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REFER(1)		    General Commands Manual		      REFER(1)

       refer - preprocess bibliographic	references for groff

       refer [ -benvCPRS ] [ -an ] [ -cfields ]	[ -fn ]	[ -ifields ]
	     [ -kfield ] [ -lm,n ] [ -pfilename	] [ -sfields ] [ -tn ]
	     [ -Bfield.macro ] [ filename... ]

       It is possible to have whitespace between a command line	option and its

       This file documents the GNU version of refer,  which  is	 part  of  the
       groff  document	formatting system.  refer copies the contents of file-
       name... to the standard output, except that lines between .[ and	.] are
       interpreted as citations, and lines between .R1 and .R2 are interpreted
       as commands about how citations are to be processed.

       Each citation specifies a reference.  The citation can specify a	refer-
       ence  that  is contained	in a bibliographic database by giving a	set of
       keywords	that only that reference contains.  Alternatively it can spec-
       ify a reference by supplying a database record in the citation.	A com-
       bination	of these alternatives is also possible.

       For each	citation, refer	can produce a mark in  the  text.   This  mark
       consists	 of  some  label which can be separated	from the text and from
       other labels in various ways.  For each reference it also outputs groff
       commands	 that  can  be	used by	a macro	package	to produce a formatted
       reference for each citation.  The output	of  refer  must	 therefore  be
       processed  using	 a suitable macro package.  The	-ms and	-me macros are
       both suitable.  The commands to format a	citation's  reference  can  be
       output immediately after	the citation, or the references	may be accumu-
       lated, and the commands output at some later point.  If the  references
       are  accumulated,  then	multiple  citations of the same	reference will
       produce a single	formatted reference.

       The interpretation of lines between .R1 and .R2 as commands  is	a  new
       feature	of  GNU	refer.	Documents making use of	this feature can still
       be processed by Unix refer just by adding the lines

	      .de R1
	      .ig R2
       to the beginning	of the document.  This	will  cause  troff  to	ignore
       everything  between  .R1	and .R2.  The effect of	some commands can also
       be achieved by options.	These options are supported mainly for compat-
       ibility	with  Unix  refer.   It	is usually more	convenient to use com-

       refer generates .lf lines so that filenames and line  numbers  in  mes-
       sages  produced	by commands that read refer output will	be correct; it
       also interprets lines beginning with .lf	so  that  filenames  and  line
       numbers in the messages and .lf lines that it produces will be accurate
       even if the input has been preprocessed by a command such as soelim(1).

       Most options are	equivalent to commands (for  a	description  of	 these
       commands	see the	Commands subsection):

       -b     no-label-in-text;	no-label-in-reference

       -e     accumulate

       -n     no-default-database

       -C     compatible

       -P     move-punctuation

       -S     label "(A.n|Q) ',	' (D.y|D)"; bracket-label " (" ) "; "

       -an    reverse An

	      capitalize fields

       -fn    label %n

	      search-ignore fields

       -k     label L~%a

	      label field~%a

       -l     label A.nD.y%a

       -lm    label A.n+mD.y%a

       -l,n   label A.nD.y-n%a

       -lm,n  label A.n+mD.y-n%a

	      database filename

       -sspec sort spec

       -tn    search-truncate n

       These  options  are equivalent to the following commands	with the addi-
       tion that the filenames specified on the	command	line are processed  as
       if  they	 were  arguments to the	bibliography command instead of	in the
       normal way:

       -B     annotate X AP; no-label-in-reference

	      annotate field macro; no-label-in-reference

       The following options have no equivalent	commands:

       -v     Print the	version	number.

       -R     Don't recognize lines beginning with .R1/.R2.

