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RAL(4)                 FreeBSD Kernel Interfaces Manual                 RAL(4)

     ral - Ralink Technology IEEE 802.11 wireless network driver

     To compile this driver into the kernel, place the following lines in your
     kernel configuration file:

           device ral
           device wlan

     Alternatively, to load the driver as a module at boot time, place the
     following line in loader.conf(5):


     The ral driver supports PCI/CardBus wireless adapters based on the Ralink
     Technology RT2500, RT2501, and RT2600 chipsets.

     The RT2500 chipset is the first generation of 802.11b/g adapters from
     Ralink.  It consists of two integrated chips, a RT2560 MAC/BBP and a
     RT2525 radio transceiver.

     The RT2501 chipset is the second generation of 802.11b/g adapters from
     Ralink.  It consists of two integrated chips, a RT2561 MAC/BBP and a
     RT2527 radio transceiver.  This chipset provides support for the IEEE
     802.11e standard with multiple hardware transmission queues and allows
     scatter/gather for efficient DMA operations.

     The RT2600 chipset consists of two integrated chips, a RT2661 MAC/BBP and
     a RT2529 radio transceiver.  This chipset uses the MIMO (multiple-input
     multiple-output) technology with multiple antennas to extend the
     operating range of the adapter and to achieve higher throughput.  MIMO is
     the basis of the forthcoming IEEE 802.11n standard.

     The transmit speed is user-selectable or can be adapted automatically by
     the driver depending on the received signal strength and on the number of
     hardware transmission retries.

     The ral driver supports PCI/CardBus wireless adapters based on the Ralink
     Technology RT2500, RT2501, and RT2600 chipsets, including:

