to	 recreate  the
		     updated files.

	      o	     Matched  data  is	how much data the receiver got locally
		     when recreating the updated files.

	      o	     File list size is how big the file-list data was when the
		     sender sent it to the receiver.  This is smaller than the
		     in-memory size for	the file list due to some  compressing
		     of	duplicated data	when rsync sends the list.

	      o	     File  list	 generation time is the	number of seconds that
		     the sender	spent creating the file	list.  This requires a
		     modern rsync on the sending side for this to be present.

	      o	     File list transfer	time is	the number of seconds that the
		     sender spent sending the file list	to the receiver.

	      o	     Total bytes sent is the count of all the bytes that rsync
		     sent from the client side to the server side.

	      o	     Total  bytes  received  is	 the  count of all non-message
		     bytes that	rsync received by the  client  side  from  the
		     server  side.   "Non-message"  bytes  means that we don't
		     count the bytes for a verbose  message  that  the	server
		     sent to us, which makes the stats more consistent.

       -8, --8-bit-output
	      This  tells  rsync to leave all high-bit characters unescaped in
	      the output instead of trying to test  them  to  see  if  they're
	      valid  in	the current locale and escaping	the invalid ones.  All
	      control characters (but never tabs) are always escaped,  regard-
	      less of this option's setting.

	      The  escape  idiom  that started in 2.6.7	is to output a literal
	      backslash	(\) and	a hash (#), followed by	exactly	3  octal  dig-
	      its.  For	example, a newline would output	as "\#012".  A literal
	      backslash	that is	in a filename is not escaped unless it is fol-
	      lowed by a hash and 3 digits (0-9).

       -h, --human-readable
	      Output  numbers  in  a  more human-readable format.  There are 3
	      possible levels:	(1) output numbers with	 a  separator  between
	      each  set	 of 3 digits (either a comma or	a period, depending on
	      if the decimal point is represented by a period or a comma); (2)
	      output  numbers  in  units  of 1000 (with	a character suffix for
	      larger units -- see below); (3) output numbers in	units of 1024.

	      The default is human-readable level 1.  Each -h option increases
	      the  level  by one.  You can take	the level down to 0 (to	output
	      numbers as pure digits)  by  specifing  the  --no-human-readable
	      (--no-h) option.

	      The  unit	 letters  that	are  appended in levels	2 and 3	are: K
	      (kilo), M	(mega),	 G  (giga),  or	 T  (tera).   For  example,  a
	      1234567-byte  file  would	 output	 as 1.23M in level-2 (assuming
	      that a period is your local decimal point).

	      Backward compatibility note:  versions of	rsync prior  to	 3.1.0
	      do not support human-readable level 1, and they default to level
	      0.  Thus,	specifying one or two -h options will behave in	a com-
	      parable  manner  in  old	and new	versions as long as you	didn't
	      specify a	--no-h option prior to one or more  -h	options.   See
	      the --list-only option for one difference.

	      By  default, rsync will delete any partially transferred file if
	      the transfer is interrupted. In some circumstances  it  is  more
	      desirable	 to keep partially transferred files. Using the	--par-
	      tial option tells	rsync to keep the partial  file	 which	should
	      make a subsequent	transfer of the	rest of	the file much faster.

	      A	 better	way to keep partial files than the --partial option is
	      to specify a DIR that will be used  to  hold  the	 partial  data
	      (instead	of  writing  it	 out to	the destination	file).	On the
	      next transfer, rsync will	use a file found in this dir  as  data
	      to  speed	 up  the resumption of the transfer and	then delete it
	      after it has served its purpose.

	      Note that	if --whole-file	is specified (or  implied),  any  par-
	      tial-dir	file  that  is	found for a file that is being updated
	      will simply be removed (since rsync  is  sending	files  without
	      using rsync's delta-transfer algorithm).

	      Rsync will create	the DIR	if it is missing (just the last	dir --
	      not the whole path).  This makes it easy to use a	relative  path
	      (such  as	 "--partial-dir=.rsync-partial")  to have rsync	create
	      the partial-directory in the destination file's  directory  when
	      needed,  and  then  remove  it  again  when  the partial file is

	      If the partial-dir value is not an absolute path,	rsync will add
	      an  exclude rule at the end of all your existing excludes.  This
	      will prevent the sending of any partial-dir files	that may exist
	      on the sending side, and will also prevent the untimely deletion
	      of partial-dir items on the receiving  side.   An	 example:  the
	      above  --partial-dir  option would add the equivalent of "-f '-p
	      .rsync-partial/'"	at the end of any other	filter rules.

	      If you are supplying your	own exclude rules, you may need	to add
	      your  own	 exclude/hide/protect rule for the partial-dir because
	      (1) the auto-added rule may be ineffective at the	 end  of  your
	      other  rules,  or	 (2)  you may wish to override rsync's exclude
	      choice.  For instance, if	you want to make  rsync	 clean-up  any
	      left-over	 partial-dirs  that  may  be  lying around, you	should
	      specify --delete-after and add a "risk" filter rule, e.g.	 -f 'R
	      .rsync-partial/'.	 (Avoid	using --delete-before or --delete-dur-
	      ing unless you don't need	rsync to use any of the	left-over par-
	      tial-dir data during the current run.)

	      IMPORTANT:  the  --partial-dir  should  not be writable by other
	      users or it is a security	risk.  E.g. AVOID "/tmp".

	      You can also set the  partial-dir	 value	the  RSYNC_PARTIAL_DIR
	      environment  variable.  Setting this in the environment does not
	      force --partial to be enabled, but rather	it affects where  par-
	      tial  files  go  when  --partial	is  specified.	 For instance,
	      instead of using --partial-dir=.rsync-tmp	along with --progress,
	      you  could  set RSYNC_PARTIAL_DIR=.rsync-tmp in your environment
	      and then just use	the -P option  to  turn	 on  the  use  of  the
	      .rsync-tmp  dir  for partial transfers.  The only	times that the
	      --partial	option does not	look for this  environment  value  are
	      (1) when --inplace was specified (since --inplace	conflicts with
	      --partial-dir), and (2) when --delay-updates was specified  (see

	      For  the	purposes  of the daemon-config's "refuse options" set-
	      ting, --partial-dir does not imply --partial.  This is so	that a
	      refusal  of  the	--partial  option  can be used to disallow the
	      overwriting of destination files with a partial transfer,	 while
	      still allowing the safer idiom provided by --partial-dir.

	      This  option puts	the temporary file from	each updated file into
	      a	holding	directory until	the end	of the transfer, at which time
	      all  the files are renamed into place in rapid succession.  This
	      attempts to make the updating of the files a little more atomic.
	      By  default the files are	placed into a directory	named ".~tmp~"
	      in each file's destination directory, but	 if  you've  specified
	      the  --partial-dir  option, that directory will be used instead.
	      See the comments in the --partial-dir section for	 a  discussion
	      of how this ".~tmp~" dir will be excluded	from the transfer, and
	      what you can do if you want rsync	to cleanup old	".~tmp~"  dirs
	      that  might  be  lying  around.	Conflicts  with	 --inplace and

	      This option uses more memory on the receiving side (one bit  per
	      file  transferred)  and  also requires enough free disk space on
	      the receiving side to hold an additional copy of all the updated
	      files.   Note  also  that	you should not use an absolute path to
	      --partial-dir unless (1) there is	no chance of any of the	 files
	      in  the  transfer	 having	 the  same name	(since all the updated
	      files will be put	into a single directory	if the path  is	 abso-
	      lute)  and (2) there are no mount	points in the hierarchy	(since
	      the delayed updates will fail if	they  can't  be	 renamed  into

	      See  also	the "atomic-rsync" perl	script in the "support"	subdir
	      for an update algorithm  that  is	 even  more  atomic  (it  uses
	      --link-dest and a	parallel hierarchy of files).

