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READ(2)                   FreeBSD System Calls Manual                  READ(2)

     read, readv, pread -- read input

     Standard C Library (libc, -lc)

     #include <sys/types.h>
     #include <sys/uio.h>
     #include <unistd.h>

     read(int d, void *buf, size_t nbytes);

     readv(int d, const struct iovec *iov, int iovcnt);

     pread(int d, void *buf, size_t nbytes, off_t offset);

     Read() attempts to read nbytes of data from the object referenced by the
     descriptor d into the buffer pointed to by buf.  Readv() performs the
     same action, but scatters the input data into the iovcnt buffers speci-
     fied by the members of the iov array: iov[0], iov[1], ..., iov[iovcnt-1].
     Pread() performs the same function, but reads from the specified position
     in the file without modifying the file pointer.

     For readv(), the iovec structure is defined as:

           struct iovec {
                   char   *iov_base;  /* Base address. */
                   size_t iov_len;    /* Length. */

     Each iovec entry specifies the base address and length of an area in mem-
     ory where data should be placed.  Readv() will always fill an area com-
     pletely before proceeding to the next.

     On objects capable of seeking, the read() starts at a position given by
     the pointer associated with d (see lseek(2)).  Upon return from read(),
     the pointer is incremented by the number of bytes actually read.

     Objects that are not capable of seeking always read from the current
     position.  The value of the pointer associated with such an object is

     Upon successful completion, read(), readv(), and pread() return the num-
     ber of bytes actually read and placed in the buffer.  The system guaran-
     tees to read the number of bytes requested if the descriptor references a
     normal file that has that many bytes left before the end-of-file, but in
     no other case.

     If successful, the number of bytes actually read is returned.  Upon read-
     ing end-of-file, zero is returned.  Otherwise, a -1 is returned and the
     global variable errno is set to indicate the error.

     Read(), readv(), and pread() will succeed unless:

     [EBADF]            D is not a valid file or socket descriptor open for

     [EFAULT]           Buf points outside the allocated address space.

     [EIO]              An I/O error occurred while reading from the file sys-

     [EINTR]            A read from a slow device was interrupted before any
                        data arrived by the delivery of a signal.

     [EINVAL]           The pointer associated with d was negative.

     [EAGAIN]           The file was marked for non-blocking I/O, and no data
                        were ready to be read.

     [EISDIR]           The file descriptor is associated with a directory
                        residing on a filesystem that does not allow regular
                        read operations on directories (e.g. NFS).

     [EOPNOTSUPP]       The file descriptor is associated with a filesystem
                        and file type that do not allow regular read opera-
                        tions on it.

     In addition, readv() may return one of the following errors:

     [EINVAL]           Iovcnt was less than or equal to 0, or greater than

     [EINVAL]           One of the iov_len values in the iov array was nega-

     [EINVAL]           The sum of the iov_len values in the iov array over-
                        flowed a 32-bit integer.

     [EFAULT]           Part of the iov points outside the process's allocated
                        address space.

     The pread() call may also return the following errors:

     [EINVAL]           The specified file offset is invalid.

     [ESPIPE]           The file descriptor is associated with a pipe, socket,
                        or FIFO.

     dup(2), fcntl(2), open(2), pipe(2), select(2), socket(2), socketpair(2)

     The read() function call is expected to conform to ISO/IEC 9945-1:1990
     (``POSIX.1'').  The readv() and pread() functions are expected to conform
     to X/Open Portability Guide Issue 4, Version 2 (``XPG4.2'').

     The pread() function call appeared in AT&T System V.4 UNIX.  The readv()
     function call appeared in 4.2BSD.  A read() function call appeared in
     Version 6 AT&T UNIX.

FreeBSD 4.10                   February 26, 1994                  FreeBSD 4.10


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