   Bibliographic databases
       The bibliographic database is a text file consisting of	records	 sepa-
       rated by	one or more blank lines.  Within each record fields start with
       a % at the beginning of a line.	Each field has a  one  character  name
       that immediately	follows	the %.	It is best to use only upper and lower
       case letters for	the names of fields.  The name of the field should  be
       followed	 by  exactly one space,	and then by the	contents of the	field.
       Empty fields are	ignored.  The conventional meaning of each field is as

       A      The name of an author.  If the name contains a title such	as Jr.
	      at the end, it should be separated  from	the  last  name	 by  a
	      comma.   There  can be multiple occurrences of the A field.  The
	      order is significant.  It	is a good idea always to supply	 an  A
	      field or a Q field.

       B      For an article that is part of a book, the title of the book.

       C      The place	(city) of publication.

       D      The  date	of publication.	 The year should be specified in full.
	      If the month is specified, the name rather than  the  number  of
	      the  month  should be used, but only the first three letters are
	      required.	 It is a good idea always to supply a D	field; if  the
	      date  is	unknown,  a  value  such as in press or	unknown	can be

       E      For an article that is part of a book, the name of an editor  of
	      the  book.  Where	the work has editors and no authors, the names
	      of the editors should be given as	A fields and , (ed) or , (eds)
	      should be	appended to the	last author.

       G      US Government ordering number.

       I      The publisher (issuer).

       J      For an article in	a journal, the name of the journal.

       K      Keywords to be used for searching.

       L      Label.

       N      Journal issue number.

       O      Other  information.   This  is usually printed at	the end	of the

       P      Page number.  A range of pages can be specified as m-n.

       Q      The name of the author, if the author is	not  a	person.	  This
	      will  only  be used if there are no A fields.  There can only be
	      one Q field.

       R      Technical	report number.

       S      Series name.

       T      Title.  For an article in	a book or journal, this	should be  the
	      title of the article.

       V      Volume number of the journal or book.

       X      Annotation.

       For  all	fields except A	and E, if there	is more	than one occurrence of
       a particular field in a record, only the	last such field	will be	used.

       If accent strings are used, they	should	follow	the  character	to  be
       accented.   This	 means	that  the  AM  macro must be used with the -ms
       macros.	Accent strings should not be quoted: use  one  \  rather  than

       The format of a citation	is
	      flags keywords

       The opening-text, closing-text and flags	components are optional.  Only
       one of the keywords and fields components need be specified.

       The keywords component says to search the bibliographic databases for a
       reference  that	contains all the words in keywords.  It	is an error if
       more than one reference if found.

       The fields components specifies additional fields to replace or supple-
       ment those specified in the reference.  When references are being accu-
       mulated and the keywords	component is non-empty,	then additional	fields
       should be specified only	on the first occasion that a particular	refer-
       ence is cited, and will apply to	all citations of that reference.

       The opening-text	and closing-text component  specifies  strings	to  be
       used  to	 bracket  the  label  instead  of the strings specified	in the
       bracket-label command.  If either of these components is	non-empty, the
       strings	specified  in the bracket-label	command	will not be used; this
       behaviour can be	altered	using the [ and	] flags.   Note	 that  leading
       and trailing spaces are significant for these components.

       The  flags  component  is a list	of non-alphanumeric characters each of
       which modifies the treatment of this particular citation.   Unix	 refer
       will  treat these flags as part of the keywords and so will ignore them
       since they are non-alphanumeric.	 The  following	 flags	are  currently

       #      This says	to use the label specified by the short-label command,
	      instead of that specified	by the label  command.	 If  no	 short
	      label  has been specified, the normal label will be used.	 Typi-
	      cally the	short label is used with author-date labels  and  con-
	      sists of only the	date and possibly a disambiguating letter; the
	      #	is supposed to be suggestive of	a numeric type of label.

       [      Precede opening-text with	the  first  string  specified  in  the
	      bracket-label command.

       ]      Follow  closing-text  with  the  second  string specified	in the
	      bracket-label command.