       -m, --prune-empty-dirs
	      This option tells	the receiving rsync to get rid of empty	direc-
	      tories from the file-list,  including  nested  directories  that
	      have no non-directory children.  This is useful for avoiding the
	      creation of a bunch of  useless  directories  when  the  sending
	      rsync  is	 recursively  scanning	a  hierarchy  of  files	 using
	      include/exclude/filter rules.

	      Note that	the use	of transfer  rules,  such  as  the  --min-size
	      option,  does  not affect	what goes into the file	list, and thus
	      does not leave directories empty,	even if	none of	the files in a
	      directory	match the transfer rule.

	      Because the file-list is actually	being pruned, this option also
	      affects what directories get deleted when	a  delete  is  active.
	      However,	keep  in  mind that excluded files and directories can
	      prevent existing items from being	deleted	due to an exclude both
	      hiding  source  files and	protecting destination files.  See the
	      perishable filter-rule option for	how to avoid this.

	      You can prevent the pruning of certain  empty  directories  from
	      the file-list by using a global "protect"	filter.	 For instance,
	      this option would	ensure that the	directory "emptydir" was  kept
	      in the file-list:

	      --filter 'protect	emptydir/'

	      Here's  an  example  that	 copies	all .pdf files in a hierarchy,
	      only creating the	necessary destination directories to hold  the
	      .pdf  files, and ensures that any	superfluous files and directo-
	      ries in the destination are removed (note	 the  hide  filter  of
	      non-directories being used instead of an exclude):

	      rsync -avm --del --include='*.pdf' -f 'hide,! */'	src/ dest

	      If  you didn't want to remove superfluous	destination files, the
	      more  time-honored  options  of  "--include='*/'	--exclude='*'"
	      would  work  fine	 in  place of the hide-filter (if that is more
	      natural to you).

	      This  option  tells  rsync  to  print  information  showing  the
	      progress	of  the	transfer. This gives a bored user something to
	      watch.  With a modern rsync  this	 is  the  same	as  specifying
	      --info=flist2,name,progress,  but	any user-supplied settings for
	      those  info  flags   takes   precedence	(e.g.	"--info=flist0

	      While  rsync  is	transferring  a	 regular  file,	 it  updates a
	      progress line that looks like this:

		    782448  63%	 110.64kB/s    0:00:04

	      In this example, the receiver has	reconstructed 782448 bytes  or
	      63% of the sender's file,	which is being reconstructed at	a rate
	      of 110.64	kilobytes per second, and the transfer will finish  in
	      4	seconds	if the current rate is maintained until	the end.

	      These  statistics	 can  be  misleading if	rsync's	delta-transfer
	      algorithm	is in use.  For	example, if the	sender's file consists
	      of the basis file	followed by additional data, the reported rate
	      will probably drop dramatically when the receiver	 gets  to  the
	      literal data, and	the transfer will probably take	much longer to
	      finish than the receiver	estimated  as  it  was	finishing  the
	      matched part of the file.

	      When  the	 file  transfer	 finishes, rsync replaces the progress
	      line with	a summary line that looks like this:

		    1,238,099 100%  146.38kB/s	  0:00:08  (xfr#5, to-chk=169/396)

	      In this example, the file	was 1,238,099 bytes long in total, the
	      average rate of transfer for the whole file was 146.38 kilobytes
	      per second over the 8 seconds that it took to complete,  it  was
	      the 5th transfer of a regular file during	the current rsync ses-
	      sion, and	there are 169 more files for the receiver to check (to
	      see  if  they  are  up-to-date  or not) remaining	out of the 396
	      total files in the file-list.

	      In an incremental	recursion scan,	rsync  won't  know  the	 total
	      number  of  files	 in the	file-list until	it reaches the ends of
	      the scan,	but since it starts to transfer	files during the scan,
	      it  will	display	a line with the	text "ir-chk" (for incremental
	      recursion	check) instead of "to-chk" until  the  point  that  it
	      knows  the  full size of the list, at which point	it will	switch
	      to using "to-chk".  Thus,	seeing "ir-chk"	lets you know that the
	      total count of files in the file list is still going to increase
	      (and each	time it	does, the count	of files left to  check	  will
	      increase by the number of	the files added	to the list).

       -P     The  -P  option is equivalent to --partial --progress.  Its pur-
	      pose is to make it much easier to	specify	these two options  for
	      a	long transfer that may be interrupted.

	      There  is	also a --info=progress2	option that outputs statistics
	      based on the whole transfer, rather than individual files.   Use
	      this  flag without outputting a filename (e.g. avoid -v or spec-
	      ify --info=name0)	if you want to see how the transfer  is	 doing
	      without  scrolling  the  screen with a lot of names.  (You don't
	      need  to	specify	 the  --progress  option  in  order   to   use

	      This  option  allows  you	to provide a password for accessing an
	      rsync daemon via a file or via standard input if FILE is -.  The
	      file  should  contain  just  the password	on the first line (all
	      other lines are ignored).	 Rsync will exit with an error if FILE
	      is  world	 readable  or  if  a  root-run	rsync  command finds a
	      non-root-owned file.

	      This option does not supply a password to	a remote shell	trans-
	      port  such  as  ssh; to learn how	to do that, consult the	remote
	      shell's documentation.  When accessing an	rsync daemon  using  a
	      remote  shell  as	 the  transport,  this	option only comes into
	      effect after the remote shell finishes its authentication	 (i.e.
	      if  you  have  also  specified a password	in the daemon's	config

	      This option will cause the source	files to be listed instead  of
	      transferred.   This  option  is  inferred	 if  there is a	single
	      source arg and no	destination specified, so its main  uses  are:
	      (1)  to turn a copy command that includes	a destination arg into
	      a	file-listing command, or (2) to	be able	to specify  more  than
	      one source arg (note: be sure to include the destination).  Cau-
	      tion: keep in mind  that	a  source  arg	with  a	 wild-card  is
	      expanded by the shell into multiple args,	so it is never safe to
	      try to list such an arg without using this option.  For example:

		  rsync	-av --list-only	foo* dest/

	      Starting with rsync 3.1.0, the sizes output by  --list-only  are
	      affected	by  the	--human-readable option.  By default they will
	      contain digit separators,	but higher levels of readability  will
	      output  the sizes	with unit suffixes.  Note also that the	column
	      width for	the size output	has increased from 11 to 14 characters
	      for all human-readable levels.  Use --no-h if you	want just dig-
	      its in the sizes,	and the	old column width of 11 characters.

