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RELEASE(7)         FreeBSD Miscellaneous Information Manual         RELEASE(7)

     release - release building infrastructure

     FreeBSD provides a complete build environment suitable for users to make
     full releases of the FreeBSD operating system.  All of the tools
     necessary to build a release are available from the CVS repository in
     src/release.  A complete release can actually be built with only a single
     command, including the creation of ISO images suitable for burning to CD-
     ROM, installation floppies, and an FTP install directory.  This command
     is aptly named ``make release''.

     Before attempting to build a release, the user is expected to be familiar
     with the contents of build(7), and should have experience upgrading
     systems from source with ``make world''.  The release build process
     requires that /usr/obj be populated with the output of ``make
     buildworld''.  This is necessary so that the object files for a complete
     system can be installed into a clean chroot(8) environment.  The release
     procedure also requires that the md(4) (memory disk) device driver be
     present in the kernel (either by being compiled in or loaded as a

     This document does not cover source code management, quality assurance,
     or other aspects of the release engineering process.

     The release makefile (src/release/Makefile) is fairly abstruse.  Most
     developers will only be concerned with the release target.

     release        Uses ``make installworld'' to install a clean system into
                    a chroot(8) environment on the file system.  Checks out
                    the specified version of the source code and then rebuilds
                    the entire system in the clean environment with ``make
                    world''.  The detailed steps that follow are then executed
                    to package up the different distributions, build the
                    installation floppy disks, build release documentation,
                    and so on.

     rerelease      Assumes that the output of a release build has been
                    manually modified, and performs the minimal number of
                    steps to rebuild the release using the intermediate output
                    of the previous ``make release''.

     floppies       Generate a new set of boot floppies.  This will call the
                    release.5, release.9, and release.10 targets to re-
                    generate the floppy images of a previous ``make release''.
                    This is most often used to build custom boot floppies.

     Targets called by ``make release'':

     release.1       Cleans out the ${CHROOTDIR}/R directory and uses mtree(8)
                     to build the directory hierarchy for the system.

     release.2       Installs the system into the distribution directories.

     release.3       Builds and installs ``crypto'', ``krb4'' and ``krb5''

     release.4       Makes and installs the GENERIC kernel.

     release.5       Uses crunchgen(1) to build ``crunched'' binaries to live
                     on the installation floppies.

     release.6       Builds synthetic distributions, and cleans up the
                     previously built distribution trees.

     release.7       Creates tarballs of the assembled distribution trees.

     release.8       Makes source distributions.

     release.9       Creates the boot and MFS root floppies.

     release.10      Creates the fixit floppy.

     ftp.1           Sets up a suitable area for FTP installations in

     cdrom.1         Sets up a suitable area to build CD-ROM images in

     iso.1           Builds two ISO images (installation and ``live'' file
                     system) from the CD-ROM release area (disabled by
                     default, see MAKE_ISOS below).

     doc.1           Builds all of the necessary tools to turn the FreeBSD
                     Documentation Project source documents (SGML, XML) into
                     HTML and text documents that will accompany the release.
                     Also, builds and installs the actual user documentation.
                     This includes the Handbook, FAQ, articles, and so on.

     doc.2           Builds the release documentation.  This includes the
                     release notes, hardware guide, and installation

     Variables that must be specified:

     BUILDNAME      The name of the release to be built.  This is used to set
                    the RELEASE value in sys/conf/, which affects
                    the output of uname(1).

     CHROOTDIR      The directory to be used as the chroot(8) environment for
                    the entire release build.  This file system should have at
                    least 2.3 gigabytes of free space on the i386

     CVSROOT        The location of the FreeBSD CVS repository.  This path
                    name is in reference to the real system root, not the root
                    of the chroot(8) directory tree.

     Optional variables:

     CVSCMDARGS             Additional arguments for cvs(1) checkout and
                            update commands.  For example, setting this
                            variable to ``-D '01/01/2002 00:00:00 GMT''' for
                            ``make release'' or ``make rerelease'' will ask
                            cvs(1) to check out or update sources as of
                            00:00:00 GMT, January 1 2002, respectively.

     DOC_LANG               The list of languages and encodings the SGML-based
                            documentation should be built for.  If not set,
                            the documentation is built for all available

     DOCRELEASETAG          The CVS tag to use when checking out the
                            documentation tree.  Usually, the head of the
                            documentation tree is used by default.  If
                            RELEASETAG specifies a release tag, then the
                            associated release version is used as the default

     EXTLOCALDIR            The directory that will be copied to

     KERNEL_FLAGS           The contents of this variable are passed to
                            make(1) when building kernels during the release
                            build.  For example, setting this variable to ``-j
                            4'' will instruct make(1) to execute up to four
                            processes at a time.

     KERNELS                Specifies a list of additional kernel
                            configurations to compile and install into the
                            ``base'' distribution.  Each kernel is installed
                            into /boot/_config_ so that it can be booted from
                            the loader via ``boot <config>''.

