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PYTHON(1)		    General Commands Manual		     PYTHON(1)

       python  - an interpreted, interactive, object-oriented programming lan-

       python [	-B ] [ -b ] [ -d ] [ -E	] [ -h ] [ -i ]	[ -I ]
	      [	-m module-name ] [ -q ]	[ -O ] [ -OO ] [ -s ] [	-S ] [ -u ]
	      [	-v ] [ -V ] [ -W argument ] [ -x ] [ [ -X option ] -?  ]
	      [	-c command | script | -	] [ arguments ]

       Python is an interpreted, interactive, object-oriented programming lan-
       guage  that  combines  remarkable power with very clear syntax.	For an
       introduction to programming in Python, see the  Python  Tutorial.   The
       Python  Library	Reference  documents built-in and standard types, con-
       stants, functions and modules.  Finally,	the  Python  Reference	Manual
       describes  the  syntax  and  semantics of the core language in (perhaps
       too) much detail.  (These documents may be located via the INTERNET RE-
       SOURCES below; they may be installed on your system as well.)

       Python's	basic power can	be extended with your own modules written in C
       or C++.	On most	 systems  such	modules	 may  be  dynamically  loaded.
       Python is also adaptable	as an extension	language for existing applica-
       tions.  See the internal	documentation for hints.

       Documentation for installed Python modules and packages can  be	viewed
       by running the pydoc program.

       -B     Don't  write .pyc	files on import. See also PYTHONDONTWRITEBYTE-

       -b     Issue  warnings  about  str(bytes_instance),   str(bytearray_in-
	      stance)  and comparing bytes/bytearray with str. (-bb: issue er-

       -c command
	      Specify the command to execute (see next section).  This	termi-
	      nates the	option list (following options are passed as arguments
	      to the command).

       -d     Turn on parser debugging output (for wizards only, depending  on
	      compilation options).

       -E     Ignore environment variables like	PYTHONPATH and PYTHONHOME that
	      modify the behavior of the interpreter.

       -h ,  -?	,  --help
	      Prints the usage for the interpreter executable and exits.

       -i     When a script is passed as first argument	or the	-c  option  is
	      used,  enter  interactive	mode after executing the script	or the
	      command.	It does	not read the $PYTHONSTARTUP file.  This	can be
	      useful  to  inspect  global  variables  or  a stack trace	when a
	      script raises an exception.

       -I     Run Python in isolated mode. This	also implies  -E  and  -s.  In
	      isolated	mode  sys.path contains	neither	the script's directory
	      nor the user's site-packages directory. All PYTHON*  environment
	      variables	are ignored, too.  Further restrictions	may be imposed
	      to prevent the user from injecting malicious code.

       -m module-name
	      Searches sys.path	for the	named module and runs the  correspond-
	      ing .py file as a	script.

       -O     Remove  assert  statements and any code conditional on the value
	      of __debug__; augment the	filename for compiled (bytecode) files
	      by adding	.opt-1 before the .pyc extension.

       -OO    Do  -O and also discard docstrings; change the filename for com-
	      piled (bytecode) files by	adding .opt-2 before the  .pyc	exten-

       -q     Do  not print the	version	and copyright messages.	These messages
	      are also suppressed in non-interactive mode.

       -s     Don't add	user site directory to sys.path.

       -S     Disable the import of the	module site and	the site-dependent ma-
	      nipulations of sys.path that it entails.	Also disable these ma-
	      nipulations if site is explicitly	imported later.

       -u     Force the	binary I/O layers of  stdout  and  stderr  to  be  un-
	      buffered.	  stdin	 is  always buffered.  The text	I/O layer will
	      still be line-buffered.

       -v     Print a message each time	a module is initialized,  showing  the
	      place  (filename	or  built-in  module) from which it is loaded.
	      When given twice,	print a	message	for each file that is  checked
	      for  when	 searching for a module.  Also provides	information on
	      module cleanup at	exit.

       -V ,  --version
	      Prints the Python	version	number of the  executable  and	exits.
	      When given twice,	print more information about the build.