	      Compatibility note:  when	requesting a remote listing  of	 files
	      from  an rsync that is version 2.6.3 or older, you may encounter
	      an error if you  ask  for	 a  non-recursive  listing.   This  is
	      because  a  file	listing	implies	the --dirs option w/o --recur-
	      sive, and	older rsyncs don't have	that option.   To  avoid  this
	      problem,	either specify the --no-dirs option (if	you don't need
	      to expand	a directory's  content),  or  turn  on	recursion  and
	      exclude the content of subdirectories: -r	--exclude='/*/*'.

	      This  option allows you to specify the maximum transfer rate for
	      the data sent over the socket, specified in  units  per  second.
	      The  RATE	value can be suffixed with a string to indicate	a size
	      multiplier,   and	  may	be   a	  fractional	value	 (e.g.
	      "--bwlimit=1.5m").  If no	suffix is specified, the value will be
	      assumed to be in units of	1024 bytes (as if  "K"	or  "KiB"  had
	      been  appended).	See the	--max-size option for a	description of
	      all the available	suffixes. A value of zero specifies no limit.

	      For backward-compatibility  reasons,  the	 rate  limit  will  be
	      rounded  to  the	nearest	KiB unit, so no	rate smaller than 1024
	      bytes per	second is possible.

	      Rsync writes data	over the socket	in  blocks,  and  this	option
	      both  limits the size of the blocks that rsync writes, and tries
	      to keep the average transfer rate	at the requested limit.	  Some
	      "burstiness"  may	be seen	where rsync writes out a block of data
	      and then sleeps to bring the average rate	into compliance.

	      Due to the internal buffering of data, the --progress option may
	      not  be  an  accurate  reflection	 on how	fast the data is being
	      sent.  This is because some files	can show up as	being  rapidly
	      sent  when the data is quickly buffered, while other can show up
	      as very slow when	the flushing  of  the  output  buffer  occurs.
	      This may be fixed	in a future version.

	      Record  a	 file  that  can later be applied to another identical
	      destination with --read-batch. See the "BATCH MODE" section  for
	      details, and also	the --only-write-batch option.

	      Works like --write-batch,	except that no updates are made	on the
	      destination system when  creating	 the  batch.   This  lets  you
	      transport	 the  changes to the destination system	via some other
	      means and	then apply the changes via --read-batch.

	      Note that	you can	feel free to write the batch directly to  some
	      portable	media:	if this	media fills to capacity	before the end
	      of the transfer, you can just apply that partial transfer	to the
	      destination  and repeat the whole	process	to get the rest	of the
	      changes (as long as you don't mind a partially updated  destina-
	      tion system while	the multi-update cycle is happening).

	      Also note	that you only save bandwidth when pushing changes to a
	      remote system  because  this  allows  the	 batched  data	to  be
	      diverted	from  the sender into the batch	file without having to
	      flow over	the wire to the	receiver (when pulling,	the sender  is
	      remote, and thus can't write the batch).

	      Apply  all of the	changes	stored in FILE,	a file previously gen-
	      erated by	--write-batch.	If FILE	is -, the batch	data  will  be
	      read  from  standard  input.   See  the "BATCH MODE" section for

	      Force an older protocol version to be used.  This	is useful  for
	      creating	a  batch file that is compatible with an older version
	      of rsync.	 For instance, if rsync	2.6.4 is being used  with  the
	      --write-batch  option,  but  rsync 2.6.3 is what will be used to
	      run the --read-batch option, you should use "--protocol=28" when
	      creating	the  batch file	to force the older protocol version to
	      be used in the batch file	(assuming you can't upgrade the	 rsync
	      on the reading system).

	      Rsync  can  convert  filenames between character sets using this
	      option.  Using a CONVERT_SPEC of "." tells rsync to look up  the
	      default  character-set via the locale setting.  Alternately, you
	      can fully	specify	what conversion	to do by giving	a local	and  a
	      remote   charset	 separated   by	  a   comma   in   the	 order
	      --iconv=LOCAL,REMOTE, e.g.  --iconv=utf8,iso88591.   This	 order
	      ensures  that the	option will stay the same whether you're push-
	      ing  or  pulling	files.	 Finally,  you	can   specify	either
	      --no-iconv  or a CONVERT_SPEC of "-" to turn off any conversion.
	      The default setting of this option  is  site-specific,  and  can
	      also be affected via the RSYNC_ICONV environment variable.

	      For  a  list of what charset names your local iconv library sup-
	      ports, you can run "iconv	--list".

	      If you specify the --protect-args	option (-s), rsync will	trans-
	      late  the	 filenames  you	 specify  on the command-line that are
	      being sent to  the  remote  host.	  See  also  the  --files-from

	      Note  that  rsync	 does not do any conversion of names in	filter
	      files (including include/exclude files).	It is  up  to  you  to
	      ensure  that  you're specifying matching rules that can match on
	      both sides of the	transfer.  For instance, you can specify extra
	      include/exclude  rules  if there are filename differences	on the
	      two sides	that need to be	accounted for.

	      When you pass an --iconv option to an rsync daemon  that	allows
	      it,  the daemon uses the charset specified in its	"charset" con-
	      figuration parameter regardless of the remote charset you	 actu-
	      ally  pass.   Thus,  you may feel	free to	specify	just the local
	      charset for a daemon transfer (e.g. --iconv=utf8).

       -4, --ipv4 or -6, --ipv6
	      Tells rsync to prefer IPv4/IPv6  when  creating  sockets.	  This
	      only affects sockets that	rsync has direct control over, such as
	      the outgoing socket when directly	contacting  an	rsync  daemon.
	      See also these options in	the --daemon mode section.

	      If  rsync	 was  complied	without	 support  for IPv6, the	--ipv6
	      option will have no effect.  The --version output	will tell  you
	      if this is the case.

	      Set  the checksum	seed to	the integer NUM.  This 4 byte checksum
	      seed is included in each block and MD4 file checksum calculation
	      (the  more  modern  MD5  file  checksums	don't use a seed).  By
	      default the  checksum  seed  is  generated  by  the  server  and
	      defaults	to  the	current	time() .  This option is used to set a
	      specific checksum	seed, which is useful  for  applications  that
	      want  repeatable	block checksums, or in the case	where the user
	      wants a more random checksum seed.   Setting  NUM	 to  0	causes
	      rsync to use the default of time() for checksum seed.

       The options allowed when	starting an rsync daemon are as	follows:

	      This  tells rsync	that it	is to run as a daemon.	The daemon you
	      start running may	be accessed using an rsync  client  using  the
	      host::module or rsync://host/module/ syntax.

	      If  standard input is a socket then rsync	will assume that it is
	      being run	via inetd, otherwise it	will detach from  the  current
	      terminal	and  become a background daemon.  The daemon will read
	      the config file (rsyncd.conf) on each connect made by  a	client
	      and respond to requests accordingly.  See	the rsyncd.conf(5) man
	      page for more details.

	      By default rsync will bind to the	wildcard address when run as a
	      daemon  with  the	 --daemon option.  The --address option	allows
	      you to specify a specific	IP address (or hostname) to  bind  to.
	      This  makes  virtual  hosting  possible  in conjunction with the
	      --config option.	See also the "address" global  option  in  the
	      rsyncd.conf manpage.

	      This  option allows you to specify the maximum transfer rate for
	      the data the daemon sends	over the socket.  The client can still
	      specify  a  smaller --bwlimit value, but no larger value will be
	      allowed.	See the	client version of this option (above) for some
	      extra details.