       One advantages of using the [ and ] flags  rather  than	including  the
       brackets	 in  opening-text  and closing-text is that you	can change the
       style of	bracket	used in	the document just  by  changing	 the  bracket-
       label  command.	Another	advantage is that sorting and merging of cita-
       tions will not necessarily be inhibited if the flags are	used.

       If a label is to	be inserted into the text, it will be attached to  the
       line  preceding	the  .[	line.  If there	is no such line, then an extra
       line will be inserted before the	.[ line	and a warning will be given.

       There is	no special notation for	making a citation to  multiple	refer-
       ences.	Just  use  a  sequence	of  citations, one for each reference.
       Don't put anything between the citations.  The labels for all the cita-
       tions  will  be attached	to the line preceding the first	citation.  The
       labels may also be sorted or merged.  See the  description  of  the  <>
       label expression, and of	the sort-adjacent-labels and abbreviate-label-
       ranges command.	A label	will not be merged if its citation has a  non-
       empty opening-text or closing-text.  However, the labels	for a citation
       using the ] flag	and without any	closing-text immediately followed by a
       citation	 using	the  [ flag and	without	any opening-text may be	sorted
       and merged even though the first	citation's opening-text	or the	second
       citation's  closing-text	 is  non-empty.	  (If you wish to prevent this
       just make the first citation's closing-text \&.)

       Commands	are contained between lines starting with .R1 and .R2.	Recog-
       nition  of  these  lines	can be prevented by the	-R option.  When a .R1
       line is recognized any accumulated references are flushed out.  Neither
       .R1 nor .R2 lines, nor anything between them is output.

       Commands	 are separated by newlines or ;s.  # introduces	a comment that
       extends to the end of the line (but  does  not  conceal	the  newline).
       Each command is broken up into words.  Words are	separated by spaces or
       tabs.  A	word that begins with "	extends	to the next " that is not fol-
       lowed  by another ".  If	there is no such " the word extends to the end
       of the line.  Pairs of "	in a word beginning with " collapse to a  sin-
       gle  ".	 Neither # nor ; are recognized	inside "s.  A line can be con-
       tinued by ending	it with	\; this	works everywhere except	after a	#.

       Each command name that is marked	with * has an associated negative com-
       mand  no-name that undoes the effect of name.  For example, the no-sort
       command specifies that references should	not be sorted.	 The  negative
       commands	take no	arguments.

       In the following	description each argument must be a single word; field
       is used for a single upper or lower case	letter naming a	field;	fields
       is used for a sequence of such letters; m and n are used	for a non-neg-
       ative numbers; string is	used for an arbitrary string; filename is used
       for the name of a file.

       abbreviate* fields string1 string2 string3 string4
				Abbreviate the first names of fields.  An ini-
				tial letter will  be  separated	 from  another
				initial	 letter	by string1, from the last name
				by string2, and	from anything else (such as  a
				von  or	 de)  by  string3.  These default to a
				period followed	by a space.  In	 a  hyphenated
				first  name,  the initial of the first part of
				the name will be separated from	the hyphen  by
				string4;   this	 defaults  to  a  period.   No
				attempt	is made	to handle any ambiguities that
				might  result  from  abbreviation.   Names are
				abbreviated before sorting  and	 before	 label

       abbreviate-label-ranges*	string
				Three  or  more	 adjacent labels that refer to
				consecutive references will be abbreviated  to
				a  label  consisting  of the first label, fol-
				lowed by string	followed by  the  last	label.
				This is	mainly useful with numeric labels.  If
				string is omitted it defaults to -.

       accumulate*		Accumulate references instead of  writing  out
				each  reference	as it is encountered.  Accumu-
				lated references will be written out  whenever
				a reference of the form


				is encountered,	after all input	files hve been
				processed, and whenever	 .R1  line  is	recog-

       annotate* field string	field is an annotation;	print it at the	end of
				the reference as a paragraph preceded  by  the


