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RAL(4)                 FreeBSD Kernel Interfaces Manual                 RAL(4)

NAME
     ral - Ralink Technology IEEE 802.11a/g/n wireless network device

SYNOPSIS
     To compile this driver into the kernel, place the following lines in your
     kernel configuration file:

           device ral
           device ralfw
           device wlan
           device wlan_amrr
           device firmware

     Alternatively, to load the driver as a module at boot time, place the
     following line in loader.conf(5):

           if_ral_load="YES"

DESCRIPTION
     The ral driver supports PCI/PCIe/CardBus wireless adapters based on the
     Ralink RT2500, RT2501, RT2600, RT2700, RT2800 and RT3090 chipsets.

     The RT2500 chipset is the first generation of 802.11b/g adapters from
     Ralink.  It consists of two integrated chips, an RT2560 MAC/BBP and an
     RT2525 radio transceiver.

     The RT2501 chipset is the second generation of 802.11a/b/g adapters from
     Ralink.  It consists of two integrated chips, an RT2561 MAC/BBP and an
     RT2527 radio transceiver.  This chipset provides support for the IEEE
     802.11e standard with multiple hardware transmission queues and allows
     scatter/gather for efficient DMA operations.

     The RT2600 chipset consists of two integrated chips, an RT2661 MAC/BBP
     and an RT2529 radio transceiver.  This chipset uses the MIMO (multiple-
     input multiple-output) technology with multiple radio transceivers to
     extend the operating range of the adapter and to achieve higher
     throughput.  However, the RT2600 chipset does not support any of the
     802.11n features.

     The RT2700 chipset is a low-cost version of the RT2800 chipset.  It
     supports a single transmit path and two receiver paths (1T2R).  It
     consists of two integrated chips, an RT2760 or RT2790 (PCIe) MAC/BBP and
     an RT2720 (2.4GHz) or RT2750 (2.4GHz/5GHz) radio transceiver.

     The RT2800 chipset is the first generation of 802.11n adapters from
     Ralink.  It consists of two integrated chips, an RT2860 or RT2890 (PCIe)
     MAC/BBP and an RT2820 (2.4GHz) or RT2850 (2.4GHz/5GHz) radio transceiver.
     The RT2800 chipset supports two transmit paths and up to three receiver
     paths (2T2R/2T3R).  It can achieve speeds up to 144Mbps (20MHz bandwidth)
     and 300Mbps (40MHz bandwidth.)

     The RT3090 chipset is the first generation of single-chip 802.11n
     adapters from Ralink.  ral supports station, adhoc, hostap, mesh, wds,
     and monitor mode operation.  Only one hostap or mesh virtual interface
     may be configured at a time.  Any number of wds virtual interfaces may be
     configured together with a hostap interface.  Multiple station interfaces
     may be operated together with a hostap interface to construct a wireless
     repeater device.

     The transmit speed is user-selectable or can be adapted automatically by
     the driver depending on the number of hardware transmission retries.  For
     more information on configuring this device, see ifconfig(8).

HARDWARE
     The ral driver supports PCI/PCIe/CardBus wireless adapters based on
     Ralink Technology chipsets, including:

     Card                             MAC/BBP    Bus
     A-Link WL54H                     RT2560     PCI
     A-Link WL54PC                    RT2560     CardBus
     AirLink101 AWLC5025              RT2661     CardBus
     AirLink101 AWLH5025              RT2661     PCI
     Amigo AWI-914W                   RT2560     CardBus
     Amigo AWI-922W                   RT2560     mini-PCI
     Amigo AWI-926W                   RT2560     PCI
     AMIT WL531C                      RT2560     CardBus
     AMIT WL531P                      RT2560     PCI
     AOpen AOI-831                    RT2560     PCI
     ASUS WL-107G                     RT2560     CardBus
     ASUS WL-130g                     RT2560     PCI
     Atlantis Land A02-PCI-W54        RT2560     PCI
     Atlantis Land A02-PCM-W54        RT2560     CardBus
     Belkin F5D7000 v3                RT2560     PCI
     Belkin F5D7010 v2                RT2560     CardBus
     Billionton MIWLGRL               RT2560     mini-PCI
     Canyon CN-WF511                  RT2560     PCI
     Canyon CN-WF513                  RT2560     CardBus
     CC&C WL-2102                     RT2560     CardBus
     CNet CWC-854                     RT2560     CardBus
     CNet CWP-854                     RT2560     PCI
     Compex WL54G                     RT2560     CardBus
     Compex WLP54G                    RT2560     PCI
     Conceptronic C54RC               RT2560     CardBus
     Conceptronic C54Ri               RT2560     PCI
     Digitus DN-7001G-RA              RT2560     CardBus
     Digitus DN-7006G-RA              RT2560     PCI
     E-Tech WGPC02                    RT2560     CardBus
     E-Tech WGPI02                    RT2560     PCI
     Edimax EW-7108PCg                RT2560     CardBus
     Edimax EW-7128g                  RT2560     PCI
     Eminent EM3036                   RT2560     CardBus
     Eminent EM3037                   RT2560     PCI
     Encore ENLWI-G-RLAM              RT2560     PCI
     Encore ENPWI-G-RLAM              RT2560     CardBus
     Fiberline WL-400P                RT2560     PCI
     Fibreline WL-400X                RT2560     CardBus
     Gigabyte GN-WI01GS               RT2561S    mini-PCI
     Gigabyte GN-WIKG                 RT2560     mini-PCI
     Gigabyte GN-WMKG                 RT2560     CardBus
     Gigabyte GN-WP01GS               RT2561S    PCI
     Gigabyte GN-WPKG                 RT2560     PCI
     Hawking HWC54GR                  RT2560     CardBus
     Hawking HWP54GR                  RT2560     PCI
     iNexQ CR054g-009 (R03)           RT2560     PCI
     JAHT WN-4054P                    RT2560     CardBus
     JAHT WN-4054PCI                  RT2560     PCI
     LevelOne WNC-0301 v2             RT2560     PCI
     LevelOne WPC-0301 v2             RT2560     CardBus
     Linksys WMP54G v4                RT2560     PCI
     Micronet SP906GK                 RT2560     PCI
     Micronet SP908GK V3              RT2560     CardBus
     Minitar MN54GCB-R                RT2560     CardBus
     Minitar MN54GPC-R                RT2560     PCI
     MSI CB54G2                       RT2560     CardBus
     MSI MP54G2                       RT2560     mini-PCI
     MSI PC54G2                       RT2560     PCI
     OvisLink EVO-W54PCI              RT2560     PCI
     PheeNet HWL-PCIG/RA              RT2560     PCI
     Pro-Nets CB80211G                RT2560     CardBus
     Pro-Nets PC80211G                RT2560     PCI
     Repotec RP-WB7108                RT2560     CardBus
     Repotec RP-WP0854                RT2560     PCI
     SATech SN-54C                    RT2560     CardBus
     SATech SN-54P                    RT2560     PCI
     Sitecom WL-112                   RT2560     CardBus
     Sitecom WL-115                   RT2560     PCI
     SMC SMCWCB-GM                    RT2661     CardBus
     SMC SMCWPCI-GM                   RT2661     PCI
     SparkLAN WL-685R                 RT2560     CardBus
     Surecom EP-9321-g                RT2560     PCI
     Surecom EP-9321-g1               RT2560     PCI
     Surecom EP-9428-g                RT2560     CardBus
     Sweex LC500050                   RT2560     CardBus
     Sweex LC700030                   RT2560     PCI
     TekComm NE-9321-g                RT2560     PCI
     TekComm NE-9428-g                RT2560     CardBus
     Unex CR054g-R02                  RT2560     PCI
     Unex MR054g-R02                  RT2560     CardBus
     Zinwell ZWX-G160                 RT2560     CardBus
     Zinwell ZWX-G360                 RT2560     mini-PCI
     Zinwell ZWX-G361                 RT2560     PCI
     Zonet ZEW1500                    RT2560     CardBus
     Zonet ZEW1600                    RT2560     PCI

EXAMPLES
     Join an existing BSS network (i.e., connect to an access point):

           ifconfig wlan create wlandev ral0 inet 192.168.0.20 netmask
           0xffffff00

     Join a specific BSS network with network name ``my_net'':

           ifconfig wlan create wlandev ral0 inet 192.168.0.20 \
               netmask 0xffffff00 ssid my_net

     Join a specific BSS network with 40-bit WEP encryption:

           ifconfig wlan create wlandev ral0 inet 192.168.0.20 \
               netmask 0xffffff00 ssid my_net \
               wepmode on wepkey 0x1234567890 weptxkey 1

     Join a specific BSS network with 104-bit WEP encryption:

           ifconfig wlan create wlandev ral0 inet 192.168.0.20 \
               netmask 0xffffff00 ssid my_net \
               wepmode on wepkey 0x01020304050607080910111213 weptxkey 1

DIAGNOSTICS
     ral%d: could not load 8051 microcode  An error occurred while attempting
     to upload the microcode to the onboard 8051 microcontroller unit.

     ral%d: timeout waiting for MCU to initialize  The onboard 8051
     microcontroller unit failed to initialize in time.

     ral%d: device timeout  A frame dispatched to the hardware for
     transmission did not complete in time.  The driver will reset the
     hardware.  This should not happen.

SEE ALSO
     intro(4), cardbus(4), wlan(4), wlan_ccmp(4), wlan_tkip(4), wlan_wep(4),
     wlan_xauth(4), hostapd(8), ifconfig(8), wpa_supplicant(8)

     Ralink Technology, http://www.ralinktech.com/.

HISTORY
     The ral driver first appeared in OpenBSD 3.7.  Support for the RT2501 and
     RT2600 chipsets was added in OpenBSD 3.9.  Support for the RT2800 chipset
     was added in OpenBSD 4.3.  Support for the RT2700 chipset was added in
     OpenBSD 4.4.  Support for the RT3090 chipset was added in OpenBSD 4.9.

AUTHORS
     The original ral driver was written by Damien Bergamini
     <damien@openbsd.org>.

CAVEATS
     The ral driver does not make use of the hardware cryptographic engine.

     The ral driver does not support any of the 802.11n capabilities offered
     by the RT2700 and RT2800 chipsets.  Additional work is required in before
     those features can be supported.

     Host AP mode doesn't support power saving.  Clients attempting to use
     power saving mode may experience significant packet loss (disabling power
     saving on the client will fix this).

     Some PCI ral adapters seem to strictly require a system supporting PCI
     2.2 or greater and will likely not work in systems based on older
     revisions of the PCI specification.  Check the board's PCI version before
     purchasing the card.

FreeBSD 11.0-PRERELEASE          May 10, 2012          FreeBSD 11.0-PRERELEASE

NAME | SYNOPSIS | DESCRIPTION | HARDWARE | EXAMPLES | DIAGNOSTICS | SEE ALSO | HISTORY | AUTHORS | CAVEATS

Want to link to this manual page? Use this URL:
<https://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?query=ral&manpath=FreeBSD+9.3-RELEASE>

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