	      This  specifies an alternate config file than the	default.  This
	      is only relevant when --daemon is	 specified.   The  default  is
	      /usr/local/etc/rsync/rsyncd.conf	unless	the  daemon is running
	      over a remote shell program and  the  remote  user  is  not  the
	      super-user;  in that case	the default is rsyncd.conf in the cur-
	      rent directory (typically	$HOME).

       -M, --dparam=OVERRIDE
	      This option can be used to set a	daemon-config  parameter  when
	      starting	up  rsync  in daemon mode.  It is equivalent to	adding
	      the parameter at the end of the global  settings	prior  to  the
	      first module's definition.  The parameter	names can be specified
	      without spaces, if you so	desire.	 For instance:

		  rsync	--daemon -M pidfile=/path/

	      When running as a	daemon,	this option  instructs	rsync  to  not
	      detach  itself  and become a background process.	This option is
	      required when running as a service on Cygwin, and	 may  also  be
	      useful when rsync	is supervised by a program such	as daemontools
	      or AIX's System Resource Controller.  --no-detach	is also	recom-
	      mended  when  rsync is run under a debugger.  This option	has no
	      effect if	rsync is run from inetd	or sshd.

	      This specifies an	alternate TCP port number for  the  daemon  to
	      listen  on  rather than the default of 873.  See also the	"port"
	      global option in the rsyncd.conf manpage.

	      This option tells	the rsync daemon to  use  the  given  log-file
	      name instead of using the	"log file" setting in the config file.

	      This  option  tells  the	rsync  daemon  to use the given	FORMAT
	      string instead of	using the "log format" setting in  the	config
	      file.   It  also enables "transfer logging" unless the string is
	      empty, in	which case transfer logging is turned off.

	      This overrides the socket	options	 setting  in  the  rsyncd.conf
	      file and has the same syntax.

       -v, --verbose
	      This  option increases the amount	of information the daemon logs
	      during its startup phase.	 After the client connects,  the  dae-
	      mon's verbosity level will be controlled by the options that the
	      client used and the "max verbosity" setting in the module's con-
	      fig section.

       -4, --ipv4 or -6, --ipv6
	      Tells rsync to prefer IPv4/IPv6 when creating the	incoming sock-
	      ets that the rsync daemon	will use to  listen  for  connections.
	      One  of these options may	be required in older versions of Linux
	      to work around an	IPv6 bug in the	kernel (if you see an "address
	      already  in  use"	error when nothing else	is using the port, try
	      specifying --ipv6	or --ipv4 when starting	the daemon).

	      If rsync was complied  without  support  for  IPv6,  the	--ipv6
	      option  will have	no effect.  The	--version output will tell you
	      if this is the case.

       -h, --help
	      When specified after --daemon, print a short help	page  describ-
	      ing the options available	for starting an	rsync daemon.

       The  filter rules allow for flexible selection of which files to	trans-
       fer (include) and which files to	 skip  (exclude).   The	 rules	either
       directly	 specify  include/exclude  patterns  or	 they specify a	way to
       acquire more include/exclude patterns (e.g. to read them	from a file).

       As the list of files/directories	to transfer  is	 built,	 rsync	checks
       each  name  to  be transferred against the list of include/exclude pat-
       terns in	turn, and the first matching pattern is	acted on:  if it is an
       exclude pattern,	then that file is skipped; if it is an include pattern
       then that filename is not skipped; if no	 matching  pattern  is	found,
       then the	filename is not	skipped.

       Rsync  builds  an ordered list of filter	rules as specified on the com-
       mand-line.  Filter rules	have the following syntax:


       You have	your choice of using either  short  or	long  RULE  names,  as
       described below.	 If you	use a short-named rule,	the ','	separating the
       RULE from the MODIFIERS is optional.  The PATTERN or FILENAME that fol-
       lows  (when present) must come after either a single space or an	under-
       score (_).  Here	are the	available rule prefixes:

	      exclude, - specifies an exclude pattern.
	      include, + specifies an include pattern.
	      merge, . specifies a merge-file to read for more rules.
	      dir-merge, : specifies a per-directory merge-file.
	      hide, H specifies	a pattern for hiding files from	the transfer.
	      show, S files that match the pattern are not hidden.
	      protect, P specifies a pattern for protecting files  from	 dele-
	      risk, R files that match the pattern are not protected.
	      clear, ! clears the current include/exclude list (takes no arg)

       When  rules are being read from a file, empty lines are ignored,	as are
       comment lines that start	with a "#".

       Note that the --include/--exclude command-line options do not allow the
       full  range  of	rule parsing as	described above	-- they	only allow the
       specification of	include/exclude	patterns plus a	"!" token to clear the
       list  (and the normal comment parsing when rules	are read from a	file).
       If a pattern does not begin with	"- " (dash,  space)  or	 "+  "	(plus,
       space),	then  the  rule	will be	interpreted as if "+ " (for an include
       option) or "- " (for an exclude option) were prefixed to	the string.  A
       --filter	 option, on the	other hand, must always	contain	either a short
       or long rule name at the	start of the rule.

       Note also that the --filter, --include, and --exclude options take  one
       rule/pattern  each. To add multiple ones, you can repeat	the options on
       the command-line, use the merge-file syntax of the --filter option,  or
       the --include-from/--exclude-from options.

       You can include and exclude files by specifying patterns	using the "+",
       "-", etc. filter	rules (as  introduced  in  the	FILTER	RULES  section
       above).	 The  include/exclude  rules  each  specify  a pattern that is
       matched against the names of the	files that  are	 going	to  be	trans-
       ferred.	These patterns can take	several	forms:

       o      if the pattern starts with a / then it is	anchored to a particu-
	      lar spot in the hierarchy	of  files,  otherwise  it  is  matched
	      against the end of the pathname.	This is	similar	to a leading ^
	      in regular expressions.  Thus "/foo" would match a name of "foo"
	      at  either  the "root of the transfer" (for a global rule) or in
	      the merge-file's	directory  (for	 a  per-directory  rule).   An
	      unqualified  "foo"  would	 match a name of "foo" anywhere	in the
	      tree because the algorithm is applied recursively	from  the  top
	      down;  it	behaves	as if each path	component gets a turn at being
	      the end of the filename.	Even the  unanchored  "sub/foo"	 would
	      match  at	 any  point  in	 the hierarchy where a "foo" was found
	      within a directory named "sub".  See the	section	 on  ANCHORING
	      INCLUDE/EXCLUDE PATTERNS for a full discussion of	how to specify
	      a	pattern	that matches at	the root of the	transfer.

       o      if the pattern ends with a / then	it will	only  match  a	direc-
	      tory, not	a regular file,	symlink, or device.

       o      rsync  chooses  between doing a simple string match and wildcard
	      matching by checking if the pattern contains one of these	 three
	      wildcard characters: '*',	'?', and '[' .

       o      a	'*' matches any	path component,	but it stops at	slashes.

       o      use '**' to match	anything, including slashes.

       o      a	'?' matches any	character except a slash (/).

       o      a	  '['	introduces   a	character  class,  such	 as  [a-z]  or

       o      in a wildcard pattern, a backslash can be	used to	escape a wild-
	      card  character,	but  it	is matched literally when no wildcards
	      are present.  This means that there is an	extra level  of	 back-
	      slash  removal  when a pattern contains wildcard characters com-
	      pared to a pattern that has none.	 e.g. if you add a wildcard to
	      "foo\bar"	 (which	 matches  the backslash) you would need	to use
	      "foo\\bar*" to avoid the "\b" becoming just "b".

       o      if the pattern contains a	/ (not counting	a  trailing  /)	 or  a
	      "**",  then  it  is matched against the full pathname, including
	      any leading directories. If the pattern doesn't contain a	/ or a
	      "**", then it is matched only against the	final component	of the
	      filename.	 (Remember that	the algorithm is  applied  recursively
	      so  "full	 filename"  can	actually be any	portion	of a path from
	      the starting directory on	down.)

       o      a	trailing "dir_name/***"	will match both	the directory  (as  if
	      "dir_name/"  had been specified) and everything in the directory
	      (as if "dir_name/**" had been  specified).   This	 behavior  was
	      added in version 2.6.7.

