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RELEASE(7)         FreeBSD Miscellaneous Information Manual         RELEASE(7)

     release - release building infrastructure

     FreeBSD provides a complete build environment suitable for users to make
     full releases of the FreeBSD operating system.  All of the tools
     necessary to build a release are available from the CVS repository in
     src/release.  A complete release can actually be built with only a single
     command, including the creation of ISO images suitable for burning to CD-
     ROM, installation floppies, and an FTP install directory.  This command
     is aptly named ``make release''.

     Before attempting to build a release, the user is expected to be familiar
     with the contents of build(7), and should have experience upgrading
     systems from source.  The release build process requires that /usr/obj be
     populated with the output of a native ``make buildworld'' compiled from
     sources matching the currently running kernel.  This is necessary so that
     the object files for a complete system can be installed into a clean
     chroot(8) environment.  The release procedure also requires that the
     vn(4) (vnode disk) device driver be present in the kernel (either by
     being compiled in or loaded as a module).

     This document does not cover source code management, quality assurance,
     or other aspects of the release engineering process.

     The release makefile (src/release/Makefile) is fairly abstruse.  Most
     developers will only be concerned with the release target.

     release        Uses ``make installworld'' to install a clean system into
                    a chroot(8) environment on the file system.  Checks out
                    the specified version of the source code and then rebuilds
                    the entire system in the clean environment with ``make
                    buildworld''.  The detailed steps that follow are then
                    executed to package up the different distributions, build
                    the installation floppy disks, build release
                    documentation, and so on.

                    This target must be built as root with the
                    kern.securelevel sysctl set to -1 (the default).

     rerelease      Assumes that the output of a release build has been
                    manually modified, and performs the minimal number of
                    steps to rebuild the release using the intermediate output
                    of the previous ``make release''.

     floppies       Generate a new set of boot and fixit floppies.  This will
                    call the release.5, release.9, and release.10 targets to
                    re-generate the floppy images of a previous ``make
                    release''.  This is most often used to build custom boot

     Targets called by ``make release'':

     release.1       Cleans out the ${CHROOTDIR}/R directory and uses mtree(8)
                     to build the directory hierarchy for the system.

     release.2       Installs the system into the distribution directories.

     release.3       Builds and installs ``crypto'', ``krb4'' and ``krb5''

     release.4       Makes and installs the GENERIC kernel as well as any
                     other kernels listed in KERNELS.

     release.5       Uses crunchgen(1) to build ``crunched'' binaries to live
                     on the installation floppies.

     release.6       Builds synthetic distributions, and cleans up the
                     previously built distribution trees.

     release.7       Creates tarballs of the assembled distribution trees.

     release.8       Makes source distributions.

     release.9       Creates the boot and MFS root floppies.

     release.10      Creates the fixit floppy.

     ftp.1           Sets up a suitable area for FTP installations in

     cdrom.1         Sets up a suitable area to build CD-ROM images in

     iso.1           Builds two ISO images (installation and ``live'' file
                     system) from the CD-ROM release area (disabled by
                     default, see MAKE_ISOS below).

     doc.1           Builds all of the necessary tools to turn the FreeBSD
                     Documentation Project source documents (SGML, XML) into
                     HTML and text documents that will accompany the release.
                     Also, builds and installs the actual user documentation.
                     This includes the Handbook, FAQ, articles, and so on.

     doc.2           Builds the release documentation.  This includes the
                     release notes, hardware guide, and installation

     Variables that must be specified:

     BUILDNAME      The name of the release to be built.  This is used to set
                    the RELEASE value in sys/conf/, which affects
                    the output of uname(1).

     CHROOTDIR      The directory to be used as the chroot(8) environment for
                    the entire release build.  This file system should have at
                    least 2.3 gigabytes of free space on the i386

     CVSROOT        The location of the FreeBSD CVS repository.  This path
                    name is in reference to the real system root, not the root
                    of the chroot(8) directory tree.

     Optional variables:

     CVSCMDARGS            Additional arguments for cvs(1) checkout and update
                           commands.  For example, setting this variable to
                           ``-D '01/01/2002 00:00:00 GMT''' for ``make
                           release'' or ``make rerelease'' will ask cvs(1) to
                           check out or update sources as of 00:00:00 GMT,
                           January 1 2002, respectively.

     DOC_LANG              The list of languages and encodings the SGML-based
                           documentation should be built for.  If not set, the
                           documentation is built for all available languages.

     DOCRELEASETAG         The CVS tag to use when checking out the
                           documentation tree.  Usually, the head of the
                           documentation tree is used by default.  If
                           RELEASETAG specifies a release tag, then the
                           associated release version is used as the default

     KERNEL_FLAGS          The contents of this variable are passed to make(1)
                           when building kernels during the release build.
                           For example, setting this variable to ``-j 4'' will
                           instruct make(1) to execute up to four processes at
                           a time.

     KERNELS               Specifies a list of additional kernel
                           configurations to compile and install into the
                           ``bin'' distribution.  Each kernel is installed
                           into /boot/kernel._config_ so that it can be booted
                           from the loader via ``boot kernel.<config>''.

     LOCAL_PATCHES         A patch file against /usr/src that will be applied
                           in the chroot(8) environment before the release
                           build begins.

