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RESCUE(8)		  BSD System Manager's Manual		     RESCUE(8)

     rescue -- rescue utilities	in /rescue

     The /rescue directory contains a collection of common utilities intended
     for use in	recovering a badly damaged system.  With the transition	to a
     dynamically-linked	root beginning with NetBSD 2.0,	there is a real	possi-
     bility that the standard tools in /bin and	/sbin may become non-func-
     tional due	to a failed upgrade or a disk error.  The tools	in /rescue are
     statically	linked and should therefore be more resistant to damage.  How-
     ever, being statically linked, the	tools in /rescue are also less func-
     tional than the standard utilities.  In particular, they do not have full
     use of the	locale,	pam(3),	and nsswitch libraries.

     If	your system fails to boot, and it shows	an error message similar to:

	   init: not found

     try booting the system with the boot flag "-a" and	supplying
     /rescue/init, which is the	rescue init(8),	as the init path.

     If	your system fails to boot, and it shows	a prompt similar to:

	   Enter full pathname of shell	or RETURN for /bin/sh:

     the first thing to	try running is the standard shell, /bin/sh.  If	that
     fails, try	running	/rescue/sh, which is the rescue	shell.	To repair the
     system, the root partition	must first be remounted	read-write.  This can
     be	done with the following	mount(8) command:

	   /rescue/mount -uw /

     The next step is to double-check the contents of /bin, /lib, /libexec,
     and /sbin,	possibly mounting a NetBSD installation	CD-ROM and copying
     files from	there.	Once it	is possible to successfully run	/bin/sh,
     /bin/ls, and other	standard utilities, try	rebooting back into the	stan-
     dard system.

     The /rescue tools are compiled using crunchgen(1),	which makes them con-
     siderably more compact than the standard utilities.

     /rescue  Root of the rescue hierarchy.


     The rescue	utilities first	appeared in NetBSD 2.0.

     The rescue	system was written by Luke Mewburn <>.	This
     manual page was written by	Simon L. Nielsen <>, based on
     text by Tim Kientzle <>.

     Most of the rescue	tools work even	in a fairly crippled system.  The most
     egregious exception is the	rescue version of vi(1), which currently re-
     quires that /usr be mounted so that it can	access the termcap(5) files.
     Hopefully,	a failsafe termcap(3) entry will eventually be added into the
     curses(3) library,	so that	/rescue/vi can be used even in a system	where
     /usr cannot immediately be	mounted.  In the meantime, the rescue version
     of	the ed(1) editor can be	used from /rescue/ed if	you need to edit
     files, but	cannot mount /usr.

BSD			       January 20, 2009				   BSD


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