       Note  that, when	using the --recursive (-r) option (which is implied by
       -a), every subcomponent of every	path is	visited	from the top down,  so
       include/exclude patterns	get applied recursively	to each	subcomponent's
       full name (e.g. to include "/foo/bar/baz" the subcomponents "/foo"  and
       "/foo/bar"  must	 not  be  excluded).   The  exclude  patterns actually
       short-circuit the directory traversal stage when	rsync finds the	 files
       to  send.   If a	pattern	excludes a particular parent directory,	it can
       render a	deeper include	pattern	 ineffectual  because  rsync  did  not
       descend	through	 that excluded section of the hierarchy.  This is par-
       ticularly important when	using a	trailing '*' rule.  For	instance, this
       won't work:

	      +	/some/path/this-file-will-not-be-found
	      +	/file-is-included
	      -	*

       This  fails  because the	parent directory "some"	is excluded by the '*'
       rule, so	rsync  never  visits  any  of  the  files  in  the  "some"  or
       "some/path" directories.	 One solution is to ask	for all	directories in
       the hierarchy to	be included by using a single rule:  "+	 */"  (put  it
       somewhere   before   the	  "-   *"   rule),   and   perhaps   use   the
       --prune-empty-dirs option.  Another solution is to add specific include
       rules  for  all the parent dirs that need to be visited.	 For instance,
       this set	of rules works fine:

	      +	/some/
	      +	/some/path/
	      +	/some/path/this-file-is-found
	      +	/file-also-included
	      -	*

       Here are	some examples of exclude/include matching:

       o      "- *.o" would exclude all	names matching *.o

       o      "- /foo" would exclude a file (or	directory) named  foo  in  the
	      transfer-root directory

       o      "- foo/" would exclude any directory named foo

       o      "-  /foo/*/bar" would exclude any	file named bar which is	at two
	      levels below a directory named foo in the	 transfer-root	direc-

       o      "-  /foo/**/bar"	would  exclude	any file named bar two or more
	      levels below a directory named foo in the	 transfer-root	direc-

       o      The  combination of "+ */", "+ *.c", and "- *" would include all
	      directories and C	source files but nothing else  (see  also  the
	      --prune-empty-dirs option)

       o      The  combination	of  "+	foo/",	"+ foo/bar.c", and "- *" would
	      include only the foo directory and foo/bar.c (the	foo  directory
	      must be explicitly included or it	would be excluded by the "*")

       The following modifiers are accepted after a "+"	or "-":

       o      A	 /  specifies  that the	include/exclude	rule should be matched
	      against the absolute pathname of the current item.  For example,
	      "-/  /usr/local/etc/rsync/passwd"	 would exclude the passwd file
	      any time the transfer was	sending	files from the	"/etc"	direc-
	      tory,  and "-/ subdir/foo" would always exclude "foo" when it is
	      in a dir named "subdir", even if "foo" is	at  the	 root  of  the
	      current transfer.

       o      A	! specifies that the include/exclude should take effect	if the
	      pattern fails to match.  For instance, "-! */" would exclude all

       o      A	 C  is	used to	indicate that all the global CVS-exclude rules
	      should be	inserted as excludes in	place of  the  "-C".   No  arg
	      should follow.

       o      An  s  is	 used to indicate that the rule	applies	to the sending
	      side.  When a rule affects the sending side, it  prevents	 files
	      from  being  transferred.	  The  default is for a	rule to	affect
	      both sides unless	--delete-excluded was specified, in which case
	      default  rules  become  sender-side only.	 See also the hide (H)
	      and show (S) rules, which	are an alternate way to	specify	 send-
	      ing-side includes/excludes.

       o      An  r is used to indicate	that the rule applies to the receiving
	      side.  When a rule affects the receiving side, it	prevents files
	      from being deleted.  See the s modifier for more info.  See also
	      the protect (P) and risk (R) rules, which	are an	alternate  way
	      to specify receiver-side includes/excludes.

       o      A	 p  indicates  that  a	rule is	perishable, meaning that it is
	      ignored in directories that are being  deleted.	For  instance,
	      the -C option's default rules that exclude things	like "CVS" and
	      "*.o" are	marked as perishable, and will not prevent a directory
	      that  was	removed	on the source from being deleted on the	desti-

       You can merge whole files into your filter rules	by specifying either a
       merge  (.)  or a	dir-merge (:) filter rule (as introduced in the	FILTER
       RULES section above).

       There are two kinds  of	merged	files  --  single-instance  ('.')  and
       per-directory  (':').   A  single-instance merge	file is	read one time,
       and its rules are incorporated into the filter list in the place	of the
       "."  rule.  For per-directory merge files, rsync	will scan every	direc-
       tory that it traverses for the named file, merging  its	contents  when
       the  file  exists  into	the  current  list  of inherited rules.	 These
       per-directory rule files	must be	created	on the sending side because it
       is  the	sending	 side that is being scanned for	the available files to
       transfer.  These	rule files may also need  to  be  transferred  to  the
       receiving  side if you want them	to affect what files don't get deleted

       Some examples:

	      merge /usr/local/etc/rsync/rsync/default.rules
	      .	/usr/local/etc/rsync/rsync/default.rules
	      dir-merge	.per-dir-filter
	      dir-merge,n- .non-inherited-per-dir-excludes
	      :n- .non-inherited-per-dir-excludes

       The following modifiers are accepted after a merge or dir-merge rule:

       o      A	- specifies that the file should consist of only exclude  pat-
	      terns, with no other rule-parsing	except for in-file comments.

       o      A	 + specifies that the file should consist of only include pat-
	      terns, with no other rule-parsing	except for in-file comments.

       o      A	C is a way to specify that  the	 file  should  be  read	 in  a
	      CVS-compatible  manner.	This  turns  on	'n', 'w', and '-', but
	      also allows the list-clearing token (!) to be specified.	If  no
	      filename is provided, ".cvsignore" is assumed.

       o      A	 e  will  exclude  the merge-file name from the	transfer; e.g.
	      "dir-merge,e .rules" is like "dir-merge .rules" and "- .rules".

       o      An n specifies that the rules are	not inherited  by  subdirecto-

       o      A	 w  specifies  that  the  rules	 are  word-split on whitespace
	      instead of the normal line-splitting.  This also turns off  com-
	      ments.   Note: the space that separates the prefix from the rule
	      is treated specially, so "- foo +	bar" is	parsed	as  two	 rules
	      (assuming	that prefix-parsing wasn't also	disabled).

       o      You  may	also  specify  any of the modifiers for	the "+"	or "-"
	      rules (above) in order to	have the rules that are	read  in  from
	      the  file	 default to having that	modifier set (except for the !
	      modifier,	which would not	be useful).  For  instance,  "merge,-/
	      .excl"  would  treat  the	 contents  of  .excl  as absolute-path
	      excludes,	while "dir-merge,s .filt" and ":sC"  would  each  make
	      all  their  per-directory	 rules apply only on the sending side.
	      If the merge rule	specifies sides	to affect (via the s or	r mod-
	      ifier  or	 both),	 then  the  rules in the file must not specify
	      sides (via a modifier or a rule prefix such as hide).

