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RNEWS(1)		  InterNetNews Documentation		      RNEWS(1)

       rnews - Inject individual articles and UUCP batches into	INN

       rnews [-abdNUv] [-h host] [-P port] [-rS	server]	[file]

       rnews injects either individual articles	or UUCP-style article batches
       into an INN server.  It submits articles	via IHAVE and is suitable for
       injecting articles received from	other sources; local postings should
       generally use inews(1) instead.	It is also used	to process spooled
       messages	created	by, for	example, nnrpd while innd is not available.

       The message is read from	file if	given, spooled files (with the -U
       flag) or	standard input if no file is given.  Articles are sent to the
       server given in the -r or -S command line options if given, otherwise
       to the server set via nnrpdposthost in inn.conf,	otherwise to the local

       When sent over UUCP, Usenet articles are	typically collected in a
       single batch to reduce the UUCP overhead.  Batches can also be
       compressed to reduce communication time.	 If the	input to rnews does
       not begin with the characters "#!", it is taken to be a single news
       article;	otherwise, the first line of the input is interpreted as a
       batch command.

       If the batch command is:

	   #! rnews <number>

       then the	next <number> bytes (starting with the next line) are read as
       a news article.	After that article is processed, the next line is
       again treated as	a batch	command.

       If the command is:

	   #! cunbatch

       then the	rest of	the input is fed to "gzip -d" to uncompress it,	and
       then the	resulting uncompressed output is re-read as if it were the
       original	input to rnews.	 A compressed batch should therefore start
       with this line and contain a batch of articles separated	by "#! rnews"
       lines and then compressed with compress(1).  (Batches compressed	with
       gzip(1) should instead use "gunbatch" as	the batch command; INN just
       uses gzip rather	than compress because it can handle compress-style
       compression but is more widely available, due to	old patent issues,
       than compress.)

       Otherwise, if the command is any	other word and the -a flag is not
       given, rnews will try to	execute	a program with that name, looking for
       it in the directory pathbin/rnews.libexec.  The rest of the batch will
       be fed to that program's	standard input,	and the	standard output	from
       the program will	be treated as if it were the original input to rnews.
       INN comes with three such standard batch	processors:

	 It invokes bzip2 and should be	used for batches compressed with

	 It undoes an ASCII encoding to	recover	the original binary compressed
	 stream	and then decompresses it as explained above.

	 It invokes gzip and should be used for	batches	compressed with	gzip.

       -a  By default, rnews looks for additional unpackers in the
	   rnews.libexec sub-directory of pathbin (as set in inn.conf).	 If -a
	   is given, no	additional batch processor will	be used; only "rnews"
	   and "cunbatch" will be recognized as	valid batch commands.

       -b  By default, rnews will log and discard any articles that are
	   rejected by the server or cannot be parsed by rnews for some	reason
	   (such as a missing header).	If -b is given,	rejected articles will
	   also	be backed up in	the bad	sub-directory of pathincoming (as set
	   in inn.conf).

       -d  If -d is given, rnews will log via syslog the message-ID and	the
	   Path	header value of	each article rejected as a duplicate by	the

       -h host
	   If -h is given, rnews will log the message ID and host via syslog
	   for each article that it offers to the server.  This	is used	in
	   conjunction with a UUCP feed	to get a log of	the messages received
	   via that feed.  This	will also be done if the environment variable
	   UU_MACHINE is set, but will only be done if host is not an empty
	   string.  (You can therefore turn off	logging	even if	UU_MACHINE
	   will	be set by passing the flag "-h ''" to rnews.)

       -N  Normally, if	unpacking the input batch fails, it is re-spooled to
	   pathincoming	for another attempt later.  If the -N flag is given,
	   no such re-spooling is done and rnews will instead exit with	status
	   9 if	unpacking fails.

       -P port
	   Use port as the server port to connect to rather than nnrpdpostport
	   (as set in inn.conf).  Note that this value is only used if rnews
	   does	not connect to the local server	(in other words, when -r or -S
	   is given or nnrpdposthost is	set).

       -r server, -S server
	   -r and -S are synonymous.  If either	is given, articles will	be
	   sent	to server rather than using the	local server, overriding also
	   the setting of nnrpdposthost	in inn.conf.

       -U  If the server is not	available, both	rnews and nnrpd	will spool
	   posts to new	files in the pathincoming directory (as	specified in
	   inn.conf).  When rnews is invoked with the -U option, it scans that
	   directory and processes all spooled messages	found there whose
	   filenames do	not begin with ".", attempting to send them to the
	   server again.  It's a good idea to run this periodically out	of
	   cron	to pick	up any articles	spooled	due to temporary server

       -v  Enable verbose mode,	with more traces, notably logging the reason
	   why articles	are rejected by	the server.

       rnews cannot process articles that have embedded	nul characters in
       them.  (Neither can the rest of INN at present.)

       Written by Rich $alz <> for InterNetNews.  Rewritten
       in POD by Russ Allbery <>.

       $Id: rnews.pod 10381 2020-05-24 10:24:01Z iulius	$

       bzip2(1), compress(1), gzip(1), inn.conf(5), innd(8), nnrpd(8).

INN 2.7.0			  2020-05-25			      RNEWS(1)


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