				If  macro is omitted it	will default to	AP; if
				field is also omitted it will  default	to  X.
				Only one field can be an annotation.

       articles	string...	string... are definite or indefinite articles,
				and should be ignored at the  beginning	 of  T
				fields when sorting.  Initially, the, a	and an
				are recognized as articles.

       bibliography filename...	Write out all the references contained in  the
				bibliographic databases	filename...  This com-
				mand should come last in a .R1/.R2 block.

       bracket-label string1 string2 string3
				In the text, bracket each label	 with  string1
				and string2.  An occurrence of string2 immedi-
				ately followed by string1 will be turned  into
				string3.  The default behaviour	is

				       bracket-label \*([. \*(.] ", "

       capitalize fields	Convert	fields to caps and small caps.

       compatible*		Recognize  .R1 and .R2 even when followed by a
				character other	than space or newline.

       database	filename...	Search the bibliographic databases filename...
				For  each filename if an index filename.i cre-
				ated by	indxbib(1) exists,  then  it  will  be
				searched  instead; each	index can cover	multi-
				ple databases.

       date-as-label* string	string is a label expression that specifies  a
				string with which to replace the D field after
				constructing the label.	 See the Label expres-
				sions  subsection  for	a description of label
				expressions.  This command is useful if	you do
				not  want  explicit  labels  in	 the reference
				list, but instead want to handle any necessary
				disambiguation	by qualifying the date in some
				way.  The label	used in	the text  would	 typi-
				cally  be  some	 combination of	the author and
				date.  In most cases you should	also  use  the
				no-label-in-reference command.	For example,

				       date-as-label D.+yD.y%a*D.-y

				would  attach  a  disambiguating letter	to the
				year part of the D field in the	reference.

       default-database*	The default database should be searched.  This
				is the default behaviour, so the negative ver-
				sion of	this command is	 more  useful.	 refer
				determines whether the default database	should
				be searched on	the  first  occasion  that  it
				needs to do a search.  Thus a no-default-data-
				base command must be  given  before  then,  in
				order to be effective.

       discard*	fields		When  the  reference is	read, fields should be
				discarded; no string  definitions  for	fields
				will be	output.	 Initially, fields are XYZ.

       et-al* string m n	Control	 use  of  et al	in the evaluation of @
				expressions in label expressions.  If the num-
				ber  of	 authors  needed  to  make  the	author
				sequence unambiguous is	u and the total	number
				of authors is t	then the last t-u authors will
				be replaced by string provided that t-u	is not
				less  than  m  and  t is not less than n.  The
				default	behaviour is

				       et-al " et al" 2	3

       include filename		Include	filename and interpret the contents as

       join-authors string1 string2 string3
				This   says   how  authors  should  be	joined
				together.  When	there are exactly two authors,
				they  will be joined with string1.  When there
				are more than two authors, all	but  the  last
				two  will be joined with string2, and the last
				two authors will be joined with	 string3.   If
				string3	  is   omitted,	 it  will  default  to
				string1; if string2 is also  omitted  it  will
				also default to	string1.  For example,

				       join-authors " and " ", " ", and	"

				will  restore  the  default method for joining

       label-in-reference*	When  outputting  the  reference,  define  the
				string	[F  to be the reference's label.  This
				is the default behaviour; so the negative ver-
				sion of	this command is	more useful.

       label-in-text*		For each reference output a label in the text.
				The label will be separated from the surround-
				ing  text  as  described  in the bracket-label
				command.  This is the  default	behaviour;  so
				the  negative  version of this command is more

       label string		string is a label expression describing	how to
				label each reference.

       separate-label-second-parts string
				When  merging  two-part	 labels,  separate the
				second part of the second label	from the first
				label with string.  See	the description	of the
				<> label expression.

       move-punctuation*	In the text, move any punctuation at  the  end
				of  line past the label.  It is	usually	a good
				idea to	give this command unless you are using
				superscripted numbers as labels.