       Per-directory rules are inherited in all	subdirectories of  the	direc-
       tory  where  the	merge-file was found unless the	'n' modifier was used.
       Each subdirectory's rules are prefixed to the  inherited	 per-directory
       rules  from its parents,	which gives the	newest rules a higher priority
       than the	inherited rules.   The	entire	set  of	 dir-merge  rules  are
       grouped	together in the	spot where the merge-file was specified, so it
       is possible to override dir-merge rules via a rule that	got  specified
       earlier in the list of global rules.  When the list-clearing rule ("!")
       is read from a per-directory file, it only clears the  inherited	 rules
       for the current merge file.

       Another	way  to	prevent	a single rule from a dir-merge file from being
       inherited is to anchor it with a	leading	slash.	Anchored  rules	 in  a
       per-directory merge-file	are relative to	the merge-file's directory, so
       a pattern "/foo"	would only match the file "foo"	in the directory where
       the dir-merge filter file was found.

       Here's  an  example  filter  file  which	 you'd specify via --filter=".

	      merge /home/user/.global-filter
	      -	*.gz
	      dir-merge	.rules
	      +	*.[ch]
	      -	*.o

       This will merge the contents of the /home/user/.global-filter  file  at
       the  start  of  the  list  and  also turns the ".rules" filename	into a
       per-directory filter file.  All rules read in prior to the start	of the
       directory  scan follow the global anchoring rules (i.e. a leading slash
       matches at the root of the transfer).

       If a per-directory merge-file is	specified with a path that is a	parent
       directory of the	first transfer directory, rsync	will scan all the par-
       ent dirs	from that starting point to the	 transfer  directory  for  the
       indicated  per-directory	 file.	 For instance, here is a common	filter
       (see -F):

	      --filter=': /.rsync-filter'

       That rule tells rsync to	scan for the file .rsync-filter	in all	direc-
       tories  from the	root down through the parent directory of the transfer
       prior to	the start of the normal	directory scan	of  the	 file  in  the
       directories  that  are  sent  as	a part of the transfer.	 (Note:	for an
       rsync daemon, the root is always	the same as the	module's "path".)

       Some examples of	this pre-scanning for per-directory files:

	      rsync -avF /src/path/ /dest/dir
	      rsync -av	--filter=': ../../.rsync-filter' /src/path/ /dest/dir
	      rsync -av	--filter=': .rsync-filter' /src/path/ /dest/dir

       The first two commands above will look for ".rsync-filter" in  "/"  and
       "/src"	before	the  normal  scan  begins  looking  for	 the  file  in
       "/src/path" and its subdirectories.  The	last command avoids  the  par-
       ent-dir	scan  and  only	 looks	for  the ".rsync-filter" files in each
       directory that is a part	of the transfer.

       If you want to include the contents of a	".cvsignore" in	your patterns,
       you  should use the rule	":C", which creates a dir-merge	of the .cvsig-
       nore file, but parsed in	a CVS-compatible manner.  You can use this  to
       affect	where	the  --cvs-exclude  (-C)  option's  inclusion  of  the
       per-directory .cvsignore	file gets placed into your  rules  by  putting
       the  ":C"  wherever you like in your filter rules.  Without this, rsync
       would add the dir-merge rule for	the .cvsignore file at the end of  all
       your  other  rules  (giving  it a lower priority	than your command-line
       rules).	For example:

	      cat <<EOT	| rsync	-avC --filter='. -' a/ b
	      +	foo.o
	      -	*.old
	      rsync -avC --include=foo.o -f :C --exclude='*.old' a/ b

       Both of the above rsync commands	are identical.	Each  one  will	 merge
       all the per-directory .cvsignore	rules in the middle of the list	rather
       than at the end.	 This allows their dir-specific	rules to supersede the
       rules  that  follow  the	 :C  instead  of being subservient to all your
       rules.  To affect the other CVS exclude rules (i.e. the default list of
       exclusions,  the	contents of $HOME/.cvsignore, and the value of $CVSIG-
       NORE) you should	omit the -C command-line option	and instead  insert  a
       "-C" rule into your filter rules; e.g. "--filter=-C".

       You  can	clear the current include/exclude list by using	the "!"	filter
       rule (as	introduced in the FILTER RULES section above).	The  "current"
       list  is	 either	 the  global list of rules (if the rule	is encountered
       while parsing the filter	options)  or  a	 set  of  per-directory	 rules
       (which  are  inherited in their own sub-list, so	a subdirectory can use
       this to clear out the parent's rules).

       As mentioned earlier, global include/exclude patterns are  anchored  at
       the "root of the	transfer" (as opposed to per-directory patterns, which
       are anchored at the merge-file's	 directory).   If  you	think  of  the
       transfer	 as  a	subtree	 of  names  that are being sent	from sender to
       receiver, the transfer-root is where the	tree starts to	be  duplicated
       in  the	destination  directory.	 This root governs where patterns that
       start with a / match.

       Because the matching is relative	to  the	 transfer-root,	 changing  the
       trailing	 slash on a source path	or changing your use of	the --relative
       option affects the path you need	to use in your matching	 (in  addition
       to  changing how	much of	the file tree is duplicated on the destination
       host).  The following examples demonstrate this.

       Let's say that we want to match two source files, one with an  absolute
       path of "/home/me/foo/bar", and one with	a path of "/home/you/bar/baz".
       Here is how the various command choices differ for a 2-source transfer:

	      Example cmd: rsync -a /home/me /home/you /dest
	      +/- pattern: /me/foo/bar
	      +/- pattern: /you/bar/baz
	      Target file: /dest/me/foo/bar
	      Target file: /dest/you/bar/baz

	      Example cmd: rsync -a /home/me/ /home/you/ /dest
	      +/- pattern: /foo/bar		  (note	missing	"me")
	      +/- pattern: /bar/baz		  (note	missing	"you")
	      Target file: /dest/foo/bar
	      Target file: /dest/bar/baz

	      Example cmd: rsync -a --relative /home/me/ /home/you /dest
	      +/- pattern: /home/me/foo/bar	  (note	full path)
	      +/- pattern: /home/you/bar/baz	  (ditto)
	      Target file: /dest/home/me/foo/bar
	      Target file: /dest/home/you/bar/baz

	      Example cmd: cd /home; rsync -a --relative me/foo	you/ /dest
	      +/- pattern: /me/foo/bar	    (starts at specified path)
	      +/- pattern: /you/bar/baz	    (ditto)
	      Target file: /dest/me/foo/bar
	      Target file: /dest/you/bar/baz

       The easiest way to see what name	you should filter is to	just  look  at
       the  output  when using --verbose and put a / in	front of the name (use
       the --dry-run option if you're not yet ready to copy any	files).