     PATCH_FLAGS           Arguments for the patch(1) command used to apply
                           LOCAL_PATCHES patch file.

     LOCAL_SCRIPT          A script that will be run in the chroot(8)
                           environment immediately after any local patches are

     MAKE_ISOS             If defined, bootable ISO CD-ROM images will be
                           created from the contents of the CD-ROM stage

     DISC1_LABEL           The label used for the CD-ROM created from the
                           disc1 contents, the default label will be

     DISC1_NAME            The name used as part of the ISO file name for the
                           CD-ROM created from the disc1 contents, the default
                           will be ``miniinst''.

     DISC2_LABEL           The label used for the CD-ROM created from the
                           disc2 contents, the default label will be

     DISC2_NAME            The name used as part of the ISO file name for the
                           CD-ROM created from the disc2 contents, the default
                           will be ``disc2''.

     NOCDROM               If defined, the CD-ROM stage directories will not
                           be created.

     NODOC                 If defined, the SGML-based documentation from the
                           FreeBSD Documentation Project will not be built.
                           However, the ``doc'' distribution will still be
                           created with the minimal documentation set provided
                           in src/share/doc.

     NOPORTS               If defined, the Ports Collection will be omitted
                           from the release.

     NOPORTREADMES         If defined, readme files will not be created for
                           each individual port in the Ports Collection.  The
                           default behavior is for ``make release'' to run
                           ``make readmes'' from ${CHROOTDIR}/usr/ports, which
                           can be a very time consuming operation.

     PORTSRELEASETAG       The CVS tag to use when checking out the ports
                           tree.  Usually, the head of the ports tree is used
                           by default.  If RELEASETAG specifies a release tag,
                           then the associated release version is used as the
                           default instead.

     RELEASEDISTFILES      The directory where the distribution files for
                           ports required by the release build can be found.
                           This may save a significant amount of time over
                           downloading the distfiles through a slow link.

     RELEASENOUPDATE       If this variable is defined for ``make rerelease'',
                           the source code will not be updated with ``cvs

     RELEASETAG            The CVS tag corresponding to the release that is to
                           be built.  If undefined, the release will be built
                           from the HEAD of the CVS tree (a ``-CURRENT

     TARGET_ARCH           The target machine processor architecture.  This is
                           analogous to the ``uname -p'' output.  Set this to
                           cross-build for a different architecture.

     TARGET                The target hardware platform.  This is analogous to
                           the ``uname -m'' output.  This is necessary to
                           cross-build some target architectures.  For
                           example, cross-building for PC98 machines requires
                           TARGET_ARCH=i386 and TARGET=pc98.

     WORLD_FLAGS           The contents of this variable are passed to make(1)
                           when building world during the release build.  For
                           example, setting this variable to ``-j 4'' will
                           instruct make(1) to execute up to four processes at
                           a time.


     The following sequence of commands was used to build the FreeBSD 4.9

           cd /usr
           cvs co -rRELENG_4_9_0_RELEASE src
           cd src
           make buildworld
           cd release
           make release CHROOTDIR=/local3/release BUILDNAME=4.9-RELEASE \
             CVSROOT=/host/cvs/usr/home/ncvs RELEASETAG=RELENG_4_9_0_RELEASE

     After running these commands, a complete system suitable for FTP or CD-
     ROM distribution is available in the /local3/release/R directory.

     The following sequence of commands can be used to build a ``-CURRENT
     snapshot'' of a locally modified source tree:

           cd /usr/src
           cvs diff -u > /path/to/local.patch
           make buildworld
           cd release
           make release CHROOTDIR=/local3/release BUILDNAME=5.0-CURRENT \
             CVSROOT=/host/cvs/usr/home/ncvs LOCAL_PATCHES=/path/to/local.patch

     cc(1), crunchgen(1), cvs(1), install(1), make(1), patch(1), uname(1),
     vn(4), drivers.conf(5), make.conf(5), build(7), ports(7), chroot(8),
     mtree(8), sysctl(8)

     FreeBSD Release Engineering,

     FreeBSD Release Engineering of Third Party Packages,

     FreeBSD Developers' Handbook,

     FreeBSD 1.x used a manual checklist, compiled by Rod Grimes, to produce a
     release.  Apart from being incomplete, the list put a lot of specific
     demands on available file systems and was quite torturous to execute.

     As part of the FreeBSD 2.0 release engineering effort, significant effort
     was spent getting src/release/Makefile into a shape where it could at
     least automate most of the tediousness of building a release in a sterile

     With its almost 1000 revisions spread over multiple branches, the cvs(1)
     log of src/release/Makefile contains a vivid historical record of some of
     the hardships release engineers go through.

     src/release/Makefile was originally written by Rod Grimes, Jordan
     Hubbard, and Poul-Henning Kamp.  This manual page was written by Murray
     Stokely <>.

     Infrastructure changes are occasionally made to the FreeBSD documentation
     set in such a way that release builds on security branches can fail.  To
     work around this, release builds can be made to checkout the
     documentation from the last fully supported release of FreeBSD.  For

           make release RELEASETAG=RELENG_4_9 DOCRELEASETAG=RELEASE_4_9_0 ...

FreeBSD 11.0-PRERELEASE         August 10, 2004        FreeBSD 11.0-PRERELEASE


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