     LOCAL_PATCHES          A patch file against /usr/src that will be applied
                            in the chroot(8) environment before the release
                            build begins.

     PATCH_FLAGS            Arguments for the patch(1) command used to apply
                            LOCAL_PATCHES patch file.

     LOCAL_SCRIPT           A script that will be run in the chroot(8)
                            environment immediately after any local patches
                            are applied.

     MAKE_ISOS              If defined, bootable ISO CD-ROM images will be
                            created from the contents of the CD-ROM stage

     NOCDROM                If defined, the CD-ROM stage directories will not
                            be created.

     NODOC                  If set to ``YES'', the SGML-based documentation
                            from the FreeBSD Documentation Project will not be
                            built.  However, the ``doc'' distribution will
                            still be created with the minimal documentation
                            set provided in src/share/doc.

     NO_FLOPPIES            If defined, no floppy disk image files will be

     NOPORTS                If set to ``YES'' then the Ports Collection will
                            be omitted from the release.

     NOPORTREADMES          If defined, readme files will not be created for
                            each individual port in the Ports Collection.  The
                            default behavior is for ``make release'' to run
                            ``make readmes'' from ${CHROOTDIR}/usr/ports,
                            which can be a very time consuming operation.

     PORTSRELEASETAG        The CVS tag to use when checking out the ports
                            tree.  Usually, the head of the ports tree is used
                            by default.  If RELEASETAG specifies a release
                            tag, then the associated release version is used
                            as the default instead.

     PREFETCHDISTFILES      If this variable is defined, then distfiles needed
                            during the release build will be downloaded prior
                            to entering the chroot(8) environment.  Note that
                            this is done after any distfiles are obtained via

     RELEASEDISTFILES       The directory where the distribution files for
                            ports required by the release build can be found.
                            This may save a significant amount of time over
                            downloading the distfiles through a slow link.

     RELEASENOUPDATE        If this variable is defined for ``make
                            rerelease'', the source code will not be updated
                            with ``cvs update''.

     RELEASETAG             The CVS tag corresponding to the release that is
                            to be built.  If undefined, the release will be
                            built from the HEAD of the CVS tree (a ``-CURRENT

     TARGET_ARCH            The target machine processor architecture.  This
                            is analogous to the ``uname -p'' output.  Set this
                            to cross-build for a different architecture.

     TARGET                 The target hardware platform.  This is analogous
                            to the ``uname -m'' output.  This is necessary to
                            cross-build some target architectures.  For
                            example, cross-building for PC98 machines requires
                            TARGET_ARCH=i386 and TARGET=pc98.

     WORLD_FLAGS            The contents of this variable are passed to
                            make(1) when building world during the release
                            build.  For example, setting this variable to ``-j
                            4'' will instruct make(1) to execute up to four
                            processes at a time.


     The following sequence of commands was used to build the FreeBSD 4.5

           cd /usr
           cvs co -rRELENG_4_5_0_RELEASE src
           cd src
           make buildworld
           cd release
           make release CHROOTDIR=/local3/release BUILDNAME=4.5-RELEASE \
             CVSROOT=/host/cvs/usr/home/ncvs RELEASETAG=RELENG_4_5_0_RELEASE

     After running these commands, a complete system suitable for FTP or CD-
     ROM distribution is available in the /local3/release/R directory.

     The following sequence of commands can be used to build a ``-CURRENT
     snapshot'' of a locally modified source tree:

           cd /usr/src
           cvs diff -u > /path/to/local.patch
           make buildworld
           cd release
           make release CHROOTDIR=/local3/release BUILDNAME=5.0-CURRENT \
             CVSROOT=/host/cvs/usr/home/ncvs LOCAL_PATCHES=/path/to/local.patch

     cc(1), crunchgen(1), cvs(1), install(1), make(1), patch(1), uname(1),
     md(4), drivers.conf(5), make.conf(5), build(7), ports(7), chroot(8),

     FreeBSD Release Engineering,

     FreeBSD Release Engineering of Third Party Packages,

     FreeBSD Developers' Handbook,

     FreeBSD 1.x used a manual checklist, compiled by Rod Grimes, to produce a
     release.  Apart from being incomplete, the list put a lot of specific
     demands on available file systems and was quite torturous to execute.

     As part of the FreeBSD 2.0 release engineering effort, significant effort
     was spent getting src/release/Makefile into a shape where it could at
     least automate most of the tediousness of building a release in a sterile

     With its almost 1000 revisions spread over multiple branches, the cvs(1)
     log of src/release/Makefile contains a vivid historical record of some of
     the hardships release engineers go through.

     src/release/Makefile was originally written by Rod Grimes, Jordan
     Hubbard, and Poul-Henning Kamp.  This manual page was written by Murray
     Stokely <>.

FreeBSD 11.0-PRERELEASE         March 12, 2002         FreeBSD 11.0-PRERELEASE


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