       Without a delete	option,	per-directory rules are	only relevant  on  the
       sending	side,  so  you	can feel free to exclude the merge files them-
       selves without affecting	the transfer.  To make this easy, the 'e' mod-
       ifier  adds  this exclude for you, as seen in these two equivalent com-

	      rsync -av	--filter=': .excl' --exclude=.excl host:src/dir	/dest
	      rsync -av	--filter=':e .excl' host:src/dir /dest

       However,	if you want to do a delete on the receiving side AND you  want
       some  files  to	be excluded from being deleted,	you'll need to be sure
       that the	receiving side knows what files	to exclude.  The  easiest  way
       is  to  include	the  per-directory merge files in the transfer and use
       --delete-after, because this ensures that the receiving side  gets  all
       the  same  exclude  rules as the	sending	side before it tries to	delete

	      rsync -avF --delete-after	host:src/dir /dest

       However,	if the merge files are not a part of the transfer, you'll need
       to either specify some global exclude rules (i.e. specified on the com-
       mand line), or you'll need to maintain  your  own  per-directory	 merge
       files  on  the receiving	side.  An example of the first is this (assume
       that the	remote .rules files exclude themselves):

       rsync -av --filter=': .rules' --filter='. /my/extra.rules'
	  --delete host:src/dir	/dest

       In the above example the	extra.rules file can affect both sides of  the
       transfer,  but  (on  the	sending	side) the rules	are subservient	to the
       rules merged from the .rules files because they	were  specified	 after
       the per-directory merge rule.

       In  one	final  example,	the remote side	is excluding the .rsync-filter
       files from the transfer,	but we want to use our own .rsync-filter files
       to control what gets deleted on the receiving side.  To do this we must
       specifically exclude the	per-directory merge files (so that they	 don't
       get  deleted)  and  then	put rules into the local files to control what
       else should not get deleted.  Like one of these commands:

	   rsync -av --filter=':e /.rsync-filter' --delete \
	       host:src/dir /dest
	   rsync -avFF --delete	host:src/dir /dest

       Batch mode can be used to apply the same	set of updates to many identi-
       cal  systems. Suppose one has a tree which is replicated	on a number of
       hosts.  Now suppose some	changes	have been made to this source tree and
       those  changes need to be propagated to the other hosts.	In order to do
       this using batch	mode, rsync is run  with  the  write-batch  option  to
       apply  the  changes  made  to the source	tree to	one of the destination
       trees.  The write-batch option causes the rsync client to  store	 in  a
       "batch  file"  all  the	information  needed  to	 repeat	this operation
       against other, identical	destination trees.

       Generating the batch file once saves having to perform the file status,
       checksum, and data block	generation more	than once when updating	multi-
       ple destination trees. Multicast	transport protocols  can  be  used  to
       transfer	 the  batch  update  files  in parallel	to many	hosts at once,
       instead of sending the same data	to every host individually.

       To apply	the recorded changes to	another	destination  tree,  run	 rsync
       with the	read-batch option, specifying the name of the same batch file,
       and the destination tree.  Rsync	updates	the destination	tree using the
       information stored in the batch file.

       For   your  convenience,	 a  script  file  is  also  created  when  the
       write-batch option is used:  it will be named the  same	as  the	 batch
       file  with  ".sh"  appended.   This script file contains	a command-line
       suitable	for updating a destination tree	 using	the  associated	 batch
       file. It	can be executed	using a	Bourne (or Bourne-like)	shell, option-
       ally passing in an alternate destination	tree pathname  which  is  then
       used instead of the original destination	path.  This is useful when the
       destination tree	path on	the current host differs from the one used  to
       create the batch	file.


	      $	rsync --write-batch=foo	-a host:/source/dir/ /adest/dir/
	      $	scp foo* remote:
	      $	ssh remote ./ /bdest/dir/

	      $	rsync --write-batch=foo	-a /source/dir/	/adest/dir/
	      $	ssh remote rsync --read-batch=-	-a /bdest/dir/ <foo

       In   these   examples,	rsync  is  used	 to  update  /adest/dir/  from
       /source/dir/ and	the information	to repeat this operation is stored  in
       "foo" and "".  The	host "remote" is then updated with the batched
       data going into the directory /bdest/dir.  The differences between  the
       two  examples  reveals some of the flexibility you have in how you deal
       with batches:

       o      The first	example	shows that the initial copy doesn't have to be
	      local  --	 you can push or pull data to/from a remote host using
	      either the  remote-shell	syntax	or  rsync  daemon  syntax,  as

       o      The  first  example  uses	 the  created "" file to get the
	      right rsync options when running the read-batch command  on  the
	      remote host.

       o      The  second  example  reads the batch data via standard input so
	      that the batch file doesn't need to  be  copied  to  the	remote
	      machine first.  This example avoids the script because it
	      needed to	use a modified --read-batch option, but	you could edit
	      the  script  file	 if you	wished to make use of it (just be sure
	      that no other option is trying to	use standard  input,  such  as
	      the "--exclude-from=-" option).


       The  read-batch option expects the destination tree that	it is updating
       to be identical to the destination tree that was	 used  to  create  the
       batch  update fileset.  When a difference between the destination trees
       is encountered the update might be discarded with  a  warning  (if  the
       file  appears  to  be  up-to-date  already)  or	the file-update	may be
       attempted and then, if the file fails to	verify,	the  update  discarded
       with  an	 error.	  This	means  that  it	 should	 be  safe  to re-run a
       read-batch operation if the command got interrupted.  If	 you  wish  to
       force  the  batched-update  to  always  be  attempted regardless	of the
       file's size and date, use the -I	option (when reading the  batch).   If
       an  error  occurs, the destination tree will probably be	in a partially
       updated state.  In  that	 case,	rsync  can  be	used  in  its  regular
       (non-batch) mode	of operation to	fix up the destination tree.

       The  rsync  version used	on all destinations must be at least as	new as
       the one used to generate	the batch file.	 Rsync will die	with an	 error
       if  the	protocol  version  in  the  batch  file	 is  too  new  for the
       batch-reading rsync to handle.  See also	the --protocol	option	for  a
       way  to	have  the  creating  rsync generate a batch file that an older
       rsync can understand.  (Note that batch files changed format in version
       2.6.3,  so mixing versions older	than that with newer versions will not

       When reading a batch file,  rsync  will	force  the  value  of  certain
       options	to  match the data in the batch	file if	you didn't set them to
       the same	as the batch-writing command.  Other options can (and  should)
       be  changed.   For  instance  --write-batch  changes  to	 --read-batch,
       --files-from is dropped,	and the	 --filter/--include/--exclude  options
       are not needed unless one of the	--delete options is specified.

       The   code   that   creates  the  file	 transforms  any  fil-
       ter/include/exclude options into	a single list that is  appended	 as  a
       "here"  document	 to  the  shell	script file.  An advanced user can use
       this to modify the exclude list if a change in  what  gets  deleted  by
       --delete	is desired.  A normal user can ignore this detail and just use
       the shell script	as an easy way to  run	the  appropriate  --read-batch
       command for the batched data.