       -W argument
	      Warning  control.	  Python  sometimes  prints warning message to
	      sys.stderr.  A typical warning message has the  following	 form:
	      file:line:  category:  message.	By  default,  each  warning is
	      printed once for each source line	where it occurs.  This	option
	      controls	how  often  warnings are printed.  Multiple -W options
	      may be given; when a warning matches more	than one  option,  the
	      action  for  the	last matching option is	performed.  Invalid -W
	      options are ignored (a warning message is	printed	about  invalid
	      options when the first warning is	issued).  Warnings can also be
	      controlled from within a Python program using the	warnings  mod-

	      The  simplest  form  of  argument	is one of the following	action
	      strings (or a unique abbreviation): ignore to ignore  all	 warn-
	      ings; default to explicitly request the default behavior (print-
	      ing each warning once per	source line); all to print  a  warning
	      each  time it occurs (this may generate many messages if a warn-
	      ing is triggered repeatedly for the same source  line,  such  as
	      inside a loop); module to	print each warning only	the first time
	      it occurs	in each	module;	once to	print each  warning  only  the
	      first time it occurs in the program; or error to raise an	excep-
	      tion instead of printing a warning message.

	      The  full	 form  of  argument  is	  action:message:category:mod-
	      ule:line.	  Here,	 action	is as explained	above but only applies
	      to messages that match the remaining fields.  Empty fields match
	      all  values;  trailing empty fields may be omitted.  The message
	      field matches the	start of the  warning  message	printed;  this
	      match is case-insensitive.  The category field matches the warn-
	      ing category.  This must be a class name;	the match test whether
	      the  actual warning category of the message is a subclass	of the
	      specified	warning	category.  The full class name must be	given.
	      The module field matches the (fully-qualified) module name; this
	      match is case-sensitive.	The line field matches the  line  num-
	      ber,  where zero matches all line	numbers	and is thus equivalent
	      to an omitted line number.

       -X option
	      Set implementation specific option.

       -x     Skip the first line of the source.  This is intended for	a  DOS
	      specific hack only.  Warning: the	line numbers in	error messages
	      will be off by one!

       The interpreter interface resembles that	of the UNIX shell: when	called
       with  standard input connected to a tty device, it prompts for commands
       and executes them until an EOF is read; when called with	 a  file  name
       argument	 or  with  a  file  as standard	input, it reads	and executes a
       script from that	file; when called with -c  command,  it	 executes  the
       Python  statement(s) given as command.  Here command may	contain	multi-
       ple statements separated	by newlines.  Leading whitespace  is  signifi-
       cant  in	 Python	statements!  In	non-interactive	mode, the entire input
       is parsed before	it is executed.

       If available, the script	name and additional arguments  thereafter  are
       passed  to  the script in the Python variable sys.argv, which is	a list
       of strings (you must first import sys to	be able	to access it).	If  no
       script  name  is	 given,	sys.argv[0] is an empty	string;	if -c is used,
       sys.argv[0] contains the	string '-c'.  Note that	options	interpreted by
       the Python interpreter itself are not placed in sys.argv.

       In  interactive	mode,  the  primary prompt is `>>>'; the second	prompt
       (which appears when a command is	not complete) is `...'.	  The  prompts
       can  be	changed	 by assignment to sys.ps1 or sys.ps2.  The interpreter
       quits when it reads an EOF at a prompt.	When  an  unhandled  exception
       occurs,	a  stack  trace	 is printed and	control	returns	to the primary
       prompt; in non-interactive mode,	the interpreter	exits  after  printing
       the stack trace.	 The interrupt signal raises the KeyboardInterrupt ex-
       ception;	other UNIX signals are not  caught  (except  that  SIGPIPE  is
       sometimes  ignored, in favor of the IOError exception).	Error messages
       are written to stderr.

       These are subject to difference depending on local installation conven-
       tions;  ${prefix}  and  ${exec_prefix}  are  installation-dependent and
       should be interpreted as	for GNU	software; they may be the  same.   The
       default for both	is /usr/local.

