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RDIST(1)		  BSD General Commands Manual		      RDIST(1)

     rdist -- remote file distribution program

     rdist [-nqbRhivwy]	[-f distfile] [-d var=value] [-m -host]	[name ...]
     rdist [-nqbRhivwy]	-c name	... [login@]host[:dest]

     Rdist is a	program	to maintain identical copies of	files over multiple
     hosts.  It	preserves the owner, group, mode, and mtime of files if	possi-
     ble and can update	programs that are executing.  Rdist reads commands
     from distfile to direct the updating of files and/or directories.

     Options specific to the first SYNOPSIS form:

     -	     If	distfile is `-', the standard input is used.

     -f	distfile
	     Use the specified distfile.

     If	either the -f or `-' option is not specified, the program looks	first
     for "distfile", then "Distfile" to	use as the input.  If no names are
     specified on the command line, rdist will update all of the files and di-
     rectories listed in distfile.  Otherwise, the argument is taken to	be the
     name of a file to be updated or the label of a command to execute.	If la-
     bel and file names	conflict, it is	assumed	to be a	label.	These may be
     used together to update specific files using specific commands.

     Options specific to the second SYNOPSIS form:

     -c		 Forces	rdist to interpret the remaining arguments as a	small

		 The equivalent	distfile is as follows.

		       (name ...) -> [login@] host
			     install [dest];

     Options common to both forms:

     -b		 Binary	comparison. Perform a binary comparison	and update
		 files if they differ rather than comparing dates and sizes.

     -d	var=value
		 Define	var to have value.  The	-d option is used to define or
		 override variable definitions in the distfile.	 Value can be
		 the empty string, one name, or	a list of names	surrounded by
		 parentheses and separated by tabs and/or spaces.

     -h		 Follow	symbolic links.	Copy the file that the link points to
		 rather	than the link itself.

     -i		 Ignore	unresolved links.  Rdist will normally try to maintain
		 the link structure of files being transfered and warn the
		 user if all the links cannot be found.

     -m	host	 Limit which machines are to be	updated. Multiple -m arguments
		 can be	given to limit updates to a subset of the hosts	listed
		 the distfile.

     -n		 Print the commands without executing them. This option	is
		 useful	for debugging distfile.

     -q		 Quiet mode. Files that	are being modified are normally
		 printed on standard output. The -q option suppresses this.

     -R		 Remove	extraneous files. If a directory is being updated, any
		 files that exist on the remote	host that do not exist in the
		 master	directory are removed.	This is	useful for maintaining
		 truely	identical copies of directories.

     -v		 Verify	that the files are up to date on all the hosts.	Any
		 files that are	out of date will be displayed but no files
		 will be changed nor any mail sent.

     -w		 Whole mode. The whole file name is appended to	the destina-
		 tion directory	name. Normally,	only the last component	of a
		 name is used when renaming files.  This will preserve the di-
		 rectory structure of the files	being copied instead of	flat-
		 tening	the directory structure. For example, renaming a list
		 of files such as ( dir1/f1 dir2/f2 ) to dir3 would create
		 files dir3/dir1/f1 and	dir3/dir2/f2 instead of	dir3/f1	and

     -y		 Younger mode. Files are normally updated if their mtime and
		 size (see stat(2)) disagree. The -y option causes rdist not
		 to update files that are younger than the master copy.	 This
		 can be	used to	prevent	newer copies on	other hosts from being
		 replaced.  A warning message is printed for files which are
		 newer than the	master copy.

     Distfile contains a sequence of entries that specify the files to be
     copied, the destination hosts, and	what operations	to perform to do the
     updating. Each entry has one of the following formats.

	   <variable name> `=' <name list>
	   [label:]<source list> `->' <destination list> <command list>
	   [label:]<source list> `::' <time_stamp file>	<command list>

     The first format is used for defining variables.  The second format is
     used for distributing files to other hosts.  The third format is used for
     making lists of files that	have been changed since	some given date.  The
     source list specifies a list of files and/or directories on the local
     host which	are to be used as the master copy for distribution.  The
     destination list is the list of hosts to which these files	are to be
     copied.  Each file	in the source list is added to a list of changes if
     the file is out of	date on	the host which is being	updated	(second	for-
     mat) or the file is newer than the	time stamp file	(third format).

     Labels are	optional. They are used	to identify a command for partial up-

     Newlines, tabs, and blanks	are only used as separators and	are otherwise
     ignored. Comments begin with `#' and end with a newline.

     Variables to be expanded begin with `$' followed by one character or a
     name enclosed in curly braces (see	the examples at	the end).