       The  original batch mode	in rsync was based on "rsync+",	but the	latest
       version uses a new implementation.

       Three basic behaviors are possible when	rsync  encounters  a  symbolic
       link in the source directory.

       By  default,  symbolic  links  are  not	transferred at all.  A message
       "skipping non-regular" file is emitted for any symlinks that exist.

       If --links is specified,	then symlinks are recreated with the same tar-
       get on the destination.	Note that --archive implies --links.

       If  --copy-links	is specified, then symlinks are	"collapsed" by copying
       their referent, rather than the symlink.

       Rsync can also distinguish "safe"  and  "unsafe"	 symbolic  links.   An
       example	where  this  might be used is a	web site mirror	that wishes to
       ensure that the rsync module that is copied does	not  include  symbolic
       links to	/usr/local/etc/rsync/passwd in the public section of the site.
       Using --copy-unsafe-links will cause any	links to be copied as the file
       they point to on	the destination.  Using	--safe-links will cause	unsafe
       links to	be omitted altogether.	(Note that you	must  specify  --links
       for --safe-links	to have	any effect.)

       Symbolic	 links	are  considered	 unsafe	 if they are absolute symlinks
       (start with /), empty, or if they contain  enough  ".."	components  to
       ascend from the directory being copied.

       Here's  a summary of how	the symlink options are	interpreted.  The list
       is in order of precedence, so if	your combination of options isn't men-
       tioned, use the first line that is a complete subset of your options:

	      Turn all symlinks	into normal files (leaving no symlinks for any
	      other options to affect).

       --links --copy-unsafe-links
	      Turn all unsafe symlinks into files and duplicate	all safe  sym-

	      Turn  all	unsafe symlinks	into files, noisily skip all safe sym-

       --links --safe-links
	      Duplicate	safe symlinks and skip unsafe ones.

	      Duplicate	all symlinks.

       rsync occasionally produces error messages that may seem	a little cryp-
       tic.  The  one that seems to cause the most confusion is	"protocol ver-
       sion mismatch --	is your	shell clean?".

       This message is usually caused by your startup scripts or remote	 shell
       facility	 producing  unwanted garbage on	the stream that	rsync is using
       for its transport. The way to diagnose this  problem  is	 to  run  your
       remote shell like this:

	      ssh remotehost /bin/true > out.dat

       then  look  at out.dat. If everything is	working	correctly then out.dat
       should be a zero	length file. If	you are	getting	the above  error  from
       rsync  then  you	 will probably find that out.dat contains some text or
       data. Look at the contents and try to work out what  is	producing  it.
       The  most  common cause is incorrectly configured shell startup scripts
       (such as	 .cshrc	 or  .profile)	that  contain  output  statements  for
       non-interactive logins.

       If  you are having trouble debugging filter patterns, then try specify-
       ing the -vv option.  At this level of verbosity	rsync  will  show  why
       each individual file is included	or excluded.

       0      Success

       1      Syntax or	usage error

       2      Protocol incompatibility

       3      Errors selecting input/output files, dirs

       4      Requested	 action	 not supported:	an attempt was made to manipu-
	      late 64-bit files	on a platform that cannot support them;	or  an
	      option  was specified that is supported by the client and	not by
	      the server.

       5      Error starting client-server protocol

       6      Daemon unable to append to log-file

       10     Error in socket I/O

       11     Error in file I/O

       12     Error in rsync protocol data stream

       13     Errors with program diagnostics

       14     Error in IPC code

       20     Received SIGUSR1 or SIGINT

       21     Some error returned by waitpid()

       22     Error allocating core memory buffers

       23     Partial transfer due to error

       24     Partial transfer due to vanished source files

       25     The --max-delete limit stopped deletions

       30     Timeout in data send/receive

       35     Timeout waiting for daemon connection

	      The CVSIGNORE environment	variable supplements any  ignore  pat-
	      terns in .cvsignore files. See the --cvs-exclude option for more

	      Specify a	default	--iconv	setting	using this  environment	 vari-
	      able. (First supported in	3.0.0.)

	      Specify  a non-zero numeric value	if you want the	--protect-args
	      option to	be enabled by default, or a zero value	to  make  sure
	      that it is disabled by default. (First supported in 3.1.0.)

	      The  RSYNC_RSH  environment  variable allows you to override the
	      default shell used as the	transport  for	rsync.	 Command  line
	      options  are permitted after the command name, just as in	the -e

	      The RSYNC_PROXY environment variable allows you to redirect your
	      rsync  client to use a web proxy when connecting to a rsync dae-
	      mon. You should set RSYNC_PROXY to a hostname:port pair.

	      Setting RSYNC_PASSWORD to	the required password  allows  you  to
	      run  authenticated  rsync	connections to an rsync	daemon without
	      user intervention. Note that this	does not supply	a password  to
	      a	 remote	 shell transport such as ssh; to learn how to do that,
	      consult the remote shell's documentation.

       USER or LOGNAME
	      The USER or LOGNAME environment variables	are used to  determine
	      the  default  username  sent  to an rsync	daemon.	 If neither is
	      set, the username	defaults to "nobody".

       HOME   The HOME environment variable is used to find the	user's default
	      .cvsignore file.

       /usr/local/etc/rsync/rsyncd.conf	or rsyncd.conf


       times are transferred as	*nix time_t values

       When  transferring  to  FAT  filesystems	 rsync	may re-sync unmodified
       files.  See the comments	on the --modify-window option.

       file permissions, devices, etc. are  transferred	 as  native  numerical

       see also	the comments on	the --delete option

       Please report bugs! See the web site at

       This man	page is	current	for version 3.1.2 of rsync.

       The  options  --server  and  --sender are used internally by rsync, and
       should never be typed by	 a  user  under	 normal	 circumstances.	  Some
       awareness  of these options may be needed in certain scenarios, such as
       when setting up a login that  can  only	run  an	 rsync	command.   For
       instance,  the support directory	of the rsync distribution has an exam-
       ple script named	rrsync (for restricted rsync) that can be used with  a
       restricted ssh login.

       rsync  is  distributed  under  the GNU General Public License.  See the
       file COPYING for	details.

       A WEB site is available at  The	site  includes
       an  FAQ-O-Matic	which  may  cover  questions unanswered	by this	manual

       The primary ftp site for	rsync is

       We would	be delighted to	hear  from  you	 if  you  like	this  program.
       Please contact the mailing-list at

       This  program  uses  the	 excellent zlib	compression library written by
       Jean-loup Gailly	and Mark Adler.

       Special thanks go out to: John Van Essen,  Matt	McCutchen,  Wesley  W.
       Terpstra,  David	 Dykstra,  Jos Backus, Sebastian Krahmer, Martin Pool,
       and our gone-but-not-forgotten compadre,	J.W. Schultz.

       Thanks also to Richard Brent, Brendan Mackay, Bill Waite, Stephen Roth-
       well and	David Bell.  I've probably missed some people, my apologies if
       I have.

       rsync was originally written by Andrew  Tridgell	 and  Paul  Mackerras.
       Many  people  have later	contributed to it.  It is currently maintained
       by Wayne	Davison.

       Mailing	lists  for  support   and   development	  are	available   at

				  21 Dec 2015			      rsync(1)


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