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pulseaudio(1)		    General Commands Manual		 pulseaudio(1)

       pulseaudio - The	PulseAudio Sound System

       pulseaudio [options]

       pulseaudio --help

       pulseaudio --version

       pulseaudio --dump-conf

       pulseaudio --dump-modules

       pulseaudio --dump-resample-methods

       pulseaudio --cleanup-shm

       pulseaudio --start

       pulseaudio --kill

       pulseaudio --check

       PulseAudio is a networked low-latency sound server for Linux, POSIX and
       Windows systems.

       -h | --help
	      Show help.

	      Show version information.

	      Load the daemon  configuration  file  daemon.conf	 (see  below),
	      parse  remaining	configuration  options on the command line and
	      dump the resulting daemon	configuration, in  a  format  that  is
	      compatible with daemon.conf.

	      List  available  loadable	 modules.  Combine  with -v for	a more
	      elaborate	listing.

	      List available audio resamplers.

	      Identify	stale  PulseAudio  POSIX  shared  memory  segments  in
	      /dev/shm	and  remove  them if possible. This is done implicitly
	      whenever a new daemon starts up or a client tries	to connect  to
	      a	daemon.	It should normally not be necessary to issue this com-
	      mand by hand. Only available on systems with POSIX shared	memory
	      segments	implemented  via  a  virtual  file  system  mounted to
	      /dev/shm (e.g. Linux).

	      Start PulseAudio if it is	not running  yet.  This	 is  different
	      from  starting PulseAudio	without	--start	which would fail if PA
	      is already running. PulseAudio is	guaranteed to  be  fully  ini-
	      tialized when this call returns. Implies --daemonize.

       -k | --kill
	      Kill  an	already	 running PulseAudio daemon of the calling user
	      (Equivalent to sending a SIGTERM).

	      Return 0 as return code when the PulseAudio  daemon  is  already
	      running for the calling user, or non-zero	otherwise. Produces no
	      output on	the console except for errors to stderr.

	      Run as system-wide instance instead  of  per-user.  Please  note
	      that  this disables certain features of PulseAudio and is	gener-
	      ally not recommended unless the  system  knows  no  local	 users
	      (e.g.  is	 a thin	client). This feature needs special configura-
	      tion and a dedicated UNIX	user set up. It	is highly  recommended
	      to combine this with --disallow-module-loading (see below).

       -D | --daemonize[=BOOL]
	      Daemonize	 after	startup,  i.e.	detach from the	terminal. Note
	      that when	running	as a systemd service you should	 use  --daemo-
	      nize=no for systemd notification to work.

	      Fail  startup  when any of the commands specified	in the startup
	      script	(see below) fails.

	      Try to acquire a high Unix nice level. This will only succeed if
	      the  calling  user has a non-zero	RLIMIT_NICE resource limit set
	      (on systems that support this), or we're called SUID  root  (see
	      below),  or  we  are  configure  to be run as system daemon (see
	      --system above). It is recommended to enable this, since	it  is
	      only a negligible	security risk (see below).

	      Try  to  acquire	a  real-time  scheduling  for PulseAudio's I/O
	      threads. This will only succeed if the calling user has  a  non-
	      zero  RLIMIT_RTPRIO  resource limit set (on systems that support
	      this), or	we're called SUID root (see below), or we are  config-
	      ure  to be run as	system daemon (see --system above). It is rec-
	      ommended to enable this only for trusted users, since  it	 is  a
	      major security risk (see below).

	      Disallow	module	loading	after startup. This is a security fea-
	      ture since it disallows additional module	loading	during runtime
	      and  on  user request. It	is highly recommended when --system is
	      used (see	above).	Note however, that this	 breaks	 certain  fea-
	      tures like automatic module loading on hot plug.

	      Disallow user requested exit

	      Terminate	 the daemon when idle and the specified	number of sec-
	      onds passed.

	      Unload autoloaded	samples	from the cache when the	 haven't  been
	      used for the specified number of seconds.

	      If  an  argument	is  passed, set	the log	level to the specified
	      value, otherwise increase	the configured verbosity level by one.
	      The  log	levels are numerical from 0 to 4, corresponding	to er-
	      ror, warn, notice, info, debug. Default  log  level  is  notice,
	      i.e.  all	log messages with lower	log levels are printed:	error,
	      warn, notice.

