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RELEASE(7)	     BSD Miscellaneous Information Manual	    RELEASE(7)

     release --	release	building infrastructure

     FreeBSD provides a	complete build environment suitable for	users to make
     full releases of the FreeBSD operating system.  All of the	tools neces-
     sary to build a release are available from	the CVS	repository in
     src/release.  A complete release can actually be built with only a	single
     command, including	the creation of	ISO images suitable for	burning	to CD-
     ROM, installation floppies, and an	FTP install directory.	This command
     is	aptly named "make release".

     Before attempting to build	a release, the user is expected	to be familiar
     with the contents of build(7), and	should have experience upgrading sys-
     tems from source with "make world".  The release build process requires
     that /usr/obj be populated	with the output	of "make buildworld".  This is
     necessary so that the object files	for a complete system can be installed
     into a clean chroot(8) environment.  The release procedure	also requires
     that the md(4) (memory disk) device driver	be present in the kernel (ei-
     ther by being compiled in or available as a module).

     This document does	not cover source code management, quality assurance,
     or	other aspects of the release engineering process.

     The release makefile (src/release/Makefile) is fairly abstruse.  Most de-
     velopers will only	be concerned with the release target.

     release	Uses "make installworld" to install a clean system into	a
		chroot(8) environment on the file system.  Checks out the
		specified version of the source	code and then rebuilds the en-
		tire system in the clean environment with "make	world".	 The
		detailed steps that follow are then executed to	package	up the
		different distributions, build the installation	floppy disks,
		build release documentation, and so on.

		This target must be built as root with the kern.securelevel
		sysctl set to -1 (the default).

     rerelease	Assumes	that the output	of a release build has been manually
		modified, and performs the minimal number of steps to rebuild
		the release using the intermediate output of the previous
		"make release".

     floppies	Generate a new set of boot and fixit floppies.	This will call
		the release.5, release.9, and release.10 targets to re-gener-
		ate the	floppy images of a previous "make release".  This is
		most often used	to build custom	boot floppies.

     Targets called by "make release":

     release.1	 Cleans	out the	${CHROOTDIR}/R directory and uses mtree(8) to
		 build the directory hierarchy for the system.

     release.2	 Installs the system into the distribution directories.

     release.3	 Builds	and installs into the "base" distribution non-crypto
		 versions of some tools.

     release.4	 Makes and installs the	GENERIC	kernel.

     release.5	 Uses crunchgen(1) to build "crunched" binaries	to live	on the
		 installation floppies.

     release.6	 Builds	synthetic distributions, and cleans up the previously
		 built distribution trees.

     release.7	 Creates tarballs of the assembled distribution	trees.

     release.8	 Makes source distributions.

     release.9	 Creates the MFS root file systems.

     release.10	 Creates the boot, MFS root, and fixit floppies.

     ftp.1	 Sets up a suitable area for FTP installations in

     cdrom.1	 Sets up a suitable area to build CD-ROM images	in

     iso.1	 Builds	two ISO	images (installation and "live"	file system)
		 from the CD-ROM release area (disabled	by default, see
		 MAKE_ISOS below).

		 Fetches distfiles needed during the release build that	are
		 not already in	RELEASEDISTFILES.

     doc.1	 Builds	all of the necessary tools to turn the FreeBSD Docu-
		 mentation Project source documents (SGML, XML)	into HTML and
		 text documents	that will accompany the	release.  Also,	builds
		 and installs the actual user documentation.  This includes
		 the Handbook, FAQ, articles, and so on.

     doc.2	 Builds	the release documentation.  This includes the release
		 notes,	hardware guide,	and installation instructions.

     Variables that must be specified:

     BUILDNAME	The name of the	release	to be built.  This is used to set the
		RELEASE	value in sys/conf/, which affects the	output
		of uname(1).

     CHROOTDIR	The directory to be used as the	chroot(8) environment for the
		entire release build.  This file system	should have at least
		2.3 gigabytes of free space on the i386	architecture.

     CVSROOT	The location of	the FreeBSD CVS	repository.  This path name is
		in reference to	the real system	root, not the root of the
		chroot(8) directory tree.

     Optional variables:

     CVSCMDARGS		   Additional arguments	for cvs(1) checkout and	update
			   commands.  For example, setting this	variable to
			   "-D '01/01/2002 00:00:00 GMT'" for "make release"
			   or "make rerelease" will ask	cvs(1) to check	out or
			   update sources as of	00:00:00 GMT, January 1	2002,

     DOC_LANG		   The list of languages and encodings the SGML-based
			   documentation should	be built for.  If not set, the
			   documentation is built for all available languages.

     DOCRELEASETAG	   The CVS tag to use when checking out	the documenta-
			   tion	tree.  Usually,	the head of the	documentation
			   tree	is used	by default.  If	RELEASETAG specifies a
			   release tag,	then the associated release version is
			   used	as the default instead.

     EXTLOCALDIR	   The directory that will be copied to

     KERNEL_FLAGS	   The contents	of this	variable are passed to make(1)
			   when	building kernels during	the release build.
			   For example,	setting	this variable to "-j 4"	will
			   instruct make(1) to execute up to four processes at
			   a time.

     KERNELS		   Specifies a list of additional kernel configura-
			   tions to compile and	install	into the "base"	dis-
			   tribution.  Each kernel is installed	into
			   /boot/_config_ so that it can be booted from	the
			   loader via "boot <config>".