	      Recommended location of the interpreter.

	      Recommended locations of the directories containing the standard

	      Recommended locations of the directories containing the  include
	      files  needed for	developing Python extensions and embedding the

	      Change the location of the standard Python  libraries.   By  de-
	      fault,  the  libraries are searched in ${prefix}/lib/python<ver-
	      sion> and	 ${exec_prefix}/lib/python<version>,  where  ${prefix}
	      and  ${exec_prefix} are installation-dependent directories, both
	      defaulting to /usr/local.	 When $PYTHONHOME is set to  a	single
	      directory, its value replaces both ${prefix} and ${exec_prefix}.
	      To specify different values for these, set $PYTHONHOME to	${pre-

	      Augments	the  default search path for module files.  The	format
	      is the same as the shell's $PATH:	one or	more  directory	 path-
	      names   separated	  by  colons.	Non-existent  directories  are
	      silently ignored.	 The default search path is  installation  de-
	      pendent, but generally begins with ${prefix}/lib/python<version>
	      (see PYTHONHOME above).  The default search path is  always  ap-
	      pended  to  $PYTHONPATH.	If a script argument is	given, the di-
	      rectory containing the script is inserted	in the path  in	 front
	      of  $PYTHONPATH.	The search path	can be manipulated from	within
	      a	Python program as the variable sys.path.

	      If this is the name of a readable	file, the Python  commands  in
	      that  file  are executed before the first	prompt is displayed in
	      interactive mode.	 The file is executed in the same  name	 space
	      where  interactive commands are executed so that objects defined
	      or imported in it	can be used without qualification in  the  in-
	      teractive	 session.  You can also	change the prompts sys.ps1 and
	      sys.ps2 in this file.

	      If this is set to	a non-empty string it is equivalent to	speci-
	      fying  the  -O option. If	set to an integer, it is equivalent to
	      specifying -O multiple times.

	      If this is set to	a non-empty string it is equivalent to	speci-
	      fying  the  -d option. If	set to an integer, it is equivalent to
	      specifying -d multiple times.

	      If this is set to	a non-empty string it is equivalent to	speci-
	      fying the	-B option (don't try to	write .pyc files).

	      If  this is set to a non-empty string it is equivalent to	speci-
	      fying the	-i option.

	      If this is set before running the	interpreter, it	overrides  the
	      encoding	used  for stdin/stdout/stderr, in the syntax encoding-
	      name:errorhandler	The errorhandler part is optional and has  the
	      same meaning as in str.encode. For stderr, the errorhandler
	       part is ignored;	the handler will always	be 'backslashreplace'.

	      If  this is set to a non-empty string it is equivalent to	speci-
	      fying the	-s option  (Don't  add	the  user  site	 directory  to

	      If  this is set to a non-empty string it is equivalent to	speci-
	      fying the	-u option.

	      If this is set to	a non-empty string it is equivalent to	speci-
	      fying  the  -v option. If	set to an integer, it is equivalent to
	      specifying -v multiple times.

	      If this is set to	a comma-separated string it is	equivalent  to
	      specifying the -W	option for each	separate value.

	      If  this	variable is set	to "random", a random value is used to
	      seed the hashes of str, bytes and	datetime objects.

	      If PYTHONHASHSEED	is set to an integer value, it is  used	 as  a
	      fixed seed for generating	the hash() of the types	covered	by the
	      hash randomization.  Its purpose is to allow repeatable hashing,
	      such  as for selftests for the interpreter itself, or to allow a
	      cluster of python	processes to share hash	values.

	      The  integer  must  be   a   decimal   number   in   the	 range
	      [0,4294967295].	Specifying  the	value 0	will disable hash ran-

       The Python Software Foundation:

       Main website:
       Developer resources:
       Module repository:
       Newsgroups:  comp.lang.python, comp.lang.python.announce

       Python is distributed under an Open Source license.  See	the file  "LI-
       CENSE"  in  the	Python	source distribution for	information on terms &
       conditions for accessing	and otherwise using  Python  and  for  a  DIS-



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