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RFORK(2)		    BSD	System Calls Manual		      RFORK(2)

NAME
     rfork -- manipulate process resources

LIBRARY
     Standard C	Library	(libc, -lc)

SYNOPSIS
     #include <unistd.h>

     int
     rfork(int flags);

DESCRIPTION
     Forking, vforking or rforking are the only	ways new processes are cre-
     ated.  The	flags argument to rfork() selects which	resources of the in-
     voking process (parent) are shared	by the new process (child) or initial-
     ized to their default values.  The	resources include the open file	de-
     scriptor table (which, when shared, permits processes to open and close
     files for other processes), and open files.  Flags	is the logical OR of
     some subset of:
	   RFPROC    If	set a new process is created; otherwise	changes	affect
		     the current process.  The current implementation requires
		     this flag to always be set.
	   RFNOWAIT  If	set, the child process will be dissociated from	the
		     parent.  Upon exit	the child will not leave a status for
		     the parent	to collect.  See wait(2).
	   RFFDG     If	set, the invoker's file	descriptor table (see
		     intro(2)) is copied; otherwise the	two processes share a
		     single table.
	   RFCFDG    If	set, the new process starts with a clean file descrip-
		     tor table.	 Is mutually exclusive with RFFDG.
	   RFMEM     If	set, the kernel	will force sharing of the entire ad-
		     dress space, typically by sharing the hardware page table
		     directly.	The child will thus inherit and	share all the
		     segments the parent process owns, whether they are	nor-
		     mally shareable or	not.  The stack	segment	is not split
		     (both the parent and child	return on the same stack) and
		     thus rfork() with the RFMEM flag may not generally	be
		     called directly from high level languages including C.
		     May be set	only with RFPROC.  A helper function is	pro-
		     vided to assist with this problem and will	cause the new
		     process to	run on the provided stack.  See
		     rfork_thread(3) for information.
	   RFSIGSHARE
		     If	set, the kernel	will force sharing the sigacts struc-
		     ture between the child and	the parent.
	   RFLINUXTHPN
		     If	set, the kernel	will return SIGUSR1 instead of
		     SIGCHILD upon thread exit for the child.  This is in-
		     tended to mimic certain Linux clone behaviour.

     File descriptors in a shared file descriptor table	are kept open until
     either they are explicitly	closed or all processes	sharing	the table
     exit.

     If	RFPROC is set, the value returned in the parent	process	is the process
     id	of the child process; the value	returned in the	child is zero.	With-
     out RFPROC, the return value is zero.  Process id's range from 1 to the
     maximum integer (int) value.  Rfork() will	sleep, if necessary, until re-
     quired process resources are available.

     Fork() can	be implemented as a call to rfork(RFFDG	| RFPROC) but isn't
     for backwards compatibility.

RETURN VALUES
     Upon successful completion, rfork() returns a value of 0 to the child
     process and returns the process ID	of the child process to	the parent
     process.  Otherwise, a value of -1	is returned to the parent process, no
     child process is created, and the global variable errno is	set to indi-
     cate the error.

ERRORS
     Rfork() will fail and no child process will be created if:

     [EAGAIN]		The system-imposed limit on the	total number of	pro-
			cesses under execution would be	exceeded.  The limit
			is given by the	sysctl(3) MIB variable KERN_MAXPROC.
			(The limit is actually ten less	than this except for
			the super user).

     [EAGAIN]		The user is not	the super user,	and the	system-imposed
			limit on the total number of processes under execution
			by a single user would be exceeded.  The limit is
			given by the sysctl(3) MIB variable
			KERN_MAXPROCPERUID.

     [EAGAIN]		The user is not	the super user,	and the	soft resource
			limit corresponding to the resource parameter
			RLIMIT_NOFILE would be exceeded	(see getrlimit(2)).

     [EINVAL]		The RFPROC flag	was not	specified.

     [EINVAL]		Both the RFFDG and the RFCFDG flags were specified.

     [EINVAL]		Any flags not listed above were	specified.

     [ENOMEM]		There is insufficient swap space for the new process.

SEE ALSO
     fork(2), intro(2),	minherit(2), vfork(2), rfork_thread(3)

BUGS
     FreeBSD does not yet implement a native clone() library call, and the
     current pthreads implementation does not use rfork() with RFMEM.  A na-
     tive port of the linux threads library, /usr/ports/devel/linuxthreads,
     contains a	working	clone()	call that utilizes RFMEM.  The rfork_thread()
     library call can often be used instead of clone().

HISTORY
     The rfork() function call first appeared in Plan9.

BSD			       January 12, 1996				   BSD

NAME | LIBRARY | SYNOPSIS | DESCRIPTION | RETURN VALUES | ERRORS | SEE ALSO | BUGS | HISTORY

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