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       readnews	- read news articles

       readnews	 [ -n newsgroups ] [ -d	commands ] [ -i	] [ -c ] [ -l ]	[ -p ]
       [ -C ] [	-L ] [ -Agroup ] [ -Dgroup ]

       Readnews	without	arguments enters command mode, which  allows  printing
       of unread articles.  This is the	normal way of using readnews.

       Readnews	 maintains  a  .newsrc	file in	the user's home	directory that
       specifies all news articles already read.  It is	updated	at the end  of
       each reading session.

       Some  useful functions are available which don't	use command mode.  The
       flags for these are:

       -c     Check if there is	news, and if so	print `You have	news.'.

       -C     Check if there is	news, and print	the groups and number of arti-
	      cles in each group to be read.

       -l     List the titles of available news	articles.

       -p     Print all	articles on standard output, and update	newsrc.

       -L     Print the	newsgroup subscription list.

	      Add group	to the subscription list.

	      Delete group from	the subscription list.

       The  remaining  flags  mostly determine article selection, and may also
       appear in the .newsrc file.  Options may	be specified  in  the  .newsrc
       file  by	 entering  lines prefixed with the word	`options', followed by
       the options arguments.  This is most useful with	the -n flag,  specify-
       ing the usual groups one	wishes to subscribe to.

       -n newsgroups
	      Select  all  articles  belonging to newsgroups.  Newsgroups is a
	      comma separated list of newsgroup	names.	The character `!'  may
	      be  used	to  exclude  certain groups, and the word `all'	can be
	      used to match any	group.	e.g. `-n all,!net.jokes'

       -i     Ignore .newsrc file. It is not read or updated.  This allows se-
	      lection of articles that have already been read.

       -d commands
	      Disable  the  commands.  Commands	is a string of command charac-
	      ters (see	the next section); entering any	command	beginning with
	      any of them will result in an error message.

       Some  overall parameters	are set	by a control file, /var/lib/news/read-
       news.ctl, which contains	control	lines  (each  a	 keyword  followed  by
       white space followed by a value)	and comments (each starting with `#').

       If  no  -n option is specified, either by the user or his .newsrc file,
       the value specified on the defsub line of the control file is  used  as
       the  list  of newsgroups	to be presented.  A single mandatory newsgroup
       may be specified	as the value of	the mustsub control line; in  the  ab-
       sence  of a command-line	-n (not	one from a .newsrc), that newsgroup is
       always presented	to the user even if he did not ask for it.  Both  def-
       sub and mustsub default to ``general''.

       This section details the	commands available when	readnews is in command
       mode (no	-clpsC arguments).  The	simplest way of	using this mode, is to
       enter  RETURN  after  every  prompt.   This will	present	to the user, a
       short heading for an article, then a prompt.  Typing RETURN again  will
       print  the  article  body.  Typing RETURN yet again will	print the next
       heading,	and so on.  If having read the heading,	you don't wish to read
       the  article,  you may type `n' (or `+' or ';') which will take you di-
       rectly to the next heading.

       An article is treated as	having been read, if either you	have seen  the
       article body, or	typed `n' to skip over it.

       A number	of commands operate on the `current' article.  This is defined
       as the article whose header you have most recently seen.

       The commands to read news are:

       RETURN Either print the current article,	or go to the next article  and
	      print its	header.

       n or + or ;
	      Go to the	next article and print its header.

       .      Print the	current	article.

       -      Go  back	to  the	 previous article. This	is a toggle, typing it
	      twice returns you	to the original	article.

       number Go to the	article	number in the current newsgroup.  Like the `-'
	      command, you always return to the	original article after reading
	      the selected article.

       s [file]
	      Save the current article,	appending it  to  the  specified  file
	      (default $HOME/articles).

       h      Print  the  current  header  (slightly  more verbose than	normal

       H      Print the	current	header in full (very verbose).

       N [newsgroup]
	      Go to the	next newsgroup,	or to  the  specified  newsgroup.   (A
	      specified	 newsgroup  must  be  in  the -n list, if any, or sub-
	      scribed to.)

       U      Unsubscribe from this newsgroup, and go to the next newsgroup.

	      Shell escape.  Command is	executed.  If command is `!'  the last
	      escape command is	executed.

       q or EOT
	      Quit.  The .newsrc file will be updated provided the flag	-i was
	      not specified.

       x      Exit.  .newsrc is	left unchanged (as if  no  articles  had  been

       Some commands are available to send/reply or post news articles:

       r      Reply  to	 sender	of the current article by mail.	 Readnews sets
	      up the appropriate headers, and then calls mail(1) (or  $MAILER,
	      if there is such an environment variable)	to send	a reply	to the
	      sender.  If there	is no mailvia line in the  control  file,  the
	      address is taken from the	``From'' header	of the article,	and is
	      in  Internet  form.   If	the  value  in	the  mailvia  line  is
	      ``<path>'', the address is taken from the	``Path'' header	and is
	      in UUCPnet form.	If the value of	mailvia	is something else, the
	      ``From''	  address    is	   transformed	 to   UUCPnet	syntax
	      (``site.x.y!user'' rather	than ``user@site.x.y''), and the mail-
	      via value	is prepended to	it, with an intervening	``!''.

       f      Post  a  followup	 to the	current	article.  Readnews sets	up the
	      appropriate headers, and then calls postnews(1CN)	 to  post  the
	      followup article.

       p      Post an article on a new topic.  postnews(1CN) is	called to post
	      the new article, in the current newsgroup	by default.

       In order	to permanently resubscribe to a	newsgroup denied by `U', it is
       necessary  to  understand  the format of	the .newsrc file.  The .newsrc
       file consists of	two types of lines:

       option lines
	      These start with the word	`options' and contain the  same	 argu-
	      ments as the readnews command on the command line.

       read newsgroup lines
	      These  have  the	format <newsgroup>`:' <number>,	where <number>
	      represents the last item number seen in  that  particular	 news-
	      group.   If  the newsgroup has been unsubscribed,	the `:'	is re-
	      placed by	a `!'.	To resubscribe the `!' must be changed back to
	      a	`:'.

       To  invoke  readnews  for ``read	only'' access to specified newsgroups,
       with the	user unable to do anything but read those groups, a shell file
       might do:

	    readnews -d	rfps!U -n newsgroups

       which disables responses	(r, f, and p), saving of copies	(s), shell es-
       capes (!), and unsubscribing (U).

       $HOME/.newsrc				 options and list of previously	read articles
       /var/lib/news/active			 current newsgroups
       /var/lib/news/readnews.ctl		 control file
       /var/lib/news/		 help file
       /usr/local/libexec/cnews/inject/postnews	 for postings

       postnews(1CN), mail(1), ed(1)

       Originally  written  by	Michael	 Rourke,  University  of  N.S.W	 (dec-
       vax!mulga!michaelr:elecvax).   Modified	and  simplified	for the	C News

       The mustsub control line	really ought to	be able	to specify a subscrip-
       tion, i.e. multiple groups.

       Control	characters  other  than	 tab and backspace are turned into `#'
       when displaying article bodies.	This heads off	letter	bombs  at  the
       price of	interfering with use of	non-ASCII character sets.

       Cleanup	of command-line	syntax has eliminated the old -s option	in fa-
       vor of -L, -A, and -D.  This is a change	for the	better,	but an	incom-
       patible one.

       The  -A	and -D options have a nasty tendency to	dump core; they	should
       be fixed	or deleted.

       This program is about as	simple as they come.  Almost any seasoned news
       user will want something	more complex.

				 16 April 1995			 READNEWS(1CN)


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