     Card                             MAC/BBP    Bus
     A-Link WL54H                     RT2560     PCI
     A-Link WL54PC                    RT2560     CardBus
     AirLink101 AWLC5025              RT2661     CardBus
     AirLink101 AWLH5025              RT2661     PCI
     Amigo AWI-914W                   RT2560     CardBus
     Amigo AWI-922W                   RT2560     mini-PCI
     Amigo AWI-926W                   RT2560     PCI
     AMIT WL531C                      RT2560     CardBus
     AMIT WL531P                      RT2560     PCI
     AOpen AOI-831                    RT2560     PCI
     ASUS WL-107G                     RT2560     CardBus
     ASUS WL-130g                     RT2560     PCI
     Atlantis Land A02-PCI-W54        RT2560     PCI
     Atlantis Land A02-PCM-W54        RT2560     CardBus
     Belkin F5D7000 v3                RT2560     PCI
     Belkin F5D7010 v2                RT2560     CardBus
     Billionton MIWLGRL               RT2560     mini-PCI
     Canyon CN-WF511                  RT2560     PCI
     Canyon CN-WF513                  RT2560     CardBus
     CC&C WL-2102                     RT2560     CardBus
     CNet CWC-854                     RT2560     CardBus
     CNet CWP-854                     RT2560     PCI
     Compex WL54G                     RT2560     CardBus
     Compex WLP54G                    RT2560     PCI
     Conceptronic C54RC               RT2560     CardBus
     Conceptronic C54Ri               RT2560     PCI
     Digitus DN-7001G-RA              RT2560     CardBus
     Digitus DN-7006G-RA              RT2560     PCI
     E-Tech WGPC02                    RT2560     CardBus
     E-Tech WGPI02                    RT2560     PCI
     Edimax EW-7108PCg                RT2560     CardBus
     Edimax EW-7128g                  RT2560     PCI
     Eminent EM3036                   RT2560     CardBus
     Eminent EM3037                   RT2560     PCI
     Encore ENLWI-G-RLAM              RT2560     PCI
     Encore ENPWI-G-RLAM              RT2560     CardBus
     Fiberline WL-400P                RT2560     PCI
     Fibreline WL-400X                RT2560     CardBus
     Gigabyte GN-WI01GS               RT2561S    mini-PCI
     Gigabyte GN-WIKG                 RT2560     mini-PCI
     Gigabyte GN-WMKG                 RT2560     CardBus
     Gigabyte GN-WP01GS               RT2561S    PCI
     Gigabyte GN-WPKG                 RT2560     PCI
     Hawking HWC54GR                  RT2560     CardBus
     Hawking HWP54GR                  RT2560     PCI
     iNexQ CR054g-009 (R03)           RT2560     PCI
     JAHT WN-4054P                    RT2560     CardBus
     JAHT WN-4054PCI                  RT2560     PCI
     LevelOne WNC-0301 v2             RT2560     PCI
     LevelOne WPC-0301 v2             RT2560     CardBus
     Linksys WMP54G v4                RT2560     PCI
     Micronet SP906GK                 RT2560     PCI
     Micronet SP908GK V3              RT2560     CardBus
     Minitar MN54GCB-R                RT2560     CardBus
     Minitar MN54GPC-R                RT2560     PCI
     MSI CB54G2                       RT2560     CardBus
     MSI MP54G2                       RT2560     mini-PCI
     MSI PC54G2                       RT2560     PCI
     OvisLink EVO-W54PCI              RT2560     PCI
     PheeNet HWL-PCIG/RA              RT2560     PCI
     Pro-Nets CB80211G                RT2560     CardBus
     Pro-Nets PC80211G                RT2560     PCI
     Repotec RP-WB7108                RT2560     CardBus
     Repotec RP-WP0854                RT2560     PCI
     SATech SN-54C                    RT2560     CardBus
     SATech SN-54P                    RT2560     PCI
     Sitecom WL-112                   RT2560     CardBus
     Sitecom WL-115                   RT2560     PCI
     SMC SMCWCB-GM                    RT2661     CardBus
     SMC SMCWPCI-GM                   RT2661     PCI
     SparkLAN WL-685R                 RT2560     CardBus
     Surecom EP-9321-g                RT2560     PCI
     Surecom EP-9321-g1               RT2560     PCI
     Surecom EP-9428-g                RT2560     CardBus
     Sweex LC500050                   RT2560     CardBus
     Sweex LC700030                   RT2560     PCI
     TekComm NE-9321-g                RT2560     PCI
     TekComm NE-9428-g                RT2560     CardBus
     Unex CR054g-R02                  RT2560     PCI
     Unex MR054g-R02                  RT2560     CardBus
     Zinwell ZWX-G160                 RT2560     CardBus
     Zinwell ZWX-G360                 RT2560     mini-PCI
     Zinwell ZWX-G361                 RT2560     PCI
     Zonet ZEW1500                    RT2560     CardBus
     Zonet ZEW1600                    RT2560     PCI

     An up to date list can be found at

     Join an existing BSS network (i.e., connect to an access point):

           ifconfig ral0 inet netmask 0xffffff00

     Join a specific BSS network with network name ``my_net'':

           ifconfig ral0 inet netmask 0xffffff00 ssid my_net

     Join a specific BSS network with 40-bit WEP encryption:

           ifconfig ral0 inet netmask 0xffffff00 ssid my_net \
               wepmode on wepkey 0x1234567890 weptxkey 1

     Join a specific BSS network with 104-bit WEP encryption:

           ifconfig ral0 inet netmask 0xffffff00 ssid my_net \
               wepmode on wepkey 0x01020304050607080910111213 weptxkey 1

     ral%d: could not load 8051 microcode  An error occurred while attempting
     to upload the microcode to the onboard 8051 microcontroller unit.

     ral%d: timeout waiting for MCU to initialize  The onboard 8051
     microcontroller unit failed to initialize in time.

     ral%d: device timeout  A frame dispatched to the hardware for
     transmission did not complete in time.  The driver will reset the
     hardware.  This should not happen.

     altq(4), arp(4), cardbus(4), netintro(4), pci(4), wlan(4), ifconfig(8)

     Ralink Technology,

     The ral driver first appeared in OpenBSD 3.7.

     PCI ral adapters seem to require a PCI 2.2 compliant motherboard and will
     likely not work with PCI 2.1 only motherboard.

     The ral driver does not implement frame aggregation.

     The ral driver was written by Damien Bergamini <>.

FreeBSD 11.0-PRERELEASE       September 10, 2007       FreeBSD 11.0-PRERELEASE


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