       reverse*	string		Reverse	 the fields whose names	are in string.
				Each field name	can be followed	 by  a	number
				which  says  how  many	such  fields should be
				reversed.  If no number	is given for a	field,
				all such fields	will be	reversed.

       search-ignore* fields	While  searching  for  keys  in	 databases for
				which no index exists, ignore the contents  of
				fields.	 Initially, fields XYZ are ignored.

       search-truncate*	n	Only require the first n characters of keys to
				be given.  In  effect  when  searching	for  a
				given  key words in the	database are truncated
				to the maximum of n and	the length of the key.
				Initially n is 6.

       short-label* string	string is a label expression that specifies an
				alternative (usually shorter) style of	label.
				This  is  used when the	# flag is given	in the
				citation.   When   using   author-date	 style
				labels,	 the identity of the author or authors
				is sometimes clear from	the context, and so it
				may be desirable to omit the author or authors
				from the label.	 The short-label command  will
				typically  be used to specify a	label contain-
				ing just a date	and possibly a	disambiguating

       sort* string		Sort  references  according to string.	Refer-
				ences  will  automatically   be	  accumulated.
				string	should	be a list of field names, each
				followed by  a	number,	 indicating  how  many
				fields	with the name should be	used for sort-
				ing.  +	can be used to indicate	that  all  the
				fields	with  the name should be used.	Also .
				can be used to indicate	the references	should
				be  sorted  using the (tentative) label.  (The
				Label  expressions  subsection	describes  the
				concept	of a tentative label.)

       sort-adjacent-labels*	Sort  labels  that  are	 adjacent  in the text
				according to their position in	the  reference
				list.  This command should usually be given if
				the abbreviate-label-ranges command  has  been
				given,	or  if the label expression contains a
				<>  expression.	  This	will  have  no	effect
				unless references are being accumulated.

   Label expressions
       Label  expressions can be evaluated both	normally and tentatively.  The
       result of normal	evaluation is used for output.	The result  of	tenta-
       tive  evaluation,  called  the  tentative  label, is used to gather the
       information that	normal evaluation needs	 to  disambiguate  the	label.
       Label  expressions  specified by	the date-as-label and short-label com-
       mands are not evaluated tentatively.  Normal and	 tentative  evaluation
       are the same for	all types of expression	other than @, *, and % expres-
       sions.  The description below  applies  to  normal  evaluation,	except
       where otherwise specified.

       field n
	      The n-th part of field.  If n is omitted,	it defaults to 1.

	      The characters in	string literally.

       @      All the authors joined as	specified by the join-authors command.
	      The whole	of each	author's name will be used.  However,  if  the
	      references  are sorted by	author (that is	the sort specification
	      starts with A+), then authors' last names	will be	used  instead,
	      provided	that  this  does  not introduce	ambiguity, and also an
	      initial subsequence of the authors may be	used  instead  of  all
	      the authors, again provided that this does not introduce ambigu-
	      ity.  The	use of only the	last name for the i-th author of  some
	      reference	 is  considered	to be ambiguous	if there is some other
	      reference, such that the first i-1 authors of the	references are
	      the  same,  the  i-th  authors  are  not	the same, but the i-th
	      authors' last names are the same.	 A proper initial  subsequence
	      of  the  sequence	of authors for some reference is considered to
	      be ambiguous if there is a reference with	some other sequence of
	      authors which also has that subsequence as a proper initial sub-
	      sequence.	 When an initial subsequence of	authors	is  used,  the
	      remaining	 authors  are  replaced	by the string specified	by the
	      et-al command; this command may also specify additional require-
	      ments  that  must	 be  met  before an initial subsequence	can be
	      used.  @ tentatively evaluates to	a canonical representation  of
	      the  authors, such that authors that compare equally for sorting
	      purpose will have	the same representation.