     The source	and destination	lists have the following format:

	   `(' <zero or	more names separated by	white-space> `)'

     The shell meta-characters `[', `]', `{', `}', `*',	and `?'	 are recog-
     nized and expanded	(on the	local host only) in the	same way as csh(1).
     They can be escaped with a	backslash.  The	`~' character is also expanded
     in	the same way as	csh(1) but is expanded separately on the local and
     destination hosts.	 When the -w option is used with a file	name that be-
     gins with `~', everything except the home directory is appended to	the
     destination name.	File names which do not	begin with `/' or `~' use the
     destination user's	home directory as the root directory for the rest of
     the file name.

     The command list consists of zero or more commands	of the following for-

	   `install'	  <options>	   opt_dest_name `;'
	   `notify'	  <name	list>	   `;'
	   `except'	  <name	list>	   `;'
	   `except_pat'	  <pattern list>   `;'
	   `special'	  <name	list>	   string `;'

     The install command is used to copy out of	date files and/or directories.
     Each source file is copied	to each	host in	the destination	list.  Direc-
     tories are	recursively copied in the same way.  Opt_dest_name is an op-
     tional parameter to rename	files.	If no install command appears in the
     command list or the destination name is not specified, the	source file
     name is used.  Directories	in the path name will be created if they do
     not exist on the remote host.  To help prevent disasters, a non-empty di-
     rectory on	a target host will never be replaced with a regular file or a
     symbolic link.  However, under the	`-R' option a non-empty	directory will
     be	removed	if the corresponding filename is completely absent on the mas-
     ter host.	The options are	`-R', `-h', `-i', `-v',	`-w', `-y', and	`-b'
     and have the same semantics as options on the command line	except they
     only apply	to the files in	the source list.  The login name used on the
     destination host is the same as the local host unless the destination
     name is of	the format ``login@host".

     The notify	command	is used	to mail	the list of files updated (and any er-
     rors that may have	occured) to the	listed names.  If no `@' appears in
     the name, the destination host is appended	to the name (e.g., name1@host,
     name2@host, ...).

     The except	command	is used	to update all of the files in the source list
     except for	the files listed in name list.	This is	usually	used to	copy
     everything	in a directory except certain files.

     The except_pat command is like the	except command except that pattern
     list is a list of regular expressions (see	ed(1) for details).  If	one of
     the patterns matches some string within a file name, that file will be
     ignored.  Note that since `\' is a	quote character, it must be doubled to
     become part of the	regular	expression.  Variables are expanded in pattern
     list but not shell	file pattern matching characters.  To include a	`$',
     it	must be	escaped	with `\'.

     The special command is used to specify sh(1) commands that	are to be exe-
     cuted on the remote host after the	file in	name list is updated or	in-
     stalled.  If the name list	is omitted then	the shell commands will	be ex-
     ecuted for	every file updated or installed.  The shell variable `FILE' is
     set to the	current	filename before	executing the commands in string.
     String starts and ends with `"' and can cross multiple lines in distfile.
     Multiple commands to the shell should be separated	by `;'.	 Commands are
     executed in the user's home directory on the host being updated.  The
     special command can be used to rebuild private databases, etc.  after a
     program has been updated.

     The following is a	small example:

	   HOSTS = ( matisse root@arpa )

	   FILES = ( /bin /lib /usr/bin	/usr/games
	   /usr/lib /usr/man/man? /usr/ucb /usr/local/rdist )

	   EXLIB = ( Mail.rc aliases aliases.dir aliases.pag crontab dshrc sendmail.fc sendmail.hf uucp	vfont )

	   ${FILES} -> ${HOSTS}
	   install -R ;
	   except /usr/lib/${EXLIB} ;
	   except /usr/games/lib ;
	   special /usr/lib/sendmail "/usr/lib/sendmail	-bz" ;

	   /usr/src/bin	-> arpa
	   except_pat (	\\.o\$ /SCCS\$ ) ;

	   IMAGEN = (ips dviimp	catdvi)

	   /usr/local/${IMAGEN}	-> arpa
	   install /usr/local/lib ;
	   notify ralph	;

	   ${FILES} :: stamp.cory
	   notify root@cory ;

     distfile	  input	command	file
     /tmp/rdist*  temporary file for update lists

     sh(1), csh(1), stat(2)

     The rdist command appeared	in 4.3BSD.

     A complaint about mismatch	of rdist version numbers may really stem from
     some problem with starting	your shell, e.g., you are in too many groups.

     Source files must reside on the local host	where rdist is executed.

     There is no easy way to have a special command executed after all files
     in	a directory have been updated.

     Variable expansion	only works for name lists; there should	be a general
     macro facility.

     Rdist aborts on files which have a	negative mtime (before Jan 1, 1970).

     There should be a `force' option to allow replacement of non-empty	direc-
     tories by regular files or	symlinks.  A means of updating file modes and
     owners of otherwise identical files is also needed.

4.3 Berkeley Distribution	 July 27, 1991	     4.3 Berkeley Distribution


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