     LOCAL_PATCHES	   Patch files against /usr/src	that will be applied
			   in the chroot(8) environment	before the release
			   build begins.

     PATCH_FLAGS	   Arguments for the patch(1) command used to apply
			   LOCAL_PATCHES patch file.

     LOCAL_SCRIPT	   A script that will be run in	the chroot(8) environ-
			   ment	immediately after any local patches are	ap-

     MAKE_ISOS		   If defined, bootable	ISO CD-ROM images will be cre-
			   ated	from the contents of the CD-ROM	stage direc-

     NOCDROM		   If defined, the CD-ROM stage	directories will not
			   be created.

     NODOC		   If defined, the SGML-based documentation from the
			   FreeBSD Documentation Project will not be built.
			   However, the	"doc" distribution will	still be cre-
			   ated	with the minimal documentation set provided in

     NO_FLOPPIES	   If defined, no boot and fixit floppy	disk images
			   will	be created.

     NOPORTS		   If defined, the Ports Collection will be omitted
			   from	the release.

     NOPORTREADMES	   If defined, readme files will not be	created	for
			   each	individual port	in the Ports Collection.  The
			   default behavior is for "make release" to run "make
			   readmes" from ${CHROOTDIR}/usr/ports, which can be
			   a very time consuming operation.

     PORTSRELEASETAG	   The CVS tag to use when checking out	the ports
			   tree.  Usually, the head of the ports tree is used
			   by default.	If RELEASETAG specifies	a release tag,
			   then	the associated release version is used as the
			   default instead.

     NO_PREFETCHDISTFILES  If this variable is defined,	then distfiles needed
			   during the release build will not be	downloaded
			   prior to entering the chroot(8) environment.	 Note
			   that	if NO_PREFETCHDISTFILES	is not set, the	fetch-
			   ing is done after any distfiles are obtained	via

     RELEASEDISTFILES	   The directory where the distribution	files for
			   ports required by the release build can be found.
			   This	may save a significant amount of time over
			   downloading the distfiles through a slow link.

     RELEASENOUPDATE	   If this variable is defined for "make rerelease",
			   the source code will	not be updated with "cvs

     RELEASETAG		   The CVS tag corresponding to	the release that is to
			   be built.  If undefined, the	release	will be	built
			   from	the HEAD of the	CVS tree (a "-CURRENT

     TARGET_ARCH	   The target machine processor	architecture.  This is
			   analogous to	the "uname -p" output.	Set this to
			   cross-build for a different architecture.

     TARGET		   The target hardware platform.  This is analogous to
			   the "uname -m" output.  This	is necessary to	cross-
			   build some target architectures.  For example,
			   cross-building for PC98 machines requires
			   TARGET_ARCH=i386 and	TARGET=pc98.

     WORLDDIR		   The directory where "make buildworld" was run; de-
			   faults to ${.CURDIR}/.. which usually points	to

     WORLD_FLAGS	   The contents	of this	variable are passed to make(1)
			   when	building world during the release build.  For
			   example, setting this variable to "-j 4" will in-
			   struct make(1) to execute up	to four	processes at a


     The following sequence of commands	was used to build the FreeBSD 4.5 re-

	   cd /usr
	   cvs co -rRELENG_4_5_0_RELEASE src
	   cd src
	   make	buildworld
	   cd release
	   make	release	CHROOTDIR=/local3/release BUILDNAME=4.5-RELEASE	\
	     CVSROOT=/host/cvs/usr/home/ncvs RELEASETAG=RELENG_4_5_0_RELEASE

     After running these commands, a complete system suitable for FTP or CD-
     ROM distribution is available in the /local3/release/R directory.

     The following sequence of commands	can be used to build a "-CURRENT
     snapshot" of a locally modified source tree:

	   cd /usr/src
	   cvs diff -u > /path/to/local.patch
	   make	buildworld
	   cd release
	   make	release	CHROOTDIR=/local3/release BUILDNAME=5.0-CURRENT	\
	     CVSROOT=/host/cvs/usr/home/ncvs LOCAL_PATCHES=/path/to/local.patch

     cc(1), crunchgen(1), cvs(1), install(1), make(1), patch(1), uname(1),
     md(4), drivers.conf(5), make.conf(5), build(7), ports(7), chroot(8),
     mtree(8), sysctl(8)

     FreeBSD Release Engineering,

     FreeBSD Release Engineering of Third Party	Packages,

     FreeBSD Developers' Handbook,

     FreeBSD 1.x used a	manual checklist, compiled by Rod Grimes, to produce a
     release.  Apart from being	incomplete, the	list put a lot of specific de-
     mands on available	file systems and was quite torturous to	execute.

     As	part of	the FreeBSD 2.0	release	engineering effort, significant	effort
     was spent getting src/release/Makefile into a shape where it could	at
     least automate most of the	tediousness of building	a release in a sterile

     With its almost 1000 revisions spread over	multiple branches, the cvs(1)
     log of src/release/Makefile contains a vivid historical record of some of
     the hardships release engineers go	through.

     src/release/Makefile was originally written by Rod	Grimes,	Jordan
     Hubbard, and Poul-Henning Kamp.  This manual page was written by Murray
     Stokely <>.

     Infrastructure changes are	occassionally made to the FreeBSD documenta-
     tion set in such a	way that release builds	on security branches can fail.
     To	work around this, release builds can be	made to	checkout the documen-
     tation from the last fully	supported release of FreeBSD.  For example:


BSD				March 12, 2002				   BSD


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