       -v | --verbose
	      Increase the configured verbosity	level by one (see  --log-level
	      above).  Specify	multiple  times	to increase log	level multiple

	      Specify the log target. If set to	auto (which is	the  default),
	      then  logging  is	directed to syslog when	--daemonize is passed,
	      otherwise	to STDERR. If set to journal logging  is  directed  to
	      the systemd journal. If set to file:PATH,	logging	is directed to
	      the file indicated by PATH. newfile:PATH is otherwise  the  same
	      as  file:PATH,  but existing files are never overwritten.	If the
	      specified	file already exists, a suffix is  added	 to  the  file
	      name to avoid overwriting.

	      Show source code location	in log messages.

	      Show timestamps in log messages.

	      When  FRAMES  is	greater	 than  0, log for each message a stack
	      trace up to the number of	specified stack	frames.

       -p | --dl-search-path=PATH
	      Set the search path for dynamic shared objects (plugins).

	      Use the specified	resampler  by  default	(See  --dump-resample-
	      methods above for	possible values).

	      Create a PID file. If this options is disabled it	is possible to
	      run multiple sound servers per user.

	      Do not install CPU load limiter on platforms that	support	it. By
	      default,	PulseAudio  will terminate itself when it notices that
	      it takes up too much CPU time. This is useful  as	 a  protection
	      against  system  lockups	when real-time scheduling is used (see
	      below).  Disabling  this	mechanism  is  useful  when  debugging
	      PulseAudio  with	tools  like valgrind(1)	which slow down	execu-

	      PulseAudio clients and the server	can exchange  audio  data  via
	      POSIX  or	 memfd shared memory segments (on systems that support
	      this). If	disabled PulseAudio will communicate exclusively  over
	      sockets.	Please	note that data transfer	via shared memory seg-
	      ments is always disabled when PulseAudio is running with	--sys-
	      tem enabled (see above).

	      PulseAudio  clients  and	the server can exchange	audio data via
	      memfds - the anonymous Linux Kernel shared memory	mechanism  (on
	      kernels that support this). If disabled PulseAudio will communi-
	      cate via POSIX shared memory.

       -L | --load="MODULE ARGUMENTS"
	      Load the specified plugin	module with the	specified arguments.

       -F | --file=FILENAME
	      Run the specified	script on startup. May be  specified  multiple
	      times  to	 specify  multiple scripts to be run in	order. Combine
	      with -n to disable loading of the	default	script (see

       -C     Open  a  command interpreter on STDIN/STDOUT after startup. This
	      may be used to configure PulseAudio dynamically during  runtime.
	      Equivalent to --load=module-cli.

       -n     Don't  load  default  script  file  (see  below)  on
	      startup. Useful in conjunction with -C or	--file.

       ~/.config/pulse/daemon.conf, /usr/local/etc/pulse/daemon.conf: configu-
       ration settings for the PulseAudio daemon. If the version in the	user's
       home directory does not exist the global	configuration file is  loaded.
       See pulse-daemon.conf(5)	for more information.

       ~/.config/pulse/,  /usr/local/etc/pulse/  the  de-
       fault configuration script to execute when  the	PulseAudio  daemon  is
       started.	If the version in the user's home directory does not exist the
       global configuration script is loaded. See	for  more  in-

       ~/.config/pulse/client.conf, /usr/local/etc/pulse/client.conf: configu-
       ration settings for PulseAudio client applications. If the  version  in
       the  user's home	directory does not exist the global configuration file
       is loaded. See pulse-client.conf(5) for more information.

       SIGINT, SIGTERM:	the PulseAudio daemon will shut	down (Same as --kill).

       SIGHUP: dump a long status report to STDOUT or syslog, depending	on the

       SIGUSR1:	  load	 module-cli,   allowing	 runtime  reconfiguration  via

       SIGUSR2:	load module-cli-protocol-unix, allowing	 runtime  reconfigura-
       tion via	a AF_UNIX socket. See pacmd(1) for more	information.

       Group pulse-rt: if the PulseAudio binary	is marked SUID root, then mem-
       bership of the calling user in this  group  decides  whether  real-time
       and/or  high-priority  scheduling is enabled. Please note that enabling
       real-time scheduling is a security risk (see below).

       Group pulse-access: if PulseAudio is running as a  system  daemon  (see
       --system	 above)	 access	 is granted to members of this group when they
       connect via AF_UNIX sockets. If PulseAudio is running as	a user	daemon
       this group has no meaning.

