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RCSFILE(5)		      File Formats Manual		    RCSFILE(5)

NAME
       rcsfile - format	of RCS file

DESCRIPTION
       An RCS file's contents are described by the grammar below.

       The  text is free format: space,	backspace, tab,	newline, vertical tab,
       form feed, and carriage return (collectively, white space) have no sig-
       nificance except	in strings.  However, white space cannot appear	within
       an id, num, or sym, and an RCS file must	end with a newline.

       Strings are enclosed by @.  If a	string contains	a @, it	must  be  dou-
       bled; otherwise,	strings	can contain arbitrary binary data.

       The meta	syntax uses the	following conventions: `|' (bar) separates al-
       ternatives; `{' and `}' enclose optional	phrases; `{' and `}*'  enclose
       phrases	that  can be repeated zero or more times; `{' and '}+' enclose
       phrases that must appear	at least once and can  be  repeated;  Terminal
       symbols are in boldface;	nonterminal symbols are	in italics.

       rcstext	 ::=  admin {delta}* desc {deltatext}*

       admin	 ::=  head	 {num};
		      {	branch	 {num};	}
		      access	 {id}*;
		      symbols	 {sym :	num}*;
		      locks	 {id : num}*;  {strict	;}
		      {	comment	 {string}; }
		      {	expand	 {string}; }
		      {	newphrase }*

       delta	 ::=  num
		      date	 num;
		      author	 id;
		      state	 {id};
		      branches	 {num}*;
		      next	 {num};
		      {	newphrase }*

       desc	 ::=  desc	 string

       deltatext ::=  num
		      log	 string
		      {	newphrase }*
		      text	 string

       num	 ::=  {digit | .}+

       digit	 ::=  0	| 1 | 2	| 3 | 4	| 5 | 6	| 7 | 8	| 9

       id	 ::=  {num} idchar {idchar | num}*

       sym	 ::=  {digit}* idchar {idchar |	digit}*

       idchar	 ::=  any visible graphic character except special

       special	 ::=  $	| , | .	| : | ;	| @

       string	 ::=  @{any character, with @ doubled}*@

       newphrase ::=  id word* ;

       word	 ::=  id | num | string	| :

       Identifiers  are	case sensitive.	 Keywords are in lower case only.  The
       sets of keywords	and identifiers	can overlap.  In most environments RCS
       uses  the  ISO  8859/1  encoding:  visible graphic characters are codes
       041-176 and 240-377, and	white space characters are codes  010-015  and
       040.

       Dates,	which	appear	after  the  date  keyword,  are	 of  the  form
       Y.mm.dd.hh.mm.ss, where Y is the	year, mm the month (01-12), dd the day
       (01-31),	 hh the	hour (00-23), mm the minute (00-59), and ss the	second
       (00-60).	 Y contains just the last two digits of	 the  year  for	 years
       from  1900 through 1999,	and all	the digits of years thereafter.	 Dates
       use the Gregorian calendar; times use UTC.

       The newphrase productions in the	grammar	are reserved for future	exten-
       sions  to  the  format  of RCS files.  No newphrase will	begin with any
       keyword already in use.

       The delta nodes form a tree.  All nodes whose numbers consist of	a sin-
       gle  pair (e.g.,	2.3, 2.1, 1.3, etc.)  are on the trunk,	and are	linked
       through the next	field in order of decreasing numbers.  The head	 field
       in  the	admin node points to the head of that sequence (i.e., contains
       the highest pair).  The branch node in the admin	node indicates the de-
       fault  branch (or revision) for most RCS	operations.  If	empty, the de-
       fault branch is the highest branch on the trunk.

       All delta nodes whose  numbers  consist	of  2n	fields	(n>=2)	(e.g.,
       3.1.1.1,	 2.1.2.2, etc.)	 are linked as follows.	 All nodes whose first
       2n-1 number fields are identical	are linked through the next  field  in
       order  of  increasing  numbers.	For each such sequence,	the delta node
       whose number is identical to the	first 2n-2 number fields of the	deltas
       on  that	 sequence  is called the branchpoint.  The branches field of a
       node contains a list of the numbers of the first	nodes of all sequences
       for which it is a branchpoint.  This list is ordered in increasing num-
       bers.

       The following diagram shows an example of an RCS	file's organization.

				  Head
				    |
				    |
				    v			     / \
				---------		    /	\
	  / \	       / \	|	|      / \	   /	 \
	 /   \	      /	  \	|  2.1	|     /	  \	  /	  \
	/     \	     /	   \	|	|    /	   \	 /	   \
       /1.2.1.3\    /1.3.1.1\	|	|   /1.2.2.2\	/1.2.2.1.1.1\
       ---------    ---------	---------   ---------	-------------
	   ^		^	    |		^	      ^
	   |		|	    |		|	      |
	   |		|	    v		|	      |
	  / \		|	---------      / \	      |
	 /   \		|	\  1.3	/     /	  \	      |
	/     \		---------\     /     /	   \-----------
       /1.2.1.1\		  \   /	    /1.2.2.1\
       ---------		   \ /	    ---------
	   ^			    |		^
	   |			    |		|
	   |			    v		|
	   |			---------	|
	   |			\  1.2	/	|
	   ----------------------\     /---------
				  \   /
				   \ /
				    |
				    |
				    v
				---------
				\  1.1	/
				 \     /
				  \   /
				   \ /

IDENTIFICATION
       Author: Walter F. Tichy,	Purdue University, West	Lafayette, IN, 47907.
       Manual Page Revision: 5.6; Release Date:	1995/06/05.
       Copyright (C) 1982, 1988, 1989 Walter F.	Tichy.
       Copyright (C) 1990, 1991, 1992, 1993, 1994, 1995	Paul Eggert.

SEE ALSO
       rcsintro(1), ci(1), co(1), ident(1), rcs(1),  rcsclean(1),  rcsdiff(1),
       rcsmerge(1), rlog(1)
       Walter  F. Tichy, RCS--A	System for Version Control, Software--Practice
       _ Experience 15,	7 (July	1985), 637-654.

GNU				  1995/06/05			    RCSFILE(5)

NAME | DESCRIPTION | IDENTIFICATION | SEE ALSO

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