       %I     The serial number	of the reference formatted  according  to  the
	      character	 following  the	 %.   The serial number	of a reference
	      is 1 plus	the number of earlier references with  same  tentative
	      label as this reference.	These expressions tentatively evaluate
	      to an empty string.

       expr*  If there is another reference with the same tentative  label  as
	      this reference, then expr, otherwise an empty string.  It	tenta-
	      tively evaluates to an empty string.

       expr-n The first	(+) or last (-)	n upper	or lower case letters or  dig-
	      its of expr.  Troff special characters (such as \('a) count as a
	      single letter.  Accent strings are retained  but	do  not	 count
	      towards the total.

       expr.l expr converted to	lowercase.

       expr.u expr converted to	uppercase.

       expr.c expr converted to	caps and small caps.

       expr.r expr reversed so that the	last name is first.

       expr.a expr  with  first	names abbreviated.  Note that fields specified
	      in the abbreviate	command	are abbreviated	before any labels  are
	      evaluated.   Thus	 .a is useful only when	you want a field to be
	      abbreviated in a label but not in	a reference.

       expr.y The year part of expr.

	      The part of expr before the year,	or the whole  of  expr	if  it
	      does not contain a year.

	      The part of expr after the year, or an empty string if expr does
	      not contain a year.

       expr.n The last name part of expr.

	      expr1 except that	if the last character of expr1 is  -  then  it
	      will be replaced by expr2.

       expr1 expr2
	      The concatenation	of expr1 and expr2.

	      If expr1 is non-empty then expr1 otherwise expr2.

	      If expr1 is non-empty then expr2 otherwise an empty string.

	      If expr1 is non-empty then expr2 otherwise expr3.

       <expr> The  label  is  in  two parts, which are separated by expr.  Two
	      adjacent two-part	labels which have the same first part will  be
	      merged by	appending the second part of the second	label onto the
	      first label separated by the string specified in	the  separate-
	      label-second-parts  command  (initially,	a  comma followed by a
	      space); the resulting label will also be a two-part  label  with
	      the  same	first part as before merging, and so additional	labels
	      can be merged into it.  Note that	 it  is	 permissible  for  the
	      first  part  to  be  empty; this maybe desirable for expressions
	      used in the short-label command.

       (expr) The same as expr.	 Used for grouping.

       The above expressions  are  listed  in  order  of  precedence  (highest
       first); & and | have the	same precedence.

   Macro interface
       Each  reference starts with a call to the macro ]-.  The	string [F will
       be defined to be	the label for this reference, unless the  no-label-in-
       reference  command  has	been  given.   There  then follows a series of
       string definitions, one for each	field: string [X corresponds to	 field
       X.   The	number register	[P is set to 1 if the P	field contains a range
       of pages.  The [T, [A and [O number registers are set to	1 according as
       the  T, A and O fields end with one of the characters .?!.  The [E num-
       ber register will be set	to 1 if	the [E string contains more  than  one
       name.   The reference is	followed by a call to the ][ macro.  The first
       argument	to this	macro gives a number representing the type of the ref-
       erence.	 If  a	reference contains a J field, it will be classified as
       type 1, otherwise if it contains	a B field, it will  type 3,  otherwise
       if  it contains a G or R	field it will be type 4, otherwise if contains
       a I field it will be type 2, otherwise it will be type 0.   The	second
       argument	is a symbolic name for the type: other,	journal-article, book,
       article-in-book or tech-report.	Groups of references  that  have  been
       accumulated or are produced by the bibliography command are preceded by
       a call to the ]<	macro and followed by a	call to	the ]> macro.

       /usr/share/dict/papers/Ind  Default database.

       file.i			   Index files.

       REFER  If set, overrides	the default database.

       indxbib(1), lookbib(1), lkbib(1)

       In label	expressions, <>	expressions are	ignored	inside	.char  expres-

Groff Version 1.19.2	       4 September 2005			      REFER(1)


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