       User  pulse,  group  pulse: if PulseAudio is running as a system	daemon
       (see --system above) and	is started as root the daemon will drop	privi-
       leges  and  become  a normal user process using this user and group. If
       PulseAudio is running as	a user daemon this user	and group has no mean-

       To  minimize the	risk of	drop-outs during playback it is	recommended to
       run PulseAudio with real-time scheduling	 if  the  underlying  platform
       supports	 it.  This  decouples the scheduling latency of	the PulseAudio
       daemon from the system load and is thus the best	way to make sure  that
       PulseAudio always gets CPU time when it needs it	to refill the hardware
       playback	buffers. Unfortunately this is a security risk	on  most  sys-
       tems, since PulseAudio runs as user process, and	giving realtime	sched-
       uling privileges	to a user process always comes with the	risk that  the
       user misuses it to lock up the system --	which is possible since	making
       a process real-time effectively disables	preemption.

       To minimize the risk PulseAudio by default does	not  enable  real-time
       scheduling.  It is however recommended to enable	it on trusted systems.
       To do that start	PulseAudio with	--realtime (see	above) or enabled  the
       appropriate  option in daemon.conf. Since acquiring realtime scheduling
       is a privileged operation on most systems, some special changes to  the
       system configuration need to be made to allow them to the calling user.
       Two options are available:

       On newer	Linux systems the system  resource  limit  RLIMIT_RTPRIO  (see
       setrlimit(2)  for more information) can be used to allow	specific users
       to acquire real-time scheduling.	This can be configured	in  /etc/secu-
       rity/limits.conf, a resource limit of 9 is recommended.

       Alternatively,  the SUID	root bit can be	set for	the PulseAudio binary.
       Then, the daemon	will drop root privileges immediately on startup, how-
       ever  retain  the CAP_NICE capability (on systems that support it), but
       only if the calling user	is a member of the pulse-rt group (see above).
       For  all	 other users all capabilities are dropped immediately. The ad-
       vantage of this solution	is that	 the  real-time	 privileges  are  only
       granted to the PulseAudio daemon	-- not to all the user's processes.

       Alternatively,  if the risk of locking up the machine is	considered too
       big to enable real-time scheduling, high-priority scheduling can	be en-
       abled  instead (i.e. negative nice level). This can be enabled by pass-
       ing --high-priority (see	above) when starting PulseAudio	and  may  also
       be  enabled  with  the appropriate option in daemon.conf. Negative nice
       levels  can  only  be  enabled  when  the  appropriate  resource	 limit
       RLIMIT_NICE  is	set  (see setrlimit(2) for more	information), possibly
       configured in /etc/security/limits.conf.	A resource limit of 31 (corre-
       sponding	with nice level	-11) is	recommended.

       The  PulseAudio client libraries	check for the existence	of the follow-
       ing environment variables and change their local	configuration  accord-

       $PULSE_SERVER:  the  server  string specifying the server to connect to
       when a client asks for a	sound server connection	and doesn't explicitly
       ask  for	 a  specific server. The server	string is a list of server ad-
       dresses separated by whitespace which are tried in turn.	A  server  ad-
       dress  consists	of  an	optional  address type specifier (unix:, tcp:,
       tcp4:, tcp6:), followed by a path or host address. A host  address  may
       include	an optional port number. A server address may be prefixed by a
       string enclosed in {}. In this case the following server	address	is ig-
       nored unless the	prefix string equals the local hostname	or the machine
       id (/etc/machine-id).

       $PULSE_SINK: the	symbolic name of the sink to connect to	when a	client
       creates	a  playback  stream  and doesn't explicitly ask	for a specific

       $PULSE_SOURCE: the symbolic name	of the source to  connect  to  when  a
       client  creates	a  record stream and doesn't explicitly	ask for	a spe-
       cific source.

       $PULSE_BINARY: path of PulseAudio executable to run when	 server	 auto-
       spawning	is used.

       $PULSE_CLIENTCONFIG:  path  of  file  that  shall  be  read  instead of
       client.conf (see	above) for client configuration.

       $PULSE_COOKIE: path of file that	contains the PulseAudio	authentication
       cookie. Defaults	to ~/.config/pulse/cookie.

       These  environment  settings take precedence -- if set -- over the con-
       figuration settings from	client.conf (see above).

       The  PulseAudio	Developers  <pulseaudio-discuss	  (at)	 lists	 (dot)
       freedesktop  (dot)  org>;  PulseAudio is	available from http://pulseau-

       pulse-daemon.conf(5),, pulse-client.conf(5), pacmd(1)

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